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THE UNDERSTANDING SCHOOLS SERIES
Gary K. Clabaugh Edward G. Rozycki
P.O. Box 94 Oreland, PA 19075 www.newfoundations.com
A Brief History of Education 2nd Edition ©2007 Gary K. Clabaugh & Edward G. Rozycki
A Brief History of Education
Fall 2007 Edition
The Understanding Schools Series Gary K. Clabaugh, Ed. D. La Salle University Edward G. Rozycki. Ed. D. Widener University
NewFoundations Press P.O. Box 94 Oreland, PA 19075 www.newfoundations.com
photocopying. electronic. mechanical. recording. stored in a retrieval system.Copyright ©2007 by Gary K. No part of this publication can be reproduced. or otherwise. Clabaugh and Edward G. in any form or by any means. or transmitted. without the prior written permission of the copyright owners ISBN 1-929463-15-4 2 . Rozycki All rights reserved.
................................... 34 The Educational Functions of the Church............................................................................................................... 40 Cathedral Schools ............................................................................................................................................. Scarcity and Schooling.............................................................................................................................................................. 44 The Rise of the Universities.................................... 39 Guilds and Education ..................................... 23 Roman Schools .......... 33 A New Social Order ........... 49 i .... 17 The Greek Legacy............................................................................................... 24 The Education of Roman Women ............................................. 6 Egypt........................... 35 Classical Culture and the Reemergence of Schools .....................................................................................................................................................................................Table of Contents SECTION I: THE EARLY YEARS ......................... 27 The Nature of Teaching........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15 Athens........................ 41 Correspondence Between School Practices and the Broader Society ............. 1 CHAPTER 1: EARLY HUMANITY ........................................................................................................................... 26 Schooling and Bureaucracy............................................................................ 23 Pedagogues and Tutors......................... 15 Sparta ................................. 10 Decline.................................................................................................................................................................. 23 The Athenian Model.................................................................................................... Education and the Family................... 31 CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLING AND THE AGE OF FAITH ................................................................................................................................................. 39 Necessity.......................... 27 The Remnants of Empire........................... 21 CHAPTER 4: THE ROMANS ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2: EDUCATION IN EARLY CIVILIZATIONS ....................................................................................................... 26 Roman Educational Ideas.................................................... 3 Socialization................................................................................................................................................................................ 28 SECTION II: THE AGE OF FAITH THROUGH THE RENAISSANCE.............................................. 11 CHAPTER 3: THE GREEKS ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 43 Parish Schools.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 45 Colleges ...................................................................................................................................................... 38 Court Schools.................. 34 The Near Disappearance of Schools.................................................................................................................................................... 39 The Rise of Towns................................... 43 The Medieval View of Children .............................................................................................................................................. 37 Schooling Women ........................................ 11 China........................................................... 36 Governance and the Substantial Value of Schooling .. 3 More and More to Learn ................................................ 46 Secular Knowledge................................ 33 Household Education............................... 35 Monastery Schools ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3 The Total Absence of Schools .............................................. 5 Sumer............................................................................................................................................... 43 Municipal or Town Schools ................................................................................ 9 The Unschooled Majority............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 44 The End of the Church’s School Monopoly ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 38 Charlemagne’s Educational Initiatives..........................................................
... 88 Indirect Federal Support................................ 84 The Changing View of the Child ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 81 New Sources of Authority........................................................................................... 70 Colonial America............................................................................ 73 Social Control ............................................ 59 Dissensus and The Dawn Of The Modern Age ..................................................................................................................................... 54 Schooling Women During the Renaissance.................. 58 Protestantism and the Schooling of Women .. 49 The Death of Feudalism ................................................................. AND HUMANISM .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 59 Schooling and The Counter-Reformation ............................................................................ 92 French Developments..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 88 The Demands of an Infant Democracy.......................................................................................................................................... 79 CHAPTER 9: SCHOOLING AND THE AGE OF REASON...................................................................................................... 89 Religious Liberty and Secular Schooling.......................................................................... 91 Arousing Expectations................................................................................................................................................................................................ 70 Puritan Schooling...................................................................................................... 88 Tax Supported Public Schools ......... 51 The Renaissance and the Growth of Humanism...................................................................................................................... 85 CHAPTER 10: EDUCATION AND SCHOOLING IN A NEW NATION ............................................................................................................ 53 Transforming the University ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 57 Martin Luther ............................................................................................................................................ 83 The Romantic Reaction ........................................................................................ 58 A New System of Schools......................................................................................... 83 Schooling and the New Rationalism ...... 91 Monitorial Schools .............................................................................. 87 The Preservation of the Republic ....................................................................................................... 69 Classical Studies and Status Concerns ................................................ 74 The South ......................................................... 82 Damnable Heresy and High Treason............ 49 CHAPTER 6: SCHOOLING............................................. 67 The English Educational Model .......................................................................................................... 74 Town Meetings and School Boards............................................................................................................................................... 51 The Revolutionary Impact of Printing........................................................................................................ Satan .............................. 52 The Latin Grammar School............................................................................................................ 55 CHAPTER 7: THE REFORMATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ............................... 81 Schooling and the Idea of “Progress”................................................................... 87 The Absence of Federal Responsibility................................................................................................................................ THE RENAISSANCE.................................................................. 90 The Decline of English Privatism................................................................ 87 Schooling and Self Governance................. 57 John Calvin............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 65 CHAPTER 8: EDUCATION AND SCHOOLING IN COLONIAL AMERICA......................... 93 ii ................................................................................................................ 75 Colonial Secondary Schooling.................. 72 The Old Deluder...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 89 Opposition to Public Schooling ............................................................................................................................................ Setting Patterns ...... 72 The Puritan View of Children........................................................Reconciling Faith and Reason ................................................. 67 The Age of Reason ... 78 Colonial Higher Education. 74 The Middle Colonies .............................................................................................................. 68 Schooling.......................................... 90 European Developments ................................ 60 SECTION III: THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN SCHOOLING ................................. 92 Prussian Developments ............................................................
