1

MOHICAN DICTIONARY
Compiled by Lion G. Miles
The Mohican language, an Algonquian dialect, was spoken in the
Hudson River Valley and adjacent regions by about 12,000 people prior
to the arrival of European settlers in the seventeenth century. The first
dictionary of the language was published in 1991 by Carl Masthay, using
a single source, the word list compiled by the Moravian missionary
Johann Jacob Schmick. As a compliment to that work the following
dictionary has been compiled from many different sources with an
emphasis on the writings of the Indians themselves. Both dictionaries
contain about 1000 distinct words but there are a number of significant
differences. While many of Schmick’s words are included here, the
dictionary is based primarily on the writings of Hendrick Aupaumut, a
bilingual Mohican chief, and John Wauwaumpequunnaunt, the native
interpreter for the missionary John Sergeant. They wrote in English
orthography, as opposed to Schmick’s German, and their writings are
fully in context with all inflections, as opposed to Schmick’s simple list
of words and phrases. A Mohican grammar is being developed and will
be included in the final version of this dictionary.
(Based chiefly on sources from the years 1740 to 1830)
The many variant spellings indicate different grammatical forms and are
explained in the Grammar. Some may be transcription errors from
printed texts.

2

ENGLISH TO MOHICAN
ABUSE

MAUMCHEHTAUSEEK = abusing
(Aupaumut)

ACCEPT

WTENQUQ = he accepts us (Aupaumut)
WOWWEKIHNAUYON = be acceptable
(Morse)

ACCORDING TO

WEEWCHEWEH (Aupaumut)

ACCOUNT (verb)

KTINNEHHOOKAUNAUNOQCHEH =
will account for (Aupaumut & Sergeant)

ACKNOWLEDGE

NAWUQUONKUH (Aupaumut)

ACTIONS
(see WORKS)

OIENONNUHKAUNEET,
OINANNUHKAUTOOP,
UNNONNUHKAUN (Aupaumut)
OINANNUHKAUTOOP (Sergeant)

ACQUIT

POTOMMOOHHAUNAUK (Aupaumut)

ADAM (name)

AUTOMMUH (Aupaumut)

ADMINISTER

UNNOQNOMMOWWAUYUQ,
UNNUQNOMMOWWAUWUN
(Aupaumut)

ADOPT, RECEIVE

NOOTNAUSEEK (Aupaumut)
NOOTINNUMHITTET, NOOTINNUKKEEK,
NNÒTÌNNUMMUNAUNAUNCHEH,
NOOTINNUMAUK (Sergeant)

ADULTERY

WEHPAUTOMMAUTHEHHUN (Aupaumut)

ADVANCE

WAUCHOIYEK (Aupaumut)

AFTER

MOHCHEH (Aupaumut & Sergeant)

3

MÁCHTSCHE = after that (Passion of Christ)
AGAIN

NAUSKEH, NAUSKEWEH, WONKCHEH =
again will (Aupaumut)
WONKCHEH (Sergeant)
NÀCHKEOWÈ = once more, AWOAK (Passion
of Christ)
WAK, TSCHEWAK (Schmick)
ANAQUECH (Moravian Archives)

AGAINST

MCHEHTAUSOOW, MCHEHTIYUH
(Aupaumut)

AGGRAVATION, CORRUPTION AUNENAUNQUOHK,
AUNENAUQUOHK (Aupaumut)
AUNENAUNQUOHK (Sergeant)
AGONY

ÁNACHCHEHENÁU (Passion of Christ)

AGREEABLE

AUYAUTOMMAUNOIQUEH (Auapumut)

ALBANY, N.Y.

PAUPAUTANWUTHYAUK = council fire
place (Aupaumut)
PEMPOTAWUTHUT = “praying place” or
“place of the council fire” (Schoolcraft)

ALIKE

TAUTPEMAUW, TAUTPOIKEEK,
TAUTPUMQUITHTHOOW,
TAUTPAIYAUQ, KTAUTPAIHUMMUH
= be like, WTAUTPAUYON,
WTAUTPOIYUN (Aupaumut)

ALL, WHOLE

MAUWEH, MOWWEH, MUWWEH,
MSICHCHAUWEH, NMOWWEH,
NMUWWEH, MAUWEEK,
MAUWEECH , MUWWAUWAUK,
MAUWOHKUMMAUKEH = all
day, KAUMKEH,
MSICHCHAUWEH (Aupaumut)
MÁWE, MÁOWE (Schmick)

4

MAUWEH, MOUWEH, MAUWEECH,
MSUTCHCHAUWEH (Sergeant)
MAUWEY (Jenks)
MAWE (Tschoop & Moravian Archives)
WAAMÍ (Heckewelder)
MÁOWE, MÁOWEETSCH (Passion of Christ)
MAUWEH, MAWEH (Edwards)
ALONE

PASCHGON (Moravian Archives)

ALREADY

MECHTSCH (Heckewelder)
PAGGÁTSCHE (Schmick)
PÁGATSCHE, PÁGGATSCHE (Passion of
Christ)

ALSO, AGAIN

WAUCH (Aupaumut)
WAK (Schmick)
WAUK (Morse)
WEETSCHE (Passion of Christ)

ALWAYS, ETERNAL

EIAUNEH, EYAUPCHEH (Aupaumut)
EIAUNEH, NÓNEH (Sergeant)
GOMMÁO (Passion of Christ)
GOMMAWE (Moravian Archives)

AMEN (see SAY)

UNNOIYEK, UNNOIYOOW = let it be,
ANNOIYICH = so be it,
NON NEH, NUN NEH = this is all
(Aupaumut)

AMONG

OIEHTEET (Sergeant)

ANCESTORS, PARENTS

NGEHCHOIESUMMUK (Aupaumut)

AND

WONK, WONKCHEH = again will, DON,
DUN, NDON, KENEH, KUH,
NUNKUN (Aupaumut)
WONK, KUH (Sergeant)
N’DON (Jenks)
DON (Morse)

5

WAK, WAAK (Tschoop & Schmick)
WAK, WAAK, NÀN (Passion of Christ)
ANGEL

ENGEL = from German (Passion of Christ)

ANGRY
(see WRATH)

EMMUCHCHOONUT,
NDOMMUCHOONAWU =
angry with me, OMMUCHCHOONUT
(Aupaumut)
NDOMMÚCHOONAWÙ,
OMMUCHCHOONUT (Sergeant)

ANIMAL

KTOWWOISUMMUK = your animals,
UHQUOUWOISECHEE = creatures,
beasts, UHQUOIKEH = creatures,
bodies, things, WTUHHOKSENMON =
his animal (Aupaumut)
AHWOYISS (Metoxen)

ANSWER

AUKHCHEWEH (Aupaumut)
ODAÀCHDAAPTÓNAMAWÀHN = they
answered, ODAACHTAAPTONAMÀ =
answered, AACHTAAPTONÀ =
answered, UDNACHTNAPTONAMÀ =
answered,
KTÀAACHTAAPTÓNAMAAK,
TAAPTÓNAMAWÒHN = answered
(Passion of Christ)

ANY

NITHUH (Aupaumut & Sergeant))
NITHOH (Morse)

ANYONE

AUNEH AUM (Aupaumut)

ANYTHING

NITHUH KAUQUI, NITHUKAUM
(Aupaumut)

APPLE

ÁPENES (Schmick)

APPLY

KPAUKHWOOKHTANQUNNAUNUH,

6

PAUKHWOHTAUQUNNAUNUH,
PAUKHWUHTAUQUQ (Aupaumut)
APPOINT

KEESOOTMOOQ = appointed,
KESOOTKEH = appointed, decrees,
KESOOTKISEUH, KESOOTKUP,
KESOOTMOWWAUMKUP,
WKESOOTMONNAUP = he
appointed (Aupaumut)
KECETAUN = created (Jenks)

APPREHENSION

NAUMEHTAUCHEH (Aupaumut)

ARM

NISQUÀN, TENNEMAGANEGAN (Schmick)
TENNEMAGANEGAU (Schoolcraft)
CANÁGHK (Jefferson)

ARMED

NÓAHAMNA (Passion of Christ)

AS, BY, BECAUSE

AUNEH, AUNEECH, UNNEECH, AUNEEK,
AUNUW, AUNOW, AUNOWOIHEECH ,
UNNOW, UNNUW (Aupaumut)
AUNEH (Sergeant)
AUNOW (Morse)
ANE (Schmick & Passion of Christ)

ASCEND

SPOKHAUTUP, SPOKHAUWON =
ascended, THPOKHAUK,
THPOOHQUOH = ascend, lift up
(Aupaumut)

ASHAMED

KMECHANSE = you are ashamed,
N’MECHANSE = I am ashamed
(Schmick)

ASHES, DUST

PUNGÚ (Heckewelder)
PÙKQUEU, PÙCKQUEÜW, P’QUÉI
(Schmick)

ASK

WEENOMQUOKKUH,

7

(see PETITION)

WEENWOMMAUYUQ = asked,
WEENWUMKUH, WEENWUTHEEQ,
WEENWUTHEET (Aupaumut)
KUCIMONAN = you ask, KUTSCHEMÓNEN
= I ask, OKUTSCHEMONÁWA = he asks
him (Schmick)
WEENWUMMÚKUH,
WEENWUMMOOHHANNUH,
WEENWUMMUNNAUK (Sergeant)
ODAAPTONAMÀ = asked, ÓTENAWÀHN =
asked, GUTSCHÉMOHN,
GUTSCHÉMONÒCHKQ,
GÚTSCHEMONAWA ,
OKUTSCHÉMONÀ,
OKUTSCHÈMONÁU = asked,
MACHMÀTUAMNÁHK,
MACHMÁTUAMMAHN = asked
(Passion of Christ)

ASSIGN

KTENQUEHQUCHK,
KTENQUONMOWWAUNAUNUH
(Aupaumut)

ASSURE

WAUWETIYAUNTOMMUQ = assured,
WAUWETIYAUNTOMMUN =
assurance (Aupaumut)
KAHÉNNA (Passion of Christ)

AT

ATANÈ (Passion of Christ)

ATTEND

KKONTHOTTOMMONNAUNUH
(Aupaumut)

ATTRIBUTE

WTENNAUWTH, WTENNAUWTHOOW,
WTENNEWEETHWAUKAUNNUN,
WTENNAUSOOW = accompany, flow
from (Aupaumut)

AUDIENCE

BÁPTAWETSCHEEK (Passion of Christ)

8

AUNT

OHMETHAN (Jenks)

AUTUMN

T’QUAUQUUH (Jenks)

AWL

MIGGOAS (Metoxen)
MAKOOS (Schmick)

AX, HATCHET

UTHENNETMUHHECON (Aupaumut)
KTUMHECAN = thy hatchet, TMOHHECAN,
KTUMHECANNOOWUH = your
hatchet, NDUMHECAN = my hatchet,
NDUMHECANNUH = our hatchet,
UTUMHECAN = his hatchet ,
UTUMHECANNOOWUH = their hatchet
(Edwards)
TUMMAHÉCAN (Heckewelder)
TEMMAHÉGAN, T’MAHÉGAN,
TUMMEHÉGAN (Schmick)

BACK (body part)

CAPUSHQUAN (Jefferson)
NAWEGAN (Ettwein)

BAD, EVIL

MAUTEHK, MAUTIHK, NMUCHCHOI =
wicked, MAUMTUNNUHKIYAUK,
MAUMUTTHEYAUQ,
MAUNTONNUHKAUT = does evil,
MAUTUHQUAUMEET = bad, corrupt,
NUTKEHMAUTUHQUAMEET,
MUMMUTTEHK = heinous,
MUMMUTTUH = heinous,
MUMUTTEEHK = evil (Aupaumut)
M’TUT = inanimate, M’TUHTHOW =
animate (Metoxen)
MACHTIT (Jenks)
MÁTEEK (Schmick)
MATECHK (Tschoop)
MACHTÍT (Heckewelder)
MAUTEHK, NMUCHEHOI = wicked
(Sergeant)

9

MATTÀ, MÁTEEK, MÁTSCHAIK = bad man,
thief, MÁMATSCHÁIKEEK = evil-doers,
robbers, MAÁTSCHAIK = evil-doers,
malefactors, ANÈMATSCHÁIJÉWE = do
bad (Passion of Christ)
MUMACHOIEAUKEH, MAUMTEHKEH,
MATHOIKTEHHCHEH (Edwards)
CO-MAT-SAÏ (Jefferson)
BAG OF PEACE

MNOTY, NE-MAU-WON-NEH MNO-TI =
smaller bags (Aupaumut)

BAPTISM
(see RAIN)

THOOKKNUPPAUNTEEN,
THOOKKNUPPAUNTOWAUKUN,
THOOKNUPPAUNNAUMUK,
THOOKKNUPPAUNAUK = to be
baptized (Aupaumut)
SOOGNEPONG (Schmick)
SOKENNUPPAUNTUWAUNKUNNUK,
SOKUNNUPPAUNTUEWAUNKUN
(Sergeant)

BE, IS

NOONUNNOIYAW = these be (Aupaumut)
OIEKEH, OIEHTEET, ANNOIEH,
ANNOIEYUH, ANNOIYUWAUK
(Sergeant)
OIEON, OIECHEEK (plural), AUNOIEYON,
OIEHTEET, WTINNOIYUWUN = I am
(Edwards)

BEAM (verb)

MKHUHPSEY, MKHUKSEY (Aupaumut)

BEANS

TPACHQUAN (Ettwein & Schmick)
TUPOHQUAUN (MHS Collections)

BEAR (animal)

MUKWOH (Metoxen)
MQUOH (Edwards & Long)
MUCHQUAUH (Barton)
MACHQUÒ, MACHQUÀ, MACHQUÈ,
MÁCHQ (Schmick)

10

MACHQUO (Ettwein)
MACHQUÁ (Heckewelder)
MAGH-QUÒNG (Jefferson)
BEARD

WICHTONEIJIN (Heckewelder)
WECHTONAJÀ,
WACHQUANECHTONAJÁU = long
beard (Schmick)
WI-TÒ-NA, WEA-WHOM-CATÓANÁS
(Jefferson)

BEAUTIFUL

WAUNSEET (Sergeant)
WNISSOO = he is beautiful, WAUNSEET = the
man who is beautiful (Edwards)
NONESÈ = I am beautiful, KONESÈ = you
are beautiful (Schmick)

BEAVER

AMUSK (Metoxen)
AMÙCHKQ (Schmick)
AMISQUE (Long)
ONA-MUS-QUAH-KEEK = Land of the
Beavers or Lake Winnebago (Adams)

BECAUSE, THEREFORE

QUAM, QUAUMMECH, OCHEH, NIK FROM
WOCHEH = from this, OCHEHAUN,
OCHEHTAUWUNUH = make from,
QUAUMNUH, QUAUMEH (Aupaumut)
QUAUMEH (Sergeant)
OCHEH = from, NGWEHCHEH (Edwards)
OTSCHE (Schmick)
QUAM (Moravian Archives)

BECOME

ÁNENACHGAAT (Passion of Christ)

BEFORE

UNNUHHUHHAUK (Aupaumut)
OTSCHÈ (Passion of Christ)

BEFORE, IN FRONT

SCHAJÁWE, PAATSCHÈ (Passion of Christ)

BECOME

KTENNOIEN = you become (Aupaumut)

11

BEGIN

NOCHEH + verb = begin to, NOOCHEH +
verb (Aupaumut)
NÀNKNÈ (Passion of Christ)

BEGINNING

EEYNOOQQUEHQ, EEYNOQUEHQ
(Aupaumut)

BEHAVIOR, ACTIONS
(see DO)

OINUNKIYUH, OINUNNUHKIQUQ,
OINUNNUHKIYUKQ (Aupaumut)
OINUNNUHKIUKQ, OINUNNUHKIAUKEH,
OIENUNNUHKIAUKEH,
OINANNUHKAUWAUK (Sergeant)

BEHOLD

P’NAWÒCHK’Q (Passion of Christ)

BELIEVE
(see FAITH)

WAUNSENECHEH, WAUNSETKEEK =
believers, WAUNSITKEEK =
believers, WAUNSOTKEEK = to
believers, WAUNTHITTOWWAUQ =
believed, WAUNTHITTUWWAUT =
believe in him,
KOONSITTUWWUWHUNNUH
(Aupaumut)
KOHNSITTAMMENÀNAU = we believe,
NOHNSITTAMMEN = I believe
(Schmick)
KÓHNSÉTTAWEWAHOMMÀ (Passion of
Christ)
WAUNSENECHEH, WNISTUMMAUK
(Sergeant)
ONÍSTANAN, ONISTAWAWEHP = believed
(Moravian Archives)

BELLY

MACHTY, OMAUCHTEI (Barton)
UMACHATEYÍN (Heckewelder)
MAGHTA, MAGHTAÏ, U-MÀCH-A-TU (Jefferson)

12

BELONG

BEND IN THE RIVER

BENEFITS

TNAUTIPPAUNMEH = belong to,
WAUCHAUYEK = that which belongs to,
WAUYEK = belong to (Aupaumut)
WNOGQUETOOKOKE = Stockbridge, Mass.
(Edwards)
WEANTINOCK = New Milford, Conn.
(Orcutt)
SESOWWOIWAUKUNNUN = benefits, privileges,
SESAWOIWAUKUNNUN,
SESOWWOIWAUKONNUN,
SESOWWOIWUK,
WSESOWWEHWAUKONNUN = his
benefits,
WSESEWWOIWANKUNNOWAUN,
WNAUPAUSWUK ,
WNAUPAUTUMMUN,
WNAUPTUMMUHTEET (Aupaumut)
WNEUMPAUTUMMUNNEH,
WNAUMPAUTUMMAUK,
WNAUMPAUTUMMÍHTET (Sergeant)

BETRAY

OTÀNNÁHASEET, ANÈHOKÙK (Passion of
Christ)

BEWARE

NAUNKHUHHOOQ (Aupaumut)

BIBLE

BIBLEUK (Aupaumut & Sergeant)
BEIBELICK (Passion of Christ)

BIND

KNEHPESENAUNUH (Aupaumut)
KNEEPNANÁWÁ = they bound,
ÓKANÈPNAWÀHN = bound him
(Passion of Christ)

BIRD

TSCHICHTSÍS (Heckewelder)
TSCHEECHTSCHIS, TSCHÈCHTSCHIS
(Schmick)
TSCHI-TSIS, CHA-CHIS (Jefferson)

13

TSCHITUS (Barton)
BITTER

WEETHKEH = bitterly (Aupaumut)
WESAKAN, WISAKAN (Schmick)
WEESSI = gall (Passion of Christ)

BLACK

SUKKAUYOOH = animate,
NAUTHKAUYUK = inanimate
(Metoxen)
N’SIKKAYOOH (Barton)
N’SUCKGAJIN, N’SUKGAJÚ (Heckewelder)
SUC-KA-JU, N-SACAYO (Jefferson)

BLACKBIRD

CHOGH-QUAN-NÈGH (Jefferson)

BLANKET

MACHSANÉY (Heckewelder)
N’MASSÀNAI = my blanket, WAPASSANAI
(Schmick)

BLESS
(see MAKE)

ANNEHTAUT, ANNEHTAUN = blessing
UNNEHTAUN = blessing, UNNEHTAUT
= blessing, making,
WEETTONNUHKAUMAUT = his
blessings, WUHWEKOIWUK = blessed
(Aupaumut)
WETAHAMUKQUE = he blesses (Schmick)
WAUWOONNUMMUNSEYAUK = blessings
(Sergeant)
ÓTACOOSCÉNA = blessed (Passion of Christ)

BLOOD

WPUKKUHKONNOME = his blood
(Aupaumut)
P’GACHGANON (Tschoop)
P’QACHGAN (Schmick)
P’QUCHGAN (Ettwein)
PUCAKAN (Barton)
P’GÁCHGAN, P’GÁCHGANOONNÈ,
PGACHGANOHM (Passion of Christ)
‘PGACHGANOM, PEGACHGANOM
(Moravian Archives)

14

P’GACHCÁN (Heckewelder)
PO-CAGK-CAN, PEACH-CAN (Jefferson)
BLOW

WAUWTUKHKHUK (Aupaumut)

BLUE

SCHIWAPWAJÚ (Heckewelder)
ONAWÁJU (Schmick)

BODY

NHOKKI = my body, NUHKAUG = myself,
WHUKKI = his body, himself, person,
WHUKKIYEWEH = his body, himself
(Aupaumut)
NHOKKI, WHOKKI (Sergeant)
KHACKEI (Ettwein)
OHACKAI (Tschoop)
OHÁKKEI = his body, HAKKEI, HACKAY,
HÁCKAI (Schmick)
NHÁKKEI = me, NÁKKAAK, OHÁKKEI =
his body, KHÁKKEI = your body
(Passion of Christ)
NEHACAÏ, U-HÀCK-Y-ÜN (Jefferson)

BONDAGE

UNNUHKAUKUNNEYUNNUP (Aupaumut)

BONE

WACHNAN (Ettwein)
WACHGÀN (Schmick)
WOCH-GÁN, WOCHGUN, WÁGH-CÓN
(Jefferson)
WUCHKAN, OOSKAN (Barton)

BOOK (see WRITE)

WSOHEKUN, WSOOWHEKUN =
scriptures, writings, painting
(Aupaumut)
OOTHOOHÉGÁN (Jenks)
OSÒHÉGANÀN = book, letter, Bible, scribes
(Passion of Christ)
OSOEHÉGAN, OSOHÉGAN, NOSOAHÉGAN
my book (Schmick)

BORN

MTOPPEEN, MTOPPEET, MTOPPOOP,

15

MTOPPEMAUQ, MTOPPETUH,
MUHTOPPEET, MUHTPECHEEK,
WAUCHAUMMTOPPEET =
wherein born (Aupaumut)
MACHTAPPO = he is born (Schmick)
MACHTAPPEEKSUHANÈ = had been born
(Passion of Christ)
MATAPEANOPNE (Moravian Archives)
BOTH SIDES OF RIVER

IKUATUAM = proper name (Austin Quinney)

BOW (weapon)

‘THKENÁGHOO (Jenks)

BOW (verb)

NÁWAKECHNÀ = he bowed (Passion of
Christ)
NÁWAKEECHNÀ = he bowed (Schmick)

BOW, BEND, CURVE

SACHKENÁU (Schmick)

BOY

PENAUPAHTHUH (Jenks)
PINAPASU (Heckewelder)
PI-NA-PA-SÒ, PÀNAMBASÓ (Jefferson)
PENUMPAUSOO, PENUMPAUSOOUK =
boys (Edwards)

BREAD

TQUOKH, DUQKHOMNUH (Aupaumut)
TACHQUÒCH, TAQUÒCH (Schmick)
TACHQUACH (Ettwein)
T’QUÒCH (Passion of Christ)
TACHQUOCH (Heckewelder)
TACH-QUÀCH, TO-QUAH (Jefferson)
TAUQUAUH, PUMMEH (Barton)
TQUOGH (Edwards)

BREAK

WPAUPKHKEHKOMMONNAUWAUN =
he breaks (Aupaumut)
PACHKENIMMEN = break off (Schmick)
TÁHAWEWAHN (Passion of Christ)
PUKHKÙHUKPANNEH = broken (Sergeant)

16

BREAST, CHEST

WACHPÁSSEI = his/her breast (Schmick)
WACHPÁSSEI = his/her breast, NACHPÁSSEI
= my breast (Schmick & Ettwein)
WAPÁSSAOWAHN = breasts (Passion of
Christ)

BREASTPLATE

HYETHOON (Aupaumut)

BRING

PAUSONENUNNUP = brought, PAUSWAUMUK
= brought (Aupaumut)
PAUSHWAUMMUK = brought (Sergeant)

BROAD

M’CHIKCHGAU (Heckewelder)

BROOM

TSCHEKEGAN (Schmick)

BROTHER

NKHEETH-MON-NAUK = younger brothers
(Aupaumut)
NETOHCON = elder brother, NGHEESUM =
younger brother or sister (Edwards)
NETACHGAN, NETACHAN = elder brother
(Schmick, Tschoop, & Du Ponceau)
NETACHGANAK (plural, Tschoop)
NETÁCHGAN = my brother,
NETACHGANÀCK= brothers (Moravian
Archives)
NITACHGÁN (Heckewelder)
NI-TÀCH-CAN, NA-TAH-CAN (Jefferson)
CHESEM = younger brother or sister (Schmick
& Du Ponceau)
KESHUM = younger brother, NETOHKUN =
elder brother (Sergeant)
NETAHCAN, NOCHHESUM (Barton)
O’GHETHMÁN (Jenks)

BUFFALO

SHAT-NA-WA-CÓ-WA (Jefferson)

BUILD

WUKKEETTHONUH = well built (Aupaumut)

BURN

CHEHKITHTHIK (Aupaumut)

17

BURY

HQUNNAUP = buried (Aupaumut)
ACHQUÁNNAWÚN = buried,
ACHQUÀNNACHTÉTÈ,
ÁHQUANAZIÀ = grave, the Z is
incorrect (Passion of Christ)

BUSHEL

POOHSNUK (Aupaumut)

BUT, HOWEVER

PSOOQ, PSOOQQNHTKEH,
PSOOQQUEEK, PSOOQQUEETKEH,
PSOQUEETKEH,
MOHCHEET, MOOHCHEET,
MOOHCHEETNSENNUK,
PCOOQUEECH (Aupaumut)
PSUCK, PSUK, PSUKQUEEK (Schmick &
Tschoop)
PSHOOQ (Sergeant)
PSCHÙK, PSCHÙKQUEED,
MUCHTSCHEED, PSCHÙKQUEET
(Passion of Christ)
MUCHTSCHED (Moravian Archives)

BUTTER

PÓTEN = loan word from Dutch “boter”
(Schmick)

BUTTERFLY

MAGH-MA-CHÁSIN (Jefferson)

BUZZARD

A-HAN-SÓSE = turkey buzzard (Jefferson)

CALL

NOOCHEMOOQCHEH = will call me,
WCHEEMTOWAUKUN = calling
(Aupaumut)
WECHTAMEN = called (Schmick)
NOOCHEMOOQCHEH = will call (Sergeant)
KTÁINEECHMÀ = you call me,
ÁNEMOWAASSÁIKÀ = cried, called
(Passion of Christ)
KESEH, KESEK, KSEH, KKESEH,
NGESHEH = I can, WKESEH = he can,

CAN, ABLE

18

KSEH = able (Aupaumut)
WGESHEH = he can, KKESHEH, NGESHEH
= I can (Sergeant)
KÉSCHE = he can (Schmick & Passion of
Christ)
WKESIH = he can (Morse)
CANDLESTICK
CARELESS

CHEHCHEEKHKAUK (Aupaumut)
MAUMUMMAUQUEHTAUSOOW
(Aupaumut)

CARRY

KNÉNNEM, KENÈNMAAK = carried,
KENÈNNAAK, OKÈNNEMÈN =
carried (Passion of Christ)
KNAJÁTAMEN (Schmick)

CAST

UHHUHQUEYAUQUEYAUQUEH
(Aupaumut)

CAST OUT

NEPAUTHNOOQQUAUK (Aupaumut)

CAT

POSEES = from the Dutch “poes” for “pussy
cat” (Aupaumut)
POSCHEES (Schmick)

CHANGE

PEPEENWEHNAUWEH (Aupaumut)

CHEEK

NANNANÒ (Schmick)

CHEROKEE NATION

KUTTOOWAUW (Aupaumut)

CHESTNUT TREE

WAPEMINSKINK (Morse)
WÁPEEN (Schmick)

CHICKEN

KEPÉPSAK = from the Dutch “kip” (Schmick)
KÉKEPESCH, KÉKEPESOH (Passion of
Christ)

CHIEF

WAUYAUWÁGHOU (Jenks)

19

(see KING)

WAIJÁWAHN = king, governor, chief,
MÁMA
(Passion of Christ)

CHILD

NEECH, WNEECHAUNUH = his children,
OWWAUTHETHUK = children,
OWWAUSEHKOKE = children, kin,
UNECHAUNUH = children,
KCHOITHUK = your children,
WTOWWAUTHMOWAUH = his
children (Aupaumut)
WNEECHUNNUH, WNEECHAUNUH = his
children, OWWAUSEES = children,
OWWAUSEIUM, OWWAUSESUN,
OWAUSESUN, OWAUSEIUN,
NEECH = child (Sergeant)
WNECHUN = his child, WNECHUNAN
(Edwards)
AUWASSÍS, N’NITSCHAAN = my child
(Heckewelder)
AWASCHESAK, AWASESAK (Schmick)
KTAWÁHSMAK = children (Passion of Christ)
AUWASIS (Du Ponceau)
AWANSAISH, NDAU-WÀ-SOM (Jefferson)
CHACQSESEET = infant (Jenks)

CHIN

CA-TÒMPACÀN (Jefferson)

CHIPPEWA TRIBE

WECHIPPAWAW (Aupaumut)

