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1.

1.1. .
s , s , v , a , t .
s ,
.
, , , .
s -. , .
1.1.1
,
( ).
x(t), y(t), z(t) - , t .
,
1.1.2
, .

.

t2
1) x(t) x0 vxt 2) x(t) x0 vx0 t ax
2

1.1.3

3) x(t) xm cos t

x .
1) vx .
2) ax

1.1.4
1.1.5

3) xm
.
x x(t t) x(t) sx t . sx -
x .
s l1 l2 l3 .. l1, l2 ..

vx
1.1.6

1.1.7

1.1.8

x
x

, v
t
t

x . ,
, x , .
vx (t) x(t) - x
x(t) .
,
.
x(t) x0 vxt
vx . x0

vx
x
t
ax (t) vx (t) x(t) x
1.1.10
vx (t)
x(t) .
vx (t) vx0 axt v(t) v0 at
ax

1.1.11

1.1.12

.

. v0 - .

x(t) x0 vx0

t2

t ax
2

1.1.13

at2
,
a) s(t)
2


a . s , t
,
.
b) v2 (t) 2as(t)

s
1.1.14

v02
, v0 a .

2a

s - .

vx2 (t) vx20 2ax x(t) 2ax s(t)


t
s(t) x t . ,
1.1.15

.
v2 (t) v02 2as(t) . +
, - .
a) v2 v02 2g (h0 h)
v0 . h , v .

1.1.16

h0 .

gt2
b) h(t) h0 v0t

2

c) v(t) v0 gt

a) v2 v02 2g (h h0 )
1.1.17 v 0 . h , v .
h0 .
gt2

b) h(t) h0 v0t
2

c) v(t) v0 gt

1.1.18

g 2
sn
(2n 1) 5 (2n 1)
2

(0, 5 , 15 , 25 , 35

..)

. sn - n . =1
1.1.19

v v
v
2

1.1.20

vx x(t),

vy y(t),

x(t)
ax vx
y(t)
ay vy

.

x(t), y(t) .

.

axt2

x(t) x0 v0xt

2
ayt

y
(
t
)

v
t

0
0y

2
at2

r (t) r0 v0t
2
a
- r (t) ,
.


at2
r (t) r0 v0t
2

c)
r
(
t
)

0
v

, u

1.1.21

t
t

a r (t) ,
.
v - , u - .

1.1.22

1.1.23

x(t) v0 cos t

gt 2
y(t) v0 sin t
2

, v0 . x
, y ,
.

gx 2

y(x) xtg 2
2v0 cos2

() ,

v0 .

v02
L
sin 2 , v0
g
1.1.24
.
v02
L
H
sin2 tg
2g
4
1.1.25
, v0 .
v (t) v0 gt

vx (t) v0 cos
1.1.26

vy (t) v0 sin gt

v (t)

,
v0 .


1.1.27

2v0
sin
g

v0 .

, .
1.1.28
t
,
t .
2
2 T
1.1.29
T

2R
v
T
1.1.30
( T ) R ,

v R

v2
a
2 R v
R
a ,
1.1.31 R v .
, , .....

a
1.1.32

v
a .
t

v ,
t .

v v v
. v - ,
, v -
, v - , ..

1.1.33

.
.
v . ,

(v ) ( ). ,
v , ,

v v v v (v ) . ..
, .. ( v ) .

.

1.1.34

1.1.35

a a a ,
. ,
.
, v = 0.


, ,
.( )
.

1.2
1.2.1

1.2.2

a1 m2

()
a2 m1
.
F m 2- , ,
, .

m F1 F2 ...Fn F ,
1.2.3

,
F .

F21 F12 3- .
1.2.4

1.2.5

, .

.

m
. m , V
V

F kx . F
x . k , ,
.

1.2.6

S
( )
l

1.2.7

k k1 k2

1.2.8

kk
1
1
1

k 1 2
k k1 k2
k1 k2
N
p . N
p
S
, , S
.

1.2.9

1.2.10

1.2.11

N m(g a) N ,
( ) , a
F. N F.

N .
.
F. N F.

N .
,
.
,
, :
mg , N
F .

1.2.12

x, y

mg sin (mg )y

(mg )x

Fx

mg cos

mg cos

mg F ( N)
1.2.13

F mg sin

N mg cos
F ,
, ( N)

1.2.14

F mg cos
tg ,

1.2.15
1.2.16

,
a g sin ,

F mg sin mg cos F ,
,
.