...................................................................................... 115 Toward Universal Schooling .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 107 The Matter of Compulsion .................................................................................................................................................................... 109 Country Schools................................................................................................. 101 New England Sets the Pace.......................................................................................................................................................................... 118 Growth and More Growth .................................................................................................................................................................. 124 Back to the Basics........... 106 Other Minorities..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 94 SECTION IV: THE LATER DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN SCHOOLING ................................................................................ 126 Into the New Century ............................... 133 A Word of Caution ........ 105 Even the Catholics Can’t Agree.............. 121 Progressive Education .................... 120 The Progressive Era..................... 125 The New Romantics ....................................................................................... 118 The Second Wave ......................................... 110 Country Teachers.............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 108 Common Schools In A Rural America.................... 120 Science and Democracy ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 126 The Pendulum Swings Again.... 102 Consensus and the Common Schools................................ 139 iii .... Darwinism and the Matter of Authority ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................The Sacred to Secular Transition................................................... 129 Broadening the School Community ............... 102 Horace Mann and the Common School Crusade............PRESENT) .......................................................... 111 Schooling Females................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 99 CHAPTER 11: DEFINING AMERICAN SCHOOLING (1800-1865).................................................................................................. 101 The Common Schools ................................................................................................................................................................ 117 The Struggle for Recognition and Accommodation........................ 103 The Catholic Issue ...................................................................................... 131 No Child Left Behind ...................................................................................................................................................... 113 CHAPTER 12: TRANSFORMING AMERICAN SCHOOLING (1865 .................... 121 Teaching and the Professions.......................................... 116 The Changing Role of the Family ..................................................................................................................................................... 119 The Issue of Politics ....................................................................... 119 Science.......... 128 Lasting Changes.. 134 INDEX ......................................... 115 Common Schools In An Urbanizing and Industrializing America...................................................................................................................... 123 The Swinging Pendulum of Reform ................................................
XI.SECTION I: THE EARLY YEARS In this section we briefly explore the education of early humans and ancient civilizations to develop a truer sense of how far we have come. values and behaviors from and among one’s social companions. 1970). and it occurs in special places solely set aside for instruction. Education is the aspect of socialization that is deliberately taught and normally prized as valuable within a social group. Cremin. p. It is intended to be educational. To begin. it is important to distinguish between socialization. is the process of acquiring the knowledge. We go back into the recent prehistory of humankind to suggest that unhappiness with schooling and its products is an overreaction to what is essentially a new invention perhaps still not well suited to the ways of learning and understanding developed by our species over millions of years of our history before the invention of schools. makes this distinction in American Education: The Colonial Experience 1607 1783. 1 . (New York: Harper-Row. what we can plan for and even what we might hope for. education and schooling: Socialization..1 We will see in the following chapters how humans developed particularly preferred forms of socialization and the organizations that preserved them and helped them develop. Schooling is a recent invention in the natural history of the human species. Such things are both taught and “picked up” or “absorbed” just by living with other beings. 1 Lawrence A.
615 3 . Formal culture. Every member of the community was more or less 2Bernard Campbell. to post-industrial ways of life. major civilizations have large numbers of citizens who have never been to school. schools were nonexistent. emulation and informal teaching socialized the young. but socialization took on even more importance than it had for more primitive hominids. then to agricultural. as does whether or not we will prove intelligent enough to preserve the environment that sustains us. and altruism and social conscience seems to have been common from the beginning. It wasn’t until well into the 20th Century that the majority of humankind began attending school. Example. The technical culture. Socialization. 6 3Putnam. Homo sapiens was a creature like no other. 440 4Weaver. nomadic units based on the family and were dependent on hunting and gathering for their survival.). Even at the beginning of the 21st Century. op.. then to industrial and. p. The name denotes the species’ most distinctive characteristic — the ability to wonder and reason.3 And.. to pastoral or horticultural. 1970. In India. right and wrong. creativity and talent for learning beyond that of any other living thing.4 The role of instinct was minimal. More and More to Learn Homo sapiens’ culture gradually became more and more elaborate. That effects women far more than men.) first appeared only 300. p. p. (Urbana. The Total Absence of Schools During the first 4 million years of human evolution. op. John Morton." Biological and Social Factors In Psycholinguistics. ed. Illinois. went from hunting and gathering. approximately 375 million women are unschooled and unable to read and write — a number greater than the entire population of the United States. striving and yearning through formal religion. we proved capable of developing cultures so complex that they learned to fly to other planets and to gain command of same forces that power the sun. The Roots of Language. dealing with how to do things..000 years ago — a fraction of a second in geologic time.2 We have curiosity. Education and the Family Early societies of Homo Sapiens were organized in small. dealing with good and bad. Homo sapiens (man the thinker.CHAPTER 1: EARLY HUMANITY Our type of human. With a potent intelligence and specialized organs necessary for completely articulate speech. for example. Whether or not we can avoid misusing that power to annihilate our species remains to be seen. also gained increasing refinement as humans sought to give greater meaning to their suffering. So each new generation had to learn this complex way of life that had been painstakingly constructed by the doings and sufferings of previous generations. cit. Social bonds were strong. Homo sapiens quickly became almost totally dependent on culture. University of Illinois Press. today. cit. ultimately.
age or kinship. but informal. The slow maturation of human infants provided plenty of time for the child to learn the technologies and skills of that day — fire making. Unrelated adults took a greater interest in other people’s children than they do today. Children learned the prevailing norms. Nevertheless. education conducted principally by the family but supplemented by other clan members. The means of subsistence were distributed relatively evenly. tool making.equal. animal skinning. the family was the primary setting where this socialization took place. Specialization was uncommon and wealth did not accumulate. beliefs and behaviors of the clan or tribe in like manner. hunting and the like — by means of simple imitation and impromptu demonstrations. values. 4 . There was little social stratification except that based on sex. This was the way ordinary people were socialized until well into the 19th Century. In such cultures children learned much of what they needed to know simply by watching and being around. Technological resources were very limited and communications were elemental. This accidental socialization was supplemented by a deliberate.