CHRIST

CHRIST, CHRISTUK, CHRISTON
(Aupaumut)

CIRCUIT

WEWNOKHAUN = his circuit (Morse)

CITY, TOWN

OTANNI (Aupaumut)
OTAUNI (Sergeant)
OTÁNIK, UTÁNIK (Heckewelder)
ÓTANÀHK (Passion of Christ)

20

CLAIM

KNEHNAUTOMMON = you claim
(Aupaumut)

CLAY

SUSOO (Ettwein)

CLEAN, CLEAR

KKISSEKHOI, KSEEKHMITTEMUK =
wash, clean, KSUKHMUH = wash,
PAUPOHKETUHHAUYUQ = make us
clean (Aupaumut)
KSHEEKHPUHTEET,
KSHEEKHHOIHÍHTEET,
KSCHEECHAJO = be clean,
KSCHEECHTANÀ = wash,
OKESCHEECHTOWÀHN = make clean,
KAKSCHEECHMÁMUKKE = bathe
(Sergeant)
KSCHEECHNE (Schmick)
KSEKHIHEH = cleanse, PENAUYOW (Morse)
KESCHEECHTOWAHN (Passion of Christ)

CLEARLY

PAUCHEH (Aupaumut & Sergeant)

CLIMB

NEHWTAUNAUP = climbed (Aupaumut)

CLOTH, TOWEL

HAAMSCHÈS (Passion of Christ)

CLOTHING

MAUMAUKSUQQUECHEEK (Aupaumut)
AÁHQUEETSCH, ÁHQUENEED,
AHQUENEET, ÁCHOSOON (Passion of
Christ)

CLOUD

MACHTÁCHQ (Heckewelder)
MA-TÀGHQUO (Jefferson)
M’TAUCQ (Jenks)
MATACHQ (Schmick)
MATÀCHQUUK = clouds (Passion of Christ)

COAT

PETACHGASON (Schmick)
AHPÉETAKASOHN (Passion of Christ)

21

COLD

T’HAUTHU (Jenks)
TAHAJIK (Heckewelder & Du Ponceau)
TAHÁO, TÁHASÒ = it is cold, MATACHQ,
NTAKQUACHTSCHÈ = I am cold
(Schmick)
TAQUÀTSCHEET (Passion of Christ)
T-HASO (Jefferson)

COME

HPEWEEK = they come, PAWU = he comes,
PAUYAUT, PAUYAUKUH, PAUCH,
NEHPAUN = comes, NEHPAUCHEH =
coming, NHUHPAUWEH ,
WAUKOOPMOUWEH = came down
from, WENEHKOOHKANKOPUNNEE
= came to him, WPAUNAUP = he came
(Aupaumut)
PAWÙ, PAWÚWAUK, PUMMEH,
PAUNAUMP, WAUKOOPMAUWEH =
came down from (Sergeant)
PÁU, PÁUWÀK =he comes, NÁHA, NÁOWÈ =
come here, NÁWE, AINÁJICK = came,
NTEMÉGA = come in, PÁJAKÀK = we
arrived, KPÀ = you come, NPÀ = I come,
PAHANÀ = we come, PÁWAK = they
come, PAAN = came (Schmick)
PÁUNÁWA, N’HAPPÁU = came, NAHAPÁU,
NAHAPPÁWA, NÁHA , PNAWÒOHQ,
NÁHAPAJATEETÀ = they came ,
NOHÀPPÁJATÓTA = went ,
AINÁJIK = came, PAJÁTÀ = came,
PÁJANE, PAHN, PÁJATETA = came
PAAN, KPÀ = you come, OPANÁU =
came (Passion of Christ)
PAJANA = I came (Tschoop)
PUMMEH (Edwards)
WPIHTOWWEKAUNEEK = come out (Morse)

COMFORT (verb)

KOHETOMMEHKOWWAUK = be comforted,
KUHCHETOMMEHKAUQHITTEET
= comforting (Aupaumut)

22

COMMANDMENT
(see TEACH)

KKOHKEETWAUKUN,
KKOHKEETWAUKUNNUK,
KKOHKKEETWAUKUNNUK,
KKUHKEETWAUKUNNUN =
commandments (Aupaumut)
ANNÁIWÁGAN (Passion of Christ)

COMMUNICATE, OFFER PAUTNOMMAUQUQ,
PAUTNUMMOWWAUMUK,
PAUTNUMMAUKIYUQ = offer,
PAUTONNOHKAUMAWWNAUP =
offered him to us (Aupaumut)
COMPLETE, FULL

PAUQUEWEH, PAUQUHCHEWEH
(Aupaumut)

COMPREHEND

SKEKHUN, SKEKHUNNEH (Aupaumut)

CONDEMN

KESEEMQUITHTHEWEH,
KESEEMQUITHTHOOW = condemned,
MTOOMQUITHTHEEN,
MTUKNUMQUITHTHECHEEK =
condemn, persecute (Aupaumut)

CONDITION, STATE

MTAUPAUSEEN, MTAUPAUSEET,
UNNOOQQUEHQ, UNNOOQUEHQ,
WPAUSOQUN, WTAUPAUSOOW
(Aupaumut)

CONFESS

MUHMAUTWOMMAUYUQ (Aupaumut)

CONFIDENCE

WAUWEETYAUNTOMWAUKUN
(Aupaumut)

CONOY (KANAWHA) NATION
CONQUER

KUHNAUWANTHEEW (Aupaumut)

SUHKEH, SUHKOWWAUT, THUHKEKHUK
(Aupaumut)

23

CONSCIENCE

UHHUMMAUMQUOH, UHHUMMAUWAUK
(Aupaumut)

CONSENT

NÉPPO = he consented (Passion of Christ)

CONSIDER

KPINNUWWAUNTOMMOWUN = you
consider (Aupaumut)

CONTAIN, CONSIST

AUNEKHUK, UNNEKHUN, UNNEEKHKUP,
UNNEKHUN, UNNEKHUNNOSUH,
NNEKHUNAUHEH, WTINHQUEH =
consists of (Aupaumut)

CONTAINED

AUTENNAUKHAUTHEEK,
AUTONNAUKHAUSEEK (Aupaumut)
AUTONNAUKHAUSEEK (Sergeant)

CONTAINER, WRAPPER

WEESQUOS = container for healing oil
(Foster-Clements Papers & Eddy)

CONTINUE

AUNNUWWAUNMAUMKUP, NAUKAUWEH
(Aupaumut)
SCHÉPAKAJÉWE = continue, last long
(Passion of Christ)

CONVERT

WQUIHGNUPPUHGTHOHAUNQUON =
converting (Morse)
KUNEPPENE = turn around (Schmick)

CONVINCE

WNAUMUHHQQUQ = convince us
(Aupaumut)

CORN

ONUCHQUASK (Ettwein)
CHASQUEME, SEKANOME = grain, rye
(Schmick)

CORRUPT

MEHETUHHAUWAUKUN = corrupt design,
NUKHPEEHKAUMKUP = corrupted,
NUKHPEHAUMKUP = corrupted,
NUKHPEHHAUMKUP = corrupted

24

(Aupaumut)
COUNCIL

ÀTANÀHTSCH = council, courthouse, common
hall (Passion of Christ)

COUNSELLOR

WOH-WEET-QUAN-PE-CHEE (Aupaumut)

COVENANT, ENGAGEMENT NAUNQUONNAUNUH,

WUHWEKOIWAUKUN (Aupaumut)
ANAGODWÁGAN (Schmick)
COVET

KWEETHHKEH, KWEETHKEH (Aupaumut)

COWARD

MATANSAUTEE, KMATTANISSAUTEUH =
you are a coward (Edwards)

COW

KOE = from the Dutch (Schmick)

COXSACKIE, N.Y.

KAUKSAUKEH (Indian Deed)
MKHOK-THOH-KY (Adams)

CREATE, MAKE

KESEHHAUTUH, KESETOHHAUYUQ,
KESEHTAUNAUP = creation,
KESEHHAUCHEE = creations,
creatures, KESOTAUSEEK, KESOTUK,
WKESEKHEENNAUP = he created,
made, KESCH, KESEEKHTAUQUQ,
KESEEKHKEH = created,
KESEKHUK = created, WKESEH =
he creates,
WKESOOTMOWWAU = create,
WKESOOTMUWWAUPONNEH,
NAUTONNUKKUH,
NOTONNUHKAUTUH = works of
creation, WNEHQKHEHTIYUQ,
WNEHTAUN = he makes,
WNEHTOUWUHHUN ,
WUHWNEHUNNUHKAUMKEH
(Aupaumut)
WGESHEH, WQESHEH = he creates,

25

KESHÙTAWÚTUMMAUNQUAUKOOP,
KESHEHTOUWAUNOOP = created
(Sergeant)
KECETAUN = created (Jenks)
KESCHECHTÁU = it is done, made (Schmick)
CROOKED

P’AUKAWAJU (Heckewelder)

CROW

CONG-CONG-CÓH (Jefferson)

CRUCIFY

SEPUHQTUHHAUP = crucified (Aupaumut)
SCHEPOCHQUATAHASSEEN (Schmick)
SCHEPOCHKQUETAHASEAATSCH = will
be crucified,
SCHEPÒCHQUTÀHASEET,
SCHÉPÒCHQUATÁHASEETSCH,
SCHÉPOCHQUATAHÒCHKQ,
SCHÈPOCHQ’TAHASEEN = they
crucified, SCHÈPOCHQ’TÁHÁSOAK =
crucified, SCHÉPOCHQUATAHASÉTA,
SCHÉPÓCHQ’TAHASÉTSCHEEK =
crucified, SCHÉPOCHQUETÁHASEET
= the cross,
SCHÉPOCHQUETAHASENEED = on
the cross, STACHTAHASEEK = cross
cross (Passion of Christ)

CRY, SOUND, CROW

TSCHÉNUETÀ, TSCHÉNUAAK = cried
(Passion of Christ)

CUP

KÁNNAN, OWÁKÀN (Passion of Christ)

CURSE

WTOHWEEMWAUKUN = his curse,
WTONWEEMWAUKUN = his curse,
WTUHWEEMWAUKUN = his curse,
WTUHWEENWAUWAUKUNNUK =
his curse (Aupaumut)

CUT

TMEHTUHHAUW = cut down, cut off
(Aupaumut)

26

DAILY

MOHCHEETWAUWOHKOMMAUKEH =
daily, every day (Aupaumut)

DANCE

KENTIKAW = celebratory round dance
(Sergeant)
CANTICOY (Dankers)
CANTICO = Delaware round dance
(Penn)

DARK

PAUPQUUNNOIEKEH, POHKONNUK,
PUHK (Aupaumut)
PAUPQOONNOIEKEH, POHQUUNNOIEK,
POHQUUNNOIEKUH (Sergeant)
PÁCHGENICK = darkness (Schmick)
PAGÀNMECHNÁU = darkness (Passion of
Christ)
NIPAWI (Du Ponceau)
CANÓNG = darkness (Jefferson)

DAUGHTER

KNECHAUN = your daughter (Aupaumut)
O’TOOSÁN (Jenks)
OTOOSAN (Du Ponceau)
ONETSCHANA (Schmick)
N’NITSCHAAN = my child (Heckewelder)
U-NI-TSCHÀ-NÜN, NACHUN (Jefferson)

DAY

WOHKOMMAUK, WOHKUMAWU,
WUHKUMMAUK, WOHKUMMAUN =
days, WUHKOMMAUWEH = days,
WUHKUMMAWU = day,
KAUNWUHKUMMAUK = all day,
MAUWOHKUMMAUKEH = all day,
WAUWOHKOMMAUKEH = daily
MOHCHEETWAUWOHKOMMAUKEH
= daily, every day, TKHOQUNNEWEH =
whole days, night & day,
TKHOQUNNEWEH = days, literally
nights – Indian days were reckoned by
nights (Aupaumut)

27

WAUWOHKUMMAUKEH = all day,
WOHKUMMAUK, WOHKUMMAWÚ,
KWOHKUMMAUM,
KWOHKUMMAUK (Sergeant)
WACHGAMAU (Heckewelder)
WACHKAMÁO, NAJÀPPAWÈ = early in the
morning (Schmick)
WOCHKAMAAK, NONO WÀCHGAMAK =
today (Moravian Archives)
WOHKOMMAUN, TPOOHQUON = nights
(Morse)
WAUKAUMAUW, PAUTAUPON = dawn,
daybreak (Jenks)
WAWOCHCAMAKE = daily, WOÓHCAMÁO,
WOCHCAMAAK, NAJÀPPAWÈ =
daytime, QUÓAPANNACHEEN = good
day (Passion of Christ)
WANKAMÄOU, PAASHKANAWONCOMAC
(Jefferson)
WUHKAMAUK (Edwards)
DEAL (verb)

UNNEHHAUNAUWUH = deal with,
UNNEHHAUNUH = deal with,
UNNEHUNNEHHAUT = deal with
(Aupaumut)

DEATH, DIE

BOWAUKUN, MBAUNUH, BUQ, BAUNUH =
I die, BUKKUP = died, NUKKUP = died,
KNIP = you die,
WNUPPOWAUNAUPANNEKUH =
he died, NAUPHITTECHEH = will die,
when one dies (Aupaumut)
MBOOWAUK, MBOWAUNKUN,
MBOOWAUNKUN,
MBOOWAUNKUNNUK,
WMPPOOWAUNAUMPANNEHKUH =
he died,
WNIPPOOWAUNKUNNÚWONK,
NAUPOOWAUNAUNTOOP = died,
WAUMPOOHAUNNENAUNUH,

28

NNIPPOOWAUNKAUNNINNAUNK,
NNIPPOOWAUNKUNNINNAUNK,
WNIPPOOWAUNKUN,
MBOOWAUNKUNNEEK,
NAUMBOOWAUNKUNNEKEH
(Sergeant)
NBOO, NEPOO = dead, he is dead, NIP = to
die, I die (Edwards)
NÁCHAJA = death, WEEPNAMEN = die,
UDÀCHKWÈNÁCHAAN = died, gave up
the ghost, ONÈBBUÁGANICK = death,
ONÈBBUÁGAN, E’MBOÀK = he dies,
E’MBÒ = he was dead (Passion of Christ)
M’BOAGAN, MPENNAAP, MBENNAAP,
MPOU = he is dead, NPECK = he died,
ONEPPUÁGAN = his death (Schmick)
M’BOAGÁN (Heckewelder)
MBO, CONOP-H (Jefferson)
NUP = I die, NIP = to die (Barton)
NBOO or NEEPOO = he is dead (Long)
ONÈBBUÁGAN (Passion of Christ)
DECREE, RULE

EMUK, EMEK, MAUK,
MAUKHAUNMOOQTHECHEH =
decreed, MAUKKUP = decreed
(Aupaumut)

DEER

ACHTÓHU, ACHTÒH (Schmick)
ACHTOT (Ettwein)
ATTOOH (Metoxen)
HA-TÀGH (Jefferson)

DEFEND

AUYEHKAUNQUQ (Aupaumut)

DELAWARE (UNAMI) NATION WENAUMEEW, WENOHTOKOWUK
(Aupaumut)
DELIVER

HTOUWENAUNUH = deliver us,
HTOUWEAUK, HTOUWUH,
HTOQWENAUNUH (Sergeant)

29

DACHTAWANÀ = delivered (Passion of Christ)
DENY

KPUTHWOMMAUNAUNAUNUH
(Aupaumut)
KWÀWEHEWÙN, WÀWEHONO (Passion of
Christ)

DESCEND

NEKHOKHAUTUP = descended,
OWWAUNMAUNAUNAUP =
descended from (Aupaumut)

DESCENDANTS

WTOHPIHHAUNWOH = their line (of
descendants) (Morse)

DESERVE

TAUPEH, TAUPEEH, TAUPEHTKHEH,
TOHTAUPEH = deserving, worthy,
NDAUPEH = deserve, TAUTPEHHAUN
= deserve (Aupaumut)
TAUPEH, TAUPEN, KTAUPEH, NDAUPEH =
deserve (Sergeant)
OPÈNHAMMEN, PNÁMÈN, P’NÀCHMÈN =
deserve, is worthy of (Passion of Christ)
N’PENHÁMMEN = I earn, OPENHÁMMEN =
he earns (Schmick)

DESIRE

UHHAUYOUNQUOHK = to be desired
(Aupaumut)

DESPAIR

NAUWAUNTOMMOOQ (Aupaumut)

DESTROY
(see KILL)

NAUNOKEHNAUK , NTAUN = I destroy
(Aupaumut)

DESTRUCTION, DEATH

BOOWAUKONNUK, BOWAUKUN
(Aupaumut)

DEVIL, EVIL, HELL

MTONTOOW, MONNATTOW,
MTOOWNOOW, MTUNTOWUK =
devils, MUMUTTEEHK,
MTANTOWENAUK = hell,

30

ATLANTOW = evil spirit, probably
a misspelling (Aupaumut)
MTANTO, MTANTOISENAUK,
MTANTOWENAUK = hell (Sergeant)
MTANTO, MÚTAUNTUMMUN (Passion of
Christ)
MANNITO, MTANDOU (Edwards)
MTANDOU (Long)
MANNITTO, MACTADÓ, M’EHI
(Heckewelder)
MACHTANDO (Schmick)
DIFFERENT

PEENWEH (Sergeant)
PANNEWE (Passion of Christ)

DIFFULT

SIGUKKOIYOOQ = be difficult, hard
(Aupaumut)

DILIGENT

NUHNOPNAUWCWEH = diligence,
NUHNOPNAUWEWEH (Aupaumut)
NAHNIPPENAU = he is industrious (Schmick)

DIRECT, RULE

KAUKOHKHOMMAUYUQ,
KAUKUHKAUPTOMNEET,
KAUKUHKHUMMAUQUUQ =
you rule us (Aupaumut)

DIRTY

NTHIKOI (Aupaumut)

DISCIPLE

KAUKOHKEMAUCHEE = disciples
(Aupaumut)
OTÁWAHSMÀ, OTÁWATOM = disciples
(Passion of Christ)

DIVIDED

M’GHNAUNNOIKEEH T’GHEGHAN =
is divided into (Jenks)

DO

ANNUNNUHKAUNUH, ANNOIQUWUN,
ANNUHKAUKEECH,
ANNUNNUHKIYENAUK,

31

ANNOUWUHHAUSEYUNNUH,
UNNUNNOHKIYUQ = perform, do,
UNNUNNUHKAUN = doings, deeds,
UNNUNNUHKAUNAUSUH = perform,
do, UNNUNNUHKIYUK = perform, do,
UNNUNNUHKUHHUN = perform, do,
UNNUNUHKAUN = doings, deeds,
AUNETUHHAUYUN, OINOOTMAUQ =
did, OINUNKIYUH = behavior,
OINOIEHIHTEET, OINOIEMUKKEH,
OINOWUHTETUP, DINNEH, TANNEH,
TONNEH, TUNNEH, NDINNEH =
I do, NDINNUHHAUNKAUN = I
must do, WTENNEH = he does,
WTINNEH = he does, his doing,
TENNEH = makes, WTENAUM = did,
WTENHQUEH = he does,
WTENMUQ = did, WTENNEH = he
does, WTENNAUNTOMMON = did,
WTONNEECH = do, WTONNON =
make, work, WTUQQUEH = do,
WUNNUHKAUNAUP = do, perform,
NDINNOIEN = I do, NDINNEH = I do,
NDINNOIYUWUN, NDINNEECH,
WTENHQUEH = he does, KTENNEH,
DITTANNEH, KTENNEMMAUNEN
= do, make, KTINNEH ,
KTINNEHHAWU = you do,
KTINNEHKAWUTHEH = you do,
KTINNEHHOQ = does for you,
KTINNENOUWUHHAUWEH = you
have done, KTITTANNEH = does
KTONNEECH, KTENNOIEN,
KTONNAWUSENAUNUH = do,
practice, NEHTONNEH = that does,
makes, NETONNEH, NOTHOOHKUK =
do, NOTHOOHKUMMON,
NOTHOOHKUMMOOQ,
NOTHOTHKAUTHEEK = doing,
NUKTANNEH = does , NUNCHDINEH =

32

we do, NUNKUH = did, WNITTUH = he
did (Aupaumut)
KTINNEH, NDINNOIN = I do, NDINNEECH,
NDINNOIYUWUN, NOTITTANNEH,
NDINNAHTANNAUNUH,
NDINOIENAUNAUN, TANNEH,
ANNOWUHWAUNAUNUH,
ANNUNNUHKIUKQUUH,
ANNUNNUHKAUNUH,
ANNEHHOQUUN, ANNEHHOQ = do
for me, KTINNEHHOQ = do for you,
NDÍTTANNEH, ANNUNNUHKAUNUH,
ANNUNNUHKIUKQUUH,
KTINNENOUWUHHAUWEH = you
have done,
ANNOUWUHHAUSEYUNNUH,
KTINNETOHHAUK = will do,
ANNUNUHKAUSUH, KTINNOIEN,
KTINKONOQ, ANNOIYUWUN,
OINOIEMUKKEH, OINOIHIHTEET,
ANNOIYUWEH,
NDINNUNNUHKAUNUH = I must do
(Sergeant)
ANNANNAHKAUN, ANANNAHHAUN =
deeds (Edwards)
(NEYUH) DINNAUKOMUH = close of a
letter (I do this?)
ANÈHÓQUANEP = he has done it, TANE =
assemble, bring forth (Schmick)
ODETTANÈ, ANANACHKÁJA,
AINÉHONÀHK = done,
KTÈNNANÀCHKANÁWA = you must
do, AINÈHONÁHKQ = done to you,
AINANNÁCHKATEET = they do,
UDÉTTAN, UDÈTTANÈ = did, UDENNÈ
= does, UDENNÁWA = did, DENÉHA,
NDENNÈ = I do, NACHKÁU = done
(Passion of Christ)
WTINIH (Morse)

33

DOG

DEYAUK = to the dogs (Aupaumut)
DIAO, DEE-A-OO, DE-A-00 (Barton)
NDIAU, NDIÁNU (Schmick)
N’DIJÁU (Heckewelder )

DOOR, GATE

KHOK (Aupaumut)
SQUÁTA (Passion of Christ)
QUANTAH (Tschoop)

DRINK

MNOOHHUHTEEQ (Aupaumut)
MÉNNÀHN, MENNÁTA = drank,
AMMENOHANAHN (Schmick)
MNOOHHAUWAUNKUN (Sergeant)
MENNÁTA = drank, OGETÁMNAWA = they
drink, AMENÓHANAHN (Passion of
Christ)

DROPS (noun)

TECHKEÉKQ (Passion of Christ)

DRY

PAQUA, PAQUÁN (Heckewelder)

DUCK

QUA-CHA-MÓ (Jefferson)

DUTY
(see REQUIRE)

NAUTOOTMAUTEEMKEH,
NAUTOOTMAUKIYUQQUEH =
duties, NAUTOOTMOWWAUT =
require, KNOTTOOTMAUKONUH,
NOAUNNUHKIYUK = my duty,
AUNUNNUHKIUH (Aupaumut)
AUNUNNUHKUHAUKEH,
AUNUNNUHKIUKQ,
NOAUNUNNUHKIUH = my duty,
NOAUNNUNNUHKIYUK = my duty,
ANNUNNUHKAUNUH,
ANNUNNUHKIUKQUUH,
AUNUNNUHKAUMKEH (Sergeant)

EAGLE

MIGISSO (Metoxen)

EAR

TOWOHQUE (Edwards, Long & Barton)

34

TAWAK, WACH-T[AWAK] (Jefferson)
WACHTAUWAK (Heckewelder)
NACHTEWAKU = my ear (Ettwein)
EARNESTLY

PÉWE (Passion of Christ)

EARTH, LAND

HKEEK, HKEEY, KKEEK = your land,
KHUHKOKE, NOOHKEEK =
earthly (Aupaumut)
HKEEK, HKEI (Sergeant)
AHKEEK, ÁHHKEEK, AHHKI (Passion of
Christ)
AKKEE (Metoxen & Heckewelder)
AKÉK, A-KI-Y (Jefferson)
ACHGÌ (Heckewlder)
KEEYH (Jenks)
AHHKI (Schmick)
HACKÍ, HACKKEEH (Barton)
HKEY (Edwards)
HKEYEKE (Morse)

EAST

WAUPUNNUHKEUK = people of the
morning [east], Mohicans,
WOPUNNUHKEH = eastern tribes
(Aupaumut)
WAPANAK (Heckewelder)
WAPANAAK (Schmick)
WAMPUNAHKEE = eastern tribes,
WAUMPANNUKHHENAUK (Sergeant)

EAT

MECHEHTEET, MECHEYON,
MEHMEECHEMUK,
IYONHEEWMECHEHTEEQ =
they eat (Aupaumut)
MEETSOO = he eats, KMEETSEH = you eat,
MEETSEH = eat thou, NMEETSEH,
NEMEETSEH = I eat, NMEETSEHNUH
= we eat (Edwards)
MEZETA = during eating (Schmick)
MEZOWAGAN = eatables (Ettwein)

35

MEZÉAHKQ, MÉZENÁNÀ, METSCHÉKQ,
MÉZEECHTEET, MEZEECHTETA,
MEZÈTA, WÈCHPEMÀHN (Passion of
Christ) – the Z here is German
MAWEPIA (Moravian Archives)
EFFECTUAL

AUMUMMOQUOHK,
AUMUMMOOQQUOHK,
UHWAUPAUWOKHHAUK,
UHWAUPAUWOKHAUK,
UHWAUPAUWOKHAUW,
UHWAUPAUWEET = strong,
effectual (Aupaumut)

EGG

WAUGH-WHÁN (Jefferson)

EIGHT

KHAUSOOW (Aupaumut)
GHUSOOH (Edwards & Jenks)
GHASOOK (Du Ponceau)
CHAÀ-SCHU, HAN-SHÓ (Jefferson)

ELDEST

WAWÈCHTAATSCHEEK (Schmick &
Passion of Christ)

ELECT, ADOPT, RECEIVE NOOTNAUCHEE = elect, NOOTNAUP =
elected, adopted, NOOTNAUSEEK =
adopt, receive, NOOTNAUYUQ =
adopt, receive, acknowledge,
NOOTNITWAUKUN = adoption,
election, NOOTNITWAUKUNNUK =
adoption, NOOTNOOQSECHEEK =
elect (Aupaumut)
ELEVEN

ELSE

NGUTT TANKAU (Jenks)
NGÙT-TA-NKAU, N-CO-TAH- NA-CAUGH
(Jefferson)
NCOTAHNACAUGH (Schmick)
PONNOWOITON = something else
(Aupaumut)

36

PANNEWEH (Sergeant)
PANNEWE = something else (Tschoop &
Schmick)
EMBRACE

KCHEKAWUKUNKONUH (Aupaumut)

EMPEROR

KAYSERAK = emperor, Kaiser (Passion of
Christ)

EMPTY

ANACHAJÚ (Heckewelder)
ANACHÁJU (Schmick)

ENABLE

UNNEHHOQUQ = enable us,
UNNEHHOOQQUEEK = enabled
(Aupaumut)

ENCOURAGE

NKAUNNOWWAUTWAUKUN =
encouragement,
NKAUNNOWWAUMKIYUQ =
encouraged (Aupaumut)

END, GOAL

UNNOWWAUNMAUMUK = end, goal, aim,
UNNOWWAUNMAWU = end, goal,
aim, UTHQUAUKHUK = last, end
(Aupaumut)
WIHQUEKHUK = the end (Morse)

END OF THE WORLD

UHQKEYEKUH (Aupaumut)

ENEMY, HATRED

SEKENAUQKEE = enemies, hated ones,
SEKENAUQQUEEK = enemies,
SEKENAUQUAUNEEK = enemies,
haters, WSEKENUMMUN = he hates,
SEKENUK = hatred (Aupaumut)
SHEKENUMMUNNEH,
SHEKENUMMOOWAUK,
SHEKENUMMAUK,
SHEKENAUNTUWAUNKUN,
SHEKENOUWAUMKEEK (Sergeant)
SEKEENUNDOWUKON = hatred (Edwards)

37

SCHEGENAQUAK = they hate us (Schmick)
ENJOY

WAUWAUWEKEHNAUYUQ,
WAUWUWWEKIHNAUYUQ,
WAUWUMWEKIHNAUT,
WAUWOWWEKEHNUHTEET =
enjoyment (Aupaumut)
WAUWOUWEKEMUH (Sergeant)

ENLIGHTEN

KOWAUTHNAUN,
KWAUSNAUNMAUQUNNAUNAUN,
KWAUTHNAUNEKUNNOWAUN =
your light, WAUTHNAUNEKUN =
light, WAUTHOIYEK = light,
WAUTHEKEEW (Aupaumut)
WAUTHAUJOUW = light (Jenks)
WASAIK (Schmick)
WAUNSAEEK = light (Barton)

ENOUGH

TÁPE (Passion of Christ)