1.2.17

m1m2
.
R2
1.2.18 ( ) FH ,
FH G


R .

G 6, 67 10

11

FH
M
4
G 2 G R
m
R
3
1.2.19
g : M ,
, R .
g

1.2.20

v1

Rg R

g .
v1 8 / .
1.2.21

v2 2Rg . v2 11,2
/

F ma

1.2.22

ma Fp F

a ,
(, ,
).
2- , , ,
Fp ,
F .
1.3
F1 F1 ... Fn Fp , ,
Fp . ,

1.3.1

1.3.2
1.3.3

,
.
.
, ,
.
. ,
.. F1 F2 F1 , ,
, , .
F1 F1 ... Fn Fp 0

M F l M F
l
. ( l ).
, ,
.
a) F1 F2 ...Fn 0
b) M1 M2 ..Mn 0

1.3.4

a) ,
b) . ,
, .

, a) ,
.

m1x1 m2x2 ... mnxn


()
m1 m2 .. mn
m1, m2 ,...mn .
x1, x2,...xn .
x

1.3.5

1.3.6

, .
.



,
,

. (
).

1.3.7

1.3.8

1.3.9

F
p : F (
S

),
S . : ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

p gh p .
, h .
FA gV . , ,
FA ( ),
, .
, V ,
g . .

1.3.10

1.3.11

1.3.12

1.3.13

1.4.1

1.4.2

1.4.3

1) FA mg 2) FA mg 3) FA mg .
FA . 1)
, . 2)
. 3) .
P mg FA ( )Vg P m

.
V .
V vSt, m vSt ( )
v S . t
V m .
v2 2gh .
h .
v , , , h .
( ).
1.4
p mv p : ,
,
.
p F t .
p F .
F t .
ma F .

P pi mivi P
, .

P Ft P
t F .
1.4.4

P m1v1 m2v2 ...mnvn m1v1 m2v2 ...mnvn


m1x1 m2x2 .... xn

m1 m2 .... mn
x () . x1, x2,...xn
x

1.4.5

( ).

1.4.6

m1v1x m2v2x ... mnvnx

Px
m1 m2 ... mn
m1 m2 ... mn
Vx . v1x , v2x ...vnx
m1, m2 ...mn .
Px .
x , Vx .
, x
Vx

,
.

1.4.7

A Fs cos F s F v t A ,
F
s . -
, v - . A

A Ai .
i

A
N -
t
t , .
N F v F ,
1.4.9
v , N .
mv2 m 2
p2
2
2

E
(vx vy vz )
2
2
2
m
1.4.10
E m , v .
p mv .
1.4.8

,
.

1.4.11

mv2
E
2
E1 E0

Ai
i

,
. .

v1 x
1.4.12

(m1 m2 )v1x 2m2v2x


m1 m2

v2 x

(m2 m1 )v2x 2m1v1x


m1 m2

m1, m2 .

v1x , v2x ,
v1 x , v2 x .

v1 x v2x , v2 x v1x m1 m2

u1 x u1x , u2 x u2x
m1, m2 ,
u1x , u2 x
1.4.13 . u1x , u2x ,
.
, .

kx2
E
E
2
1.4.14
. k , x .
, ..

E mgh A E ,
h . A ,
1.4.15 h .

1.4.16

h
v .

E E.

1.4.17

2
mv

2
mv

mgh

v 2gl(1 cos ) , l ,
v ,
.
mM

E G
R

1.4.18

1.4.19

. R .
,
.

E A E
.
(
).


1.4.20

E
100% .
A

E
, A

1.5

ma kx x

k
x0
m

x 2x 0 2

k
m

2- .

1.5.1

x(t) xm sin(t 0 ) xm sin(2t 0 ) xm sin(

2
t 0 )
T

x(t)
. xm , ,
1
T - ,

, 2 ,
0
1.5.2

1 2

T ,

N
, () , N
.
T

v(t) x(t) xm cos (t 0 ) vm cos (t 0 )


1.5.3

1.5.4

vm xm
v(t)
. xm ,
vm , 0 .
a(t) v(t) x(t) 2xm sin(t 0 ) am sin(t 0 )

am 2xm vm
a(t)
. xm ,
vm , am , 0

g
T
l
l . ,
T 2

1.5.5

l
g

1
2

g
l

. .