Sophisticated governments offered public works. like reading 5Francis and Joseph Gies. and facilitated their communication as a constantly expanding resource.) technical discoveries resulted in the development of agriculture.6. pottery making was perfected and metal was first extracted from ore. All of these institutions diminished the importance of the family. replaced a more egalitarian leadership based on age and kinship. a defense organization. social unit. 1987. the Egyptian in the valley of the Nile. Myth and ritual also became more complex and formalized in these civilizations as human beings sought to give new meaning to life and death.7 This development too was crucial to the development of schools. In all of these ancient civilizations the traditional role of the family was partially appropriated by the state. 5 . pp. Status groups reflecting occupational specializations evolved simultaneously with the culture. led to the formation of the first complex societies with central governments. the Church or industry. Marriage and the Family in the Middle Ages (New York." 7Campbell. a court system. the wheel and the sail were invented. Cit. "Mesopotamia" literally means "between the rivers.5 They did not even exist.C. Formalized religion offered elaborate temples. And newly developed schools for the priestly elite taught technical skills. whose deities were personal and whose authority came out of psychological experience. a factory. 100-101. formalized religion and. most of them priests. But from our educational perspective one development was of particular importance. schools. 6Mesopotamia is in present-day Iraq. in turn. located in what is now Iraq. It functioned as a system of governance. Writing evolved in both Sumer and Egypt about three thousand five hundred BC. This treasury of symbols that could be combined to infinity. It also established new educational needs that set the stage for schools. and the Chinese in the valley of the Hwang Ho. (4. The shamans and prophets of simpler cultures. Nothing had been surrendered to the state. Cloth was woven.3. defense against aggression and systematically adjudicated interpersonal disputes. This. Some six thousand years ago.CHAPTER 2: EDUCATION IN EARLY CIVILIZATIONS Throughout the vast bulk of human evolution the family was the fundamental. very nearly the only. in the fourth millennium B. and a school. Concentrations of wealth and power also increased as critical resources began to be monopolized by the priestly class — the primary class whose children would be served by these first schools. Op.. The most significant of these agricultural civilizations was Sumer. gave way to priests. indeed. Harper & Row. And for the first time in human history an occupational power elite. Here developed the first cities and a rush of other technical inventions.000 . eventually. a church. whose gods were historic and whose authority was conveyed by formal training and social ordination. in the lowlands between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. assured the retention of acquired ideas.C. complex rituals and authoritative dogma.000 B.
By approximately 3.C. Below him ranked thirty categories of lesser priests who enforced the Priest/King’s edicts and supervised the affairs of government. led to vast increases in their wealth and power. In return.500 B. Kelly Sowards. resulted in an agricultural revolution that led to the gradual merger of a network of villages into the world’s first great civilization. St. Five centuries later this complicated and unwieldy system had been replaced by the use of wedge-shaped cuneiform writing that substituted phonetic for ideographic values. 6 .9 Social and political life centered more and more on the palace and the temples. in turn. Planting and harvesting were regulated by lunar calendars constructed by the priestly class. Mastery of this technical invention facilitated their control over agricultural production. Martins. He alone interpreted the will of the Gods and enjoyed supreme authority. And with the advent of empire. The Origins of Culture (New York..C. Eventually. 22-23. Writing made the governance of Sumer possible. the codification of laws. Sumer Ancient Sumer developed in the fertile area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Cannibals and Kings.000 pictographic signs that they recorded on clay tablets. 9J. and way beneath them thousands upon thousands of peasants and slaves. they claimed universal authority over the culture. 1977). requiring the services of thousands of skilled people.8 This encouraged the development of dynasties. completely dominating both the artisans and merchants. This. What was needed was a way to train a large number of people to perform sophisticated functions utilizing a minimum of scarce talent for the teaching. Eventually. The First Schools How were individuals to be trained to master the complex business of reading and writing? Who could be relied upon to have the right attitude and also command the necessary skills? Apprenticeship proved a cumbersome. all aspects of life came to be controlled by a single Priest/King. 50-51. Vintage. An elaborate system of irrigation developed in the period 5.10 Writing Although writing’s origin is not completely clear.000 to 4. government had become a major undertaking. as military conquest became more and more rewarding. Western Civilization to 1660 (New York. Wealth accumulated as it never had before. inefficient method.000 B. reinforced social control over key members of the society. and confirmed the superior status of the priests. 8Idem. Empires also evolved. and tremendous social advantage could be passed from one generation to the next. and similar conventions that we now take very much for granted. It facilitated the keeping of detailed records of ownership. pp. 10Marvin Harris. families gave over both resources and authority to the state. the Sumerians were among the first to fully develop the art of recording ideas by means of characters or figures. 1964). pp. the development of written communications carried over vast distances. they had developed 2.and writing.