ENTER

DEMMEKAUQ, WNUTMEK = he enters,
MEHTAUN, TOMMEKAUWNAUWUH
(Aupaumut)
NTEMEGAU = he goes in (Schmick)

ENVY

EETHKOWWAUNAUN,
EATHKOWWAUWETCHHAUN
(Aupaumut)
ESGAWANAU = he is envious (Schmick)

ERROR

WPONNONNUHKAUWAUCONNUN = his
errors (Morse)

ESCAPE

PONNEHNAUYUQ, POOTOMMOOQ,
POTOMMEHTEET (Aupaumut)

ESPECIALLY, MAINLY

NHAUN, PAUPUHCHEWEH,
PAUPOHCHEWEH = special
(Aupaumut)

38

PAUPOHCHOOHKAUN (Sergeant)
ETERNAL

EUROPEAN,
WHITE PEOPLE

STOH EYUHQUAUYOOQ = eternal, not
stopping , STOH EYUHQUAUYOQUEH
= not stopping, STUH
EYUHQUAUYOWEH = not stoping
(Aupaumut)
CHUCKOPEK (Aupaumut)
CHOHKOOSUK (Sergeant)
CHOCHECHOKE SEEPOOTO =
Larrywaug (or White Man’s) Brook in
Stockbridge, Mass. (Stockbridge
Proprietors Book)

EVENING

KONAHKWANE = good evening (Morse)
KONEKAWE = have you slept well? (Schmick)
ONAQUEGA (Ettwein & Schmick)
KÓNACHEEN = good evening, TAPPACHÉTA
= evening, WÁNAQUEEK (Passion of
Christ)

EVERY

NAUNQUOTTEWEH (Aupaumut)

EVERYONE

MAUWEHAWWAUN, MAUWEHNEEK
(Aupaumut)

EVIL, DIFFICULTY

THOIKUHK, ATLANTOW = evil spirit,
possibly a misspelling of ATTTANTOW
(Aupaumut)

EXAMPLE
(see COMMANDMENT)

KKOHKHAUSEET (Aupaumut)
T’PETTÀWAOWÁGÀN (Passion of Christ)

EXECUTE AN OFFICE

TAUTPUNNUHKAUSUH,
TAUTPONNUHKAUP = executed an
office (Aupaumut)

EXERCISE (verb)

UNNONNUHKAUTHUH,

39

UNNONNUHKAUNAUSUH =
exercise the office of (Aupaumut)
EYE

KKUSKOKE, KHUSKOOQ,
KTHEECHKOKE, NKEESQUON =
my eyes (Aupaumut)
HKEESQUE, UKEESQUAN = his eyes
(Edwards)
KEESQ, KHEESQUAN, KISCOUANN = their
eyes, UKEESQUAN = eyes (Du Ponceau)
UKEESQUAN = eyes, HKEESQUE (Long)
IIKEESQUE (Barton)
WUSKITSCHÚK (Heckewelder)
WUSKÈTSCHUK, WHA-KISHCUH,
WHA-KAISHKUH (Jefferson)
SKETSHOK = eye & face (Ettwein)
SKETSCHQUAN, N’SKETSCHOK =
my eye, my face (Schmick)
USKÈTKEETSCHKAK, WÁHPEEN (Passion
of Christ)
USKETSCHQUÀN = your eyes (Moravian
Archives)

FACE

TSHANEQUAN (Ettwein)
TSCHANÈQUÁU, OSKETSCHKOOK = in his
face (Schmick)
NAKÀISHKUH (Jefferson)
USKÈTKEETSCHKAK , USKEETSCHKAK,
OSKÉTSCHOOK (Passion of Christ)

FAITH, BELIEF
(see BELIEVE)

NUHKAUWTHOWAUKONNEH = my faith,
WNISTOMMAUWAUKUNNUK,
WNISTOWEWAUQUOH = believe,
WNITHTOMMAUWAUKUN = faith,
WNITHTOMMAUWAUKUNNUK =
faith, obedience,
WNITHTOMMAUWEWCH ,
WNITHTUKNEH = he believes,
WNITHTUMMUK = believe,
WNITHTUWWAWTUK = believe

40

(Aupaumut)
WNISTUMMAUK (Sergeant)
OHNSITTAMMEN = he believes (Schmick)
FALL

KEPEHNAUMKUP, KEPEHNAUPONNEEK,
KEPEHNAUWAUKUN, KEPEHNAUT =
fell, KEPENAUW = fell,
KEPENAUWEH,
KEPUHHAUNQUEHTETUP,
KEPUHHANNKOOTHHUNNEEK
(Aupaumut)
KEPEHHAUWUNNAUWUH (Sergeant)
PAKATAHENNÀHN = fell, PÁCHAN = fall,
M’SCHÀCHKAAK (Passion of Christ)

FALSE

ACHKENANAWAGAN = a lie (Heckewelder)
GAGGANANAWÈHH = lie (Schmick)
WUH-WEE-MON-OW-KUH-KNAHT = this
false man (Adams)

FAR

WACHNEMÍIK (Heckewelder)
WACHMÙK (Schmick)

FAT, OIL, GREASE

P’MÍ (Heckewelder)
P’MÈH, P’OMI (Schmick)
CO-A-SÍGH (Jefferson)

FATHER

OKHEN, OKHUN, OOKHWAUK,
WAUTOGHHEMUK = his father,
KOKH, KOOKHWAH = your father,
NOKNUH = my father, OOKHWAUK,
NOTOOKHKEEN = my father
(Aupaumut)
NOKHHUNNUH = my father (Sergeant)
WATOCHEMÚK (Heckewelder)
KOOCH, KOCHA = your father (Schmick)
KOGH = thy father, NOGH = my father (Edwards)
NÖH = my father (Metoxen)
NOOCH, NO-OGH (Jefferson)
NOOCH, ÓCHAN (Passion of Christ)

41

GOK (Etwein)
O’GHÁN (Jenks)
FEAR

QUAUKHOON, QUUKHHAUWUNNUH,
NQUAUKHETOMMON = I fear,
NGWUKHHAUWAUM = fear him
KQUOKHKHOON, QUUTUMMUN =
afraid (Aupaumut)
NGWUKNHAUWAUM = fear him,
QUÚKHAUWUNNUH, QUÚTUMMUN,
QUUKHHOONNAUNUH (Sergeant)
QKHAUN (Morse)
WISHASUAGÁN (Heckewelder)
N’WÉSCHASÈ = I am afraid, WESCHASÒ =
he is afraid, KWACHAAN (Schmick)
ZEZAJAKI – the Z’s are German additions
(Passion of Christ)

FEELING

AJAMATTAMOWAK (Tschoop)
AMATTAMEN = feel, AMÁTTAMÈN =
he feels (Schmick)
TAMMATAM = to feel (Moravian Archives)

FETCH, GET

PAUTOH (Long & Edwards)

FEW

KAUKHOSOOWKAUCH (Aupaumut)

FIGHT (see WAR)

OIOTEET = he who fights (Aupaumut &
Edwards)
NDIOTUWAUCH = I shall fight,
NDIOTUWOH = I fight (Edwards)

FILL

KETHPONAUK (Aupaumut)
N’OHÀÁU = filled (Passion of Christ)

FIND

KMUSKOMMUNNAUWUH = you find
(Aupaumut)
KMACHGAMMEN = you found,
MACHGÁMMEN, MÁCHCAMEN,
N’MÁCHGAM = I find (Schmick)

42

MACHCÀMOWÙN, MACHKAMOWÙN
(Passion of Christ)
FINGER

NTANNAHÉGAN (Schmick)
CA-TISH-QUONE-JÀN (Jefferson)

FINGERNAIL

CA-CASHIÁC (Jefferson)

FINISH

KESUNNUHKIYAU (Aupaumut)
ÁNACHKAHN = finished (Passion of Christ)

FIRE

STAUK, ETHAUK (Aupaumut)
STAUK (Sergeant)
STAAK, STAU (Schmick)
STAAK (Passion of Christ)
STAU (Heckewelder)
STAUW, STAUUH (Barton)
STAUW (Long & Edwards)
STAOU (Jefferson & Du Ponceau)
THTOUW (Jenks)

FIREWOOD

MACHTACHEN (Ettwein & Heckewelder)

FIRST

SAUPEKHUK, SAUPEHHUK = preface,
SAUPEKHEEKPONNEEK,
SAUPEWEH, SAUPEEW, KNEECH,
SAUPENUHHSAUNUH (Aupaumut)
KENNEECH = openly (Sergeant)

FISH

NOMMAUTH (Aupaumut)
NAMAES (Ettwein)
NAMAAS (Heckewelder & Schmick)
NAMAÁS (Jefferson)
NAMASE, NAMASS (Barton)
CHEECKKEKANAGH = fishing place
(Annanekenick)

FIVE

NAUNONNUKHEEMQUOHK,
NAUNONNUKKEEMQUOHK
(Aupaumut)

43

NUNON (Edwards & Jenks)
NANANÉ, NÁNAN (Schmick)
NA-NÀN, NO-NUN (Jefferson)
FLATTER

WAUNAUMUHHOOQHITTEET = flattering,
convincing (Aupaumut)

FLEE

NOCHPACHNAAK = fled (Passion of Christ)

FLOOD (verb)

PAUTKHUKKUH, PAUTTUHQUAUKHKUH
(Aupaumut)

FLOUR, MEAL

NOCHKÁO (Büttner)
NOCHGAU (Ettwein)
NOCHKAU (Schmick)

FLOURISH

NGUMMAUWEH (Sergeant)

FLOW FROM

WAUCHOIKEH (Aupaumut)

FLOW OUT

SOKAHANÁU = flowed out (Passion of Christ)

FOG

AUWUN (Metoxin)
AWANNU (Ettwein)
AUWAN (Heckewelder)

FOLLOW

WOSOCHGAWÀ = I follow (Schmick)
WAWÉSCHASÒ (Passion of Christ)

FOOD

MUNTQUOKHUN (Aupaumut)
MEZOWAGAN (Ettwein & Schmick)
MEETSOOWAUNKUN (Sergeant)

FOOT

NEEZEET = my foot (Du Ponceau)
NSEED = my foot, OSÉTAN, OSEDAN =
his feet (Schmick)
OSÉDAN, OSÉTOWAHN, OSÈDICK = feet ,
NSEDÀN = my feet, WOSÈTOWÀHN =
feet (Passion of Christ)
OSÈTAN = feet (Moravian Archives)

44

WTHETON = his feet (Barton)
USSÜTÍN, USÜTIN (Heckewelder)
CA-CA-HAUNT (Jefferson)
FORBID

KAUNHAMMAUQUUH = forbidden,
KAUNHUMMOWWAUMKUP =
forbidden fruit, KNOHMAUTEEN,
KNUHMAUTEEN = forbidden
KNUHMUWWAUP = forbade
KNUHONAUTEEN (Aupaumut)
KAUNHAMMAUQUUH = forbidden
(Sergeant)

FOREHEAD

NAWACHGANNAWÁ (Heckewelder)

FOREVER

HANNUMMEMEH, HUNNAUMEWEH,
HONMEWEH (Aupaumut)
HANNUMMEWEH, HANNUWEWEH,
HANNUMEWEH (Sergeant)
HANWEEWEH (Edwards)
GOMAWE (Tschoop)
ONEEMWAUCONNUN = enduring forever
(Morse)

FORGET

WONNUTHWAUNOWON (Aupaumut)
WANNISSEWE (Schmick)

FORGIVE

KTOHQUAUTUMMAUKQ = you are
forgiven, KTOHQUAUTUMMAUQ =
be saved, forgiven,
UHQUAUTOMMAUQUQ = forgive us,
pardon us,
UHQUAUTOMMOWWAUYUQ,
UHQUAUTOMMOWWENAUNUH,
UHQUAUTOWMOWWAUYAUK,
NDOHQUAUNTUMAUQ = forgive me,
OHQUAUTUMMOUWEH = forgive me
(Aupaumut)
KTOHQUAUNTUMMAUNQ,
KTOHHOHQUAUNTUMMOUWUH,

45

NDOHQUAUNTUMONAUKQ,
NDOHQUAUNTUMMAUKQ,
OHQUAUNTUMMOUWEH = forgive
me,
OHQUAUNTUMMOUWENAUNUH,
OHQUANTUMMOWENAUNUH
(Sergeant)
OSÀTAMMÀWATOWÁGÀN = remission,
ÓSATAMMAWÀ = forgive
(Passion of Christ)
OHQUUTAMOUWENAUNUH = forgive us,
OHQUUTAMOUWOIEAUK (Edwards)
ACHQUANDAM = forgiveness,
OSATAMMAWE = forgive me (Moravian
Archives)
FORSAKE

OZÁNIÀN – the Z is incorrect (Passion of
Christ & Schmick)

FOUR

NAWUHKEEMQUOHK, NAUWON
(Aupaumut)
NAUWOH (Edwards, Jenks, & Du Ponceau)
NÁWA, NAWÈ (Schmick)
NA-WÀH, NA-WÁGH (Jefferson)

FOX

WAUGOOSUS = diminutive (Metoxen)
WANK-SWISS (Jefferson)

FOX NATION

MISQUUHKEEW (Aupaumut)

FREE, FREEDOM

NEHNEKHUK, OUNAUKHEMEYUH = set
free, NOHNPEHTEET = freedom, will
(Aupaumut)
PÓNAJANÀ, PÓNENÀ = set free,
POONANÀHTSCH = release, let loose,
KPONÉOHOMMÀ = set free,
KPÒNENANAWÀ (Passion of Christ)
PAMOWAANKOOP = he has set me free,
KPAMOWAANKONAAP = set you free
(Schmick)

46

FRIEND

NDINNAUKOMAWU = my friend (Aupaumut)
NDINNAUNKÓMAWÙ = my friend (Sergeant)
TENNANGOMA (Schmick)
TENNAGÓMAWÈ (Passion of Christ)

FROG

CH-QUÁN, TSQUAN (Jefferson)

FROM (see BECAUSE)

OCHEH, ONEH, QUEH, WCHOIYU,
WCHOIYOW = is from, WOCHEH,
WOOCHEH, WCHOOWTAUK
(Aupaumut)
OCHEH (Edwards)
WCHOIYU, WAUCHEH, WOOCHEH
(Sergeant)
OTSCHE, UTSCHÁJAK (Schmick)
ÓTSCHE, UTSCHÁI, OÀHK (Passion of
Christ)

FROST

TAQUÁTTÈN = it is frozen (Ettwein)
TAQUAHTÙN (Jefferson)

FRUIT

KAUNOMMEEK, KAUNNUMMEG,
NKUMMEWEH = bear fruit,
KNOMMEWEH = bear fruit,
WAUKUNNOWAUK = good fruit
(Aupaumut)
KAUNUMMOOKQUAUK (Sergeant)

FULFILL

TAUQUEHKUMMONNUH (Aupaumut)

FULL

WUTSCHUWACHTAU (Heckewelder)
OTSCHÒWACHTÁU (Schmick)

FURTHER

NÒCHPAWESCHEÁU = a little further
(Passion of Christ)

GALL

WEESSI (Passion of Christ)

GARDEN

WÁWEÒCHKÉKANICK = in the garden,

47

WÁWOJECHKÉKANICK (Passion of
Christ)
GATHER

MAUNNAUQUEMEH (Aupaumut)
KMAJÀWÉWAK = they assembled,
KMÀJAWENÁWA = meet, assemble,
MAJÁWENAWÀ = they came
together (Passion of Christ)
MAJAWANÁWA, MACHTÁCHANA
(Schmick)

GENERATIONS

MUHTAUTOMMOWAUKUNNUK
(Aupaumut)

GHOST
(see SPIRIT)

JSHEEPY (Metoxen)

GIFT

MUHMAUKUK (Aupaumut)

GIRL

PEENSCHQUASO (Heckewelder &
Du Ponceau)
PEENCHKQUÁSO (Heckewelder)
PEESQUASOO (Edwards, Long, & Barton)
KPEESQUASOOEH = you are a girl (Edwards)
PEESQUAHTHUH (Jenks)
PAISHWASÉ, PAISH-WASÒ,
KI-KOCH-QUÀU (Jefferson)
KÉKACHQUÁU (Passion of Christ &
Schmick)

GIVE

MEENQUN, MEENAUT, MEENQUQ,
MEENNAUMUK, NMAUKENNUH =
I give away, surrender, KMEENKONUH,
KMENAUNAUNUH,
KMEENKAUWAUCH = be given,
MENENAUNUH = give us,
KHUMMUHHUN = you give to me,
MENAUMAUQ = give us,
MENAUWUH = give to them,
MENEET = give, grant,

48

MENENAUNUH = give us (Aupaumut)
MENAUNUH, MMNÒNEWEH, MENUH,
MENE, MENOIAUK, MENENAUNUH =
give us, MNÓNEWEH,
NMENAUNAUNAUN,
MEENQUAUKOOP (Sergeant)
MÉNENANÀ = give us, GEMÉNAN = I give
(Moravian Archives)
MENATAU (Tschoop)
MEENUH = give it to him (Edwards & Long)
MENENAUNUH (Edwards)
MÉNE = give me, MÉNA = he gives,
KMENEEN = give it to me,
OMÉNAHN = he gave it (Schmick)
MATÀ = gave, KMEENNOCHMÀ = I have
given you, MÉNENÀHKQ = gave you,
OMÈNAWÀHN = gave,
OMENNANÁWA = gave them,
OMÉNÀNAWÀHN = give out, let it be
known, SCHAJÀCHKSOÀK = give way,
get out of the way, CHAMMANÁU
(Passion of Christ)
GLAD

WAUWNUHTAUNUMMEMAUQ = be glad
(Aupaumut)
WAUWOONNUHTAUNUMMEQUK,
WAUWOONNOHTAUNUMMÙWA
(Sergeant)
WAWUNECHNAU = I am glad (Tschoop)
NTANNAMENE = I am glad,
ANAMMENACHTEET = they are glad
(Schmick)

GLORIFY

WAUWOHWEKEMAUYUQ,
WUHWEKEMUHTUT (Aupaumut)
WAUWOHWEKEH (Sergeant)

GLORY

WEEKCHAUNAUQSOWAUKUNNOWUH,
WEEKEHAUNAUNAUQSOWAUKUN,
WEEKCHAUNAUQUOHK = glorious,

49

WOWWEKEHNAUWAUKUNNUK,
WOWWEKEHUOUWAUKUN
(Aupaumut)
GO

DAUN, NEHWTAUAUTHAUT = go in,
PKOCHCHIH = gone out,
PKUHCHIHWONMONHOOQ =
gone too far astray, WMOUWEH = he
goes to do something (Aupaumut)
WMOUWEH = he goes (Sergeant)
P’MISSOJA = go out, travel (Moravian
Archives)
ODÀNAWÀ = went, OTÀNAWA = went out,
NÁHAMBÀ = I will go, NÁHANNE =
went, ANIMSOÀK = he went,
ANIMSETOOK = go, ANÌMSETSCHÈ =
they went, ANÀPAMÙCHKANOOK = let
them go, PAQUÁOCHANAWÁH = went
out, PAQUÁOCHAAN,
PAQUÁUCHAAN, PAQUÁOCHÀ = he
went out, PAQUÁOCHANNÀ = led out,
KNÈPAQÙAOCHCHÁU = he went out,
TE’MÓCHAAK = went home, returned,
ANÌMSENÁWA = went away
(Passion of Christ)
PUMISSOO = he goes (Long)
POMSÈ = I am going, PÒMISSÓOKAAT = he
is going, PANNÉWÀ = go on, MAUWE,
PAQUÁUCHAAN = he went out,
MATSCHÈ = go home (Schmick)
WOHWOK = his going forth (Morse)

GOD (see PRAYER)

POHTOMMOUWAUS, POHTOMMAUWAUS,
KPOHTOMMOWWAUS = thy God,
KPOHTOMMOWWAUSNUH = thy God,
POHTOMMOUWAUSUK,
POHTOMMOWWAUTH,
POHTOMMUWWAUS,
POHTOMMUWWAUTH,
POHTUMMOUWAUS,

50

WPOHTOMMAUWAUSTHEHHUN =
gods, WPOHTOMMAUWAUSYUQ =
to be our God,
WPOHTOMMOWWAUSENAUNUH =
being God (Aupaumut)
POHTUMMOUWAUS,
POHTUMMOUWAUSUN,
POHTUMMOUWAUSUK,
POHTUMNAUWAUS (Sergeant)
PACHTAMAWAASNAN, PACHTAMÁUS,
PACHTAMÁUSSE,
PACHTAMAWUAS,
PACHTAMAWAAS,
PACHTAMAUSPAU,
PACHTAMÁUSNAU
(Passion of Christ)
PACHTAMÁUSNAU (Moravian Archives)
PUHTAMOUWUNS (Edwards)
POHTOMNOWWAUS (Morse)
PACHTAMÁWAAS (Schmick)
PACHTAMAUWÂS (Heckewelder)
PACHTUMAWAS (Ettwein)
PAUTAUMOUWOTH (Jenks)
POTTAMAUWOOS (Barton)
GOLD

KHOWWOT(Morse)

GONE

AUWUH (Aupaumut & Sergeant)
AWU = he has gone (Schmick)

GOOD

WAUNEHK, WAUNEH, WAUNNEEN,
WAUNCH, ONEIWAUKUN =
goodness, righteousness, WAUWNEH,
WAUWUNWOMQUIKEE = good
things, WAWNAUNTOMWAUKUNNUK
= goodness, grace,
WOHWNAUPAUMQUOHKEH = good
things, WAUNTHUT MENNITOOW =
Great and Good Spirit (Aupaumut)
WAUNEHK, WAUNOIEUN, WAUWOONNEH

51

(Sergeant)
WÁUNAIKEEK = good, righteous, saints
(Passion of Christ)
WOONUT = inanimate, WUHWEEHIH =
animate (Metoxen)
WANECHK (Tschoop)
WÁNECHK, WEGAN (Schmick)
WAWUNAP (Moravian Archives)
WOWHNIHK (Morse)
WUNÉTT, WUNITT (Heckewelder)
WAUNSQUAU = a good woman, name
given to Sergeant’s daughter, Harriet
(Sergeant)
WAH-WE-KEE NEE-MON-NAOW = good
man, WAH-WUH-NUH-MAHT = this
true man (Adams)
GOOSE

PÚNK-ACHÓ-WAMP-A-SÒ = wild goose
(Jefferson)

GRANDCHILD

NAUGHEES = my grandchild (Edwards &
Long)

GRANDFATHER

MÁHGHOMÁN (Jenks)
MACHOM (Ettwein)
MACHUM (Van Valkenburgh)
NEMOGHOME = my grandfather (Edwards)
NEMOGHHOME = my grandfather (Long)

GRANDMOTHER

NOHÀM (Schmick)
NOHHUM = my grandmother (Edwards &
Long)
ÓHMÁN (Jenks)

GRASS

MESACHQUAN (Heckewelder)
MEECHSQUAN (Schmick)

GRAVES

MTUHKEYEHKOOK (Aupaumut)
MATÀCHKIÀN, MATTÀKÍ, MATÀKEEK
(Passion of Christ)

52

GREAT AND GOOD SPIRIT WAUNTHUT MENNITOOW (Aupaumut)

GREEN

SKUS-KWAU-YOOH = animate,
UTH-KUTH-TWAU-YUK =
inanimate (Metoxen)
SKASQUAJÚ (Heckewelder)
SCAS-QUAYÓ (Jefferson)

GREENBUSH, N.Y.

TUSCAMEATICK (O’Callaghan)

GREETINGS

QUAUWAUNKNOMNOOHNUH,
QUAUWAUNKÓMNOOHNUH,
QUAUWAUNKOOMNOOHNUH,
QUAUWAUNKNOMNOOHNUH,
QUAUWAUNTUM (Sergeant)
QUAWAGÓMEN = I greet you with my
regards (Schmick)
QUAWAKOMEN, QUAWANKOMUK,
QUAWAGOMNOCHMA = I send my
regards (Moravian Archives)

GRIEF

SEWAUNTUK, SEWAUNTOMMON =
grieving (Aupaumut)
SHEWAUNTUMMAUK,
SHEWAUNTUKKEK,
THEWAUNTUMNUHWAUNKUN
(Sergeant)
SCHÉWAHNDAMMAKNÈN = grieve
(Passion of Christ)

GROWTH

AUCHEKEHTEET (Aupaumut)
ANAMEGOCK, ANAGACK (Moravian
Archives)

GUARDED

KACHNANAWÁPAMATSCHEEK (Passion of
Christ)

GUIDE

KUHKEMEET (Aupaumut)

GUILTLESS

WMEHNOWWAUPUMMAUWEEN

53

(Aupaumut)
GUN

PÉQUAN, PÉQUANAN = guns (Schmick)

HAIL

MOSÀÏKANANÁAN, MSE-CA-NÌ-NAAN
(Jefferson)

HAIR

WEGHAUKUN (Edwards & Long)
WEEHAUKNUM = hair, beard (Barton)
WECHAAK (Ettwein)
WECHAKEN (Heckewelder)
WI-CHÀ-CON, WÉAHÁCANÚM
(Jefferson)

HALF

PASSÉWE (Schmick)

HAND

WTUNNUHHAUNUK = his right hand,
working hand (Aupaumut)
KNISK = your hand, NNISK = my hand,
UNISK = his hand (Edwards)
NACHK = my hand, arm (Ettwein)
N’NACHK = my hand (Schmick)
NASHKQ = my hand, KAUSHKQ = thy hand
(Barton)
WUNACHKÍN (Heckewelder)
ONÀCHCANIK = hands, ONÀCHKOWAHK
= hands, NÁCHKAN, ONÀCHCAN.
ONÁCHGANIK, ONÁCHGIK = hands,
ANÈNACHKAJÀHK (Passion of Christ)
ONÀCHKAN = hands (Moravian Archives)
ONISKAN = his hands (Barton & Du Ponceau)
CANISTKÁN, CANISHKÀN,
WITO-NA-JEEN, OANISKAN
(Jefferson)

HAPPEN

ANÁJO (Pasion of Christ)

HARD

ACHSANAJU (Heckewelder)
ASSANNÁJU (Schmick)

54

HARD-HEARTED

UHWAUTHEET (Aupaumut)

HARM

MCHEH, MCHEHNAUK (Aupaumut)
MÚHCHEH (Sergeant)
MATSCHE = harm, damage (Schmick)

HASTEN

KSHOOKHTAUTHEEK (Aupaumut)

HATE
(see ENEMY)

WSEKENUMMUN = he hates (Aupaumut)
SEKEENUNDOWUKON = hatred
(Edwards)

HAVE

MECHÉNNA , KACHCHÁNEMA = you
have (Passion of Christ)

HAWK

WANG-KAMAMAÖ (Jefferson)

HE, HIS

WNEH, WOH, WAUWAUM = by him
(Aupaumut)
WNEH, WNEHK (Sergeant)
UWOH = he, that man, this man, this thing
(Edwards)
UWOH (Long)
NÁHKMA, NEHKMA, NEECH (Passion of
Christ)
NAHK’MA, NAHKMA, NAHKEMA
(Schmick)

HEAD

WEENSIS = his head (Barton, Long &
Edwards)
WÉNES = his head, NENES = my head
(Schmick & Passion of Christ)
WEENSÈK (Passion of Christ)
WINSÜS, POCHQUATUP (Heckewelder)
WINSIIS, PECHQUATUP (Du Ponceau)
OWEHNIS (Ettwein)
NENES (Moravian Archives)
NA-A-NIS (Jefferson)
DUP, UTUP (Barton)

55

HEALTH

ÓNAMANNISHOWÀGAN (Moravian
Archives)

HEAR, LISTEN

DONKPITTOMMON, KNITHTAUSOOW,
KPITTOMMON = you hear,,
PAUTUK, PTAUKAUNAUNUH,
PTOUWEMUH = hear us (Aupaumut)
PTUMMAUK (Sergeant)
PETTAM =I hear, KPETTAM = you hear,
OPETTAMEN = he hears, PTAUWAU = I
want to hear (Schmick)
KNÌSTAWEEKQ, KPÈTTAWÁWÀ = heard,
PÁTAKÀ = he heard (Passion of Christ)
PETTAM = I hear, PAPTAMMEN (Tschoop)
PTOWWAUMOOQ = it is heard (Morse)
N’BETÁMECHNAÙ = we hear (Moravian
Archives)

HEART

DUH, DUHHUK, KTUH = your heart,
KTUHNAUK , KTOHNAUK,
KTOW = your heart, NUHHUH = my
heart, WTUHWAU = his heart
(Aupaumut)
UTOH = his heart (Edwards & Long)
WTOH (Sergeant)
DAH, N’DAH = my heart, KTAH = your
heart (Schmick)
OTAHAK, KTAHAK = in the heart
(Moravian Arc hives)
TAH (Ettwein)
N’TAH, NAN’TAH = my heart (Tschoop)
UCHDAHIN, CHDAHIN, NEH’DAHIN
(Heckewelder)

