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Gatus, Alex

Rhee, Sean

Period 3 Physics

11/18/14

Newtons 2nd Law Lab

Abstract:

My group and I performed a lab that displayed Isaac Newtons 2nd Law to develop a quantitative

model relating force and acceleration to determine the relationship between acceleration and the

mass of a system when the sum of forces is constant and also the relationship between

acceleration and total force when the mass is constant. We investigated the variables of

acceleration, the mass of a system, and the total forces working on that system, with mass of

system and total force being independent and acceleration being dependant. We did the lab by

using 2 masses connected by string, with one hanging on a pulley and the other on a track. For

the first experiment, we added mass circles to the hanging mass, and for the second we moved

mass from mass 1 to mass 2 back and forth. By doing this, it gave us a slope of a line which was

the acceleration. After the experiment we came to the conclusion that as the sum of forces

increased, acceleration also increased at a rate of 2.642 m/ s/ s /N . We also found that as mass

of system increased, the acceleration decreased at a rate of 0.536 m/s /s /1/kg .

Diagrams:

Procedure:

Procedure mass vs acceleration:

1. Take the track and make sure the track is level.

2. Put the motion detector on the left side of the track.

3. Account for friction by tilting track and until car barely moves. Then use motion

detector and adjust track till slope of line is very close to zero.

4. Put the pulley at the opposite end of the motion tracker.

5. Connect the rope to the car and hanger.

6. Place the car on the track and run rope thought pulley.

7. Add at least .55kg to the hanger and leave that weight on for the rest of the lab.

8. Then add .25kg bars to the car for at least 6 different times to get at least 6 points

to graph.

9. Start collecting data with motion detector and release car. Continue with different

amounts of weight.

10. Add linear fit to graph to find slope of line which is acceleration.

11. Put data into data table.

Procedure sum of forces vs acceleration:

1. Take the track and make sure the track is level.

2. Put the motion detector on the left side of the track.

3. Account for friction by tilting track and until car barely moves. Then use motion

detector and adjust track till slope of line is very close to zero.

Connect the rope to the car and hanger.

Place the car on the track and run rope thought pulley.

Begin with .1 kg on the hanger and no weight on the car. After each test move

weights from the hanger to the car and run test at least 6 times to get 6 points to graph.

8. Start collecting data with motion detector and release car. Continue with different

amounts of weight.

9. Add linear fit to graph to find slope of line which is acceleration.

10. Put data into data table.

4.

5.

6.

7.

To find acceleration:

The motion tracker collected data into a velocity vs time graph. Taking the slope of the line gave

you the acceleration. Also, if you have already found F, you can use the equation a=F/ m .

To find F:

Multiply m2 (which is constant) by gravitational field strength. You can use the equation,

F=w 2=m2 g .

To find mass of system:

Add m1 and m2 to find the mass of system. You can use the equation,

mass of system=m1 +m2 .

Sample Calculations:

Acceleration:

a=1.029 N /.365 kg

a=2.729 m/s /s

a=.931 N /.365 kg

a=2.474 m/s /s

a=.833 N /.365 kg

a=2.220 m/s /s

a=.735 N /.365 kg

a=1.960 m/ s /s

a=.637 N /.365 kg

a=1.734 m/s /s

a=.539 N /.365 kg

a=1.436 m/s /s

a=.441 N /.365 kg

a=1.1971m/ s/ s

a=.343 N /.365 kg

a=0.904 m/s /s

F:

F=.105 kg 9.8 N / kg

F=1.029 N

F=.095 kg 9.8 N / kg

F=.931 N

F=.085 kg 9.8 N / kg

F=.833 N

F=.075 kg 9.8 N / kg

F=.735 N

F=.065 kg 9.8 N / kg

F=.637 N

F=.055 kg 9.8 N / kg

F=.539 N

F=.045 kg 9.8 N / kg

F=.411 N

F=.035 kg 9.8 N / kg

F=.343 N

Mass of System:

mass of system=.26 kg+.105 kg=.365 kg

m1 (kg)

m2 (kg)

a (m/s/s)

F (N)

.26 kg

0.105 kg

.7538 m/s/s

1.029 N

0.365 kg

.27 kg

0.095 kg

.6821 m/s/s

.931 N

0.365 kg

.28 kg

0.085 kg

.6103 m/s/s

.833 N

0.365 kg

.29 kg

0.075 kg

.5385 m/s/s

.735 N

0.365 kg

.30 kg

0.065 kg

.4667 m/s/s

.637 N

0.365 kg

.31 kg

0.055 kg

.3949 m/s/s

.539 N

0.365 kg

.32 kg

0.045 kg

.3231 m/s/s

.441 N

0.365 kg

.33 kg

0.035 kg

.2513 m/s/s

.343 N

0.365 kg

A vs F Graph:

General Trends:

a F

m/s /s N

Meaning of Slope:

For every 1 N of change, acceleration changes 2.642 m/s/s.