1 k
k
m
,
2
T 2
2 m
m
k
, T m
k ( ).

1.5.6

, , .
. 2 .

1.5.7

mv(t)2 kx(t)2
v(t)2 2x(t)2
E

m[

] const
2
2
2
2
E
. x(t)
v(t) ,
( ) .
( )
.
2
2
mvm
kxm

2
2

y(t, x) ym cos(

1.5.8

1.5.9

2
T

x) ym cos (t, x) (t, x)

2
T

ym T
x .
y(t, x) x
t .
(t, x) ,
2 .

c ,
c .
.

1.5.10
, x
, ( ).
2

s2 s1
2
) cos(t
x )

1.5.11
p(t, x)
p0
s s2 s1

s (2m 1) m 0, 1, 2... s
2
1.5.12
p(t, x) 2 p0 cos(

1.5.13



s m m 0, 1, 2.. s

2. . .
2.1

m V M

N
N
N
m
M n A N NA
NA
V
M
M

2.1.1

m , V , ,
, M , ,
N . NA = 6,021023 1/ - ,
n .

1
1
m m0nV n
v1
a 3 v1 3

NA
m0
n
n
m0 , ,
v1 , a
m0

2.1.2

2.1.3

2.1.4

N nvS t

v n S
, . t
N .
v12 v22 ... vN2
2
<v
v v2
N
N . <v2
. v
.

2.1.5

2.1.6

1
(E E2... EN )
N 1
E .
1
2
p nm0 v2 n E p
3
3
E

n ,
m0 ,

E . - .

2.1.7

2
v
p
p
3

v .

2.1.8

1
.
n

2.1.9

n .
p0V0 p1V1 const (

)
. -.
T [K] t 273,15 T
2.1.10 ( ) t .
(1 )
1 =1

V
const ( )
2.1.11
T
.
-.

p
const (
T
2.1.12

) .
.

pV
const
2.1.13
T
pV T
. .

pV
2.1.14

2.1.15

m
RT RT - ().
M


m . R =8,31 /( )
, M [/] ,
( ).

pM

RT
RT
MV
M
RT
p M - .
p

N
RT knT p
VNA

2.1.16 n T .
k

R
1,38 10-23
NA

.
2
m0v
3
kT
2.1.17 E
2
2
E
T.
3kT
3 RT
3 pV

v

M
m
m0

2.1.18
T ,
p , V . m , m0
.
2.1.19 p p1 p2 ... pn (1 2 ..n )

RT

V

. ,
p
( ).
2.1.20

m
V

p
100% .
p

2.1.21
p - , p

.
2.2

3
m
3m
3
NA E
RT RT pV U
M
2M
2
2

2.2.1

- T , p , V .
( ), M .
U

5
pV , - U 3 pV
2

A pV

2.2.2

2.2.3

2.2.4

pV /
A p
V . V 0 ,

.
A .
Q CT cmT Q ,
T C cm .
m , c .

Q cM T cM

Q
MQ
,

T m T

1
cM . cM
c cM M c .
2.2.5

Q CT C

Q
C ( ,
T

) - ,
1 .
U A Q . U
2.2.6

2.2.7

A +
Q , .
, .
/ ,
.
Q Q
. ,
.
Q , ,
Q . . (
.)

2.2.8

Q m

Q
Q ,
m

,
m .

Q
Q ,
m
, m
r .
Q
3 R

cV

mT 2 M
( V = const). (
2.2.10
3
5


).
2
2
3 R
3
QV
mT V p
2M
2
2.2.9

Q rm r

Q
5 R

mT 2 M
( p = const). (
2.2.11 5 7 ).
2
2
5 R
5
Qp
mT pV
2M
2
cp

2.2.12

Q qm Q ,
m . q ,
.

2.2.13

A
Q

Q Q
Q

A

A Q

(). Q
, Q
, A Q Q /
. ,

, .. U 0 .

T T
.
T
(),

2.2.14

().
.

Q
kST .
t
2.2.15
Q


t
S
.
5
3

pV const
2.2.16

. (

7
5

5
3

).
3.
3.1

q q
q q
1
1 2 2 k 1 2 2 0 8,85 1012 /
40
r
r

1
9 109 2 /2
40
F
q1, q2
k

3.1.1

.
0 .
, r
. . 1

3.1.2

3.1.3

,
q1 q2 ... qn const
. .