HEAT

‘KSETAUWOW (Jenks)
SHETAO (Jefferson)

HEAVEN, SKY

WOHWEKOIWAUKUNNUK,
WUHWEKOIWAUKUNNUK,
WOHWEKOIWAUKONNUK,

56

WOHKUMMAUWENI = heaven, above,
PAUMUHKUMMAUWENIYEEK,
WUHKUMMAUWENY,
WUHWEKOIWAUKON, SPUMMUK,
SPUMMUKCHEH, THPUMMUK
(Aupaumut)
SPUMMUK, SPUMMUKCHEH,
WOHWEKOIYEUWONKUNNUK
(Sergeant)
WACHGAMAU (Heckewelder)
SPOMMUCK, WOCHCAMÁWENAAK
(Schmick)
SPÓMMUK, WÒOHCAMAWÉNÀHK
(Passion of Christ)
SPUMMUCK (Edwards & Barton)
THPUMMUCK, ONAUWAUK (Jenks)
MA-TÀGHQUE (Jefferson)
HEAVY

KSUKQUA, KSUKQUÁN (Heckewelder)

HELP

NNOHTUMMAUQ, NUHTOMMAUQUQ = help
us, enable us,
NUHTONMACKIYUQ = help us,
enable us, NUHTUMMAUKKUH = help us
(Aupaumut)
NNOHTUMMAUQ, NOHTUMMOUWUH,
NOHTUMMAUWENAUNUH,
NOHTUMMOUWENAUNUH,
NHUHTOUWENAUNUH,
NNOHTUMMAUNQUUNNAUNUH,
NOHTUMMOUWENAUNAUNK,
NOHTUMMAUKAUWAUK,
NOHTUMMAUNTIHNUH,
NOHTUMMOUWUNKUN,
WNOHTAUNNUMMÚWAUNKUN
(Sergeant)
NACHTAMAN = I help (Schmick)
NÀCHTAMAWÀ (Passion of Christ)
NUHTAMAUWEH (Edwards)

57

HEMP

WEETH-KUHN-PAUK = bitter hemp,
WAU-PON-NEP-PAUK = white hemp
(Aupaumut)

HERE

NOOHKEEP (Aupaumut)
NE (Schmick)
GÉSCHE (Passion of Christ)

HERO (title)

MO-QUAU-PAUW (Aupaumut)

HIDE (verb)

KAUCHEEKHNOWEH (Aupaumut)
KAUCHEEKHNOWIH (Morse)

HIDE, SKIN, LEATHER

WEGAGEDCHEI (Schmick)

HIGH

SPUMMUK (Heckewelder)
SPUMMUCK (Edwards)

HIMSELF, HERSELF

KEAUNOQ, WHUKKI = self, himself, his body,
person, WHUKKIYEWEH,
WHUKKAUWAUK = everyone, them,
WHUKKAUWAUN = his body,
WHUKKIYEEN = his body,
WHUKKIYEWEH = his body, himself,
NAUKMUH = his own, himself,
WHUKKAUK = himself, herself,
her body (Aupaumut)
NAUKUMMUH, KEAUNOQ (Sergeant)
NÈCHNÈOWÈ = himself, yourself (Passion of
Christ)

HIS

NAUKUH = his, our, NAUKUK = our (Aupaumut)

HIT, STRIKE

PÁKKAMÙCK (Schmick)
PAKKÀMMIÀN, OKÉCHKATAHAAN,
OPAPÁKKAMMAWA, OPÀKKAMAWÀ,
OPAPAKKAMNÁWA,
OPÁPAKAMANNWÀ,
PÁKKAMUK, PAAKTAKKEEK (Passion
of Christ)

58

HOE

WAAXEEHÉGAN (Schmick)

HOLY, SACRED

CHISSESUK, KSEHKHEWEH, KKISSEKHOI =
clean, clear, KAUSEKHOIKEH = holy,
sacred, pure, KAUKSEKHOIYUCH,
KSEKHAWUSOWAUKUNNUK =
holiness, KSEKHEHTUWWEH =
make holy, sanctify, WAUNCH = good,
holy (Aupaumut)
KSCHEECHNE = clean, clear (Schmick)

HONEST

MBOHKAUPAUWEH = be honest (Aupaumut)
MBOHKAUMPAUWEH = be honest (Sergeant)

HONOR

HMUKHHAUNUMMAWU = honor him,
MKHAUNMUH, MKHAUNTUK,
MKHAUNMUTWAUKUN = reverence,
MKHEWEHQUITHTHYOOW = great
honor, WEHQUETHWAUKUNNOWUH
honor, glory, WEHNQUITHWAUKUN,
WEHNQUITHWAUKUNNOWUUH,
WEHNQUITHWAUKONNUN (Aupaumut)
NMUKHHAUNUMMAWÙ = honor him
(Sergeant)
MACHÁNEMA = honor me (Schmick)

HOPE

NKAWUTHEH (Aupaumut)
NDINNETOHHUH = I do hope,
NHOKKAUNAUN,
NHOKKAUNAUNK, NHOKKAUNUH,
WHOKKAUNAUN, WHOKKAUK,
NOHKAUNTUMMAUK (Sergeant)
NACHGAWOSÈ = I have hope (Schmick)

HORN

WEWEEN (Schmick)

HORSE

WNUHNIYOKESEMMUN = his beast of
burden, ox, horse (Aupaumut)
NÁHNIÓGES, NACHNIÓGES, NACHNAJÓGES

59

(Schmick)
HOUR

HOUR (Jenks)
NÁHKAWÈ (Passion of Christ)

HOUSATONIC, MASSACHUSETTS

HOUSATONIC = over the mountain
(Moravians)

HOUSE, LODGE,
DWELL

WEEKWUHM, WAUKOWWAUN = in the
house, WEKAUNMAUN = in the house,
WEKAUNTOMMON = house,
dwelling, WEKEET = in his house,
WEKEYUN = your house,
WEEKMUHMUK, WEETOW,
WETOUWAUMAUN = dwell
(Aupaumut)
WETOUWAUNMAUN = dwell,
WETOUWAUMUNNAUK,
WETOUWAUMMENAUNUH,
WETOUWAUMOIEUN (Sergeant)
WEEKUWUHM (Edwards)
WAIGWUM (Metoxin)
WEEKWOM (Jenks)
WIQUAAM (Heckewelder)
WEEHQUAMÒK, OQUÀCHCHÀ = house,
residence, palace (Passion of Christ)
WEEKUMUHN (Long)
WEEQUAUM (Barton)
WA-QUOM, WI-QUÀ-HAM (Jefferson)
WEKEED = into his house (Schmick)

HOW

TAUN, TAUNEEK, TAUNAUM, TAUNAUT,
AUNHQUEH (Aupaumut)
TON, AUNQUUH (Sergeant)
TÀHN = how, like (Passion of Christ)
TUNEH (Long & Edwards)
TAN (Schmick)

HOW ARE YOU?

KONAMANSE (Schmick)

60

HOW MANY?

KAUKHOOWWUK (Aupaumut)

HUDSON RIVER

MAHICANNITTUK (Heckewelder)
SHATEMUC = pelican place ? (Schoolcraft)

HUMILIATION

KAUKTUMMAUKOIKUH,
WKUTMAUKAUNSOWAUKUN =
his humiliation (Aupaumut)

HUNGRY

KAUTOOPWAUTKUT (Aupaumut)
GATTOPE (Tschoop)
GATTOPU = he is hungry, NGATTÓPE =
I am hungry (Schmick)

HUNT

N’TÀNNAWÈ, NTANNAWÈ = I go hunting
(Schmick)

HURRY

KSCHÓCHA = make haste, GATTATÁJI =
be quick, KSCHOOCHA = go quickly
(Schmick)

HUSBAND

WACHIA (Heckewelder & Schmick)
WACHIJA (Du Ponceau)
W’GHÁN, WAUGHECHEH (Jenks)
WAUGHECHEH = her husband (Long)
WÀCH-IEN, N-HUSH (Jefferson)
WAGHECKEY, WAUGHECHEH = her
husband (Edwards)

HYPOCRITE

PAUNHKEPIYUHTUMMON (Aupaumut)

I, ME

NEYUH, NEYUK, NEUH = I am, NICH,
NIH, NEYUTKEECH = I will,
NKEECH = my, NO (prefix)= my,
NYUKAUM = I who (Aupaumut)
NEYUK, NEAUNUH, NO (Sergeant)
NEAH (Long & Edwards)
NIÁ (Heckewelder)
NIÀ, NIÀN = my, NIÁNA = us, NEÁNE,
N’HÁKKAHK = me, NHAKKEIKEEP,

61

NIÀHKQ, NOHAATSCH = to me
(Passion of Christ)
NIÀ, NIA, NIÀN (Schmick)
NEAH, NEEAH (Barton)
ICE

MACHQUAMMÍ (Heckewelder)
MA-QUAM-MÌ, MAQUAMEI (Jefferson)
MOOQUAUMEH (Barton)
M’QUAUMEEH (Jenks)

IDLENESS

KTUMNAUWAUKUN (Aupaumut)

IF

YUHHUH, NUHAUM, NUHAUN (Aupaumut)

IMAGE, PERSON
(see SIGHT, PERSON)

AUNHQUAU, UNNUQQUEH, UNNOQUEH,
MTHEQUN, MTHEQUK (Aupaumut)

IMMEDIATELY

WSAUWUHNAUNAUWUH (Aupaumut)
SCHAWAHN, SCHAWA (Schmick)
SCHÁWAHN, SCHÁWA (Passion of Christ)

IMPOSTER

MTISSOO = imposter, he is an imposter or
bad man, he is homely (Edwards)
POMÁOSÉTA (Passion of Christ)

IMPUTED

UNNUQQUEH = imputed to us (Aupaumut)

IN, IT

NHUH, NUNNOH = in, into, NUNNOOH,
UHNEH, OIENEH, UHTAUK,
UHTAUKEH, UNNAUP , UNNEH = in,
into, unto, to, on, UNNUHHAUN = into
(Aupaumut)
UHTAUK, OHTAUK, OHTAUKEH (Sergeant)
PÁHTSCHE = into (Passion of Christ)

INCREASE

UHHAUCHEHNAUN, UHHAUCHEH =
increased, more (Aupaumut)

INDIAN CORN

CHASQUÉME (Schmick)
CHAS-QUEEM, TSH-CAMMONÚM

62

(Jefferson)
ONUCHQUASK (Ettwein)
INDIANS

UNNUNNAUMPAUK (Aupaumut & Sergeant)
ANENAPÁWAK, ANANAPAWECHGOK
(Schmick)
ÁNAPOWÈCHKANÀHT = people (Passion of
Christ)

INNOCENT

N’NKUSSEEKHOI = I am innocent (Morse)

IS, ARE

NUN, NON,OIKEH, OIYEET, OINEH,
AUYAUT, OIEHTEET, OINOIEK,
AUYECHEEK, AUNOIYEK = it is, are,
let it be so, NNOWOIYO, NNUH,
NEUH = I am, OIYON, WTENNOINAUP
= was, WTENNOIYEN = is (Aupaumut)
OIKEEH (Jenks)
OIECHEEK, OIEET = he who lives in a place,
WTINNOIYUWUN (Edwards)

ISLAND

M’NAUHAN (Jenks)
MNOH-NOOK (Adams)
M’NACHNOOK (Ettwein)

IT

NUKHPEH (Aupaumut)

ITSELF, OWN

NIHNEH (Aupaumut)

JEALOUS

KAUQNAUNAUT (Aupaumut)
NKAKUNANA = I am jealous (Schmick)

JESUS CHRIST

JESUS CHRIST, JESUS CHRISTUK,
JESUS CHRISTUN, JESUSUN
(Aupaumut)
JESUSUN (Sergeant)
JESAN, JESUSSAN, JESUM, JESUSSEK
(Passion of Christ)

JEW

JUDÉNAAK = Jews, JUDEN, JÚDAK, JUDÀ

63

(Passion of Christ)
JOY

OIYUNNOMMENAUN (Aupaumut)

JUDGE (verb)

KESEMUHHUN = you judge
WTAUKHUMMISSEET = to judge
(Aupaumut)

JUDGEMENT

WNEEMTEEMKUH,
WNEEMWAUWAUKUNNUK
(Aupaumut)
WNAUMAUWAUCONNOWON = his
judgements (Morse)
ODÀCHPAPÓNICK = Judgment Seat
(Passion of Christ)

JUSTICE
(see STRAIGHT)

SAUKHKUNNUHKAUWAUKUN,
SAUKHKENAUQKNH = just
(Aupaumut)

JUSTIFICATION

KSEKHEEMTOWAUKUN,
KSEKHEEMTOWAUKUNNUK
(Aupaumut)

KANAWHA (CONOY) NATION
KEEP, PRESERVE

KUHNAUWATHEEW,
KAUNAUWAUSEOOS (Aupaumut)

KAUKHUNNOWWANTKEEK,
KAUKHUNNOWWAUTKEEK,
KHHUNNOWWAUNTOMMUQ,
KHHUNNOWWAUTOMMONNUH,
KUKHKHONNUWWAUNMEH,
KHUNNOWWAUTAUSEEK,
KHUNNOHTEET, KHONNEET
KKHONNENAUWUH,
NGUKHHUNNOUWAUNMOOKQKUH
= he keeps me,
KKOHKEEMQUONNAUNUH
(Aupaumut)
KHUNNEUWAUNTUMMUN,

64

KHUNOUWAUNTUH,
KHUNNOUWAUNUMMENAUAUH,
KHUNNOUWEHHENAUNUH,
KHUNNOUWAUNNUM,
KHUNNOWAUNNUMMEHAUNUH,
KHUNNOUWAUNNUMMAUNT,
KHUNNOUWAUNUH,
KHUNNOUWAUNMMEYAUK,
KHUNNEAUK,
KHUNNEUWAUNTUMMUN,
KHUNNOUWAUNTUMMAUK,
KAUNKHUNNOUWAUNTUMMUN,
KAUKHHUNNOUWAUNTUMMUN,
ONEHKHUNNOUWAUNNUMMENAUNUH

(Sergeant)
KÀCHCHANNAWÉTOWAGANICK = in your
keeping (Schmick)
CHÀNNAWECHTÁHNSEETSCH,
CHANNAWÈCHTATEETSCH (Passion
of Christ)
KOHKHONNOWWAUTAUTHOW (Morse)
KICKAPOO NATION

KEKIPOO (Aupaumut)

KILL
(see DESTROY)

NHTAUN, NNOWUHHUN, NOOHPAUWON,
NOOHPAUNMUQ (Aupaumut)
NHTAUN (Sergeant)

KIND

NGUKTUMMAUKAUNH = be kind
(Aupaumut)
NGUKKÙTUMMAUKAUNEH,
NGUTTUMMAUKSEHNUH,
NGUTTUMMAUK,
NGUKHHUNNOUWAUNMOOKQKUH,
GUTTUMMAUKSITTOUWENAUNUH,
GUTTUMMAUKAUNNUMMUH,
GUTTUMMAUKAUNTUMMÙWAUNKUN,
NGUTTUMMAUKSOOWAUNKUNNINNAUNK

[longest word 29 letters] (Sergeant)

65

KINDERHOOK, N.Y.

KOKHKAUWONKHUCK (1765 deed)
CUHCAUWAUNCOOK (Stockbridge
Proprietors Book)

KINDERHOOK LAKE

WOGASHEUACHOOK = great fish? (Collier)

KING, KINGDOM

KING, KUHTIYOWWAUWEET,
KUHTIYOWWAUWEET,
KUKTIYOWWAUWEET,
KKEHKIYOWAUKUNMAUNK = your
kingdom, WKEHKIYOWAUKUN = his
kingdom, KIWAUKUN,
WKEHKIYENAUWAUH = his dominion,
WKEHKIYOWAUKON = his kingdom,
KKIWAUKON = your kingdom
(Aupaumut)
KIOWEENOOH, WAUYAUWAGHOU = chief
(Jenks)
KWÁIJAWÁWOWÁGANICK= in your
kingdom, WÁIJAWAOIOEED = king,
WÁIJAWÁWOJÀN, WAIJAWNÈN,
WAIJÁWAHN = king, chief, sachem,
governor, KWAIJAWÀSMÓA = your
king, N’WÁIJAWÁWOWAGANICK =
in paradise, WAIJAWÁUWENAAK =
governor, prince, HÀIJAWÁU (Passion of
Christ)
KWIOUWAUWEH = kingdom (Edwards)

KISS

MÀCHKAWAJÀ, MÀCHKAWÀHN = kissed
(Passion of Christ)
MACHGÁWE = kiss me (Schmick)

KNIFE

SCHICÁN, SHICAN (Heckewelder)
CHÉGAN, TACHÉGAN (Schmick)

KNOCK

PAUPUQHEKAUCHEH (Aupaumut)

KNOW, LEARN

AUNAUWEHTIYAUK, WAUWEHTIYAUQ,

66

WAUWEHHAUMUK,
WAUWEHTIYUQ,
WAUWEHHAUWAUK,
WAUNWEHTUMMUNNAUP,
WAUWEHTONNOWAUT,
WWAUWEHTAUNUH = he knows,
WAUWEHQUOHK = knowledge,
WWAUWEHTAUNUH = he knows,
WAUWEHTAUNAUWUH =
knowledge, KWAUWEHHAWU =
you know, NGOKKOHKEEMKUH,
KKOHKEEMQUONNAUNUH ,
NWAUWEHTAUNAUNUH = we know,
NWAUWTAUNTOMMON = I know,
WAUWAUTOMMOWAUKUNNUK =
knowledge, holiness, WAUWEHHOIYUQ
= know him (Aupaumut)
NWAUWEHTAUNAUNUH = I know,
NWAUWEHTAUNAUNUH = I know,
NWAUWAUNTUMMÙWAUNKUN =
knowledge,
WAUWEHTAUSEEQ,
WAUWEHKOIEYUN,
WAUWEHHOIUKQ = know him,
WAUWEHTOUWAUK,
WWAUWEHTAUNUH = he knows,
WAUWAUNTUMMÙWAUNKUN =
knowledge, KWAUWEHHAWÚ = you
know, NWAUWEHTAUNAUNUH = I
know,
WAUWAUNTUMMÙWAUNKUNNINNUH

= my knowledge,
NWAUWAUNTUMMÙWAUNKUNNINHUH

= my knowledge (Sergeant)
N’WAWECHTAN = I know, KWAWEHÁWA =
you know, WAWEHÁWA = they know,
WAWECHTAN = I know (Schmick)
WÁWECHTAWAKWANE, WÁWECHTÀHN,
KWAWECHTAHÁWA = you know,
KWAWECHTAWUH,

67

AWÁWECHTAHN,
OWÁWECHTANÁWA,
OWAWÈCHTANAWÀ = they know,
WAWÈCHTAWÙN = I know him,
WÁWECHTAAKQ = you know (Passion
of Christ)
WAWEHTUSEEK (Edwards)
WAUWIHTAUQ,
WIHWAUWAUTOMNOHAUNQUON =
make wise (Morse)
QUAWÈCHTANAÙ (Moravian Archives)
LAKE

MBISIS (Heckewelder)
‘PQUAUGHON (Jenks)

LAKE WINNEBAGO

ONA-MUS-QUAH-KEEK = Land of the Beavers
(Adams)

LAMB

MAMÁGES (Moravian Archives)
MAMAKSIMSÀK = sheep (Schmick)

LANGUAGE

UNNEEKHTHOWAUCON (Morse)

LARGE, BIG, GREAT

MAUKHKENUK, MKHAUWCHEECH,
MKHOWWAUP, MKHEQUEH,
NMUKHKHEH (Aupaumut)
MAUKHKENUM, MAUKHKENUK,
MAUKHHEH (Sergeant)
MACHAAK (Jenks & Heckewelder)
KWÁNEMÌNNAWA (Passion of Christ)
MAUMAUGHQUEQUICQ = greater (Jenks)
MAGHHOCK (Duane)
MACHGENIK (Tschoop)
MAUKHAUK (Morse)
MÁCHAAK, MACHCHÈ (Schmick)
MACHY (Edwards)
CO-MAGH-CAÏN (Jefferson)

LATE

MEÉCHKÀU (Schmick)

68

LAW

MUMMAUTNAUSOOW, MUMMAUTNOK =
laws, MUMMAUTNUK = laws,
MUMMAUTNUMNAUP = laws,
commands, MUMMAUTNUMNAUSUH
= laws, commands, UNNUHKOMME,
UNNUHKUMMEEKSOWAUKUN,
UNNUHKUMMEEKSOWAUKUNNUK,
WTOMPTOONAUWAUNKUN = his law,
WTENHKOMMEEKSOWAUKUNNUN =
his law,
WTENKUMMEEKSOWAUKUN = his law,
WTINKUMMEEKTHOWAUKUN = his law,
WTOWWUHHAUKUNNUN = ordinances,
WUHWNEHUNNUHKAUMKEH = lawful
endeavors (Aupaumut)
MUMMUTSOOWUH,
WTOMPTOONAUWAUNKUN = his law,
word (Sergeant)
WTUNKOMMEEKTHOWAUCONNUN = his laws,
statutes, WTONKOMMEEKTHOWAUCON
(Morse)

LEAD (verb)

KPOONNENAUNUH (Aupaumut)
ÓDENOOCHANANÁWA = led him,
UDÀUWACHTÒCHANAWÀHN = led,
ODÈNNOCHANAWAHN = led him
(Passion of Christ)
PANNEEWEH (Edwards)

LEAN, THIN

TSCHACHGÁCHU (Schmick)
CO-H-CAN-NÉGH (Jefferson)

LEARN

KKOKKOHKEEMKUSUH = you learn,
SIAUWEKAUCH = must learn (Aupaumut)
KKOKKOHKEEMKUHSUH = you learn,
NGUKKOHKEEMKUH = to know,
SHIAUWEKAUCH = I must learn
(Sergeant)

LEAST

OITONNOTAUKENNUK , OOITON (Aupaumut)

69

LEAVE (verb)

POOUNAUMKUH, WPOONNAU = he leaves
(Aupaumut)
POONNUKKEH, POONNIMAUK,
POONNIMMAUK (Sergeant)
PONENA = leave, let, loose (Schmick)

LEAVES (noun)

WANEPACHQUÁN (Heckewelder)
WANEPACHQUÀN, WANÉPAK (Schmick)
WAUNEÉPOCKQ, WAUNEPOCKQ (Barton)

LEG

NACHGACHQUAN (Schmick)
OGÀKHÀCHK = legs (Passion of Christ)
CÀGH-QUÀN (Jefferson)

LEST

TAUMTHAUWAUM, TAUMTHUHAUMNEEK
(Aupaumut)

LET, PERMIT

UNAUWNUH, UNNAUMHTUH,
UNNAUNMUH, UNNAUNTOMMOOQ =
let us, UNNOIYOOW = let it be (Aupaumut)
UNNAUNTOH (Morse)
ANAUUNÈ = let (Schmick)
AHTSCHKAAM = let (Passion of Christ)

LIE, FALSE

KONNAUWEWEH, KUHKNAUCHEEK = lying,
false (Aupaumut)
GAGGANANAWEHH = he lies (Schmick)

LIFE, LIVING

POMMAUWTHOWAUKUN,
PAMMAUWTHOWAUKUN,
PUMMAWUSOWAUKUNNUK,
PAUMAWUSECHEH, PMAWUSEET,
PMAWUSEHTEET, PAUPMAWUTHEET
= living, PAUPEHTAWUSEYUN = long
life, KPOMMAWUSOWAUKUNNANNUH =
your life, PAMMAWUSECHEEK =
living creatures, PEHTOUWSOWAUKUN,
PMAUSEMUKWAUTNAUSEKEH,
PMAUWTHEECH = live , PMAWUSEMUK,
PMOAUWTHOWAUKONNUK,

(see SAVE)

70

PUMMAWUSECHEEK = alive,
PUMMAWUSOOP = alive,
WPOMMAWUSOWAUKONNOWUH =
his life,
WPOMMAWUSOWAUKUNNOWAUN = lives
(Aupaumut)
PUMMAWÙSEET, PUMMAWÙSEHTEET,
PUMMAWÚSEAUK, PUMMAWÚSEYAUK,
PUMMAWÚSENAUNUH, PUMMAWÚSOOP
= alive, PUMMAWÚSECHEH = life,
PUMMAWÚSECHEEK,
PUMMAWUÚSOOWAUNKUN,
PUMMAWÚSOOWAUNKUNNUH,
PUMMAWUMAWÚSOOWAUNKUN,
PUMMAWÙSHTEET,
PUMMAWUSIHTEET,
PAUMMAWÚSEAUK,
PAUPEHTAWÚSETUH = long life,
PAUMAWÚSEAUK,
PAUMAWUSOOWAUNKUNUK,
P’MAWOSOWAGAN, ‘PMÁOSENÁNAU,
SAHKAWÚSEMUK = long life, OIEUN = live,
OIAUK, OIAUMHEH, OIEYUN
(Sergeant)
OIEET = the man who lives or dwells in a place
(Edwards)
POMMAUCHSOAGÁN (Heckewelder)
P’MAOSOWÁGAN, P’MAWOSOWÁGAN,
P’MÁOSOWÁGAN, SÀCHKAOSIA
(Schmick)
PUMMAOOSOWONKAN (Barton)
POM-N-WÌCH-SO, CÓPO-WÁ-UNSÉH
(Jefferson)

LIFT

WAUKHONNUN = lifted up (Aupaumut)

LIGHT (not dark)

WAUTHNAUNEKUN, WAUTHOIYEK,
WAUTHEKEEW = enlighten,
KWAUTHNAUNEKUNNOWAUN = your
light, KOWAUTHNAUN = enlighten
(Aupaumut)
WAUTHAUJOUW (Jenks)

71

WÁCHAU (Heckewelder)
WÁSAIK, WÁSSAIK , WAHS’NANÉGAN
(Schmick)
WANSAYÒH, WONSAYÒH (Jefferson)
WAUNSÁEEK (Barton)
WIHWAUPOHAUNQUONNUH = enlightening
(Morse)
LIGHT (not heavy)

NACÁN, NACA (Heckewelder)
NÁGAN (Schmick)

LIGHTNING

WAWÁCHANÁHÀN (Schmick)
WA-WA-HANAHUM (Jefferson)

LIP

NMOOSKWUH = my lips (Aupaumut)
KSHAÏTÒNE (Jefferson)
ESSEITONSHAITON = lips (Ettwein)

LITTLE

KÉWESCHE = a little (Passion of Christ)

LIVE LONG

SAHKAWÚSEMUK, PAUPEHTAWÚSETUH
(Sergeant)
SACHKAOSÍA (Schmick)

LIZZARD

M-BA-SHÓSHE (Jefferson)

LONG ISLAND, N.Y.

