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10 Essential Functions

By Daren Taniguchi
Mr Yoon Honors Calculus
September 2, 2014

Looking forward to Calculus Honors this


Year, enjoy my 10 essential Functions Mr.
Yoon!
-Daren

Linear
Function
Parent Graph y=x

R: (-,)
D: (-,)

y = x +3
y = x -3
R: (-,)
D: (-,)

Translation Explanation: The sum or difference of x represents the value of the y intercept or when
(0,y). As the y intercept increases, the function shifts up and as the y intercept decreases it shifts
down.

y = 3x
y = -3x
R: (-,)
D: (-,)

Translation Explanation: As m progresses further from 0 the inclination of the function increases.
When the value of m is negative or positive the direction of inclination reflects from the y axis.

Quadratic Function
Parent Graph:
y=x^2
y=a(x-h)^2+k

y=a(x-h)^2+k

D: (-,)
R: [0,)

D: (-,)
R: [0,)

Translation Explanation: The greater h is the further left it goes,


the lesser it is, the further it goes right. h represents the x
coordinate of the vertex.

y=a(x-h)^2+k

D: (-,)
R: [-2,)
D: (-,)
R: [2,)

Translation Explanation: k represents the y coordinate of the


vertex. The greater the k value the more it shifts up. The lesser
the k value the more it shifts down.

Graph:
y=2(x)^2
D: (-,)
R: [0,)
y=-2(x)^2
D: (-,)
R: [-,0)

y=a(x-h)^2+k

Translation Explanation: A negative a value


reflects off the x axis pointing the function
downwards. A positive value reflects off the x
axis pointing upwards. The greater a deviates
from 0 the function constricts. The closer the
function gets to 0 the function widens.

Cubic Function
Parent Function:
y=x^3
y= a(x-h)^3+k
R: (-,)
D: (-,)

y= a(x-h)^3+k
y=(x+3)^3
D:(-,)
R:(-,)
y=(x-3)^3
D:(-,)
R:(-,)

Translation Explanation:
The greater h is the further
left it goes, the lesser it is, the
further it goes right. h
represents the x coordinate of
the vertex.

y= a(x-h)^3+k

D:(-,)
R:(-,)

D:(-,)
R:(-,)

Translation Explanation: k represents the y coordinate of the


vertex. The greater the k value the more it shifts up. The lesser
the k value the more it shifts down.

y= a(x-h)^3+k

D:(-,)
R:(-,)
Translation Explanation:
As the value of a deviates
further from 0 the function
constricts. As it gets closer
the function widens.

D:(-,)
R:(-,)

y= a(x-h)^3+k

D:(-,)
R:(-,)

D:(-,)
R:(-,)
Translation explanation:
When the a value is
negative the function
reflects from the y axis.

Absolute Value
Parent function Absolute Value y=|x|

D: (-,)
R: [0,)

y=a|x-h|+k

y=a|x-h|+k

D: (-,)
R: [0,)

D: (-,)
R: [0,)
Translation Explanation: The greater h is the further left it goes,
the lesser it is, the further it goes right. h represents the x
coordinate of the vertex.

D:(-,)
R:[3,)

y=a|x-h|+k

Translation Explanation: k represents


the y coordinate of the vertex. The
greater the k value the more it shifts up.
The lesser the k value the more it shifts
down.

D:(-,)
R:[3,)

y=a|x-h|+k

D:(-,)
R:[0,)

Translation Explanation:
As the value of a deviates
further from 0 the function
constricts. As it gets closer
the function widens. A
negative a value results in
the function reflecting on the
x axis pointing down.

D:(-,)
R:[0,-)

Exponential Functions
Parent Exponential Function y = a^x

D:(-,)
R:(0,)

f(x) = a^(xh) + k

f(x) = a^(x h) + k

D: (-,)
R: (3,)

Translation Explanation: k
represents the y coordinate of the
horizontal asymptote. The greater
the k value the more it shifts up.
The lesser the k value the more it
shifts down.

D: (-,)
R: (3,)

f(x) = a^(xh) + k
D: (-,)
R: (0,)

D: (-,)
R: (0,)

Translation Explanation: The greater the value of h is the further left the
function goes, the lesser it is, the further it goes right. h represents the x value
when y or f(x) is 1.

D: (-,)
R: (0,)

f(x) = a^(xh) + k
Translation Explanation:
The negative a value makes the
function reflect downwards from
the x axis. The negative x value
makes the function reflect to the
left from the y axis.

Translation Explanation#2:
As the value of a deviates further
from 0 the function constricts.As it
gets closer the function widens.

D: (-,)
R: (-,0)

Radical Functions
Parent function Radical Function y=x
y= ax-h+k

D: (0,)
R: (0,)

y= ax-h+k
D: (0,)
R: (2,)

Translation Explanation: k
represents the y coordinate of
the horizontal asymptote. The
greater the k value the more it
shifts up. The lesser the k value
the more it shifts down.

D: (0,)
R: (-2,)

y= ax-h+k

D: (2,)
R: (0,)

Translation Explanation: The greater h


is the further left it goes, the lesser it is,
the further it goes right. h represents the
vertical asymptote.