F
F qE E
q
. F , q
E

( ).
3.1.4

3.1.5

qE
m q
m
E a .
Q
E k 2 E
r
Q , r
a

E k
3.1.6

Q
E ,
r2

Q .
r / .
/ r R , R
/.
E 0 ,
.
E E1 E2 ....En .

3.1.7

E ,
. ,
. .

3.1.8

E0
, , ,
E

(, ) ,
, .
,
.

BC

ABC qC qUBC

3.1.9

C B C . ABC
q
B C q .
.
UBC BC

B
3.1.10

AB
q

AB
q B
.
.

k
3.1.11

3.1.12

AB qB B .

Q
Q
r

r . /
/ R r R . ( )

.
BC EdBC U
E U (
BC ) B C ,
. B C
dBC .

q
.
3.1.13

q .

q
q
q

U
q U
U

3.1.14 - q
U .

0S
. S
d
3.1.15
, d ,

,
.

1
3.1.16

1
1

1
2

...

1
n

C1, C2 ...Cn .

C C1 C2 ... Cn C
3.1.17
C1, C2 ...Cn .

1
1 q2 1
2
W CU
qU W ,
2
2
C
2
3.1.18
. C , U
, q .
1
W 0E2V wV W ,
2
3.1.18
1

V . w 0E2
E2 ,
2
8k
( ).

q1q2

r
q1, q2 , r .
q
3.1.20
S
q , S
3.1.19

W2 k

.
3.1.21

E
d 0 0S
, U
q .
E

3.1.22

20 20S

q
- ,
S

,
..
3.2.

3.2.1

3.2.2

q
I q ,
t
t
I


I q0nvS I
q0 (, ),
n , v . S
.

I
3.2.3

U
R

U IR -

I U
.
R .

l
R
S
l S . -
R

3.2.4

3.2.5

3.2.6

3.2.7

, .
R R1 R2 ...Rn R
n
R1, R2,...Rn .

1
1
1
1

...
R
R R1 R2
Rn
n
R1, R2,...Rn .
I1 I2 ... I1 I2 ...
. ,
. .
I1 I2 +.., ,
I1 I2 ...., .

3.2.8

I1 R2


I2 R1
.

.
Rr

3.2.9

I
R r .

U Ir U ,
( ,
3.2.10

3.2.11

, ).
,
, ,
. + ,
.

R r

, (,
).
1 2 .... N r r1 r2 ....rN N

1, 2 ,.. N ,

r1, r2..rN , (
3.2.12

)

r

r1
N 1, 2 ,.. N ,
N
3.2.13 r1, r2 ..rN ,
1,

( ,
)

r

A IUt A I
3.2.14 U t . ,
.

U2
a) P IU
b) P I R c) P

R
3.2.15 P R .
I , U .
2

b) ,
c) . a) ,
( ) .

2 R
P
( R r )2

3.2.16

Pmax

4r

R r

r
R . P .

R r , Pmax .

Q I2 Rt /
Q ,
3.2.17
R t I .
3.2.18

( ).
IU t Q Pt ,
. Q
P t .

A q It I .
t q I t
3.2.19 () A . I

3.2.20

, (
), , ,
A . ,
, .
I I2 (R r ) P
r R ,
. I

P . .

P U

.
P

3.2.21 ,
P ,

P .
U .
3.3

M
B .
IS
M ,
S I .
B .
B ,
B

3.3.1

3.3.2

, ,
( ) .
M IBSsin M ,
I S B . B .

3.3.3

,
.
.

3.3.4


,
.
,

.

,
.

a) FA BIl sin ,
3.3.5

, FA .
B , I , l
.
(
B ).
b) A I I
,

0 2I1I2
l
4 d
I1 . d
l I2 , ,
F

3.3.6

3.3.7

.
7
F . 0 4 10 / ,

F qvB sin ,
, F , q ,
v , B


(
v B ).

T 2

3.3.8

qB

mv sin

h 2R ctg

qB
m
qB
m q ,
,
, . ,

. :
T , , R
( ),
v B ., h
.
3.4

3.4.1

BScos
. ,

,
B n .

i
3.4.2

, ,
i .
. :
,
, .
.

i E 2R E
3.4.3

3.4.4

3.4.5

i
(
2R

), ,

E .
LI I , ( ,
), ,
.
L , .