Sumer’s early schools served three functions that we mentioned earlier. such as the clergy. The Three Functions Like other early civilizations. but schooling gave the upper classes. they taught the technical skills necessary for a priestly/governmental vocation. military officers. (London: Thames and Hudson. Second. Literacy was a badge of membership in the upper classes. Sumerian government required a small army of loyal functionaries. Gordon Childe. restricted to children from high status families. (New York: St.C. that the Temple image of the school discussed in Framing the Inquiry has an historic basis. circa 3. Such “correspondence” is a universal feature of schools. Third. but none have yet been unearthed. Through strict discipline and stress on the myths and values central to Sumerian life. it was. social values and norms. History Begins at Sumer. And learning to be literate was considered a sacramental act. 1951). 13James Bowen.In short. 15Idem. they only educated the Sumerian power elite. They initiated a select few into the mysteries of reading and writing the enormously complex text that was the world’s first written language because these technical skills were essential to critical vocations. This led to schools — a brand new social institution. 161. 1976). priests. 12The earliest school ever excavated. Temples were particularly appropriate sites for schools because literacy itself was viewed with reverential awe.11 These first schools. such as the discovery of hundreds of clay tablets containing what appear to be educational exercises. However. Martin's Press. Females appear to have been excluded altogether .12 Often located in temples. 7 . but to have been created by a god. 14S. We see. p. Indeed. suggests that earlier schools existed. First. A History of Western Education. 14-15. they reinforced the superior status of the upper classes. schooling encouraged obedient attitudes and behaviors that were at least as indispensable as literacy. dates back to 2. Admission to Sumerian schools was theoretically open to all males. 229-248. Writing was not even regarded as a human invention.500 B.. (New York: Henry Schuman. another form of authority and legitimacy. concentrated numbers of children in one place for the purpose of teaching them efficiently. the landed aristocracy and the nobility. there was a need to mass-produce literate individuals. With respect to the social control function. in practice. the cement necessary for the maintenance of an elite class. The elaborate and well-defined social hierarchy of Sumerian society was primarily based on birth.C. M. Social Evolution. scribes and other individuals of rank.15 They were.14 One way that the poor were excluded was that high tuition fees were charged.000 B. Predictably. and school practices. The status function operated subtly. in effect. 1972). schooling was chiefly a priestly prerogative13. We see then that there was a close correspondence between Sumerian social structure. The history of education is literally filled with examples of it. ship captains. pp. Volume 1. Circumstantial evidence. Students were the sons of government officials. they established more effective social control over key members of the society. then. located in the ancient Sumerian village of Mari. correspondence is so common that scholars 11V. such as that of scribe or priest. Kramer. pp.
His tablet demands that his son begin doing his assignments. he laments. The More Things Change.. he is bedeviled day and night by a son who is a whining wastrel. And it has only been since 11:59:59 P. If we reduce the 4. pp. It states that schooling conforms to the social structure. ingratitude and laziness. that schools have attained a central place in the lives of most humans. He points out that he has never asked his son to get a job or even to do chores as other fathers do. The More They Stay The Same Regardless of how well they fit the needs of Sumeria’s elite. It was not uncommon for them to play truant. and coming straight home after school. The concerns of the parents of school children were also remarkably similar to those of our time. roam the streets and loiter in public places in much the same way as some young people do today.700-year-old clay tablet has survived which contains the angry inscriptions of a father berating his son for poor work habits. Cit.16 Three Functions Of Schooling Teaching Technical Skills Establishing Greater Social Control Confirming and Reinforcing Superior Status 16Kramer. making sure he has his homework straight.recognize a principle of correspondence. social values and norms of the host society. in the last one hundredth of a second. a 3. 8 . Let’s review where schools fit in the overall development of humankind.600. 243-246..M. For example.000 years of our planet’s existence to one imaginary planetary year.000. Op. the archaeological record shows that Sumerian children often hated school. more concerned with enjoyment than a meaningful existence. Yet despite his consideration. the first schools evolved only 30 seconds before Midnight on the last planetary day.
these schools did provide a means of upward mobility to the children of lower level aristocrats and church officials. Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Western Civilization (Columbus.Egypt Shortly after the founding of Sumer.17 The Preeminence of Organized Religion Religious authorities also controlled Egyptian schooling. and it was at least theoretically possible for a poor child to attend. Egyptian developments paralleled those of Sumer. Predictably. and architecture. primarily aristocratic landowners and priests. another great agricultural civilization took shape along the Nile. “A boy’s ears are on his back. Vol.000 BC this was a technically advanced skill with great vocational utility.). and they made liberal use of corporal punishment for control and motivation. medicine. with unparalleled luxury. Characteristically.000 BC schooling had begun to supplement family centered education for members of the upper class. memorization and recitation in order to develop literacy.19 However.39 9 .18 Ancient Egyptian master and slave Government Schools The Egyptian government did run some schools of its own. Ohio: Merrill. 1966).000 or 1. *. an educational slogan of the time remarked. 21Graves. music. 19Edward Burns and Philip. Control and Status Functions Egyptian schools emphasized copying. Op. Vocational. In 2. E. I. p 21. law. Tuition was usually charged. Operated by the Treasury. 16-20. Schools developed later than in Sumer. they specialized in preparing boys for careers in governmental bureaucracies. Here young boys learned reading and writing. Admission was open to any male youngster regardless of class. Frost. 1939). and the culture exhibited similar characteristics. Cit. (New York: Norton. p.20 Given such a system. arithmetic. World Civilizations From Ancient to Contemporary. 20Charles Smith and Grady Moorhead. he hears when he is beaten. These children would be future 17S. p. this emphasis on ‘discipline” reflected the importance Egyptian authorities attached to establishing social control. A Short History of the Ancient World. most schools were in temples and were taught by priests. pp. but by 2. Older students studied a relatively wide variety of subjects including astronomy. few youngsters from the vast peasantry found their way into governmental schools for scribes. Egyptian society was based on a plantation economy that afforded the many a bare subsistence while providing the few.Ralph. However. This corresponded with the fact that the priesthood was the controlling element in the society. 1958. The routine was often grinding and cheerless. (New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts.”21 As in Sumer. 18Idem.