PAUM-NUK-KAH-NUK = place of the long
island (Metoxen)

LOOK FOR

KWENAM (Schmick)
KWÈNAWAJAAKQ (Passion of Christ)

LORD

TAUPAUNMOWAUT, TAUPAUNMEYON,
TAUPAUNMAWAUT, TAUPAUNMEET,
TAUPAUNMEYUN, TAUPAUNMOQUN,
TAUPAUNMOWIUH, TPAUNMOQUQ =
to be the lord, TTAUPNOMEQUQ =
rule, TTAUPNOTUK = rule, govern
(Aupaumut)
TAUPAUNNUMEAUK, TAUPAUNUMMEYAUK,

72

TAUPAUNNUMMEAUK,
TAUPAUMMEAUK,(Sergeant)

TAPANEMUKQUAK (Schmick)
TAUPAUNNUAN, TAUPOUMEAN (Edwards)
TAUPAUNMOWAUT, TAUPAUNMEYON
(Morse)
TÁPAANMIJÀK (Passion of Christ)
LOSE

WEETHUKKAUMAUT = he loses (Aupaumut)

LOUD

KEECHSÒ, MACHÉCH (Passion of Christ)
MAKCHEECHSÈ, MUCHTSCHE = very loud,
MAMAKEECHSE = loudly (Schmick)

LOVE

UHWAUNAUYUQ, UHWAUNAWU,
UHWAUNQUAUNEEK,
UNWAUNTOWAUKUN,
UHWAUNAUWUNNUH = lovers,
UHWAUNAUNCHEEK = lovers,
KTUHWAUNWAUWAUKUN = thy love,
UHWAUNAUWUNNUH = love him,
NDUHWAUNAWU = love him,
WHWAUNTOWAUKUN = his love,
WHWAUTUK = loved,
UHWAUNTOWEEKHMAUYUQ = loving,
charitable,
WTUHWAUNWAUWAUKUN = his love
(Aupaumut)
UHWHUNUW, NDUHWHUNTAMMIN = I love it,
NDUHWHUNUNK = I love them,
NDUHWHUNUW = I love him or her,
UDUHWHUNUW = he loves him,
KTUHWHUNIN = I love thee,
KTUHWHUNOOHMUH = I love you plural, UHWHUNDOWUKON = the noun
for “love” (Edwards)
NDAUHÙNAUNK = I love them,
NDOHHUNNAUNK, NDAUHUNNAUNK,

NDUHWAUNAWÚ = love him,
NDAUHUNNAUN, NDOHNAUN,
NDOHNAUK, UHWOINOIEUH = loved,

73

UHWAUNOIEUM = loved,
UHWAUNAUWUNNUH,
UHWAUNAUNCHEEK, UHWAUNAWÚ,
UHWAUNTUMMAUK, UHWAUNOIYUN,
UHWAUNENAUNUH,
UHWAUNTUMMOOWAUK,
UHWAUNTUMMUNNEH,
UHWAUNQUAUK, UHWAUNENAUNUH,
KTUHWAUNNINNAUNUH (Sergeant)
ACHWANÁU = he loves, N’TACHWÁNEN = I love,
ACHWANÁNAU = we love (Schmick)
ACHWAHNÁJA = dear, loved, ACHWÁHNENÁHKQ
= have loved, ACHWÀHNDÉNAU,
ACHWÀHNKUKKÈ = beloved (Passion
of Christ)
ACHWÁHNDOWAGAN, ACHWANAN (Moravian
Archives)
ACHWANTOWAGAN (Heckewelder)
ACHWAUNDEEN (Barton)

LOW

ACHGÍK (Heckewelder)

MAKE, CREATE
(see BLESS)

ANNEHHOQ, ANNEHHOQUN, ANNEHHAWU
= made, KTENNEMMAUNEN = do, make,
AUNEHHAUN, KESCHTAUTOOP = made,
KESHEHHOQUNNISSUH = made you,
KTENNEHHOKAUNAUNUH = made
KTINNEEMKAUNAUWUH = you make,
ONECHAUNEEN = make me,
ONNIHHUH, UNNEHHEET,
UNNEHTAUSOOH = made,
UNNEHTAUT = blessing, making,
UNNEHTUH = make,
UNNEHTUHTEET = made, condition
UNNEHTUHTETUP = made,
WTEHNEHTAUN = makes, WTENNEHHAUN,
WTENNEHHAUNAUTHUH = create,
WTENNAUNMAUWEE = makes,
WUHWNEHTAUCHEEK (Aupaumut)
KESHEHHÓQUUNNISSUH = made you,
ANAEHHAWÙ, ANNEHHAUN,

74

ANNEHHAWÙ, ANNEHHOQ = makes us,
ANNEHHOQUAUK, ANNEHHOQUUN =
makes, AUNEHHÒQUAUKEEK,
ONÉCHAUNEEN,
WNEHTAUN = he makes(Sergeant)
N’ONECHTAN = I make, KONECHTÀ =
you make,
ONECHTÁWAK = they make,
ONECHTAU = he makes, he does (Schmick)
ODÈNNANACHKÀHN = made,
ÁNANACHGÁTA (Passion of Christ)
MAKE A FIRE
(dress the kettle)

PODAWÀ, PODAWAU = he lights a fire
(Schmick)
POOTOUWAH, POOTOUWAUH (Long &
Edwards)

MALICIOUS

NSCONMOO (Edwards)

MAN, MALE

NEMONNAWU, NEMONNAUN,
NEMUNNAUWENAUP (Aupaumut)
NEEMANÁOO, EEOWTHKENOOH = young
man,
‘KCHEE = old man (Jenks)
NEMANA, NEMANAU, KACHTSCHAI = old
man (Schmick)
NÉMANÁU (Büttner & Passion of Christ)
NEMANNAUW, NEMANNAUK = men (Edwards
&
Barton)
NEEMONNAWU (Morse)
NIMANNÂU (Heckewelder)
NEMANNAO, NI-MA-NÁU (Jefferson)

MANHATTAN, N.Y.

MONOKUHTAUNUK (Aupaumut)

MANKIND

AUTONNEH, AUTENNEH,
AUTONNAWUTHEET,
AUTUNNEEKHAUT,
AUTONNAWUSEETUK,

75

AUTONNAUWTHECHEEK,
AUTENNAWUSEET (Aupaumut)
AUTONNEH (Sergeant)
AWANETSH, AWENETOH (Ettwein)
MANY

MKHAUNAUK , MUKHHAUNEH,
MKHAUNEECH, MKHAUNEH,
MKHAUNUHTQUKSOWUK =
multitude, thousands,
NEEMAUKHAUNKEE
= multitudes (Aupaumut)
NMUKHHAUNEH (Sergeant)
MACHANE (Schmick)
MACHÁNE, MACHÁNAAK (Passion of Christ)

MARRY

WEEWEEN (Edwards & Long)

MASTER
(see KING)

NKEHKIYOOM = my master, rabbi (Aupaumut)
MÁHSTANNOOM, MAASCHTANNÒOM
(Passion of Christ)

MAT

UNNUKKON (Aupaumut)
ANNOCHKANN (Büttner)
UNNUKKUN (Foster-Clements Papers)

MAY (verb)

MGOOH (Aupaumut)

MEANING

AUNEWEHTUMMUN (Aupaumut & Sergeant)

MEANS (noun)

AUWOHHAUKONNEKEH,
AUWUHHAUKONNEEK,
OWWOHHAUKUNNEEK,
DAUNAUMON,
OWWUKHAUKONNOOW (Aupaumut)

MEASURED

QTUM (Aupaumut)

MEAT, FLESH

WEEAUS (Metoxen)
WIJAAS (Heckewelder)
WEEAS (Barton)

76

WOJAAS (Ettwein)
WOJAS, WIAS, WEJAAS (Schmick)
WE-YASE (Jefferson)
MEDICINE

BESON, NBESOHN (Schmick)

MEEK

NOOCHMAUNTHECHEEK = those who are
meek (Aupaumut)

MEET

MAJAHANÁTAU = we will meet,
MAJÁWENENAWÀ = they came together,
KMAJAWEWAK = they assembled =
they assembled (Schmick)
PÁJCATÀ = he met, KMÀJAWENÁWA = meet,
assemble (Passion of Christ)

MEMORY

M’NÀNAWA (Passion of Christ)

MERCY, KINDNESS, GRACE

WKUHTOMMAUKAUNWAUKONNUN =
his mercies, grace,
WKUKTOMMAUKAUNWAUKONNOK =
his grace,
WKUKKTOMMAUKAUNWAUKUN
= his grace,
WKUKTOMMAUKAUNWAUKUN = his
grace, mercy,
KTOMMAUKAUNMEH = your grace,
KTOMMAUKAUNMITWAUNKUNNUK =
your grace,
KTOMMAUKAUNMUTWAUKUN
= grace,
KTOMMAUKAUNMUTWAUKUNNUK =
your grace,
KKUKTOMMAUKAUNWAUKONNON
= your mercy,
KKUKTOMMAUKAUNWAUKUN = your
mercy KUKKUTUMMAUKAUNEET =
mercy,
KUKTAMMAUKAUNWAUKONNUK
(Aupaumut)

77

KUKKUTUMMAUNKAUNEET = mercy,
KÙTTUMMAUKAUNUMMENAUNUH,
KÚTTUMMAUKAUNUMMUHANNUH,
KTUMMAUKAUNUMMUH = be kind,
KTUMMAUKAUNNUMMUH,
KUKKTUMMAUKAUNEUN,
KUHKUTTUMMAUKAUNEH,
KUTTUMMAUKAUNNUMMEWAUK,
KTUMMAUKAUNUMMUHKUH,
KUTTUMMAUKAUNUMMOOKQ,
KÚTTUMMAUKEH,
KUTUMMAUNKAUNMOEUN,
WKUKKÚTUMMAUKAUNNÒWAUNKUN,

NGUTTUMMAUK (Sergeant)
KTEMÀKANEMÁWAK = compassion (Schmick)
MESSAGE

TAUNNUHTUWWAUKTINNAUK (Aupaumut)

MESSENGER, RUNNER

UN-NUH-KAU-KUN (Aupaumut)

MESSIAH

MESSIAS (Passion of Christ)

MIAMI NATION

WEMAUMEEW (Aupaumut)

MIAMI NATION NEAR DETROIT WAWYUHTONNEEW (Aupaumut)
MIGHT, POWER

PAUPQUUNNOIEKEH (Aupaumut)
PAUPQOONNOIEKEH (Sergeant)

MILK

MO-NÙKH (Jefferson)

MIND (noun)

KTENNETUHHAUWAUKUNNUNNAUK = thy
mind,
KTENNETUHHAUWAUKUNNUNNAUN =
minds (Aupaumut)

MIRROR

WAPACHPENAÚUS (Schmick)

MISERABLE, POOR

KAUKTOMMAUKAUNECHEEK,
KAUTMAUKAUNTHCHEEK,

78

KAUTUMMAUKKEH, SIUHKEH,
KAWTUMMAUK = miserably,
SIUKKOIWAUKUN = misery,
SIUKKOIWAUKUNNUK = misery,
SAUSIUKKEH = miseries, THIKEH,
KSEHOIWAUKUNNENNUH = misery,
MUMMUKHHUHWAUNTUMMOPANNEEK

= misery,
MUMMUKHHUHWAUNTUMNEET

= miserable, SIUHKEH = miserable, misery,
WMUMKHOHWAUNTOMWAUKONNOWUH

=misery (Aupaumut)
MUMMUKHHUHWAUNTUMNEET,
MUMMUKHHUHWAUNTUMMENAUP,
MUMAUKHHUHWAUNTUMMENOHTETOOP,

MUMMUKHHUHWAUNTUMMÙW,
MUMMUKHHOUWAUNTUKKOOP,
MUMMUKHUHHWAUNTUMÒPANNEH,
MUMMUKHHUK, MAUMUKH,
KAUTUMMAUKKEH, SIUKKEH,
SYUKKEH,
SAUSIYUKKÙKEH (Sergeant)
NAGATEMAXED (Tschoop)
KATMAXEED, KTEMAKAIHATTET (Schmick)
SIUKEH (Edwards)
MIXED

EM’NÓHANNAWAHN = mixed with (Passion of
Christ)

MOCK

UNÁNANECHNAWÉHAAWAHN = mocked
(Passion of Christ)

MOHAWKS

MHOOAWS = “eaters of men” (Aupaumut)
compare MAUQUAÚOGS, “Men-eaters” of
Roger Williams in 1643.

MOHICAN

MUHHEEKUNNEEW = Mohican people,
MUHHECONNUCK = a Mohican, the place
of the Mohicans (Aupaumut)

79

MUHHEAKUN, MEHIKSQUOH = woman of the
nation, name given to Sergeant’s daughter
(Sergeant)
MÚHHECÓNNUCK (Pickering)
MHHEKUNNUCK (Woodbridge)
MAHICANNI (Heckewelder)
MUH-HE-KON-NE-UK = river people (Adams)
MONEY

-SENNPATT-, -SENPETT- (Schmick)

MONTH

PAASCOCAJO (Jefferson)

MOON

NIPAHÚK (Heckewelder)
NIPAHAK (Du Ponceau)
NEEPAHUCK (Barton)
NEPAUHAUK (Jenks)
NEPOHOCK (Büttner)
NE-PÀ-K, NAPONGHA (Jefferson)

MOOSE

MO-OSE (Jefferson)

MORAL

MAUNONENAUQUOHK (Aupaumut)
MENOONSQUOH = virtuous woman, name
given to John Sergeant’s daughter
(Belknap)

MORE

UNNOWEEN, UNNOWEEW,
UNNOWEEWTKHEH, UNNOWEW =
more than, UNNOWEWEH = more, more
than, freely, UNNOWWEH = freely,
UNNOWWEWEH (Aupaumut)
ANUWEEWEH (Edwards)
ANNOWÉWE, ANNUWEWE = more than
(Schmick)
UNNOWEW, UNNOWEWU (Morse)

MOREOVER

WONKNUHHUN (Morse)

MORNING

NIYOPPAUWEH = in the early morning
(Aupaumut)

80

NAUJAUPAUWEW, PAUTAUPON = the
dawn (Jenks)
NAJÁPPAWE = early in the morning (Schmick)
PATAPAN = daybreak, GATPOCHK = early in
the morning (Heckewelder)
WOHNAGACHGAN (Büttner)
WÁPANNACHÉNA = good morning (Moravian
Archives)
MOST

NHAUNEH (Aupaumut & Sergeant)

MOTE
(speck in eye)

WAUKHEETHMUTYAUQWAUWONNOIYUS = thy

MOTHER

KKUK = your mother, WKWKKUK = his
mother (Aupaumut)
N’GUK = my mother (Metoxen)
KOCKQ = your mother, OKOÉKKÀN = his
mother (Passion of Christ)
N-GUCK, NGEE (Jefferson)
NKEK (Schmick)
ENGUCK (Büttner)
INGUCK (Barton)
GOK (Ettwein)
WOAKKIMUK (Heckewelder)
O’KEGÁN (Jenks)

MOUNTAIN, HILL

WCHOOK = mountains, hills (Aupaumut)
WACHSHU (Ettwein)
WACHTSCHÛO, M’CHATSCHÚ
(Heckewelder)
WACHTSCHU (Schmick)
WACHTSCHOOK (Passion of Christ)
W’CHU = mountain, GH’AUKOOCK = hill
(Jenks)
WHAUCHOO (Barton)

brother’s mote
WAUKHUTHMUTWAUNUT = thy
brother’s mote,
KHUTHMUTWAUNAUYUN = thy
brother’s mote (Aupaumut)

81

MACHEWACHECOUGH (Duane)
MOURN

TAUNNUMMECHEEK (Aupaumut)

MOUTH

TON (Ettwein)
OTOON (Du Ponceau)
OTOUN (Barton)
WDOON (Heckewelder & Du Ponceau)
OTÓHNICK (Schmick & Passion of Christ)
ENDON, UTOHN, UTSCHUNIS = your
mouth (Büttner)
UTSCHÚNIS = your mouth (Moravian
Archives)
WTOON, K-TÓNE (Jefferson)

MUCH, OFTEN

MACHÁNE, KAACHWAK (Passion of Christ)

MUNSEE NATION

WEMINTHEEW (Aupaumut)

MUST, SHALL

KAUCH, NEKAUCHNUN, KAUCHEEK
IYITHCOMCOM, SIAUWEKAUCH =
I must learn (Aupaumut)
KAUCH = must, KAUQUIKAUCH = you must
(Sergeant)

MYSELF, HIMSELF

NUHKAUG, NUHKAUCH, NUHKAUNAUP,
NUHKAUTUK , NHOKKI = my body
(Aupaumut)
NIHNIH (Sergeant)
N’HACKAI (Schmick)
N’HACKAY (Moravian Archives)

NAIL (verb)

TÀCHQUAHÉKAN = nailed (Passion of
Christ)
KTACHQUAHÉGAN (Schmick)

NAME

AUNEWESEET = his name,
ANNEWETHENEET,
AUNEWEETHYON,
AUNEWEETHYUN,

82

AUNEWETHEET = his name,
UNNEWEHNAUK = named, called,
ONEWEETHWAUKUN = good name,
reputation,
KONOWEETHWAUKONNONNUH
= your name, AUNEWESETUP =
named,
KONEWEETHWAUKUNNUNNUH =
your good name (Aupaumut)
AUNEWESEET = named (Sergeant)
ANÉWESÉET = called, ANÉWESÒ = named,
ANÈWEZIÀN = called, the Z is incorrect,
AWÉTSCHAWA = called (Passion of
Christ)
ANNUWOIEON (Edwards)
ANEWESO , ONEWESO (Schmick)
NANTICOKE NATION

WENUHTOKOWUK, WENUHTOKOOS
(Aupaumut)

NARROW

WEPUWWOIYEK (Aupaumut)
WIPAUWAJÚ (Heckewelder)

NATION

ATCHEWECHNAWET = nations (Moravian
Archives)

NEAR

P’ACHWÍWI (Heckewelder)
PACHOOD = nearly, almost (Schmick)

NECESSARY

AUYAUNQUUTTOOQ (Aupaumut)

NECK

KACHQUAKACHCAN (Schmick)
NACHTAGAN = my neck (Ettwein)

NEED

DAUWOHHAUN (Aupaumut)
DAWAHÁU (Passion of Christ)
DAUWATAACH (Schmick)

NEEDLE

SCHAPENNIKÁN (Heckewelder)
SCHAAPNÉGAN (Schmick)

83

NEGLECT

IYONHAUTAUSEEK (Aupaumut)

NEIGHBOR

WEETHKAUNAUYUN,
WEETHKAUNAUYUQ,
WEETHKAUNNUK,
WEETHKAUNOYHQUOK,
WEETHKAUNUT, WEETKAUM,
WEETKAUNOIHQUEEK,
WETKAUNNAUYQUEEK,
WETKAUNOIQUK (Aupaumut)

NEW, YOUNG

WSKOI, WSKOIYEK, USKOIYEK,
WSKOOKHQUAWU = young woman,
virgin (Aupaumut)
WSKOI (Sergeant)
USKE, OSKEKAN (Schmick)
WASKI = at first (Tschoop)
USKÁI, WASKÁIK (Passion of Christ)

NEW MILFORD, CONN.

WEANTANUCK, WEANTINOCK = winding
stream (Orcutt)

NEW YORK, N.Y.

MON-AH’-TON-UK (Metoxen)
MONOKUHTAUNUK (Panoplist)

NIGHT, EVENING

TKHOQUNNEWEH = nights, NEPAUWEH,
PAUPQUUNNOIEKEH = dark, night
(Aupaumut)
PAUPQOONNOIEKEH = night,
PAUPQUUNNOIEKEH (Sergeant)
TEPOCKQ, NIPAWI (Du Ponceau)
TPOCHGÀ, NEPÁWE (Schmick)
T’PAUGHESU = evening, P’QUAUNAUJOUH
= night (Jenks)
T’POCHK, WANAQUÍK = evening
(Heckewelder)
TAPPACHÉTA = evening, TÀPAQUEEK =
night, WANAQUEEK = night (Passion of
Christ)

84

‘TPÈCHKAK (Moravian Archives)
TPÒCH-KEU, CONAÏÒ (Jefferson)
NIPAWE (Barton)
ONAQUEGA (Ettwein & Schmick)
NINE

NAUNEWEH (Aupaumut)
NAUNEEWEH (Edwards)
NANNÉWE (Schmick)
NANNÉWE, NANNÉWE T’CHA = nine
o’clock (Passion of Christ)
NA-NÈ-WE, NAN-NA-WÌGH (Jefferson)

NIPPLE

CO-NUNYAN (Jefferson)

NO, NOT, WITHOUT

ESTOH, STOH, STAH, EHESTOH, STOK,
STUCH, ESTOH AUM = no one,
KSEKEH, STOKAUM = no one,
STOHKEEPAUM = no one,
STUH = not (Aupaumut)
ESHTOH (Sergeant)
ASTA (Tschoop)
ASTÀN (Moravian Archives)
ASCHTÀN, AESCHTÀ, ASCHAAM,
AESCHAAM, ASCHTÁ, ASKHTÀK
(Passion of Christ)
ESTAH, ESTAHAM (Edwards)
STÁH, STA, ESTA, ESCHTÁ (Heckewelder)
STÀCH, STA (Schmick)
SCHTAH, ESCHTA, ACHTA (Barton)
STOH (Morse)

NO, NOT

CHEEN, CHEEN AUM = no one,
CHEEN KAUQUI = nothing, NUM,
(Aupaumut)
CHEEN (Edwards & Sergeant)
TSCHEEN (Schmick)
TSCHÈNÈ (Passion of Christ)

NOON

NACHQUATA (Ettwein)
NAACHQUATA (Schmick)

85

NAACHQUATÀ (Passion of Christ)
NORTH

PONAK (Heckewelder)

NOSE

WACHKIWAN = his nose, KACHKEWAN =
your nose (Du Ponceau)
WACHKIWON (Heckewelder)
WAWOHAN, WAWEKAN (Ettwein)
OKEWON (Barton & Du Ponceau))
NACHKEWAN = my nose (Schmick)
CA-CA-WUN (Jefferson)

NOW

NONO (Aupaumut, Schmick & Passion of
Christ)
NONO, NÒNOOCH = now, present (Sergeant)
NONOTACHGE = but now (Tschoop)
NOONOOK (Edwards)

NUMBER

AUTKHOKKEEMQUOHK,
AUTKHOOQNUKKUHK,
AUTKHUKKEEMQUOHK,
AUTKHUKKEEMQUHKEH
(Aupaumut)
AUTGHAUNNOIKACK (Jenks)

OBEY

WTOPSITTUMMUNNAUP = he obeyed,
TAUPSETTEMMONNEET =
obedience, TPITHTOMMAUWAUKUN =
obedience, TPITHTAUQKUH =
obedience, TPITHTOMMONNEET =
obey, obedient, TPITHTOMMUQ,
TPITHTOWWAUN,
NWOUNISTOUWAUH,
WTUPSETTOMMAUWAUNKUNNUK =
his obedience ,
WTOPSITTUMMUNNAUP = he obeyed
(Aupaumut)
NWOUWOONISTOUWONK,
WNISTUMMOQ,
ONSITTUMMUNNAUP = he obeyed,

86

NWOUWOONISTOUWAUNAUNUH,
NOONSITTÓUWAUNAUNUH = I obey
(Sergeant)
OBSERVE

KNAUTAUSEEK (Aupaumut)

OF, TO

AUT, QUEH, QUEWEH, WTOQQUEH,
WAUTQUEH (Aupaumut)

OFFEND

KNÒCHPACHTAWEECHMÀ = offended,
KNÒCHPAGHTAAK (Passion of Christ)

OFFER, PRESENT

WPAUTENNOMMUIO (Aupaumut)

OFFERING PLACE

WAWANAQUASICK, MAWANAQUASICK =
used to refer to stone heaps in New York
and Massachusetts (Notes on Evidence)
WAWENUPISSICKE = a monument
(Woodbridge)

OH!

OE, OI (Aupaumut)
OE (Sergeant & Edwards)
GAJEEE (Tschoop)

OIL USED AS MEDICINE

WEESQUI (Aupaumut)

OLD

KCHOISETUH, MKHOWOI (Aupaumut)
KCHEE = old man (Jenks)
KACHTSCHAI = old man, MACHOWE
(Schmick)

OMISSION

UHHAWUSEHNAUMUK (Aupaumut)

ONCE

NQUITTEH (Aupaumut)

ONE (number)

PAUSKOO, PAUSKOOWOOW, PAUSQUUN,
PAUSKOWON, PAUSQUN (Aupaumut)
PAUSHKÓWEET = only one, PAUSHOOK,
PASHQUUN (Sergeant)
PASHUK (Heckewelder & Du Ponceau)

87

NGWITTOH (Edwards)
NGUTTE, GÚTTA, NGUTTÒ, PAASCHKON,
PAASCHKUN, PAÁSCHKUN,
PAÁSCHCO (Schmick)
PASÙKQUENAWÀ = as one, together,
PAASCHKO (Passion of Christ)
NQUIT (Jefferson)
ONE (person, who)

AUM, AUWWAUN, OWWAUN (Aupaumut)
AUM (Sergeant)
AWAUN (Edwards)
AWAN (Schmick)

ONLY, ALONE

NQUEHCHEH, NQUIHCHEH, HTAUW,
HTAUWEH (Aupaumut)
HTAUK (Sergeant)
E’NQUÉCHSCHE (Passion of Christ)

OPEN

KTUWNUMMAUKUH = you open,
TOWWUNNUWWAUW = opens
(Aupaumut)
TOUWUNNOOP = opened, TOUWOON,
TOUWOONMOUWEAUK (Sergeant)
KTAUWENIMMEN = you have opened
(Schmick)
TATTAWECHNAHN = opened,
TÁPENOMMÓWÉEN (Passion of
Christ)

OR

EEN, EENHUH, EANHUH, EEHUH
(Aupaumut)
EENHAAD (Passion of Christ)
EENHAH (Edwards)
EENHUH (Morse)

ORDER (noun)

KENAUWEGHTAUN (Jenks)

ORDER (verb)

ÁJOHÓNA = ordered,
KMACHMATUAMNECHNÀ = ordered
(Passion of Christ)

88

ORIGINAL

PAUNQUEWEH (Aupaumut)

OTHER, ELSE

KTUK, KTUKKUH = other, others,
KTUKKUK, KTUKKUN = others
(Aupaumut)
KTUK (Sergeant)
KTAK (Schmick)
KTÀK, KTÁKKA, TÁKKAK (Passion of
Christ)

OTTAWA TRIBE

WETUWWAW (Aupaumut)

OUR

NAUKUK, NAUKUH = his, our (Aupaumut)

OUTSIDE

P’HÁGÀ (Schmick)

OWL

MKHOOH-QUE-THOTH (Aupaumut)
MACHOÓKSIS (Schmick)
MHOC-SOS, MAHÓ-KA-SHÌSS = without
horns, TAGH-CO-NO-MAO = with
horns (Jefferson)

OWN

NEHNEH, NENNEH = our own,
NEHNAUTUK = own, possess,
NEHHUNQUEHQ = his own,
NONNEH (Aupaumut)
NÓNEH, NIHNIH (Sergeant)

PAIN
(see MISERABLE)

MOMMUKHHUHWAUNTOMWAUKUN
(Aupaumut)
NMAMACHACHWAHNTAM (Schmick)

PARSNIP

MUSHQUASH = wild parsnip (Sergeant)

PARTAKE

WCHOI = partakes, WCHOIYEK = partake,
WCHOINAUNUH = he partakes,
WECHOINAUNUH = he partakes,
WECHAIHITTEET = partaking,
WECHOIKEEK = partakers,

89

WECHOIYUG = partaker,
WECHOIYUQNEH = partaker,
WECHOINAUWUN,
WECHEHNAUK = partake, enjoy
(Aupaumut)
PARTRIDGE

PAH-PAH-COGH (Jefferson)

PARTS

PAUPAUM’H (Morse)

PASS

SEYAUW (Aupaumut)

PAST

PKOCHEH (Aupaumut)
PKOTCHEH (Sergeant)
PAUCHIH (Morse)

PATCH, REPAIR

MEESCHHÁGAN (Schmick)

PAY FOR

PAIMOWÁH (Moravian Archives)

PEACE

WNAUKOOTWAUKUN = his peace,
reconciliation, WNAUKOOTWEKHUN
= his peace (Aupaumut)
UNACATOWAGAN = peace (Moravian
Archives)

PEOPLE

MÁCHANEKÈ (Passion of Christ)

PERFECT, GOOD

AUPCHEEN (Aupaumut)
NGUMMAUWEH (Sergeant)

PERFORM
(see DO)

OITAKHKHONNOHKIYUN (Aupaumut)

PERMITS

UHNONNUH (Aupaumut)

PERISH

TANNENAUNENUHTEET (Aupaumut)

PERSON
(see IMAGE)

AUNKOUWEHNAUCHEE,
AUNKOWWECHEEK = that person,

90

UNNOQUEH, UNNUQQUEH =
image, person, in person,
WTENKEEMQUITHTHEEM =
persons (Aupaumut)
PETITION
(see ASK, PRAY)

WEENWUTHWAUKON,
WEENWUTHWAUKONNUK,
WEENWUTHWAUKUNNUK,
KWEENWUTHTHEHNUH = you
petition, pray for, WETUHHAUMAUT =
he petitions, intercedes,
WETUHHAUTOWAUKUN =
petition, intercession (Aupaumut)

PHARISEES

PHARISIAC (Aupaumut)

PIG, HOG

KOOSKOSEHKOKE = swine (Aupaumut)
KOSHKOSH (Metoxen)

PIGEON

PAH-WAH-HOM (Jefferson)

PIPE (for tobacco)

MATTESSINS (Heckewelder)
MATTÁSSÈN = pipe of stone,
OTSCHOSAMMAWÀ = give me a pipe
of tobacco, (Schmick)

PITTSFIELD, MASS.