0N 2 S
L l ,
L
l
S N .
, 0
.

3.4.6

3.4.7

N
I l N
l
I . B .
I
is L
LI , L ,
t
B 0

,
, . ,
is .

.
3.4.8

L L1 L2 L1, L2 ,

,
L .

L
3.4.9

L1L2
L1, L2 ,
L1 L2

,
L .

i Blv l ,
3.4.10

B , v
,
, ,
i .

I2
L ,
3.4.11 W L
2
I , ( ) W .
3.4.12

3.5.1

3.5.2

1 B2
w
,
2 0

,
.
3.5
1
1
1

2
T 2 LC ,

2 LC
LC
T , ,
:
L C ( ).
, ,
.
2 .

c 2 c

c T

, ( T )
c . () c =3108 /.

3.5.3

q(t) qm sin(2t 0 ) CUm sin(2t 0 )


q(t)
qm .
Um sin(t 0 ) .
0 .
I(t) q(t) 2 qm cos(2t 0 ) Im cos(2t 0 )

3.5.4

I (t) I (t)
Im

3.5.5

Im qm CUm
Im , qm Um
.

3.5.6

2
2
sin2 (t 0 ) CUm
CU2 (t) CUm
W (t)

[1 cos(2t 0 )]
2
2
4
W (t)
Um .

3.5.7

2
2
CUm
qm
Wmax

W
2
2C
2
2
cos2 (t 0 ) LIm
LI 2 (t) LIm
W (t)

[1 cos(2t 0 )]
2
2
4
W (t)
Im

.
Wmax
3.5.8

2
LIm

W
2

2
2
LIm
q2 (t) LI 2 (t) CUm

const
2C
2
2
2

(t) m sin t I (t) Im sin(t )


Im ()
3.5.9

m
R

1
C

L)

1
LC

L2
2

(0
2

2 )2

(t) m
R ,
L C . Z ,
, 0
.
Im () .

I
3.5.10

tg

Im
2

, ,
Im

Im2
P
R I2 R R
2
3.5.11 Im .
P
I .
,
(
)

n1
. U1
n2
3.5.12 n1 ,
U2 n2
U2 U1

n2
U1k,
n1

( , ),
k .

U2 U1
3.5.13

n2
I2 R2 .
n1

I2 , U2 ,
R2 .

Ey (x, t) Em cos(
Bm

3.5.14

3.6.1

2
2
2
2
t
x) Bz (x, t) Bm cos( t
x)
T

T
Em


.
x ,
y E(t, x) ,
B(t, x) z .

x .
3.6

.

.
.

sin
.
sin
.
n

3.6.2

3.6.3

3.6.4


. , ..
.
n ,
.

c
() n
v
c v .
n
sin 2
n1
n

(
n1 n2 ), ,
,

, .

1 1 1

D
d f F

3.6.5

.
F , d ,
f , D .
: , (
( ) (

1
F

).

). f

d
d, F ,
,
.

3.6.6

,
, .

. , ,
,
.

a)
3.6.7

H f
F

h
d dF

b)

s
F


H
h .
, s =0,25
F .

3.6.8

D2 L ,

. D , ,
, L / ,
.

d sin m m m 0, 1, 2...
3.6.9

103
d
N

m ,
m ,
d . N 1 .
.
n2s2 n1s1
. s .

3.6.10

2
.
0

0

2
. m
m

, -

4h
n2 sin2 0
0
3.6.11 h
n . ,
. ,

(
). 2h n sin
2

0
2

4.
1.
.
4.1

2. c =3.108 /,
.
.

1
4.2

4.3

v
c2

1
1

v
c2

, ,
v 0 ,
, .

v2 l0
l , ,
l l0 1 2
c

v , l0
, .

v v

v v
1
c2
v .
v . v -
v

4.4

.
v v v

E(v)
4.5

mc2
v2
1 2
c

mc2 (v) E(v)

. m , v ,

E(v)
mc2
2
E(v 0) E mc

4.6

E .

E (v) E(v) mc2 mc2 ((v) 1)



v

mv

p(v)

4.7

4.8

v
c2

mv

p(v)

p F

4.9


E2 ( p) p2c2 m2c4

4.10

p c m c m c
2 2

2 4

. ( E
4.11

p2
)

2m

mv2
v c
Em c
2
2

5.1.

