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The lm approach to S.C.B.A. has considerable similarity with the UNIDO approach. In the first place, both the approach use shadow (accounting) prices for foreign exchange savings and unskilled labor in particular. Similarly, both consider factor of equity. And finally both the approaches use DCF (discounted cash flow) analysis. Nevertheless, the two approaches differ in important respects. For instance, while the UNIDO approach measure cost and benefits on the basis of the domestic currency (rupees), the L-M approach use international/ border prices. Moreover, the lm approach uses uncommitted social income basis, while UNIDO approach is based on consumption as a measure of cost and benefits. Finally, in contrast to the stageby-stage analysis of the UNIDO approach, the LM approach focuses on an integrated analysis of the consideration such as efficiency, saving and redistribution. The main elements of the LM approach are briefly outlined here. The outputs and inputs of a project are classified by the lm approach into three categories, namely, traded goods /services, non traded goods/services and labor. The computation of their shadow prices is discussed below.
There are two principal approaches for Social Cost Benefit Analysis.
A. UNIDO Approach, and B. L-M Approach.
A. UNIDO Approach: This approach is mainly based on the publication of UNIDO (United Nation Industrial Development Organization) named Guide to Practical Project Appraisal in 1978.
B. L-M Approach:
I.M.D Little & J.A.Mirlees have developed this approach for analysis of Social Cost-Benefit in Manual of Industrial Project Analysis in Developing Countries and Project Appraisal & Planning for Developing Countries.
THEORY OF L.M. APPROACH
The L.M. Approach to Social Cost has considerable similarity with the UNIDO approach. In the first place, both the approach use shadow (accounting) prices for foreign exchange savings and unskilled labor in particular. Similarly, both consider factor of equity. And finally both the approaches use DCF (discounted cash flow) analysis. Nevertheless, the two approaches differ in important respects. For instance, while the UNIDO approach measure cost and benefits on the basis of the domestic currency (rupees), the L-M approach use international/ border prices. Moreover, the lm approach uses uncommitted social income basis, while UNIDO approach is based on consumption as a measure of cost and benefits. Finally, in contrast to the stage-by-stage analysis of the UNIDO approach, the LM approach focuses on an integrated analysis of the consideration such as efficiency, saving and redistribution. The main elements of the LM approach are briefly outlined here. The outputs and inputs of a project are classified by the lm app. Into three categories, namely, traded goods /services, non traded goods/services and labor. The computation of their shadow prices is discussed below.
The shadow price of traded good/service is equal to its border/international price because it represents the appropriate social opportunity cost/benefit of producing/using a traded good/service. Obviously, the shadow price of export would be its FOB (free on board) price and in case of import of goods/services, it will be its CIF (cost, insurance and freight) price.
NON Traded goods services:
The basis of shadow/accounting price of goods/services like land, buildings, transportation, electricity and so on , which are not amenable to foreign trade, is the marginal social cost/benefit in terms of the shadow prices of resources required to produce an extra unit of the good/service. The marginal social cost of a bus travel/trip, for instance, would approximate the cost of material input such as fuel, oil and so on at international/border price plus the social wags of the driver and the conductor. The marginal social benefit is the value of an extra unit of the good from the social point view. For instance if a good is consumed by only one income group and is not taxed, its marginal social benefit would equal its market price multiplied by a factor representing the value assigned to an increase in the income of that group in relation to an equal increase in uncommitted social income. The calculation of marginal social cost and benefit in practice is a tedious job. The Lm approach has suggested, as a practical expedient, that the monetary cost of a non-traded item should be broken down into three components, namely, 1. Tradable
2. Labor 3. And residual. The components one and three may be converted into social cost by applying social conversion factors. The social cost of component two can be obtained by using social/shadow wage rate. According to them, the shadow wage rate (SWR) is given in Equation
I.M.D. Little and James A. Mirrlees have developed an approach to SCBA which is famously known as L-M approach. The core of this approach is that the social cost of using a resource in developing countries differs widely from the price paid for it. Hence, it requires Shadow Prices to denote the real value of a resource to society. (mentioned earlier)
L-M Numeraire is present uncommitted social income. An L-M method opts for savings as the yardstick of their entire approach. Present savings is more valuable to them than present consumption since the savings can be converted into investment for future. L-M approach rejects the ‘consumption’ numeraire of UNIDO approach since the authors (L & M) feel that the consumption of all level is valuable. This approach measures the cost and benefits in terms of international or border prices. ➢ Why Border prices? Because the border prices represent the correct social opportunity costs or benefits of using or producing a traded goods. The resources – inputs & outputs – of a project are classified into mainly:
Labor Traded Goods Non-traded Goods
Therefore, to find out the real value of these resources, we should calculate – a) Shadow wage rate (SWR) b) Shadow price of Traded Goods c) Shadow price of Non-traded Goods a) Shadow Wage Rate (SWR) The purpose of computing the SWR is to determine the opportunity cost of employing an additional worker in the project. For this we have to determine – The value of the output foregone due to the use of a unit of labor The cost of additional consumption due to the transfer of labor
L-M suggest the following formula for calculating the SWR: SWR = m + (c¢-c) + (1-1/s) (c-m) Here, m = marginal productivity of the wage earner c¢-c = cost of urbanization (1-1/s) (c-m) = cost of additional committed consumption c¢= additional resources devoted to consumption c = consumption of wage earner 1 = value of uncommitted resources 1/s = value of committed resources c-m = additional consumption of labor
c¢ (transportation system, e.g. road construction, motor vehicles) – c (e.g. bus rent) = cost of urbanization (e.g. road construction)
b) Shadow price of Traded Goods Shadow price of traded goods is simply its border or international price. If a good is exported, its shadow price is its FOB price; If a good is imported, its shadow price is its CIF price.
c) Shadow price of Non-traded Goods Non-traded goods are those which do not enter into international trade by their very nature. (e.g. land, building, transportation) Hence, no border price is observable for them.
Ideally, Shadow price of Non-traded Good is defined in terms of marginal social cost (MSC) and marginal social benefit (MSB). L-M suggest that the monetary cost of non-traded goods be broken down into – ○ ○ ○ Labor Tradable Residual components SWR (Social Wage Rate) Social Conversion Factor (SCF) SCF
Accounting Rate of Return (ARR):
This is the rate used for discounting social profits. • • Experience is the best guide to the choice of ARR. ARR should be such that all mutually compatible projects with positive present social value can be undertaken.
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5. Skilled lab reflects wha
Similarities between Two Approaches • • • Calculation of Shadow Prices to reflect social value Usage of Discounted Cash Flow Techniques Taking into account about the effect of a project on savings, investment and income of a society
References: • Chandra, Prasanna, Project: Planning, Analysis, Financing, Implementation, and Review, 6/e, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Limited, New Delhi, 2006. Little, I.M.D. & J. Mirrlees, Manual of Industrial Project analysis in developing countries, Vol. II, OECD, 1968.
• • •
Puttaswamaiah, K., & Venu, S., A Theoretical and Applied Critique of Alternative Methodologies. UNIDO, Guidelines For Project Evaluation, 1981. www.citechco.net/jmba
➢ Approach to Social Cost Benefit Analysis ➢ Theory of L.M. approach
➢ Comparative approach to UNIDO and L.M.approach ➢ Similarity between two approaches ➢ Dissimilarity between two approaches
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