p. the vast majority of their citizens remained illiterate and totally unschooled. that Egyptian and Sumerian schooling did not encouraged the search for truth. As for the masses. Cit. their expertise was taught informally through example and apprenticeship. the peasant farmers and slaves whose toil built and fed these civilizations. By the time Egypt had become a great empire its social classes were caste-like. degrees and other credentials very reminiscent of those in use today..functionaries of the government and their loyalty and obedience was critically important to the elite’s hold on power.. 10 .22 We see. and Collins. Peasants & Slaves Informal Education Priests Nobility & Aristocrats Skilled Artisans TYPICAL EDUCATIONAL STRUCTURE OF AN ANCIENT CIVILIZATION Tutored and/or Schooled Apprenticeships 22Bowen. 1937). The Unschooled Majority Although the Sumerians and Egyptians virtually invented both literacy and schooling. then. Mobility from class to class was nearly impossible. the elevation of the masses. Schooling reinforced the upper classes’ privileged existence as well as the peasantry’s suffering. 5 23James Breasted. (New York: Scribner. To be exposed to formative discipline. ranks. A History of Egypt From the Earliest Times to the Persian Conflict. Though middle class merchants and artisans were sometimes highly skilled. When that was said.23 One went to school for three purposes: • • • To gain useful technical skills. 98. it was all said. Op. It reinforced the power of this social elite through a structure of grades. or the codification of knowledge. 33. Op. and To enhance and preserve high social status. their education consisted of bitter experience. Cit. p. p.
and instead worked mainly at serving themselves. Order. Practices originally intended to promote more effective skills became. the birth of an empire and.” 11 . It began to reach an extraordinary sophistication in the period 800 B. and the young everyone’s children. From this he concluded that the elderly were really everyone’s parents. said Confucius. once established. In effect. most importantly. harmonized with the “Will of Heaven. instead. their governmental bureaucracies. is a matter of conjecture. it would be based upon compassion and justice. significant accomplishment. Chinese writing consisted of thousands of different characters. 551 . Using such an analysis Confucius developed an ethical system that challenged traditional feudal obligations. parent and child. to 200 BC. Understanding this system of writing virtually required formal instruction. abundance and empowerment can only be obtained by bringing one’s actions in accord with the “Will of Heaven. and was even more complex than in Sumer or Egypt. became China’s most influential moral and religious leader. Happily.C. the invention of writing.478 BC maintained that human joy. The “Will of Heaven” A member of this class. We do know that their educational systems passed through a process of early development. could be determined by a careful analysis of history and folk wisdom. turned away from the tasks they were created to perform. All of this. a schoolmaster rather than a prophet. and love between man and woman. would follow from recognition of this basic fact. In this period feudal warlords were pushed aside by the Emperor’s forces and an imperial government consolidated.” This “Will”.000 BC and continued their traditional practices well into the Twentieth Century. China Because of the distinctive importance of schooling in their culture. By 500 BC the original feudal elite had been totally replaced by a new governing bureaucracy under the authority of the Emperor. It was staffed by a formally educated upper class that had been schooled in the Chinese literary tradition. the emergence of a socially stratified society. Their schools also became involved in a similar confusion of means for ends. Chinese civilization developed later than that of Sumer or Egypt. rigid formalism and then decline. Confucius (ca. and schools provided it. Confucius taught. Why. the development of Chinese schooling was promoted by a revolution in agriculture that promoted the growth of cities. hollow rituals required only because they had been required before. Chinese civilization also merits consideration. He argued that all humans were members of the same family. and an elaborate etiquette arising from respect for one’s fellow humans. Chinese schools date back to at least 1. by virtue of the fatherhood of the Emperor. As in Sumer and Egypt. he claimed.Decline Both the Sumerian and Egyptian civilizations eventually withered. And this seems to have been mirrored by developments in the broader society.
social solidarity and loyalty to authority. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin.24 . 1973). informing schooling and under girding a way of life which endured for more than 2. By the 11th century a new ruling class had arisen. In this capacity they exercised a decisive influence in the development of Chinese history and culture. such as mathematics and calligraphy. Since it was essentially Confucian. fit a man for leadership. Confucius’ teachings eventually provided an alternative to the feudal values that were being destroyed by the establishment of empire. were also examined. 1975). such an education also incorporated a strong emphasis on ethical principles. Such social renewal is a fourth function of schooling. Vol. 14. 12 . it was deeply involved in reinforcing formal level culture. in time. Don’t overestimate the degree of opportunity. 102-03. Schooling in the Chinese classics. Anyone who wanted a high government post had to master a literary education. but also on schooling.000 years. But as the examination system became more and more refined. All Chinese did not have an equal chance to get the schooling essential for upward social mobility. Reischauer and Craig. based partially on birth. but these were considered merely technical skills leading only to low positions. More practical subjects. A system of rigorous examinations eventually replaced patronage as the basis for appointments. particularly the writings of Confucius. circumstances contrived to put his point of view into practice. became a must if one was to have any hope of passing these tests. p. East Asia: Tradition and Transformation. not birth. "Chinese History. decorum." Encyclopaedia Britannica Macropaedia. pp. The younger sons of aristocrats and lesser-ranked scholar officials dominated even the extensive network of government subsidized local schools. But the examination system also resulted in an unprecedented degree of social mobility. 305-312. This emphasis was useful in promoting social solidarity and control. Competition between Chinese states pushed rulers to select the most capable persons to serve government. theoretically open to all. It should be added to the social control. Schools and Social Mobility Confucius argued that ability and moral excellence. Often the children of the old power elite had to give way to a cadre of bright young men of humbler circumstances (women were excluded) who had been selected on the basis of competitive examinations.25 Social Renewal The Fourth Function Of Schooling 24Fairbank. the ambitious children of merchants and minor officials made inroads into the upper class. Britannica. After his death. 25John Lewis. the writings of Confucius became the official ideology of that empire.Initially scorned and neglected by all but a small band of students. Indeed. In this way the schools helped reinvigorate Chinese government and revitalize the ruling class. vocational and status functions cited earlier. Government sponsored schools in the capital were restricted to sons of great families. (Chicago. In other words.
it ultimately failed to adapt to changing conditions. various forms of favoritism and the introduction of patronage corrupted the examination system. Teaching practices took on a similar rigidity. Chinese schooling lost vitality. in the early 1900’s. the Chinese empire and the schools. Classic writings. crumbled into ruins.In the centuries that followed. 13 . such as those of Confucius. Just as happened in Sumer and Egypt. which served it. Increasingly emphasizing empty ritual and formalism. nearly a thousand years after the initial Confucian reforms. were literally carved in stone. Ultimately.