5.
-

hc
h 6, 626 1034 4,136 10-15

. h
h

5.1.1

p
5.1.2

h
h

h
p

[]

1, 24
[]

p , ,
, . c .

5.1.3

h
2, 43
mec

h
( )
p
p .

5.1.4

P
Nh
Nh
(1 R)
(1 R)
(1 R) F ,
c
c

P
R . N ,
, , .
F

mv

2
5.1.5

5.1.6

h h

, ,

.

A , , .
v, m ,
. .
c
1243,12
hmin h
A max

max
A []
min , ,

A .
max , (
), .

U
5.1.7

E
e

( / (
)
E . e .
5.2

mevnrn n
5.2.1

h A
U ,
e

h
2

rn

, vn
n . me . .

En Z

R
n

13, 6
n

-18

2,18 10
n

1, 2, 3...

5.2.2

En

.
R =13,6 , Z (
).

5.2.3

kn

Ek En

Ek En .

kn

ch
,
Ek En

. kn

l
k2n2
2 2
Z k n2

ch
91,2
R

5.3.

5.3.1

A Z N A
Z N . Z

.
.
5.3.2

A
Z


Li

= 73Li (
). A ,
Z ,
Li =

.
5.3.3

m Zmp Nmn m
m ,

, ,

E m c [Zm p Nmn (m Zme )] c


E , ,
.
, .
2

5.3.4

5.3.5

5.3.6

1
0

n 11p +

e + -


.
14
7

N 42 H

17
8

O+ 11 H (1919 , ).

N (t) N0

5.3.7

N0et . N0

, N (t)
, t , T ,
, T , .

5.3.8

t
2 T

ln 2

T

A (t) A0

t
2 T

t
ln 2
N(t)
N0 2 T N (t)
T

.
T ,
5.3.9

m
NA Z
M
m . Z , M
qe

1
1
x2
a) 1 x 1 x, b)
1 x, c) sin x tgx x, d ) cos x 1
2
1 x
2
3
2
3
e) (1 x) 1 3x 3x x 1 3x
. x 1
a)

cos cos 2 cos

c) A sin B cos

2
2

cos

b) cos cos

A B sin( ) cos

A B

[cos( ) cos( )]
, sin

B
2

A B

d) sin

2tg

1 tg2

2
cos

1 tg2
2
1 tg2

3

x . A

Ax A cos 0 . B
,
Bx B cos 0 . ( A, B - ).


A B . A B
A ( ).
A B A B cos Ax Bx Ay By Az Bz
A B

x, y, z . .

sin a

sin b
6

c2 a2 b2 2ab cos

sn a1 qa1 q a1 ... q
2

8
9
10
11
12

16

a1

a1 (qn 1)
sn
q 1

y a
y 2at b

y at b

y at2 bt c
y ym cos t
y ym sin t

y ym sin t
y ym cos t

y 2t

13
14
15

n 1

y kx b

y 2t ln 2

y ax2 bx c
a) R :
b) R :

4
R 3
3

S 4R2


- G 6,672 10
-

11

2 /2
2

= 2,99792108 /; =8,987521016 2/2

h 6,626 1034 4,136 10-15


h
1,055 1034 6,59 10-16
2
12
/
- 0 8,854 10
1
k
9 109 2 /2
40

- NA 6,022141 10

23

-1
23
- k 1,3807 10 /
19

() - e 1,602 10
31
5, 486 104 ...
- me 9,1095 10
27

1.5. - mp 1,6726 10
27

- mn 1,6749 10
-

1,00728 ..

=1,00867 ...

m 6.6446561027

4.00150 ..

mD = 2,014102 . . .
mT = 3,016049 . .

( )

m
e
e* 1,759 1011 / (m* e 5,68 1012 / )
me
e
e
e*p 9,5779 107 /
mp
- F eNA 9,648 10 /
4

c2

E
8,9874 1016 / = 931,5 /...
m
-27

1 (...) =1,66057 10

1 ...=

931,5

1
= 1,66057 10-27
NA (1 / )

1 = 6,02 1026 ...


1 - () =1,60219 10-19
1 6,24146 1018 - ()
1 = 1,60219 10-13
-

E0e mec2 8,187 1014 0,511


-

E0 p mp c2 1,503 1010 = 938,26


-

E0n mnc2 1,505 1010 939,55


- -

E0 mc2 3,72738