PONTOOSUCK = place of falls (Bernard)

PLACE (noun)

KKIYECHEEK = places, KOHKIYECHEEK =
places, KUHTAUWEH (Aupaumut)
KUHTAUWEH, KOHTAUWEH (Sergeant)
W’KECEGHTAUN (Jenks)

PLACE, PUT

PAMÀCHKUSSOÀK = placed (Passion of
Christ)

PLATE, DISH

WAUNNAUCON = plate, dish, name of John
W. Quinney (WHS Collections)
ONÀGANISSAK (Passion of Christ)

91

PLEASE

KONENOUWUHHAWN = you please,
WNENOUWUHKUK = please him,
gladden,
WAUWNENAUWUHHAUWUNNUH =
please him,
WAUWNENAUWUHHOIYUQ =
please him,
WAUWNENAUWUHHOIYUNNUH
(Aupaumut)
WAUWOONNENOUWUHHOIUKQ = please
him, WAUWOONNOIHIHTEET,
WAUWOONNENOUWUHHÒQKEEK,
WAUWOONNENOUWUHHAUWUNNUH,
WAUWOONNENOUWUHHOIYUNNUH,

WAUWOOUNEHKEH,
WNENOUWUHKUK = please him,
WNENOUWHUHHOONNAUNUH,
WNENOUWUHHOONAUK,
KÒNENOUWUHHAUNOQ = you please
him (Sergeant)
POOR

KAT’MAKE = he is poor (Schmick)

POT, KETTLE

HOS, HOOSS (Heckewelder)
HOOS (Schmick)
HOOSICK, N.Y. = at the kettle (Adams)

POTTAWATOMIE NATION POTAWATOMMEEW (Aupaumut)
POUR

OSÒKNEMMEN = he poured (Schmick &
Passion of Christ)

POWER

UNNOWOIWAUKUN, UNNOWOYICK,
WTONWOIWAUKUN = his power,
WTONWOIWAUKUNNUK = his
power, WTONWOIWAUNKUN = his
power, WTONWEHKAUQNAUP
(Aupaumut)

PRAISE, GLORIFY

KMAUMOOTHPEHHAUNUH,

92

MAUMMOCHCHEMAWN = praise
him, MAUMOOSPENHAUNAUNUH,
MAUMOOTHPEHHAUNAUNUH,
MAUMOOTHPEHHAUT,
MAUMOOTHPEHHAUYUQ,
MOOTHPEHHAUMKUH,
MOOTHPEHHAUMKUP =
exaltation, glorification (Aupaumut)
NWAWWAUWAUNKÓMAWÚ = praise him,
WAUWAUWAUNKÒMMAUN,
WAUWAUNKÒMKIUN (Sergeant)
PRAY
(see PETITION)

BAUPOHTOMMON,
PAUPOHTOMMONNAUNUH,
PAUPOHTUMMOUWAWU,
MBAUPOHTUMMOUWAWU =
pray to him, WEENWUTHTHEHNUH,
KWEENWUTHTHEHNUH = you
pray for, petition, WEEUTHTHEHNUH
= he prays, petitions, probably a
misspelling (Aupaumut)
MBAUPOHTUMMOUWAWÚ = pray to him,
PAUPOHTUMMAUNAUK,
PAUPOHTUMMUK,
PAUPOHTUMMOUHTUH,
PAUPOHTUMMOUWAWÚ (Sergeant)
N’PÁPACHTAMAWAHN = I have prayed,
PAPACHTAMMAWÁU = prayed
PÁPACHTAMAWÓCHKQ,
PÁPACHTAMAWÀU = prayed,
PÁPOOHTAMÁN (Passion of Christ)
N’PAPACHTAMAWAN = I pray (Schmick)

PRAYER
(see GOD)

PAUPOHTOMMAUWAUKUN,
PAUPOHTOMMAUWWAUKONNUK
= prayers, KPAUPOHTOMMEHNUH,
PAUPAUPOHTOMMUQQUEH,
WPAUPOHTOMMAUWAUKONNUK =
his prayer,

93

WPAUPOHTOMMAUWAUKUN = his
prayer,
WTAUPAUPAUTOMMONNAUWAUN =
spoken prayers (Aupaumut)
PIOCHTAMAWAGAN (Tschoop)
PRESERVE

KKHUNNUWWAUNAUT,
WKOHKKHONNOWWAUTOMMOOWNUH

= preserve, keep (Aupaumut)
NGUKHHUNNOUWAUNMOOKQKUH = he
keeps me (Sergeant)
PRESUMPTION

MAUMCHEENWIHNAUKUIH =
presumptions (Morse)

PRETTY, BEAUTIFUL

WAUNSEET (Sergeant)
WNISSOO (Edwards)
WUNITT (Heckewelder)
NONESÈ, ONESSÒ (Schmick)
WAUNSQUANT = handsome, good woman,
the Mohican name for John Sergeant’s
daughter, Harriet (Sergeant)

PREVENT, HINDER

CHAUCHONNEHNAUK,
NUHNKHOWWOONQUQ =
hindering (Aupaumut)
CHAUCHIEKAWÚSECHEH (Sergeant)
NACHNECHAWONUK = he hinders me
(Schmick)

PRIEST, PREACHER

POHPMITTOONHAUT,
PMOTTOONHAUMTEEN =
preaching (Aupaumut)
PACHPAMETONHAD (Schmick)
PAWWAW (Sergeant)
MÁCHAWÁWATÀK = high priest,
WAWÈCHTAÁTSCHEEK = priests,
MÁMAKE WÁWATAKEEK = high
priest, MÁMAKE WÁWATAKÈ = high
priest (Passion of Christ)

94

PRINCE

WAIJAWAWEJAN (Moravian Archives)

PRISONER

TÀHONÉCHÓMME = taken prisoner (Passion
of Christ)

PRIVATE

KEMOWEH (Aupaumut)

PRODUCE

WCHEKUN = it produces, bears,
WCHENOOWEH = it produces
(Aupaumut)

PROFANE, PROFANITY

NONNEHNOWWEHTAUSOOW,
NUNNEHNOWWOTAUSEEK
(Aupaumut)

PROMISE

WTENNIK (Aupaumut)

PROPHET

UHHAUTOOHKAUT,
UHHAUTOOHKAUCHEEK =
prophets,
UHHAUTOOHKAUTPONNEKUK =
prophets,
UHHAUTOOPKAUTPONNEKUK =
prophets (Aupaumut)

PROPRIETY, DOMINION UNNOOWHKAUQUQ (Aupaumut)
UNNOWHKAUQUOH = have dominion over,
propriety (Morse)
PROSPERITY

TAUPOIEWAUKUN (Aupaumut)

PROVIDE

WNEHTAUN (Aupaumut & Sergeant)

PROVIDENCE

WNUKHKHUWWAUNTOMWAUKUNNUK,
WNUKHKHUWWAUNTUMWAUKUN,
NKHOWWAUNTUKKUH (Aupaumut)

PULL OUT

PAUTHNOOQQUK, PAUWTHNOQNOQUON,
PAUTHNOOQUN = cast out

95

(Aupaumut)
PURCHASE, BUY

KEESTAUWAUTUP = purchased
(Aupaumut)
TATTAWAWÉ (Schmick)
TÁTTAWAH (Moravian Archives)

PURPOSE, COUNSEL

KESETUHHAUT (Aupaumut)
ANNEHHOOTEMUK (Sergeant)

PUT, PLACE

PNUMNUH (Aupaumut)
P’MÈCHKANAWANÁU = put on, dress
(Passion of Christ)

QUESTION

QCHEMOENTUWAUKUN,
QUTCHEMONTUWAUNKUN
(Aupaumut)
QUCHTUMMOUWEEN (Sergeant)
KUTSCHEMONAWA = he asks them
(Schmick)

RABBIT

WANG-PUNGTEQUÀS (Jefferson)

RACCOON

PSHÒW (Jefferson)

RAIN

SOGANNOHN (Ettwein)
SOGANAN = it is raining (Schmick)
SOKENÁK (Heckewelder)
SOKANAÀN (Jefferson)
SOOKANOUN (Barton)
THOCKNAUN (Jenks)

RAINBOW

ANUQUAUN (Jenks)
MANÁKKOON (Schmick)
ANQUA-ÁAN (Jefferson)

RANSOM

NANPTANTEON (Aupaumut)

READ

UNNUKKETAUSOOW, HKEETHWAUKUN =
reading (Aupaumut)

96

ACHKETA = to read (Schmick)
READY

KUHTAUKHEEK, KWAUSPEHNUH =
readiness, preparation (Aupaumut)
KESCHANACH, KESCHANACHKA = are you
ready? (Schmick)
ÁNEQUECHQUÈ (Passion of Christ)

REASON, PURPOSE
(see DECREE)

ANNEHHOOTEMUK, UNNOIEMUK =
reasons (Aupaumut)
ANNEHHOOTEMUK (Sergeant)

RECEIVE, GET

KHUMQUITHTHOOW,
KOOTNOMNANNUH,
MAUSNIKKEEK, MAUSNUKKEEK,
MAUSNUMMUQ, MAUSNUMNEET,
MAUSSAUNNAUMKEH, MSENMAUK,
MSENMON, MSENMUQ,
MSENNAUMKEH, MSENNAUSEEK,
MSENNAUSOOW, MSENNIK,
WMISNIMNAU (Aupaumut)
MSHINMUNNEET, MSHAUNNAUK,
MSHAUNTUM, MSHINMEHTEET,
MSHINMIHTEET, MSHINMAUK
(Sergeant)
MESCHINNEMEN (Schmick)

RECOGNIZE, PERCEIVE ANENÁXEAN – the X is a German form
(Moravian Archives)
RECREATION, PLEASURES AUNHQUAUWOIKEH (Aupaumut)
RED

MUHKWAUYOOH = animate, MUHKWAUYUK
= inanimate (Metoxen)
M’CHGAJÚ, MACHGAJÚ (Heckewelder)
MÉSCHAI (Passion of Christ)
MASCHÉCHGO (Schmick)

REDEEM

PQUAUKHKENQUQ,
PQUAUKHKENTOWAUKUN =

97

redemption,
PQUAUKHKENTOWAUKUNNUK =
redemption,
PQUAUKQKENNEHAUNUH =
deliver, save (Aupaumut)
PQUAUKHKINTOOWAUNKUN,
PQUAUKHKINKIAUK,
PQUAWÙKHAUNEET (Sergeant)
REJOICE

UNNUM (Aupaumut)
AUNOMMENAUT,
WTIHHONNOMMIHHOOQNUH =
rejoicing (Morse)

RELIGION

PAUYUHTOMMOOQ = come to religion,
PEYUHTKEEK,
PEYUHTOMMAUWAUKUNNUK =
religion, gospel ,
PEYUHTOMMAUWEWEH =
religion, Christian,
PEYUHTOMMAUWEH =religious
(Aupaumut)
PEYUHTUMMOUWAUNKUN (Sergeant)
PEYUHTOMMAUWUKON (Edwards)

REMEMBER

MAUMSAUTUH (Aupaumut)

RENEW

WSKEHHOKIYUQ = he renews us
(Aupaumut)
WASKIHOKA = to be renewed (Schmick)

REPENTANCE, TURN

QNOPPOHQSOWAUKUN, QNOPPUHQSEET,
QNUPPOHQTHEENNAUWUUH,
QUAUNPEENNOWWAUMQUEHTEET
= converting, turning,
QUTOOQQUAUNIH = turn away
(Aupaumut)

REPROVE

MEHKOOHKAUQHITTEET = be
reproved, MEHKOOMQUITHTHOOW

98

= reproved (Aupaumut)
REQUIRE
(see DUTY)

DOOTMAUTEEN, DOOTMAUTEET =
require, DOOTMOWWAUMUK =
required, NAUTOOTMOWWAUT =
require, NAUTOOTMAUKIYUQQUEH
= duties, KNOTTOOTMAUKONUH =
require (Aupaumut)

REST, PEACE (noun)

WTAUNAUKHEMWAUKUN = his rest
(Aupaumut)
TANACHEME, ANACHEMEWÁGAN
(Schmick)
ÁNACHEMÉKQ (Passion of Christ)

REST (verb)

AUNAUKHEEMWEH, AUNAUKHEEMEEN,
AUNAUKHEEMWAUKUNNOOW =
resting, AUNAUKHEMOPE = rested,
NHKAUNAUYUQ (Aupaumut)
AUNAUKHHEMEAUK (Sergeant)
ANACHEMEWÁGAN, ÁNACHÉMEN,
TANACHEME (Schmick)

RESTRAIN

KAUKKAUNNAUT (Aupaumut)

RESURRECTION

AUMEEMKUH, AUMETUH,
AUMETUP, AUMEHTETUH =
raise up, resurrect (Aupaumut)

RETAIN

CHANNAWEHOOK = retained (Passion of
Christ)

REVEAL, SHOW

KNAUWAUWENOQ, NAWUQUEWEH,
NAWUQUEWCH, NAWUQUNNUK =
revealed, NAWUQUONNAUTHOOW,
NAWUQUMNOWWAUTUP =
revealed, NAWUQUONKUH =
acknowledge, NAUQUEWEH,
NAUWEQUEEKHTAUNAUNUH,
NAUWQUNMAUQUQ = reveal, show

99

forth, WNAWNQUNMOWWAUTH =
he reveals (Aupaumut)
KNAUWAUWENOQ (Sergeant)
REVERENT

WAUWEENNOWWEHTAUSEEK
(Aupaumut)
WAWINAWIHTASIKA = reverent use
(Schmick)

REWARD

HPUNUNNOONKIYAUQ (Aupaumut)
HPONNOONTOWAUCON (Morse)
PENHÁMMEN (Moravian Archives)

RIDE

NDOGHPEH = I ride (Edwards)

RIGHTEOUSNESS

ONOIWAUKUN, WAUNOIKEEK =
righteous, WNOIWAUKON,
WNOIWAUKUN,
WNOIWNOIWAUKUN,
WNOIWAUKUNNUK,
WNOIYAUQUOH = righteous,
WNOIYUH = righteous,
WSAUKHKEH = righteous (Aupaumut)
WNOIEYAUK, WNOIHIHTEEQ,
WNOIHIHTEECH (Sergeant)

RISE

NOHNAUMKUH = rise up (Aupaumut)
ÁHMEANÀ = rise up, PASÙKQUÉU = he
rose up, PASÙKQUÉKQ = get up, rise
up, PASÙKQUENAWÁ = rose up,
JAMÉWAK, DÁIJAMÈ,
AJÀMÉPANÀ = has risen (Passion of
Christ)

RIVER

SEEPOO (Metoxen)
SEPOO (Edwards & Long)
SEEPO (Du Ponceau)
SEPOO, T’SEPOO (Barton)
SEBOOS = creek, brook (Schmick)
SÉPU (Heckewelder)

100

SE-PÓ, MO-HAÏ-CAN (Jefferson)
THEPOW (Jenks)
ROAD, PATH, WAY

AUNI (Aupaumut)
ÁNEI (Schmick)

ROD, SWITCH

NEPÉSES = rods (Passion of Christ)
NEPESCHÀN = rods (Schmick)

ROLL (verb)

UDÈTPEETSCH (Passion of Christ)

RUN

NDINNEHNUH = I run to, NOCHEHNUH =
I run from (Edwards)
NPUMM’SÈ, N’PUMMSÈ = I run,
PUMMESSÓ = he runs (Schmick)
ÁINEHAMUK = run off (Passion of Christ)

RUN A RACE

AU-NAUT-WAU-CHEH (Morse)

SAC (SAUK) NATION

WETHAUKEEW (Aupaumut)

SACHEM
(see KING)

WI-GOW-WAUW = Chief Sachem (Aupaumut)

SACRAMENT, ORDINANCE UHNONNUHKAUK, UHNONNUHKAUK,
UHNONNUHKAUMUK,
UHNUNNUHKAUMKEH = sacraments,
AUNONNUHKAUCHEE = sacraments
(Aupaumut)
SACRIFICE

CAUPOHTOMMUN, WEHHEKAUMETUP =
sacrificed (Aupaumut)
KWEHEGAME = you sacrifice (Schmick)

SAINTS

SAINTSUH (Aupaumut)

SALT

SUHSWUKNOOHTANNEH (Aupaumut)
SASCHUAK (Schmick)

SAME, EQUAL

AUNENAUQSEET, UNNENAUQSOOH,

101

AUNQUEHQ, NUNKUHNEH,
NUNKUHNON (Aupaumut)
ANE NAQUAT (Schmick)
SANCTIFY, REVERE
(see HOLY)

KSEKHEHHOOTWAUKUN =
sanctification, KSEHEHTAUSOOW ,
KSEKHEHTAUT, KSEKHEHTUWWEH
= make holy, sanctify (Aupaumut)

SAND

NAUKAUWAUMQUT (Aupaumut)
NAUGOW (Metoxen)
NAÁGAÙ, NÁGAU (Schmick)

SARATOGA, N.Y.

AMISSOHAENDIEK (Early Records Albany)

SATISFY

TAUPEENNOWWUHTAUT,
TAUTAUPAUNTOMMUQ =
contented, satisfied,
TAUTAUPEHNAUYUQ =
contentment (Aupaumut)

SAVE (see LIFE)

PMAUWTHOOHHUH, PMAWUSOOHAUT,
PMAWUSOOHAUNGUUKQ,
PMAUSOOHHAUNTOWAUKUNNUK =
salvation, PMAUWTHOOW = salvation,
PMAWUSOOHHAUNTOWAUKUNNUK
= salvation,
POHPMAWUSOOHHAUMWAUK =
saving, WTAUWTHEET = he saves
(Aupaumut)
PUMMAWÚSOOHAUNGUUKQ = save us,
PUMMAWÚSOOHAUT = save, life
(Sergeant)

SAVIOR

PAIJEMOWÁHNQUA (Passion of Christ)
PACHQUACHENQUAKUP (Schmick)

SAY, TELL

ANNOIEH, ANNOIEYUH = he says,
AUNQUOH, UNNOIYEK = say,
let it be so, Amen, UNNOIYICK,

102

UNNOOQKUH = says, AUNQUAUN =
say to me, KETENNEN = say to you,
KTINNEHKAWUTHEH,
KTINNEN = say to you, WTENNAU =
saying, WTENNAUN = he said to him,
WTINNAUN = he said to him.
WEHTKUP, WEHTUMMIN = speak,
WEHTUMMOUWEEN = tell me, say,
KTINNOOHMUH = say to me,
WTENNAU = saying (Aupaumut)
KTINNETOHHUH, KTINNEH,
ANNOÌEYUWUNPUNOH,
AUNOIEHÍHTEET, ANNOIEYUH,
ANNOIEH, ANNOIEYAUK (Sergeant)
ANÉNAQUÀ = tell you, OTENNÀ = he said,
OTÉNNAHN = he said, OTÉNNA,
OTENNÁWÀ, OTÈNNAWAHN = they
spoke, OTÈNNAWÈHN = they said,
KTÉNNEN = say, AWÀK = cried, said,
KWÈCHTAMMEN, ENDÉNNAJIN,
ÁNEQUOKKÙP = said, OPANA = said,
KTENNÁNAMÉU, ODÈNNAWAHAAM
(Passion of Christ)
KTENNEN = I say to you, ANÈ, ANEKU = say
it to me, WECHTAMMAWEH (Schmick)
KTINNOIEEN (Edwards)
GTENNÒHOMME = say to you (Moravian
Archives)
WIHTOMMONNAUWOH = they declare
(Morse)
SCATTER

MÁOWEETSCH = will scatter (Passion of
Christ)

SCHAGHTICOKE, N.Y.

Also SKATEKOOK = confluence of two rivers
(Sergeant)

SCISSORS

KTACKCHÉGAN = your shears (Schmick)

SCHODACK, N.Y.

SKOOTUCK (Mass. Archives)

103

MTHOO-TAUK = flat plain, meadow (Adams)
SEA, OCEAN

KTUHNIPPEY (Aupaumut)
‘KTAUNNAUPPEH (Jenks)
GACHTAHEN, BISIS (Heckewelder)

SEAL (verb)

KESEEKHTOWWAUMKEH (Aupaumut)
OSCHÀCHKNEMNÁWA = sealed (Passion of
Christ)

SEARCH, SEEK

NAUTNIKKUP (Aupaumut)

SEAT

ODÀCHPAPÓNICK (Passion of Christ)

SECRET

NKEMIH (Morse)

SEE, LOOK

KNAMMEWEH = you see, WNAUMNUH =
he sees, WNAUPTOMMUN,
WNEMAUTUH = he sees,
WNAUWAUWAUN, NAWWAUTUH,
PNOWWAUNAUWUH,
WAUPTOMMUN = you see, behold,
OINUTTUWWAUPYAUK = what we saw
(Aupaumut)
KNAMMEWEH = you see, WNAUMUNNUH =
he sees, PNOUWENAUNUH (Sergeant)
PENNAWA = I saw, PNAU = I examine
(Tschoop)
KNAWAU, P’NAWE = look at me,
KMAWUPENAN = I will see you,
OPENÁUWAWÀ = look at (Schmick)
GNÁUNOCHMÀ = I see, KNÁUWECHMÀ =
you see, NÁUWÁU, NAWAHN = saw,
NÁUWAAP = I have seen,
NÁWOCHTÉTA = saw, see,
PNÀUWÁTAU, ÓPENAWÁU = look at,
KNÁUWECHMÀHTSCH = will see,
NAHMHATTÉTA, UNÀWAWAHN =
saw (Passion of Christ)

104

SEEK

GUHTTOW, NGUTTOW (Sergeant)
QUENAM (Schmick)

SEEM

KSEÉCHMA (Passion of Christ & Schmick)

SEIZE

ÓDÀCHWONAOWÀHN = seized (Passion of
Christ)

SENSE (noun)

NNOOHTKEH (Aupaumut)

SEPARATED

WPEKAUK = he severed, separated (Aupaumut)

SERVANT

ANÀCHKAKAN, ANÀCHKAKANÀK =
servants (Passion of Christ)

SERVE
(see WORK)

NDANNUHKUHTOUWAWU = serve him,
KTUNNUHKUHTOUWAUN
(Aupaumut)
NDANNUHKUHTOUWAWÙ = serve him,
ANNUNNUHKAUWAUK,
ANNUNNUHKIAUK,
AUNUHKUHTAUNQUUNNEEK,
ANNEHKUHTOUWAWÚ,
ANNUHKUHTAUNAUK,
AUNUHHUHKUHTEET (Sergeant)

SET UP

WTUHTAUN, WTUHTAUWON,
WTUHTUWWAUH (Aupaumut)
WTUHTOWWAUN (Morse)

SEVEN

TAUPOWWAUS (Aupaumut)
TUPOUWUS (Edwards & Du Ponceau)
TA-PAU-WAASCH, TAM-PA-WAUNSH
(Jefferson)

SEVERAL
(see AGAIN)

NUHNAUSKEWEH (Aupaumut)

SHAKE

KÓKTÒKQUAASCHSOÀK = shook their
heads (Passion of Christ)

105

SHAME

MEKHONNITHWAUKUN (Aupaumut)

SHAPE, FORM

KUHKEENNUWWOIKEH (Aupaumut)

SHARP

GÉGAN (Schmick)

SHAWNEE NATION

WESHAUWONNOOW = people of the south
(Aupaumut)

SHEEP

MEMECKHCHAUK (Aupaumut)
MAMÁAKSUSSÀK (Passion of Christ)
MAMAKSIMSAK (Schmick)

SHIELD (noun)

AUTHKETUCK (Jenks)

SHIRT

HÁMMITT = a loan word from Dutch
“hemd” for “vest” (Heckewelder)
NTAHÁMED = my shirt (Schmick)
HÁMET = linen shirt, cloth (Passion of Christ)

SHOE

MOKISIN, MUKSEN, MKITHNON
(Aupaumut)
MAUKISSUN (Metoxen)
MKISSIN (Edwards & Long)
MÁKSEN (Schmick)
MACHKESSÁN (Heckewelder)

SHOOT

NIÀMPÁQUÈ = I shoot, KP’MÀ = you shoot
(Schmick)

SHOULDER

IOTENNEMAGAN (Ettwein)

SHOW

WAUWEHTOMMONNEET (Aupaumut)
WAUWIHTNOWAUN = they show,
WPONNOOTHNEKAUN = he shows
(Morse)

SICK

THEQUUNNUHHOOKEEK = the afflicted
(Sergeant)

106

N’WENAMENSE = I am sick (Moravian
Archives)
SIDE (body part)

WAPUCHQUANEK (Schmick)
WAPÙCHQUAN (Passion of Christ)
CAPÀ-CAYAN (Jefferson)

SIGHT (see IMAGE)

AUNHQUAUPEET, AUNHQUAUPYUH =
in sight of (Aupaumut)

SIN

KMUCHCHOIWAUKONNONNAUN = sins,
MCHOIWAUKUN, MEHOI,
MCHAIWAUKUN,
MCHAIWAUKUNKUH,
MCHAIWAUKUNNUK,
MCHOIWAUKONNON,
MCHOIWAUKUNNUK,
MCHOIYAUNAUKAUCH =
if I am wicked,
MCHOIYOPONNEEK =
sinning, MCHOIYUH,
NMUCHCHOI = wicked,
NMUCHCHEH = sinning,
WMUCHCHOIWAUKUN = his sin,
transgression, MUHMCHEH,
WMUCHCHOIEWAUKUNNOWUH =
his sins,
MAUMCHOIKEEK = sinners, the
wicked, MAUMUCHOIEKEE =
sinners, MAUMUCHOIYUH,
MAUMCHOIYUH = sins,
MAUMCHOIYUN,
MUHMCHEHUNNEHHOQUAUKEEK
= sinners, debtors,
KMUCHCHOIWAUKUNNINNAUK =
our sins,
KMUHCHIHAUNIHHONUN = offend,
curse, MUCHCHEEK, MUCHEH,
MUCHCHOIWAUKONNAUN = sins,
debts, MUHMCHEH,

107

PUHPUKHKEHKKEEK = breaker,
sinner (Aupaumut)
MAUMÚCHAIEAUK, MAUCHOIEK,
MOHMAHCHEHHAUNK,
MÚHCHAIEYUWAUNKUN,
MHCHOIEYUNNUH,
MAUMÚCHOIKECK,
MAUMÙCHOIEKEH = sinners,
MAUMÚCHOIEYUN,
MÚCHEH = harm,
KMUCHCHOIYUNAUNKUNNINNAUN,
OMMUCHCHOONNOOHHANNUH,
NMUCHCHEH, NMUCHCHEEK
(Sergeant)
MATSCHAI (Schmick)
MUCHTSCHÁI = sins,
KATMAAKSETSCHEEK = sinners
(Moravian Archives)
MCHOIWAUCONNUK (Morse)
MATSCHWAGANAN,
MATSCHÁIWAGANÀN = sins,
KAT’MAHSCHÉTSCHEEK = sinners
(Passion of Christ)
MUMACHOIEAUKEH (Edwards)
SING

NACHGOCHEMA = I sing (Schmick)
NACHKOOCHEMATÉTA = they sang
(Passion of Christ)

SING-SING, N.Y.