Cit. Ancient Greece was a society of city-states at the agricultural level of development. A small number of Spartans now not only controlled thousands of dependent subjects in surrounding towns and villages. It taught the skills of war and fostered valor. 52. p. at the age of seven. Western Civilization to 1660 (New York: St. they also had thousands upon thousands of Messenians under their control. it is essential to know something about Greek educational history. p. Arabs. Op. and their vastly different educational practices are a perfect illustration of the principle of correspondence that was previously described. Kelley Sowards. Totally integrating the formal. was an arm of this garrison state. These ‘schools’ gave little or no attention to the development of literacy much less cultivation. called helots. p. fitness and fidelity to the end that absolute control could be maintained over Sparta’s subject peoples.. 28The term "laconic" (meaning given to speaking with very few words) is derived from Laconia. eloquence or refinement.29 They were taught to steal what they required from the serfs. totally integrated with the military. dissent was punished by death. informal and technical levels of culture to the end of conquest.. the Spartans demanded the total subordination of self to the collective. and preoccupied with controlling their many subjects and slaves. For this reason. Cit. sleeping on a bed made of rushes. Males were educated to wage war and dominate others. the boy’s father was expected to pay. and required to communicate with as few words as possible.26 More or less constantly at war. Martins. and Greeks. 15 .27 Educating Boys for War Boys began to be drilled in training schools. Even the family was distrusted because it menaced group interests and the national consensus. Instead the boys were brutalized. Consensus was supposed to be absolute.28 Living in a barracks. these young Spartans were encouraged to roam the countryside in “herds” of 64 boys headed by older boys. The most influential were Sparta and Athens. 29Good. Their cultures present a striking contrast. Spartans were expected to serve the state unconditionally. The Greeks refined it. The Spartan educational system. deprived of shoes and all but a single garment for all seasons. Sparta In the eighth century BC the already powerful Greek state of Sparta greatly expanded its power when they conquered the neighboring Messenian people. Though state control was total. Op. and then passed it to the rest of the Western world via the Romans.CHAPTER 3: THE GREEKS The educational heritage of the Sumerians and Egyptians was passed to the Hebrews. who 26J. 1964). females systematically toughened for childbirth. Sparta was organized as a military garrison. really little more than military encampments. 20. 27Bowen. 91. the name of the region of Greece that includes Sparta.
Family life was limited and highly regulated. p. p. MacMillan. which they would have to drop in order to run away. not for stealing. pp. 34H.31 Higher Education and Universal Military Service At seventeen boys were released from their “herds. Dobson.33 Above all.” These flogging were administered primarily for the sake of encouraging stoicism in the face of pain. Spartan boys gave out only a bit worse than they got. Gordon Melvin.” on helots once a year 30 Presumably. p. 20. Source Book of the History of Education for the Greek and Roman Period (New York: MacMillan. live in barracks. It virtually guaranteed complete social control and successful domination and exploitation of others.) An Example of Cultural Lag In a way the Spartan educational system was a great success. Boys even volunteered for more brutal floggings at the altar of Artemis Orthia. F. uncomplaining. Good. From their twentieth to their sixtieth year all male Spartans were obliged to serve the state. A prize was awarded to the winner. the boys entered the ranks of the army. 16 .” They then joined private military units sponsored and controlled by prominent citizens. they were made to understand that the state came first. Cit. 42. These competitions were also designed to reinforce Spartan values. 15 and 18. family loyalties were so suspect that Spartan men often visited their wives by stealth. they were encouraged by their mothers to be obedient. courageous and modest.32 Educating Women Spartan girls lived at home rather than in barracks as the boys did. Education: A History (New York: John Day. After three years in these private militias. Routinely they were flogged by “whip bearers. Here they vied with one another for the honor of enduring the most pain without flinching. through participation in sport. 55-56. If caught. A mother who gave birth to a child judged defective by the Council of Elders was required to abandon her baby to the elements where it died or exposure. Op. 22. eat the simplest food and endure hardship without complaint. These private armies competed with one another in sports and martial contests. This practice was not regarded as a crime. 1939). G. Nevertheless. 31J. It also preserved Spartan independence long 30Paul Monroe. Sometimes they ambushed and murdered helots for the sake of the experience. 33Bowen. Ancient Education and Its Meaning To Us (New York: Cooper Square. Their bodies were strengthened. pp.were owned by the government and allotted to local landowners. this ‘educated’ the helots even more than the Spartans. 1946). Even mother love was expected to give way to the needs of the collective. In fact.. and tell them to come back bearing their shields or dead upon them. 1963). (It was Spartan custom to carry the battle dead home on their own shields. 1960). but for getting caught. In fact.34 When sons went off to war. the boys were beaten. it was legitimated and regulated by declaring a sort of war. Spartan mothers were expected to hand them their heavy shields. On special days they even fought pitched battles to the death. called the “Cryptia. 32A. primarily for childbirth. A History of Western Education (New York.