D: (2,)
R: (0,)

Translation Explanation: As the


value of a deviates further from 0 the
function expands. As it gets closer to
0 the function compresses. A
negative a value results in the
functioning reflecting downwards
from the x axis.

y= ax-h+k

D: (0,)
R: (-,0)

D: (0,)
R: (-2,)

Translation Explanation#2: As
the value of b deviates further from
0 the function constricts. As it gets
closer to 0 the function expands. A
negative a value results in the
functioning reflecting left from the y
axis.

Rational Functions

Parent function Rational Function y=1/x

y=a/x-h+k

D: (-,0)U(0,)
R: (-,0)U(0,)

D: (-,0)U(0,)
R:(-,4)U(4,)

y=a/x-h+k
Translation Explanation: k represents
the x axis asymptote. The greater the k
value the more it shifts up. The lesser the
k value the more it shifts down.

D: (-,0)U(0,)
R:(-,-4)U(-4,)

D:(-,-3)U(-3,)
R:(-,0)U(0,)

y=a/x-h+k

D:(-,-3)U(-3,)
R:(-,0)U(0,)
Translation Explanation: The
greater h is the further left it goes,
the lesser it is, the further it goes
right. h represents the y asymptote.

y=a/x-h+k

Translation Explanation: As the value of


a deviates further from 0 the function
moves closer to the x asymptote. As it
gets closer to 0 the function gets further
from the x. A negative a value results in
the functioning reflecting on the x and y
axis

D:(-,0)U(0,)
R:(-,0)U(0,)

D:(-,0)U(0,)
R:(-,0)U(0,)

Rational Function
y= 1/x^2

y= a/(x-h)^2+k

D: (-,0)U(0,)
R:(0,)

y= a/(x-h)^2+k

D: (-,-3)U(-3,)
R:(0,)

D: (-,3)U(3,)
R:(0,)

Translation Explanation: The greater h is the further


left it goes, the lesser it is, the further it goes right. h
represents the location of the y axis asymptote.

D: (-,0)U(0,)
R:(-4,)
D: (-,0)U(0,)
R:(4,)
y= a/(x-h)^2+k
Translation Explanation: k represents
the x axis asymptote. The greater the k
value the more it shifts up. The lesser the
k value the more it shifts down.

y= a/(x-h)^2+k

D: (-,0)U(0,)
R:(-,0)
D:(-,0)U(0,)
R:(0,)
Translation Explanation: As the
value of a deviates further from 0
the function moves closer to the x
asymptote. As it gets closer to 0
the function gets further from the
x. A negative a value results in
the functioning reflecting on the x
and y axis

Logarithmic Functions
y=logx

y=a(log)(x-h)+k

D:(0,)
R:(-,)

y=a(log)(x-h)+k

D:(0,)
R:(-,)
Translation Explanation: k
represents the point at which x
equals 1. Consequently this moves
the function up when positive and
down when negative.

D:(0,)
R:(-,)

y=a(log)(x-h)+k

D:(0,)
R:(-,)

Translation Explanation: The


greater h is the further left it goes,
the lesser it is, the further it goes
right. h represents the vertical
asymptote.

D:(3,)
R:(-,)

D:(0,)
R:(-,)

y=a(log)(x-h)+k
Translation Explanation: As a
deviates further from 0 the function
accelerates further from the x axis.
As it gets closer the function stays
closer to the x axis. A negative a
value results in the function
reflecting off the x axis.

D:(0,)
R:(-,)

Sine Function
y=(a)sin(x-h)+k

D:(-,)
R:(-1,1)

y=(a)sin(x-h)+k

D:(-,)
R:(2,4)

Translation Explanation: k
represents the point at which x
equals 0. Consequently, this
moves the function up when
positive and down when
negative.

D:(-,)
R:(-4,-2)

D:(-,)
R:(-1,1)

y=(a)sin(x-h)+k

D:(-,)
R:(-1,1)
Translation Explanation: The greater h is the further left the function
goes, the lesser it is, the further the function goes right.

y=(a)sin(x-h)+k
D:(-,)
R:(-1/3,1/3)

D:(-,)
R:(-3,3)
Translation Explanation: As a deviates further from 0 the function accelerates
further from the x axis. This is also known as an increase in amplitude. As it gets
closer the function stays closer to the x axis. This is known as a decrease in
amplitude. A negative a value results in the function reflecting off the y axis. The
a variable is responsible for the amplitude of the function.

Cosine Function

Parent Function y=cos x

y=(a)cos(x-h)+k

D:(-,)
R:(-1,1)

y=(a)cos(x-h)+k
D:(-,)
R:(-3,-1)

D:(-,)
R:(2,4)

Translation Explanation: k represents the midline of the function.


Consequently, this moves the function up when positive and down
when negative.

y=(a)cos(x-h)+k

D:(-,)
R:(-1,1)

D:(-,)
R:(-1,1)

Translation Explanation: The greater h is the further left the function


goes, the lesser it is, the further the function goes right.

y=(a)cos(x-h)+k

D:(-,)
R:(-1/3,1/3)

D:(-,)
R:(-3,3)

Translation Explanation: As a deviates further from 0 the function accelerates further


from the x axis. This is also known as an increase in amplitude. As it gets closer the
function stays closer to the x axis. This is known as a decrease in amplitude. A negative a
value results in the function reflecting off the y axis. The a variable is responsible for the
amplitude of the function.

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