SIN-SUNG = rocky place (Adams)

SISTER

NMASE, NMEES = elder sister (Edwards)
CHESEM = younger sister or brother
(Du Ponceau & Schmick)
N’CHESUM = my sister (Heckewelder)
NEETAUMPSOH = my sister (Barton)
WEETAUMPTHOOÁN = his sister (Jenks &
Du Ponceau)
GESCHEMUSCHAK = my sisters (Tschoop)

108

JÉSCHEMUSCHÀK = sisters (Moravian
Archives)
MEES = older sister (Ettwein & Schmick)
NMEES = elder sister (Long)
NI-TÀ-PA-SU, NA-TOM-BASÓ,
NA-TOM-PAIOH (Jefferson)
SIT

WTUQHPEET (Aupaumut)
MATTIPEH = sit down (Edwards & Long)
MATACHPÈ, MATTAPPÈ = sit down
(Schmick)
MATTAPOAAK = sit down, MÁTTAPPÉKQ =
sit down, MATÁPPE = sit,
ANIMONATTAPPEEN = he sat down
(Passion of Christ)

SIX

NQUITTAUS, NQUATTAUS, NQUOTTAUS
(Aupaumut)
NGWITTUS (Edwards & Jenks)
GUTTAASCH (Schmick)
NQÙT-TAASCH, N-CO-TAUNSH
(Jefferson)

SKIN

UCHDACHCHEYÍN, CH’DACHEYIN
(Heckewelder)
CHAI, CHEI (Schmick)
TACHEI (Ettwein)
K-HAÏ, OK-HAÏ (Jefferson)

SKUNK (pole cat)

SCHONK-SWISS (Jefferson)

SKY (see HEAVEN)

PAUMUHKUMMAUWENIYEEK (Aupaumut)
ONAUWAUK (Jenks)
PAUMUHHOMMAUWENOIEKE (Morse)
MA-TÀGHQUE (Jefferson)

SLEEP

KAUWYAUNEH, KAWWENAUK
(Aupaumut)
GAWÓHNDOWÀK = they were asleep, GAWÈ,
GAWÒHNDÓWÀK, GAWÒHNDEEKQ

109

(Passion of Christ)
NGAWÈ = I sleep, KAWÈ = you sleep
(Schmick)
GAWÍGAK = sleep (Moravian Archives)
SMALL, LITTLE

TSCHAAKSCHISÍK (Heckewelder)
TSCHACHKEWESCHE, TSCHAXESCHAK
(Schmick)
CHAK-SHA-SHA (Jefferson)

SMOKE

QUUSAUTAUWOW (Jenks)
KSCHACHTEU (Heckewelder)
XSCHÀCHTAU = it is smoke (Schmick)
CUSHATÄO (Jefferson)

SNAKE

WKHKOKON, UKHKOKPECK = snake
water, as in Copake, N.Y.
UKHKOKUNAUKHUMMOWAT =
give a snake (Aupaumut)
MAUSKUFEEHAUNK = great snake place,
as in Rattlesnake Mountain, Stockbridge,
Mass. (Indian deed)
ACH-GÒOK, KA-COKH, HA-CÒKH
(Jefferson)

SNOW

WACHSCHANÍ (Heckewelder)
WASHANÀ (Jefferson)
PACHAN (Ettwein)
PSAUNE (Barton)
M’SAUNEEH (Jenks)
PECHAAN, P’CHAN (Schmick)

SNUFF

SNUP = loan word from English (Schmick)

SOME

NAUNNQUOTTEH, NAUNQUETTEH
(Aupaumut)

SON

WTIOMUN, WTIOMON, WTIYOMON,
WTOMUN = his son, WTIOMUH = his
sons, WTIYOMIN = his son,

110

WTIYOMON = his son, KTIOM = your
son (Aupaumut)
WTIOMUN = his son (Sergeant) W’TIYOUMÁN
(Jenks)
WACKTAJOM (Moravian Archives) N’DAJÓM =
my son (Heckewelder)
N-TAI-OAM, WA-TA-IO-MÈ-MUC (Jefferson)
OTÁIJOMAN = his son, OTAJOHMA,
ÓTAJOHMÀN, OTAIJOMA, KTAJÒHN
(Passion of Christ)
OTAIJÓMA = his son, NTAJOM = my son
(Schmick)
SOON

ÉNE = soon, at once (Passion of Christ)

SORRY

NSHEWAUNTUM = I am sorry, I repent, I
grieve (Aupaumut)
NSHEWAUNTUM (Sergeant)
SCHÉWAHNDAM = sorrowful (Passion of
Christ)
SCHEWAHNDAM = sad, sorrowful (Schmick)

SOUR

SCHWANN (Heckewelder)

SOUTH

SCHAWANNAK (Heckewelder)

SPEAK
(see WORD, SAY)

DINAUPTONAUN, NONAUMUH,
WEHTUMMIN (Aupaumut)
NONAUMUH (Sergeant)
WÁUNAAPTONAMÀ = spoke,
AHNTOHNHÁIJÈ = have spoken,
ANNÁTA = spoke, ÁNIAN = say,
ANEKÚN = said, AAPTONÁU = he
spoke, ÁINÁAPTONAAT = he spoke
(Passion of Christ)
UDENAAPTONAN = he speaks, APTONAU =
he speaks, KTAPTONA = you speak,
AHAAPTONAWUNÀ = he has spoken (Schmick)

SPEAR

IKUTTEKUN (Aupaumut)

111

ASCHAWACHKHÉGANÀ = with a spear
(Schmick)
ASCHAWÀCHKEGANÀ = spears (Passion of
Christ)
SPILL, SHED

SOOKUHNAUNKOOP (Sergeant)
SÓKHHANAAP, SOKANATOOP (Schmick)
SOKACHNÀHK (Passion of Christ)

SPIRIT, GHOST, SOUL

KCHICHCHUHQNAUK, KCHIHCHUHQ,
KCHICHCHUHYNAUK = spirit,
your soul, WCHICHCHUHQUEEN,
WCHICHOHKOO,
WCHICHQUENAUK,
WCHICHCHUHQWAU = spirits,
WCHICHCHUHQUN,
WCHICHCHOHQUN,
WCHICHCHOHQUEWEH,
WCHICHCHOHQUUN = his spirit,
WCHICHUHQUK = his spirit,
WCHECHUKKOOW,
WCHEHCHUHQUN,
WEHICHCHOHQUN,
WHCICHCHUHQUENUH = probably
a misspelling, NICHOIEHTEET = souls,
NCHICHCHUHQ = my soul,
NCIHCHUHQUOHK = my soul,
NCHICHCHOHQUN = my soul,
NEHIEHHUHQ = my soul, WAUNTHUT
MENNITOOW = Great and Good Spirit,
MTON-TOOW = wicked spirit
(Aupaumut)
KCHICHCHOHQ, NCHICHCHOHKOO,
KCHICHCHOHQ, KCHÚHCHOCHQ,
KCHCHIHOHAQ, NICHOICHTEET =
souls, WCHICHCHCHOHQUUN,
WCHICHCHOHQUENAUKANNEH,
WCHICHHOHQWAUH,
NCHICHCHOHQUUNNAUNK,
NEHICHCHOH = my soul,

112

KCHICHOHQNGUMMAUWEH,
NCHICHCHOHQUUNNAUK,
KEHICHEHOH, WCHIHCHOHQUUN
NCHICHCHOHQUUN = my soul
(Sergeant)
MANNITO (Edwards)
NIANTSCHITSCHÀCHKQ = my soul (Passion
of Christ)
WATSCHITSCHACHQUAJACKQ,
WCHUCHCHUHQUEEN (Morse)
WATSCHITSCHÀCHQUAJÀCKQ,
TSCHITSCHACHKONANAU,
OTSCHITSCHAQUA (Schmick)
TSCHISSCHAAK (Heckewelder)
JSHEEPY (Metoxen)
SPIT

USÈSCOMAWÀ, UZÈSCOMAWÀ – incorrect
use of Z (Passion of Christ)
OSISSEGOMÁWA = they spat (Schmick)

SPLIT

PAPASECHNAHN = split apart (Passion of
Christ)

SPRING (season)

SHAQUÁN, SÈ-QUON (Jefferson)
THEQUAN (Jenks)

SPRING (water)

TWACHQ (Heckewelder)
T’WÀCHK (Schmick)

SQUASH

WHNUNNEKUTHKOATKUN = Indian
Squash (MHS Collections)

SQUIRREL

M-SAIJO, MOW-CK-KEY, ANÀKOSHÌSH
= ground squirrel, PÀC-CAN-NÀ-QUO
= flying squirrel (Jefferson)

STAND

PÁHSUKQUÉU = stood up (Passion of Christ)

STAR

ANAUQUAUTH (Jenks)
ANAKUS (Heckewelder & Du Ponceau)

113

ANAKUSSAK = stars (Heckewelder)
ANAHUSAK = stars ( Ettwein)
ANÀKUSÀC (Jefferson)
ANOCKSUK (Barton)
STAY

NANNÒAJEKQ, NÁNNEAJÈ = stay here
(Passion of Christ)

STEAL

KMOOTHUN = you steal (Aupaumut)
KMOOTIN (Sergeant)
KMOOT (Schmick)
ODENNOOCHTÀNAWA (Passion of Christ)

STICK (noun)

MATÓKQUAN = sticks, staves (Passion of
Christ)

STINK

MACHTSCHÉMAQUÀT = it smells bad,
MÄTSCHÀMMAKWAT = it stinks or
smells evil (Schmick)

STOCKBRIDGE, MASS.

WUNNUGHQTOKOKE,
WUNNUKKTOOKOKE (Aupaumut)
WONNAHKATUKOKE (Panoplist)
ANNAHKUTOOK (Massachusetts Archives)
WNOGQUETOOKOKE = bend of the river
(Edwards)

STOMACH

WENOCHHACKGU (Büttner)

STONE, ROCK

KTHON (Aupaumut)
OSSUN (Metoxen)
ASSUN (Ettwein)
ASSÍNN, ACHSINN (Heckewelder)
AHZÈN – the Z’s are incorrect, NÈZÈN,
ASCÈNNAN = rocks (Passion of Christ)
SUN, SUNNON = stones, MAGOHSONNON
= great heap of stones,
SUNNUNNAUMAUKEH = heap of
stones, SENNAMACHKIN = large
heap of stones (Woodbridge)

114

MAGHHOCK SUNNUN = heap of stones
(Duane)
CHECAWEKE = little heap of stones
(Woodbridge)
SUN (Van Valkenburgh)
SIN-SUNG = rocky place (Adams)
OSIN-SINK = place of stones, as in
Ossining, N.Y. (Metoxen)
THAUNAUMKU (Jenks)
STOP

EYUHQUAUYOOQ, EYUHQUEH,
EIUHTAUQ (Aupaumut)
EIUHTAU (Sergeant)
ÁCHQUE, ACHQU (Schmick)

STRAIGHT

SAUKHKEH, SAUKHKEKHUCH =
straight, right, SAUKOKHHAUK =
certainly, TAUKEEKSKEKUT
WSAUKHKEH = righteous (Aupaumut)
SCHACHACHGAJIK (Heckewelder)

STRANGER

PEENWOY (Aupaumut)

STRENGTH

KTUHWAUPAUWAUKUNNONNAUK =
thy strength,
WAUTUHWAUPAUWEHTECHEH =
will be strengthened, nourished
(Aupaumut)
ODÀSSANEHAAN = strengthened him
(Passion of Christ)
SHANNAWE = strong (Morvian Archives)
DUHWAUPAWCON, UHWAUPAUWEET =
strong, effectual (Morse)

STRONG
(see EFFECTUAL)

UHWAUPAUWEET = strong, effectual
(Aupaumut)

STUPID, DUMB

CHAUNIWEET (Aupaumut)
TSCHANNEIUWE (Schmick)

115

SUBDUE

WUHQUHKAUQUQ = subdue us (Aupaumut)

SUBMIT

UNNUQNITHYUQ (Aupaumut)

SUDDENLY

TIYUCHCHEEW (Aupaumut)

SUFFER
(see MISERABLE)

THAUTHIKEH, THAUTHIYUKEH,
THOIKOIUSUH, THOIEKOIKUP =
suffered (Aupaumut)
MUMMUKHHUHWAUNTUMMENAUSUH =
feel misery (Sergeant)

SUMMER

NEPON (Jenks)
NIPÉN (Heckewelder)
NEEPUN, NIPEN (Barton)
NAPÚN, NÈ-PEN (Jefferson)

SUN

KEESHOGH (Edwards, Jenks,
Long, Du Ponceau, Barton)
KEESHOH (Metoxen)
GISCHÔCH (Heckewelder)
GESHOCH (Ettwein)
GI-SCHUCH, KAJÓ (Jefferson)

SUPERIOR, MORE THAN NOTAUWEH (Aupaumut)
SUPPER

KTENNAUQUEPETUP,
KTONNAUQUEPETUP
(Aupaumut)
ONAQUEPEHN (Schmick)

SUPPORT, MAINTAIN

CHETONAUTHEEK (Aupaumut)

SURE, CERTAINLY

WAUWECHEKHUN (Morse)
MUCHTSCH = truly, very, certainly, surely
MÚCHTSCHE (Schmick)
MÚCHTSCHEED (Passion of Christ)

SURRENDER

NMAUKENNUH = I give way, surrender
(Aupaumut)

116

SWEAT

NTAPPAJUWECHNÀ = I sweat (Schmick)
OTA’PPAJÒHM = sweat (Passion of Christ)

SWEET

WEEKCHAUPOQUOT (Aupaumut)
SHOOKKÚTEPOOQUOHK (Sergeant)
WICÁN (Heckewelder)
KÓNAIWÁGAN = sweetness (Schmick)
SOOKTEPOOKTUH = sweet, honey (Morse)

SWORD

QUENNEHTUHHECUN = long cut
(Aupaumut)

TABLE

AACHTANEPÉMICK, AACHTANEPÉMIK
(Passion of Christ)

TAKE

NÁTENÒCHQ, ONÁTENAHN = he took ,
NÁTENÀ, NÀHTSCH, NAHM, NÁTEM,
KNÀTENIMNÁWÀ = take away,
ONÒTENIMMÓWÚN, ONÀTENAHN =
took, ÓTENNÒCHANNAWÀHN = they
took, AWANÓCHKQ = take him,
ODÀWANAWAHN = they took (Passion
of Christ)
NÁTENIMMEN, NÁTENE, KNATENIM = you
take (Schmick)
NEECHNAWAK = take down,
NEECHNÈMMOWÙN = take away,
remove, ONEECHNIMNÁWA = took
(Passion of Christ)

TAKE UP

WTOKHHEYUNNUH = he takes up
(Aupaumut & Sergeant)

TALL

PEHTUHQUISSO, KPEHTUHQUISSEH =
you are tall, KPEHTUHQUISSEHMUH
= ye are tall, NPEHTUHQUISSEH = I am
tall, PEHTUHQUISSEECHEEK = the
tall men, PEHTUHQUISSEET = the man
who is tall, PEHTUHQUISSOO = he is

117

tall, PEHTUHQUISSOOUK = they are
tall (Edwards)
TARGET, MARK

WEESHÉCAN (Schmick)

TASTE

QTAHTOMMONNUH (Aupaumut)
WEGACHTAMMEN (Schmick)

TEACH
(see COMMANDMENT)

KHUKKEEMQUOHKEH,
KKOHKEEMQUONNAUNUH,
KKOHKEEMQUNNAUNUH,
KKOHKOOT, KKUHKOTOM,
KKUHKOOTKEH = teaching,
KKUHKOOKHTAUT,
WKOHKUHKEEMAU = he taught,
KKOHKEEMKONOQ = you teach us
(Aupaumut)
KKOHKEEMKÓNÒQ = you teach us,
KKOHKEMEYAUK,
KKOHKEEMKIAUK,
KKOHKEEMQUAUK,
KKOHKEEMQUAUKEH,
KKOHKEEMKTAUK (Sergeant)
PAACHWECHCAWATOWÁGAN =
teaching, GAGACHGEMA,
GAGACHGÉMEN = I will teach you
(Schmick)
PAACHWECHGAWAWEEN = teaching,
KAKACHKÈMÁJANEEK = teaching,
ÁNAKÀCHKÓTEMÀ = teach (Passion of
Christ)

TEAR, REND

NOOKKEEPHOKOWAUK (Aupaumut)
ODÁTTANÀKNEMMÈN (Passion of Christ)

TELL

WNITHTOMMEHNUH = tell you,
WAUWEHTOMMAUNAUQUEHAUM =
if I have told you (Aupaumut)
ANÈNAQUÀ, ANÈNNENAWÀ = told,
ANÈNANÀ (Passion of Christ)

118

TEMPTATION

QCHEHHOKAUWUQ = tempted,
QCHEHOOTWAUKUNNUK,
QQUAUCHEHHOKIYUQQUH =
tempted (Aupaumut)
NOTAMOOK (Passion of Christ)

TEN

DONNIT, DONNET, DUNNET, DUNNIT
(Aupaumut)
MTANNIT (Edwards & Jenks)
M-TÀN-NET, N-DA-NÉT (Jefferson)

TESTAMENT

NAUKKTOHMAUTEEMUK,
NAUKKTOHMAUTEMUK (Aupaumut)
ANÀKSTOWÁGAN (Passion of Christ)

TESTIFY

KKENOUWEHNAUNK,
KKEENNOWWEENNOMMEHTEET,
KKEENNOONHTHEMUK = testimony,
KKEENNOWWEHTIYUQ = testimony,
WTAUPTONAUWAUKUN = his
testimony, word (Aupaumut)
KKENOUWEHNAUNK (Sergeant)

THANKS

WTAUKOMAUYUQ = thankful (Aupaumut)
ANNISHSHEEK, ANNISHSHEH,
ANNITHSHEH, SANNISHSHEH
(Sergeant)
ONÉOWE (Schmick)
ONEWE (Tschoop)
WNEEWEH = I thank you (Edwards & Long)

THE, THAT, THOSE

NIK, NEH, NUH, NOOK, NOOH, NE, NUK,
NEE, HUCH, HUHCH, NICH,
NICHNAUP, NOEK, NICHOIEHTEET =
that is, NOKE, NOOHHUH, NOOHUN,
NOONUNNOIYAW = these be
(Aupaumut)
NE, NÚH, NÉH, NEEK (Sergeant)
NEEK = these, those (Schmick)

119

NEEN, NAHK’MA = to them, NOON,
NAHK’MÁWA = to them, WÁTSCHE =
that (Passion of Christ)
NONAK = these (Heckewelder)
NEHK (Moravian Archives)
THEN

KAUM, KNEECH, KOCHEEH, KUHNUH
(Aupaumut)
KAUM, KOCHEH, KUHNUH (Sergeant)
IHÁK, IHÀ, IHANNÈ (Passion of Christ)

THEREFORE, THEN

KOCHEH, NIHWAUCH (Aupaumut)
KOCHEH (Sergeant)

THERE

KOHCHEH (Aupaumut)

THEY

IYONHEAW, IYONHEEW, NEEKKUH
(Aupaumut)

THIGH

PO-O-MÁN (Jefferson)

THINGS

OHQUOIKEH, UHQUOIKEH = creatures,
bodies, things, QUAKI = thing
(Aupaumut)
OHQUOIEKEH, OHQUAUEKEH,
OQUOIEKEH (Sergeant)

THINK

UNNETUHHUHHAUQ (Aupaumut)
ANÈTAHÁU = he thinks, ANETAHÁWAK =
they think, NTENÈTÁHA = I think
(Schmick)
ANÈTAHÁTAMEN = thought,
KTENÈTAHAMÀ = you think,
ÁNETAHAAD, MESCHÁNEMÀ =
think of me (Passion of Christ)

THIRSTY

KAUTOOTHMOWAUTKUT (Aupaumut)
GATTOSOME (Tschoop)
GATOSOME, NGATTÓSOME = I am thirsty
(Schmick)

120

GTOSOMEJÀH (Moravian Archives)
THIS

NUNNEH (Aupaumut)
NÈN (Passion of Christ)

THOSE, THESE

NEEK, NEECH, NIK, NICH, NECKKNH,
NEEN, NIKAUM = those who,
NEENKUH, NECHOWWAUN = those
who, NECKKNH, NEEKCHEH = they
will, NEEKCHEHNEH = they will,
NEENCHEH = those will, NIKKAUCH
those shall, NUHTAUN = those, that
which, NUHTAUNOWWAUN = those
who (Aupaumut)
NEEK, NEEN (Sergeant)
NONAK (Heckewelder)
NEEK (Schmick & Edwards)

THOUGHTS

IINNETUHHAUN = bad thoughts,
IYAUTTKETUHHAUWAUKUNNON =
clean thoughts,
UNNETUHHAUWAUKONNUK =
thoughts (Aupaumut)
AINETAHAN = thought (Tschoop)
ÁNETAHAAD = he thinks (Passion of Christ)
NTENÈTÁHA = I think, I thought,
ANETAHÁWAK = they thought,
ANETAHÁU = he thought (Schmick)
ANETAUHAUWONGHON, ANNETAHHAUN
(Edwards)

THREE

NAUKHKEEMQUOHK, NKHAUNNOIKEEK
NKHEWEH, NKHOOQNEWEH = third
day (Aupaumut)
NACHA, NECHEK (Schmick)
NACHÀNNÀ = third time,
NACHCHÀNTSCHE = three times,
NACHCHÓKENÀK = third,
NACHCHÓKENAKKÁKÀ = third day
(Passion of Christ)

121

NOGHHOH (Edwards)
NAKHHAK (Du Ponceau)
NUS (Jefferson)
THROAT

GUTTAGAN (Ettwein)

THROUGH

KOOHNOWWEH (Aupaumut0
AUSOKHAUN (Morse)

THUNDER

PAUTQUAUHAN (Jenks)
PATAQUAHÒN (Jefferson)

TIME

KENAUWEWENOQUICQ,
NEENOQUICQ = of time (Jenks)
MAJÁNAPOWÁGAN, T’PESKAWECHNÁU
(Schmick)
T’PISGAWECHNÁU (Passion of Christ)

TIRED

N’SCHEWOCHSANNÈ = I am tired
(Schmick)

TO

ANNEH, UNNEH, HUNNEH (Aupaumut)
ANNEH, NUH (Sergeant)
ÁNE, ANÈ (Schmick)
ANÈ (Passion of Christ)

TODAY
(see DAY)

NONO = now (Aupaumut)
NÓNO, NONO WACHGAMAK (Schmick)
CÁJOWÁNCAMÁC (Jefferson)

TOE

N’SET (Ettwein)
NOCHK-SÉ-CAN (Jefferson)

TOGETHER

TOHTÚQUEWEH (Sergeant)
TOHTQUEWIH (Morse)
PASÙKQUENAWÀ = as one, together
(Passion of Christ)

TOMORROW

WUPKOH, WUPKAUCH (Edwards)
WÁPACHCA, WAPACHGAATSCH (Schmick)

122

WAMPOKAH (Jefferson)
TONGUE

WEENANNUH (Barton)
WNANNE, WENANNE (Ettwein)
WINANNOWIN, NEENANNUH = my tongue
(Du Ponceau)
WENANÓWÍN, WINANNOWIN
(Heckewelder)
CA-NANNÒ (Jefferson)

TOO (MUCH)

WSAUM (Aupaumut)
OSAME (Schmick)

TOOTH

WEPEETON = tooth, his teeth (Edwards, Du
Ponceau & Long)
WEEPEETAN, OUIPITAN (Barton)
WEPITÍN (Heckewelder)
CATÒMPATÀN, [W]E-PIT (Jefferson)

TOP, OVER

WAUSEKEWEH = on top, over (Aupaumut)
WAUSEKEH (Sergeant)

TORCH

WÀSNANEMAAK = torches (Passion of
Christ)
WAHS’NANÉGAN = light (Schmick)

TOUCH

UKÙTTANIMMÈN (Schmick)
KÓTENOMÓUN (Passion of Christ)

TRAMPLE

WTOIKPONKAUNAUWAUN (Aupaumut)

TRANSGRESSION

PUKHKEHKAUSEKUH = transgression,
breaking, PUKHKUKPANNEEK =
transgressors, breakers, PUKHKUK =
break, PUHPUKHKEHKKEEK =
breaker, sinner (Aupaumut)
PUKHKÙMUKPANNEH = had broken the law
(Sergeant)
PACHKENIMMEN = break off (Schmick)

123

TREE (see WOOD)

MTOOQ, MTOQUN (Aupaumut)
MITTUK, MITTOOK (Metoxen)
MACHTOK, MACHTOCKU = in a tree
(Schmick)
MAH-TUC, MAGH-HA-CHUNGH,
SHTUNG-QUÄUM = pine tree
(Jefferson)

TREMBLE

NAUNNIKKEHNAUT = trembler (Aupaumut)
NEKÈCHNÁU = trembled, shook, quaked,
NEKÈCHNÁU AHHKI = earthquake
(Passion of Christ)

TROD UPON

OIHPONKAUMUK (Aupaumut)

TRUE

MIYAUWEH, MAUYAUWEH,
MIYAUWWAUCHEH = truly,
WNAUMAUCH = sincere, true
(Aupaumut)
MÍAUWEH (Sergeant)
NENÁJU, KAHANE, KÁHANNA = truly
(Schmick)
N’HANICHK (Heckewelder)
GAHANE (Tschoop)
MÚCHTSCHE, = truly, surely, certainly,
KAHÉNNE = truly (Passion of Christ)
MUCHTSCHE (Moravian Archives)
CONUTTUH (Morse)
WAH-WUH-NUH-MAHT = this true man
(Adams)
WAH-NUH-WAH-MEET = very true man,
name for Rev. Jesse Miner (Davidson)

TRUST

KTAUPEHNKAUNOOQ = you trust,
NHKAUTUMMAUNUH = I trust
(Aupaumut)
NHKAUNTUMMAUNUH = I trust (Sergeant)

TRUTH

ONAUMAUWAUKUN,
WNAUMAUWAUKUN, WNAUMAUCH

124

= sincere, true,
SAUSAUKHKONNOHKAUT
(Aupaumut)
ANNUMMENAUWAUNKUN (Sergeant)
WNAUMAUWAUCONNOWON = his
judgements (Morse)
TRY, ENDEAVOR

QCHOIYEK (Aupaumut)
KTATTACHGA = try it, taste it
(Schmick)

TUB

TÒPSCHÉSEK (Passion of Christ)

TURKEY

TOONPAOOH (Barton)

TURN

UDENNIKKUNEPPEEN = turned (Passion of
Christ)
UDENNÌKUNEPPEEN = turned around,
KUNÈPPENÈ = turn around (Schmick)

TURN ABOUT

KPITQUEHTAUKOWAUK (Aupaumut)

TWELVE

NISCHANKAU (Jenks)
NÉSCHA NACHKÀ (Ettwein & Schmick)
NA-SHÀH-NA-CAÙGH, NI-SCHA-NKAU
(Jefferson)

TWO

NEESHKEEMQUOHK, NEESHKEEMQUOH,
NHEEWAUM = second time ,
NEETHKTAUNNUMMOWAUKUN =
the second one ? (Aupaumut)
NEESOH (Edwards)
NESCHE, NESCHACH, NESCHÓAKNAK =
two days (Schmick)
NESCHWAK (Tschoop)
NÉES (Jefferson)
NISSAKÈ, NÉSCHOWÀK, NÉSCHENTSCHE
= twice (Passion of Christ)

UGLY

MACHTITT (Heckewelder)

125

MTISSOO = he is homely, MTIT = good for
nothing (Edwards)
UNABLE, CANNOT

NAUMON (Aupaumut)

UNCLE

OOSETHÁN (Jenks)
NSEES = my uncle (Long & Edwards)
NSASE = my uncle on mother’s side,
NUCHEHQUE = my uncle on
father’s side (Edwards)
WÁCHESA (Schmick)

UNDER, BELOW

AUQUEWEH (Aupaumut)

UNDERGO

WTOIYUMMUTTUMMONNAUPONNEH =
he underwent, WTOMTOMNAUP = he
underwent (Aupaumut)

UNDERSTAND

NOOHTOMMONNUH (Morse)
KNENÓCHTANÒ = understand you (Schmick)
KNENÒCHTANÒ = I understand (Passion of
Christ)

UNITE
(see ONCE)

NQUITTEHHOQUNNAUNUH = unite us,
UNNEEKHKUH = united (Aupaumut)

UNLESS, EXCEPT

HCHIMMAUN, KCHEMMAU,
KCHEMAUNAUM
(Aupaumut)

UNTIL

TOHTPAUPEH, TUH PAUCHEH,
TUHCHEH PAUCHEH (Aupaumut)
SACHKÈ, SÀCHKE, PAATSCHÈ = before,
in front, until (Passion of Christ)
SACHKE (Moravian Archives)

UNTO

PSIHKAUCH (Morse)

UNWORTHY

NONNUHKAUTOKHOHTEEQ (Aupaumut)

126

UPON, IN

UNNAUP (Aupaumut)

UPRIGHT

NONOI = be upright (Morse)

USE

EHHOWWOHHAUN = make use of,
OWWUHHIYUQ (Aupaumut)

USUAL, ORDINARY

NQUMMAWU (Aupaumut)

VALLEY

PASAJIK (Heckewelder)

VERILY

HTHONNEWEH, HTHUNNEWEH
(Aupaumut)

VERY

KACHNÈ (Passion of Christ)
KAHNUH (Edwards)

VINEGAR

EHK (Passion of Christ)

VIOLIN

PIONHAMÀ = you play (the violin),
PIONHAMÁU = he plays, possibly
from the Dutch “viool.” (Schmick)

VIRTUE

WAUWAUKKONNUK, MENOONSQUOH =
virtuous woman, name given to Abigail,
John Sergeant’s daughter (Aupaumut)

VOICE

AUTONNIH (Morse)
KÁCHNACHÀ (Passion of Christ)
KÀCHNA (Schmick)
TONAÙ (Moravian Archives)

WALK

PUMISSEH = walk, go, NDINNOGHOH = I
walk to, PUMISSO = he walks,
PUMISSOOUK = they walk,
KPUMSEH = you walk,
KPUMSEHMUH = ye walk,
NPUMSEH = I walk, NPUMSEHNUH =
we walk, NOTOGHOGH = I walk from,
PAUMSE-AN = thou walking,

127

PAUMSEAUK = we walking,
PAUMSEAUQUE = ye walking,
PAUMSEECHEEK = they walking,
they who walk, PAUMSEET = the man
who walks, PAUMSEET = he walking,
PAUMSE-UH = I walking (Edwards)
PUMISSEH (Long)
POMSE = I am going (Schmick)
WAMPUM

NUNNCHTKCHK, SQUAU-THO-WON =
belts of wampum (Aupaumut)
NUNNEHTTUHUH, NUNNEHTHHEH
(Foster-Clements Papers)

WANT

GÁTTAWÈ, GATTÀU (Passion of Christ)

WAR

AIOTEEN (Ettwein)
OIOTEET = he who fights (Edwards)

(see FIGHT)
WAR CLUB

PUHWY (Aupaumut)

WARM

APPESSÈ, APPEEN (Schmick)
APÉSSEEN (Passion of Christ)

WARN

EHHOMMAUMQUOHTHEEN = he is warned
(Morse)

WARRIOR, SOLDIER

WÀCHPASCHÉSAK = soldiers,
WÀCHPASCHÈSCHAK = soldiers,
WÀCHPASEHESCHÀ,
WÀCHPASCHÉSCHA,
WÁCHPASCHEES,
WÒCHPASÉKQ = watch, (Passion of
Christ)

WASH

KSCHEECHTANÀ (Passion of Christ)