After Rome’s conquest the Spartans continued to sponsor festivals in which young men volunteered for bloody. Anyone who worked with his hands. the simplicity of which eliminated many of the difficulties associated with mastering the more formidable pictorial scripts of Sumer. But Sparta remained remarkably brutal long after her military might was overcome. However. Wealthy landowners had the highest social position. Athens Around 500 BC another city-state challenged Spartan dominance. 36Bowen. Egypt or China. was looked down upon. one is hard-pressed to come up with a single society where illiteracy is partnered with freedom. cit. condition for freedom? Perhaps so. Foreigners and slaves constituted the The Acropolis in Athens bottom two classes. Sociologists call this cultural lag. Literacy and Democracy Athenian society was clearly divided along social and sexual lines. 17 . This made her mistress of the Aegean Sea and its islands while encouraging the rivalry of Sparta.) 35Idem. even females and those males unable to afford formal instruction could often read and write with modest proficiency. 76. Women led separate lives of almost total seclusion.35 This expansion of literacy provided fertile ground for the cultivation of a limited democracy. although it is clearly not sufficient. for there are many highly literate societies that are also tyrannies. And they were better schooled.477 BC Athens firmly established its preeminence among the Greek city-states by leading the repulse of Persian invaders. sometime fatal. Evidently. p. Unskilled laborers were near the bottom of the male social hierarchy. It was no longer necessary to memorize thousands of characters. they now served no larger purpose than satisfying the morbid curiosity of Roman tourists. This shows how cultures often cling to customs or practices that no longer serve the functions that gave them birth. 60-61. Still. pp. Athens quickly became a leading power. Athen’s efficient alphabet undermined the scribal monopoly on literacy. Overthrowing tyranny and establishing democratic government. In the period 499 . floggings. Class.. This was facilitated by a remarkably efficient alphabet. invariably subordinate to the men of their class.after most other Greek city-states lost theirs. Athenians males enjoyed a degree of personal freedom unknown in any other ancient civilization. Schools are a good place to see it in action. op.36 (Is widespread literacy a necessary. even a skilled artisan.
a series of ancient laws. Beck. There were few schoolhouses. gymnastics. Athenian schools were private. Op. G. Op. if the family was wealthy enough.41 It is difficult for us to appreciate it. write and swim—though these skills could be learned at home... He also helped with homework. writing and counting on the one hand.C. As early as 600 B. 40Power. Parents shopped around. School was usually conducted in the home of the teacher or even in some corner of the marketplace. carrying his school gear. (It was nearly two thousand years later that John Baptist de La Salle pioneered simultaneous instruction of groups of youngsters. p. Teachers and Methods Though they were supervised in a general way by state authorities. At this 37F. Other laws regulated the daily activities of these private schools. Teachers (called didaskalos) were entrepreneurs who charged fees for their services. this task was taken over by a better-educated private tutor. A.Elementary Education Greek boys of noble birth customarily had a pedagogue (leader of the child) permanently assigned to them. instruction was entirely individual. It also established full scholarships for boys whose father’s died serving Athens. 128-130. Solon’s Code. 26. 50. In time. Significantly. pp. p. but the Athenian view was that both mental and physical educations were of equal importance. Op.37 Schools were an accepted part of male upper and middle class life even in the infancy of Athens. Greek Education 450 . 1964). Op. Later. the pedagogue accompanied the child. As it had been in all other schools for thousands of years. Cit. they resorted to schools. required parents to insure that their sons learned to read. and keeping him out of trouble on route. (arithmetic was little taught because of its association with the “vulgar” world of commerce) and physical education on the other. laws had been passed regulating their governance. teachers received no special preparation for their work. (London: Methuen. though sometimes freedmen. The pedagogue was the Athenian child’s first teacher. pp.38 Despite state encouragement and regulation. At first. the citharist music and the paedotribe.C. There was little appreciation for the technical aspects of skillful teaching. Athenian elementary schooling was divided between reading. these three areas were accorded equal importance.) 39 By 500 BC Athenian schooling had become routinized and “elementary” education was divided among three specialist teachers. The grammatist taught reading and writing. In this case. 134. Cit. Cit. music declined in importance. The other students were expected to busy themselves with seatwork. 41Good. This division into specialties mirrored the increasing complexity and specialization of Athenian culture. Solon’s code did not provide for the education of females of any class. however.. 39Power.40 Ultimately.350 B. Commonly slaves. 38Frost. these individuals were entrusted with the child’s physical safety and moral development. If the family could not afford a tutor.. Cit. 18 . 106-107. p.
The Greek View of Life (New York: Collier. Cit.” But modern children. Aristocrats also were contemptuous of those taught in a classroom rather than privately tutored. Pupils memorized and then recited their lessons. 1961). fixing their own fees and employing other teachers. Some Athenian teachers operated schools as a business.43 The “Good Old Days” What with the drudgery. They were not. 44Aristophanes. it was not uncommon for the older students to play hooky. In other words. and pass the day carousing with their friends. Their rigidity. Athenian children often hated school. The fact that some ancient Greek writers referred to teachers with contempt encouraged some historians to wrongly conclude that Athenian teachers were despised.”44 42Beck Op. Discipline was severe and corporal punishment common. were another matter. The emphasis on literature and grammar. entirely from memory. Aristocratic Greeks thought it unfortunate. rather than research and critical analysis. it was an activity almost solely understood in terms of the formal rather than the technical culture. to have to do any work for a living and teaching was no exception. They earned a moderate income and enjoyed a status equal to other skilled individuals such as doctors and sculptors. 19 . 961. pp 111-116. Clouds. Egypt and China. much less the status of the upper classes.” he complained. broad of tongue. This caused some Athenians. Students also painstakingly copied writing samples provided by the teacher.42 Social Control and Status Concerns Methods of classroom teaching were similar to those used in Sumer. orderly and studious. These “chattering wastrels. Lowes Dickinson. They maintained that such work “feminized” the body and marred the soul. as opposed to technical skills also reinforced status distinctions and reflected aristocratic Athenian’s disdain for labor with the hands or at a desk. reliance on coercion and relentless demands for conformity indicate that social control was a major function of Athenian schooling. The aging scribe said he remembered when Athenian youngsters would fight their way to school in “snow thick as meal. teaching was based on tradition. They usually made more than skilled workman. were “narrow chested. 43G. such as the writer Aristophanes. Superior students could recite formidable epics. and for a very long time to come. even vulgar. he lamented. As in ancient Sumer. to lament the disappearance of the good old days when children had been quiet. Fear often was the sole motivation. Tutors working for wealthy families generally enjoyed high status and an enviable standard of living. pp.. Other teachers worked as private tutors. such as the Iliad and Odyssey. These often consisted of long passages of poetry containing moral admonitions and mythology. 91-93. canings and mindless memorization. For these reasons the classroom teacher’s status was not equal to that of the tutor. ill-disciplined and soft — clearly not the same stern stuff which had won the day against the Persians.time. p.