Meaning of Intercept:

When t=0, the initial acceleration is .018 m/s/s

Equation:

a=(2.642 m/s / s / N ) N +( 0.018 m/ s/ s)

Uncertainty:

K=.9643

K=3.57

Evaluation of a vs. Mass of System Data Set:

To find acceleration:

The motion tracker collected data into a velocity vs time graph. Taking the slope of the line gave

you the acceleration. Also, if you have already found F, you can use the equation a=F/ m .

To find F:

Multiply m2 (which is constant) by gravitational field strength. You can use the equation,

F=w 2=m2 g .

Add m1 and m2 to find

mass of system=m1 +m2 .

Sample Calculations:

Acceleration:

a=.539 N /.305 kg

a=1.767 m/s /s

a=.539 N /.555 kg

a=.971m/ s/ s

the

mass

of

system.

You

can

use

the

equation,

a=.539 N /.805 kg

a=.669 m/ s/ s

a=.539 N /1.055 kg

a=.511 m/s /s

a=.539 N /1.305 kg

a=.413 m/ s / s

a=.539 N /1.555 kg

a=.346 m/s /s

F:

F=.055 kg 9.8 N / kg

F= .539 N

Mass of System:

mass of system=.25 kg+.055 kg

mass of system= .305 kg

mass of system=.5 kg+.055 kg

mass of system=.555 kg

mass of system=.75 kg+.055 kg

mass of system=.805 kg

mass of system=1 kg +.055 kg

mass of system=.1055 kg

mass of system=1.25 kg+.055 kg

mass of system=1.305 kg

mass of system=1.5 kg+.055 kg

mass of system=1.555 kg

m1 (kg)

m2 (kg)

a (m/s/s)

F (N)

0.25 kg

0.055 kg

1.767 m/s/s

0.539 N

0.305 kg

0.50 kg

0.055 kg

0.971 m/s/s

0.539 N

0.555 kg

0.75 kg

0.055 kg

0.669 m/s/s

0.539 N

0.805 kg

1.00 kg

0.055 kg

0.511 m/s/s

0.539 N

1.055 kg

1.25 kg

0.055 kg

0.413 m/s/s

0.539 N

1.305 kg

1.50 kg

0.055 kg

0.346 m/s/s

0.539 N

1.555 kg

Linearized A vs Mass of System:

General Trends:

a 1/ mass of system

m/s /s 1/kg

Meaning of Slope:

For every 1/kg of change, acceleration changes 0.536 m/s/s.

Meaning of Intercept:

When t=0, the initial acceleration is .005 m/s/s.

Equation:

a=(0.536 m/ s/ s/1/kg) N +(.005 m/s / s)

Uncertainty:

K=.9944

K=0.56

Combined Analysis:

Proportionality:

Since the sum of forces and mass are independent of each other and acceleration is proportional

to the sum of forces and also to 1 over the mass. Therefore, the proportionalities can be

combined because both independent variables rely on the same variable aka acceleration.

1

a F

m

This can be transformed into the equation:

1

a=k F

m

To find the constant, k, we rearranged the equation to create 2 different equations:

One utilizing the slope of a vs 1/m as the value in the parenthesis:

1

a=(k F)

m

1

slope of a vs =K F

m

1

K=slope of a vs /F

m

K=.536 /.539

K=.9944

Another utilizing the slope of a vs the sum of forces

k1

a=(

) F

m

1

slope of a vs F=K

m

m(slope of a vs F)=K

K=.365( 2.642)

K=.9643

K av =(K 1+ K 2)/2

K av =(.9944+.9643)/2

K av =.9794

A vs F:

slope: a=(2.642 m/s /s /N ) N +(0.018 m/ s/ s)

mass of system: 0.365 kg

A vs M:

slope: a=(0.536 m/ s/ s/1/kg) N +(.005 m/s / s)

mass 2: 0.055 kg

Error Analysis:

The sources of error came mostly from friction and measurements. The friction on track was

compensated for but theres a chance that my group couldve over or under compensated. In

addition, the friction might not have been constant throughout the entire lab. The measurements

could have been off because the motion detector was not able to give perfect data because

nothing can ever give perfect data. As well as this, the masses couldve been slightly off or

someone couldve accidentally slightly pushed the cart.

The estimated percent of error of the constant is 2.06%.

Final Equation:

A vs Mass of System: K=.536 /.539

a=(0.536 m/ s/ s/1/kg) N +(.005 m/s / s)

A vs Sum of Forces: K=.365( 2.642)

a=(0.536 m/ s/ s/1/kg) N +(.005 m/s / s)

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