WATCH, GUARD

OCHPAASSEU, WÒCHPASÉKQ,
WÀCHPASCHÉSAK = soldiers,
OCHPAASSÉKQ, OCHPAASSÉU

128

(Passion of Christ)
WATER

BEEY (Aupaumut)
NEBEE (Metoxen)
NBEY (Long, Edwards & Barton)
M’BY (Heckewelder)
MBEI (Schmick)
E’MBEI (Passion of Christ)
M’PPEH (Jenks)
AHMEN (Ettwein)
BEI (Jefferson)

WATER BETWEEN HILLS P’WEGAWAHANNEK (Heckewelder)
WATERFALL

PAUTNAUKUH, PAUTNAUKKUH
(Aupaumut)
PATTENOCK (Nimham)
PEETON (Naunaumptaunk)
PATENHOOK, PUTTENHOUCK (Duane)
PATTEN (Van Valkenburgh)
PATTENNOCK (Woodbridge)

WAY

PONNOWEH, TUHTUWWONNAUTH
(Aupaumut)

WAYS

NTHETON (Aupaumut)

WE, OUR

KEYAUNUH, KEAUNUH, NAUNUH,
NAUPAUNEH (Aupaumut)
KEAUWUH, NEANNEH (Edwards)
NEAUNUH (Edwards & Long)
KIANAU, NIÁNA (Schmick)
KAUNNUH (Morse)
KIÁNAU, NIÁNA (Passion of Christ)
KIANOOK, KIÁNAÙ (Moravian Archives)

WEA TRIBE

WAWYUHTONNOOW (Aupaumut)

WEALTH, ESTATE

AUNEEKHHUNYUQ, AUNEEKHUNYUQ,
AUNEEKHKHUNNEET,

129

AUNEEKKHUNNEET (Aupaumut)
WEEP, CRY

MAHN = wept, cried (Passion of Christ)
MAHN = cried, KMÀHN, KMAAP = you cry
(Schmick)

WELL

WÁNAMANSOHAANQUÁCK = make well or
healthy, KONAMANSOHANE = make
healthy (Schmick)
KÓNAMACHMÀ (Passion of Christ)

WEST

ACHNETUPPÍT (Heckewelder)
TACHGAMAAK (Schmick)

WET

M’BIJÚ (Heckewelder)

WHAT, WHY

KAUQUI, KAUQUEH, KAUQUIKUH,
KUUQUI, THUH (Aupaumut)
KAUQUI, KAUQUIEWEEK (Sergeant)
GAQUAI (Tschoop, Schmick, Moravian
Archives & Passion of Christ)
GAQUÁY (Moravian Archives)
KAUQUI (Morse)

WHAT MUST

TAUNEKAUCH, TAUNKAUTAW, TAUNEEK
(Aupaumut)
TAUNEKAUCH, TAUNEECH (Sergeant)

WHATEVER

UNNUWAECH (Aupaumut)

WHEN

YUHHUH, MUHCHEH = when, already
(Aupaumut)
MUCHTSCHE (Schmick)
MÁCHTSCHE = when, as soon as, IHA
(Passion of Christ)
TAN (Moravian Archives)

WHERE

THOH, THOHCH (Aupaumut)
THOH, THOHEH, THOKCH (Sergeant)
TEHAH (Edwards & Long)

130

TAN, T’HÁCTA, THAAK, THÀ (Schmick)
ÁTANEETSCH (Passion of Christ)
WHEREBY, WHEREIN

WAUCHEH, WAUCHEECH, WAUCH,
WAUCHAUM, MAUCHEH,
MOHWCHEH = whereby,
WUHWEHEH, WUHWTUQQUEH,
WUHWCHEH, WEEWWHECHEWEH,
WAUCHAUMMTOPPEET =
wherein born, WOOCHEH (Aupaumut)
WAUCHEH, WOOCHEH, WOHWOOCHEH,
WAUCHEHAUM, WAUWOONNEH
(Sergeant)
WATSCHE = therefore, for that reason, WAK
(Schmick)
WAUK, WEWHCHIH (Morse)

WHICH

TAUNEECH, NUHNEH, TAUNEKAUCH =
what must, TAUNKAUTAW = what must
(Aupaumut)

WHILE

THUHKEH (Aupaumut)

WHIP (verb)

HÉSAAMSCHAHAAN = whipped,
HASSAAMSCHAHÁJAQUA (Passion
of Christ)
N’SASAMTSCHAHÁU = I whip him,
NSASAMTSCHAHANA = we punish
him (Schmick)

WHITE

WAUPAUYOOH = animate,
WAUPAUYUK = inanimate
(Metoxen)
WAPAJÚ (Heckewelder)
WAPÁJU (Schmick)
WAUPAAEEK, WAUNPÁYOOH (Barton)
WOMPAYÓ, WOA-PA-JÙ (Jefferson)

WHITE PEOPLE

CHUCKOPEK, CHUCKKATHUK
(Aupaumut)

131

TSCHACHKÓSAK (Schmick)
CHOCHECHOKE SEEPOOTO =
Larrywaug Brook (Stockbridge
Proprietors Book)
SWANNEKUS = white men, Dutch (Esopus)
WHO

OWWAUN = who, one, someone, OWAUN,
AUWWAUN, AUM, OWWAUNECK,
OUWAUN, WAUMQUUN,
AWWAUNEEK = who are (Aupaumut)
OWAUN, OWAUNEEK, AUM (Sergeant)
AWAAN, AWÁHN (Heckewelder)
AWAN, AWANÒ (Schmick)
AAM, AWAHN, AWÁNEETSCH (Passion of
Christ)
AWAUN, AWAUNEEK (Edwards)
OWWAUM (Morse)

WHOEVER

UNNUWTAUN, UNNUWTAUNOWWAUN,
UNNUWWUCHTAUNOWWAUN
(Aupaumut)

WHOLE

KAHNE (Moravian Archives)
MÚCHQUETEET = in whole, wholly (Passion
of Christ)

WHY

GÁQUAATSCH, WAATSCH (Passion of
Christ)

WIDE, BROAD

MKHEEKSKEKHUN (Aupaumut)

WIFE

WEWON (Aupaumut)
WEEWON (Barton & Du Ponceau)
WEEWONE (Jenks)
WEEWEEN = to marry (Edwards & Long)
WEWA (Schmick)
WIWA, WE-NA-SÒ (Jefferson)
NIU = my wife (Heckewelder)

WILDERNESS

TUWOHKEEK (Aupaumut)

132

WILL, DESIRE

AUNCHOOWAUTUMMUN,
AUNHCHOWAUTUK,
AUNHCHOWAUTOMMUN,
KTENHCHOWAUNWAUKUNNUNNUH
= wills, WEKEK (Aupaumut)
AUNNÚCHOOWAUNTUMMUN,
AUNÚHCHOOWAUNTUMMUN,
ANNUCHOOWAUNTUK (Sergeant)
KTÉNNAJIN = his will (Schmick)
AUNCHUWUTAMMUN (Edwards)

WILL, SHALL

-CHEH = particle of futurity (Aupaumut)
-CHIH (Morse)
-TSCH (Schmick)
- TSCHE (Passion of Christ)

WIND (noun)

KSUKHONOWWUTKHUN (Aupaumut)
‘KSAUGHON (Jenks)
KSHACHHEN (Ettwein)
GASCHCHÚK (Heckewelder)
CHAHUN (Jefferson)

WINE

WINE (Aupaumut & Sergeant)

WINTER

POON, HPOON (Jenks)
PUN (Heckewelder)
POON, PO-ÓNE (Jefferson)
HPOON (Edwards, Long, & Barton)

WIPE

OPAQUÉQUAMAWÁHN (Passion of Christ)

WISDOM

WSAUKHKUNNUHKAUWAUKUN
(Aupaumut)

WISE

WUKHKEETTHUNNUH (Aupaumut)

WISH

NNUPPEET (Aupaumut)
D’NÈTAHAWÀN, ANÈTAHAJÀN (Passion of
Christ)

133

CHÁNNE = I wish (Moravian Archives)
WITH

WCHEH, WECHEH, WEKEH, NKHPEH
NUKHPEH (Aupaumut)
WAUCHEH, WEKEH, NUKHPEH (Sergeant)
WCHIH (Morse)
WATSCHE, WICI = together (Schmick)
UTSCHÈ (Passion of Christ)
WAZHE (Tschoop)
TAWAHÁN (Moravian Archives)

WITHIN

TUHHEECH (Aupaumut)

WITHOUT
(see NO)

ESTOTKEH, ESTOTTKEH (Aupaumut)

WITNESS

WEETNITHTHEEMKEH = a loan word
from English (Aupaumut)
WEETNUTHTHEEK (Morse)
KÁKKENONOWÁGAN (Passion of Christ &
Schmick)

WOLF

MEEKHCHAUK = wolves (Aupaumut)
MECHCHAOOH (Barton)
MA-UN-CHAÖU (Jefferson)

WOMAN

PKHAUNMAUN (Aupaumut)
PCHANÚM (Heckewelder)
P’CHÁNIM, WENASOOS = old woman
(Schmick)
P’HÀGANDAHN (Passion of Christ)
P’GHAINOOM, WEENAUTHOOTH = old
woman (Jenks)
PCHANUM = grown woman (Du Ponceau)
P-HANUM, PHÀ-NOM (Jefferson)
MAHIKIASQUOH = woman of the nation
(name given to Mary Sergeant)
WAUNSQUAUT = good woman (name given
to Harriet Sergeant)
NEEH-NEESQUOH = a flourishing woman

134

(name given to Betsy Sergeant)
MENOOSQUOH = a virtuous woman (name
given to Abigail Sergeant)
WOMB

DOMMEKAUW (Aupaumut)

WONDERFUL

KUHMAUMUHCHEH = wonderful
things (Aupaumut)

WONDERS, MIRACLES

MAUMUHCHOWWONNUHKAUWON,
MAUMUHCHUW,
MAUSAUNTOMHUN = wonder,
marvel (Aupaumut)
MAUNSHAUNTUMMUN (Sergeant)

WOOD, TREE, STICK

MTOOQ (Aupaumut)
MITTUK (Metoxin)
METOOQUE (Long, Edwards & Barton)
MACHTOK (Schmick)
MACHTACHEN, MACHTÚK
(Heckwelder)
MATÒKQ = stick, reed, Christ’s cross,
MACHTÒKQ, MATÒKKUK
(Passion of Christ)

WOODCHUCK (monax)

MONAGH-CÀO (Jefferson)

WORD, SPEECH

AUPTOONNAUWAUKUN,
AUNNAUPTOONEKUHK = words,
AUPTOONNAUWAUKONNUK =
words, TAUPTOONNAUWAUKUNNUN
= words, sayings, DINAUPTONAUN =
speak, IYENNAUPTOONNIYUQ =
speech, their words,
IYENNAUPTOONNAUN = words,
KTAUPTONAUWAUKUN = thy word,
WTAUPTONAUWAUKUN = his word,
testimony,
WTAUPTONAUWAUKUNNUK = his
word, WTAUPTOONNAUWAUKUN =

135

his word, WTAUPTOONNAUWAUHUN
= his word,
WTAUPTOONNAUWAUKUNNUK =
his word,
WTAUPTOONNAUWAUNKUN = his
word (Aupaumut)
WTOMPTOONAUWAUNKUN = his word,
KTOMPTOONAUWAUNKUNNUN,
KTOMPTOOAUWAUNKUN (Sergeant)
AUP-TO-NAU-WAU-CON,
WTAUPTONAUWAUCON = his word,
testimony (Morse)
AAPTONAWÁGANÀN = words (Schmick &
Passion of Christ)
ÁNAAPTÓNAMICK = words (Passion of
Christ)
WORLD

ÁNEQUECHKÙK = whole world (Passion of
Christ)

WORK, SERVE

KTONNUHHAUNEEK = work, serve,
KTUNNUHKUHTOUWAUN = serve,
NDANNUHKUHTOUWAWU = serve
him, KTONNUHKAUKUN = your
man-servant, worker,
WTONNUHKAUKUNNUN =
man-servant, OIYAUNQUOHK = work,
KTONNUHKAUKUNNOOKHQUAWU
= woman-servant, maid, UNNUMTHEEQ,
WTONNUHKAUKONNOOKHQUAUN
= maid servant,
WDONNUHKAUWWAUKUN = his
works, WTONNON, TKHUNNUH
(Aupaumut)
OTANNACHGAGANA = servants (Schmick)
KTONNUHKAUCON = your servant (Morse)

WORKS, DEEDS

ANNEHHAUNAUWUH, UNNEHHAUMKEEK,
UNNUHKAUWAUKONNUK = deeds,
OIENONNUHKAUNEET = actions,

136

UNNEHHEET = make,
UNNUHKAUKONNUK = deeds,
WDONNUHKAUWWAUKUN = his
works,
MTONNUHKAUWAUKUNNUN,
WTONNUHKAUWAUKUNNUN =
his works, handiwork,
WTONNUHKAUWAUKONNUN =
his deeds, WTONNUHKAUWAUKUN
= his work, UNNUHKIYUQ = doings,
works, employment, WNEEKHTAUQUQ
= he works in us (Aupaumut)
ANNEHHAUNAUWUH (Sergeant)
ÁNACHGÁTA, ANÀCHGAWAGÀN =
work (Schmick)
WNIHTAUNUHKAUWAUCON = his
handiwork (Morse)
WORLD

NOOH KEEYH = our land (Jenks)

WORSHIP

KWAUWAUKOMAUN = you worship, bow
down, KWAUWAUKOMON,
WAUWAUKOMAUMUK,
WAUWAUKOMAUN,
WAUWAUKOMAUNAUNUH,
WAUWAUKOOTHWAUKUNNUN,
WAUWUHWEKOTAUTHEEK
(Aupaumut)
QUAUWAUNK (Sergeant)

WOULD, LET

TAUKH= let it be so, would, proclaim,
TAUKUH, TAUKHEW (Aupaumut)
TAUGH (Edwards)
TAUTAU = let, sound (Schmick)

WOUNDS (noun)

PAPAQUAIK (Tschoop)
PAQUAIK, PACHPAQUAIK (Schmick)
PAPAQUAIK, ANEPAQUÁIK = wounds
(Moravian Archives)

137

WRAP

WÉWNEECHMÁWAHN = wrapped (Passion
of Christ)

WRATH, ANGER

WTOHWAUNTOMWAUKUN = his wrath,
WTUHWAUNTOMWAUKUN = his
wrath,
WTUHWAUNTOMWAUKUNNUK =
his wrath,
WTUHWAUNTUMMUWAUNKUNNUK
= his wrath, anger,
WTUHWAUNTUMWAUKUN = his
wrath, anger (Aupaumut)
WTUHWAUNTUMMÚWAUNKUN (Sergeant)

WRIST

CA-TISHQUAUG (Jefferson)

WRITE (paint)
(see BOOK)

WSOHEKUN, WSOOWHEKUN = writings,
scriptures, TANNAUKHUTCHHNIH
(Aupaumut)
NOSOAHÉGA = I write, SOHÉGAU = he
writes, KOSOAHEGA = you write,
SOHEGAAK = they write (Schmick)
TANAHKHASÒ = written (Passion of Christ)

WRITTEN

NAUKTUHHAUSETUP (Aupaumut)

WYANDOT TRIBE

PAUMTONNAUWEEW (Aupaumut)

YEAR

KÁTEEK, KATEEK, KAHTENÀ (Schmick)
KETOON (Jenks)
GOTÀKHOTENÁH (Jeffferson)
KATTUN (Ettwein)

YELLOW

WISAWAJÚ (Heckewelder)

YES

QUAUMEH (Aupaumut)
QUA, QUAMÍ (Heckewelder)
QUAU (Morse)
QUÁME (Passion of Christ)
QUÁ, QUAÁ, QUAAM, QUAME (Schmick)

138

YESTERDAY

ONÁQUA, WANAQUÉGA (Schmick)
ONANKOÀ (Jefferson)

YET

UHCHKUH = but yet, UHQUUTHUH =
but yet (Aupaumut & Sergeant)

YOU, THOU

KEYUH, KYUH, KEYAUWUH (Aupaumut)
KEYUH, KEUH, KTUH, ENEH (Sergeant)
KIÁWA, KIÀ, ÉNE, KIÁWAHTSCH = you
will (Passion of Christ)
KEAH, KEAUWUH (Long)
KEAH, KEAUWUH = ye (Edwards)

YOUNG, YOUNG WOMAN, WSOOKHQUAWU (Aupaumut)
VIRGIN
WSKOI (Sergeant)
WUSKOCHQUAU (Heckewelder)
WUSKOCHQUAN (Du Ponceau)
YOUR OWN

KPEKHUK (Aupaumut)

YOURSELF

KHUKKAUNUH = yourselves, KHUKKI
(Aupaumut)
KHOKKAUNAUK, NIHNIH = of yourself?
(Sergeant)

139

SOME FREQUENTLY USED WORDS
ANNEH

To

AUNEH

As, by, because

AUNEH AUM

Anyone

AUNOW

As, by, it is like

AUT

Of, to

AUTKHOKKEEMQUOHK Number
AUTONNEH

Man, men

CHEEN

No, not

CHEEN AUM

No one

CHEH

Will, shall

DON

And

DOOTMAUTEEN

Requirement

EENHUH

Or

EMUK

Decree, rule

ESTOH

No, not, without

HKEEK

Earth, land

KAUQUI

What, why, thing

KAUSEKHOIYEK

Holy, sacred

KESEH

Can, able, make

KEYUH

You

KKOHKEETWAUKUN

Commandment

KOCHEH

Thereby, therefore

MAUTEHK

Bad

MAUWEH

All, whole

NE

The, that

140

NEEK

Those, who, them

NEEN

Those, they, the (plural)

NEH

The (singular)

NEHNEH

His own, your own

NEYUH

I

NHUH

In, it

NIK

The, that

NQUEHCHEH

Only, alone

NUK

The, which

NUN

Is

OCHEH

From, because

OIKEH

Is, are

OWWAUM

Who, someone

PAUPOHTOMMAUWAUKUN

Prayer

PMAWUSOWAUKUNNUK

Life

POHTOMMOUWAUS

God

PSOOQ

But, only

QUAUM

For, because

SAUPEKHUK

First

SPUMMUK

Sky, heaven

STOH

Not

TAUPAUNMOWAT

Lord

TAUPEH

Enough

TONNEH

Do

UHTAUK

In

UNNEH

In, into, on

WAUCH

Also, too, again

141

WAUCHOIKEH

Flow again

WAUNEHK

Good

WCHEH

With, from

WCHICHCHUHQUEEN

Spirit, soul, ghost

WEKEK

With

WHUKKAUK

Himself, herself

WKESEH

He makes, he can

WNITHTOMMAUWAUKUN

Faith

WONK

And

WTENNEH

He does

WTIOMUN

His son

WUHWEKOIWUK

Blessed

YUHHUH

When, if

142

SOURCES
Annanekenick, David The father of the Mohican chief, King
Benjamin, who supplied some words in his court
testimony of 1768. See John Van Rensselaer, Notes
on Evidence, Miscellaneous Manuscripts Folder V,
New-York Historical Society.
Adams

John C. Adams Papers, Historical Society of the
State of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

Aupaumut

1. The Assembly’s Catechism (Stockbridge, Mass.,
1795). 31 pages of Mohican text translated by Capt.
Hendrick Aupaumut, a principal chief of the nation.
2. A second edition, entitled The Assembly’s Shorter
Catechism, with some added text, was printed at
Clinton, N.Y., in 1826.
3. “History of the Muhheakunnuk Indians,”
The First Annual Report of the American
Society for Promoting the Civilization and General
Improvement of the Indian Tribes in the United
States (New Haven: S. Converse, 1824), pp. 41-45.
4. An expanded version of the history is found in
Electa F. Jones, Stockbridge, Past and Present; or,
Records of An Old Mission
Station (Springfield,
Mass.: Samuel Bowles & Co., 1854), pp. 14-23.
5. Occasional vocabulary from the letters and
reports of Hendrick Aupaumut.

Barton

Benjamin Smith Barton, New Views of the Origin of the
Tribes and Nations of America (Philadelphia, 1798).
Mohican vocabulary obtained from Hendrick Aupaumut
and other Mohicans.

Belknap

Jeremy Belknap’s journal of his tour to Oneida in 1796,
Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol.
XIX (1881-1882), p. 414n.

Bernard

Francis Bernard to the Board of Trade, August 3, 1761, The

143

Papers of Francis Bernard, Governor of Colonial
Massachusetts, 1760-69 (Boston: The Colonial Society of
Massachusetts, 2007), 1:130.
Büttner

The Moravian missionary, Gottlob Büttner, left a short
Mohican vocabulary in the Moravian Archives at
Bethlehem, Pa., Box 331, Folder 4, Item 7.

Collier

Edward A. Collier, A History of Old Kinderhook (New York,
1914).

Dankers

Jaspar Dankers and Peter Sluyter, A Journal of a Voyage
to New York and a Tour in Several of the American Colonies
in 1679-80, Henry C. Murphy, translator (Brooklyn, 1867).

Davidson

John N. Davidson, Muh-he-ka-ne-ok, A History of the
Stockbridge Nation (Milwaukee, 1893), p. 25.

Du Ponceau

Pierre Étienne Du Ponceau, Mémoire sur le Système
Grammatical des Langues de Quelques Nations Indiennes
de l’Amérique du Nord (Paris, 1838). Appendix A contains
“Vocabulaire Comparatif des Langues Algonquines et
Iroquoises.”

Duane

James Duane identified several Mohican words in court in
1768. See John Van Rensselaer, Notes on Evidence,
Miscellaneous Manuscripts Folder V, New-York
Historical Society.

Early Records Albany Early Records of the City and County of Albany and
Colony of Rensselaerswyck, 4 vols. (Albany: New York State
Library History Bulletin 9, 1869, 1916-1919).
Eddy

Samuel L. Knapp, The Life of Thomas Eddy; Comprising an
Extensive Correspondence ... (New York, 1834), p. 119.

Edwards

Jonathan Edwards, Observations on the Language of the
Muhhekaneew Indians (New Haven, 1788). Written by the
son of the famous Rev. Jonathan Edwards, who grew up
speaking Mohican in Stockbridge, Mass.

144

Esopus

Governor Stuyvesant’s Journey to Esopus in 1658,
Magazine of American History, vol. 2 (1878), p. 544.

Ettwein

1. Letter from John Ettwein to George Washington,
March 28, 1788, George Washington Papers, Library of
Congress, contains “A Collection of Words” from Mohawk,
Delaware, and Mohican.
2. The above collection of words is printed in Ethnohistory,
vol. 6, no. 1 (Winter 1959), pp. 57-64.

Foster-Clements Papers Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Heckewelder

1. “Mahicanni (Mohegan) Words” in “Vocabularies and
Other Manuscripts Relating to Indian Languages,”
Freeman Guide 2077, American Philosophical Society,
Philadelphia.
2. John Heckewelder, Comparative Vocabulary of
Algonquian Dialects; from Heckewelder’s Manuscripts in
the Collections of the American Philosophical Society
(Cambridge, Mass., 1887).

Jefferson

1. Thomas Jefferson, “Comparative Vocabularies of Indian
Languages,” 1802-1808, Freeman Guide 1289, American
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
2. Thomas Jefferson, “Comparative Vocabulary: Mohiccon
and Unknown Languages,” 1792-1809?, American
Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.

Jenks

“Language of the Moheagans,” Collections of the
Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. IX (1804), pp. 98-99.
Vocabulary taken down by William Jenks from John
Konkapot Jr.

Long

John Long, Voyages and Travels of an Indian Interpreter and
Trader, describing the Manners and Customs of the North
American Indians ... to which is added ... a List of Words ...
and a Table, Shewing The Analogy between the Algonkin and
Chippeway Languages (London, 1791). Contains a
vocabulary of “Mohegan” words on pp. 209-210.

145

Metoxen

1. The venerated Mohican chief, John Metoxen (Mtohksin),
along with John Quinney and Andrew Miller, provided
Henry R. Schoolcraft with a Mohican vocabulary at Sault
Ste. Marie, Michigan, in 1827. It is found in Henry R.
Schoolcraft, Historical and Statistical Information
respecting the History, Condition and Prospects of the
Indian Tribes of the United States, 6 vols. (Philadelphia,
1851-1857), vol. V (1855), pp. 618-620.
2. Henry R. Schoolcraft, “Mohegan Language and
Geographical Names,” The Knickerbocker, vol. X, no. 3
(September 1837), pp. 214-216, yields a few Mohican
words provided by Metoxen and Robert Konkapot in 1837.

MHS Collections Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, vol. IX
(1804), p. 91.
Moravian Archives Various letters written by Mohicans Abraham and
Cornelius, as well as a number of hymns translated into the
Mohican language. Collected in Carl Masthay, MahicanLanguage Hymns, Biblical Prose, and Vocabularies from
Moravian Sources, with Mohawk Hyms (St. Louis, 1980).
Moravians

W. C. Reichel, A Memorial of the Dedication of Monuments
erected by the Moravian Historical Society ... in New York and
Connecticut (New York, 1860), p. 75. Contains the
testimony of Eunice Mahwee.

Morse

Jedidiah Morse, A Report to the Secretary of War of the
United States, on Indian Affairs (New-Haven, 1822). On
pages 359-360 of the Appendix is a Mohican translation of
the 19th Psalm under the supervision of Rev. John
Sergeant.

Naunaumptaunk Deposition of John Naunaumptaunk, August 27, 1762,
Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Columbia County, N.Y.,
New-York Historical Society.
Nimham

Deposition of Daniel Nimham, August 2, 1762,
Miscellaneous Manuscripts, Columbia County, N.Y.,

146

New-York Historical Society.
Notes on Evidence Court testimony of 1768 in John Van Rensselaer Notes on
Evidence, Miscellaneous Manuscripts Folder V, New-York
Historical Society.
O’Callaghan

E. B. O’Callaghan, History of New Netherland, 2 vols. (New
York, 1846)

Orcutt

Samuel Orcutt, History of the Towns of New Milford and
Bridgewater, Connecticut, 1703-1882 (Hartford, Conn.,
1882).

Panoplist

The Panoplist [Missionary Herald], vol. I (Boston, 1806),
p. 271.

Passion of Christ A Mohican language text of 1759 in the Moravian Archives,
by Moravian missionary, Rev. Bernhard Adam Grube,
translated in Carl Masthay, Mahican-language hymns,
biblical prose and vocabularies from Moravian sources (St.
Louis, 1980). Masthay omits four pages, but the
full text is found in Moravian Archives, Box 331, Folder 5.
The letter Z in some of the words is not true Mohican.
Penn

Albert Cook Myers, ed., William Penn’s Own Account of the
Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians (Wilmington, Del., 1970).

Pickering

Timothy Pickering’s 1826 statement on the pronunciation of
the tribe’s name in the Pickering Papers, vol. 16, p. 117,
Massachusetts Historical Society.

Sergeant

1. John Sergeant, A Morning Prayer (Boston, 1740?). A 38page collection of prayers translated into the Mohican
language by the tribe’s first missionary in Stockbridge,
Mass. Sergeant was assisted by the Mohican interpreter
John Wauwaumpequunnaunt, known by the nickname of
“Mauteck” (“bad boy”).
2. Samuel Hopkins, Historical Memoirs, Relating to the
Housatunnuk Indians (Boston, 1753). Contains
occasional Mohican vocabulary from John Sergeant’s

147

journals.
3. “Journal of Rev. John Sergeant,” April 1, 1739 – March
30, 1740, Ezra Stiles Manuscripts, Beinecke Library, Yale
University.
Schmick

1. John Jacob Schmick, Miscellanea linguae nationis
Indicae Mahikan dictae,cura suscepta, 2 vols., n.d., n.p.,
American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia.
2. Carl Masthay, ed., Schmick’s Mahican Dictionary
(Philadelphia, 1991).

Schoolcraft

Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, The Indian in His Wigwam, or
Characteristics of the Red Race of America (New York,
1848).

Trumbull

J. Hammond Trumbull, Notes on Forty Algonkin Versions
of the Lord’s Prayer (Hartford, 1873).

Tschoop

Tschoop, or Johannes, was a Mohican communicant in
the Moravian mission at Shekomeko (Pine Plains, N.Y.) He
left a number of letters in the Mohican language at the
Moravian Archives in Bethlehem, Pa.

Van Valkenburgh Joachim Van Valkenburgh was interpreter for the Mohican
Indians and described several words in their language while
testifying in court in 1768. See John Van Rensselaer, Notes
on Evidence, Miscellaneous Manuscripts Folder V, NewYork Historical Society.
WHS Collections Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, vol.
IV (Madison, 1906), pp. 320, 325.
Woodbridge

Timothy Woodbridge, schoolmaster to the Stockbridge
Indians, supplied the meanings of a few Mohican words in
court testimony of 1768. See John Van Rensselaer, Notes
on Evidence, Miscellaneous Manuscripts Folder V, NewYork Historical Society.

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