In fact. 37.399 BC. backward.The Absence of Technical Level Pedagogical Knowledge The Athenians were no more sophisticated than the Sumerians. That is how teaching through questioning came to be known as the ‘Socratic method’. illustrates this lack of pedagogical sophistication. and in every other conceivable way. He was convicted and condemned to death for corrupting the morals of Athenian youth and for heresy. This required high fees that few could afford. rather than the formal. Plato. 20 . Surprisingly. Known as Sophists. Travers. 1. a teacher loved and admired by the brightest and wealthiest youth of Athens. 469 . The skills developed were those necessary for success in patrician republican Athens The Sophists taught small classes of 5 to 6 students. "Unresolved Issues in Defining Educational Goals. Socrates skillfully questioned his student’s most basic values while strolling with them in the gardens of a public park known as the Academy. who played a crucial role in the development of speculative thought. They then learned to recognize and pronounce all possible two-letter syllables before moving on to three and four letter syllables. It also emphasized the power of personal contacts. This ancient student workbook contains the entire Athenian reading curriculum from the first days of school up to the reading of Homer. Plato his most famous pupil popularized his lessons. reframing many at the technical." Educational Theory. 46 F. level of culture. Although he left no writings. 270-271. G. it reveals that it took four years for Greek children to learn a simple sentence. was a well-born Athenian influenced by the teaching of Socrates. His technical dissections of Athenian formal culture led to his denunciation and trial.. He subjected virtually every problem that has occupied subsequent generations of thinkers to painstaking analysis.347 BC. p.A.350 B. 450 . Plato’s writings included the dialogs that portrayed Socrates’ method of inquiry and popularized his views. restricting higher education to the wealthy. Egyptians or Chinese so far as teaching was concerned. this civilization produced educators of such surpassing skill and wisdom that their names are still synonymous with higher learning. Winter 1987. No. 427? . 1964). Vol. Greek Education.W. Beck. It eventually became the most influential 45Robert M. These path-breaking educators who made lasting contributions to schooling in the West included: Socrates. Altogether they were required to spend three years memorizing 750 syllables before finally proceeding to words and sentences. C. these teachers attracted wealthy and ambitious young men to lectures emphasizing rhetoric and argumentation. astronomy and the study of the Greek language. pp. Pupils started by memorizing the alphabet. This curriculum reflected upper class vocational concerns. 30. (London: Methuen.45 Higher Education As the society developed private teachers began to go from city to city selling a form of higher education. which they recited it forward. The Guerard-Juguet document. but also covering mathematics. This had the latent function of reinforcing Athenian status distinctions. In approximately 387 BC he established a school in the quiet groves of the Academy. Their methodology was based almost entirely on tradition rather than technical knowledge. discovered in Athens shortly after World War II.46 The Sophists were not the only teachers of higher education in ancient Athens.
Many flourished and became a long-term presence in Greek life. Aristotle. many of these same “heretics” are remembered as geniuses. Point/Counterpoint Original thinkers often are imprisoned. His most enduring contribution was the almost single-handed creation of the science of logic. Even after Aristotle was forced to flee Athens following charges of impiety. But we also require them to pave the way for change. Subsequently.’ Aristotle tutored Alexander the Great and subsequently founded the so-called Peripatetic school in the Athenian Lyceum. or executed and their works destroyed. is the most revered teacher and philosopher of Greek antiquity. His teaching career must be ranked among the most influential in the history of Western civilization. Under Roman rule. This greatly strengthened the power and influence of the technical level of culture. 21 . Additional schools of higher learning were established which reflected different philosophical positions. along with his teacher Plato. people like Socrates undermine that control. By challenging the existing order. Educators are expected to enforce and encourage stability. his work had a particularly great influence on Christian philosophers of the Middle Ages. however. every society must adapt to change. banished. The Greek Legacy The Romans eventually conquered all of Greece. On the other hand. this famous school stressed natural science. Even today we reflect this history by referring to “schools” of philosophy when we speak of philosophical differences. He made contributions to all areas of philosophy and his writings ran into hundreds of volumes. Every society must maintain sufficient social control and predictability to keep things from falling apart. This dichotomy reflects a basic tension. That puts teachers squarely in the middle of a fundamental tension. and even prophets. Though a pagan. the Lyceum continued to prosper for nearly 900 years. Schools are impacted by this inescapable tension between the need for order and the necessity of change. And that requires trashing traditions as well as questioning “sacred” values— the very things Socrates was good at. Funded by Alexander’s contributions of money and provided with scientific specimens from the four corners of his empire.322 BC. permitting the most incisive criticisms of formal level ‘truths. Roman conquest spread Athenian culture and educational practices throughout its enormous empire. 384? . But Athens had established a culture of such unprecedented richness that it refused to die. becoming the great center for the schooling of aristocratic Roman youth. Here it survived long after Rome’s greatness had passed.school of the ancient world. Later. saints. Athens eventually prospered once again.
however. p. 18. Then. philosophy and ideas. As the Roman poet Horace observed. When they came into contact with Athenian culture through conquest. She was. legal. cit. parts of Asia Minor and much of North Africa. 207. 1968).” did not refer to schooling at all. social. Though deeply conservative. Indeed. aristocratic Romans eventually adopted Athenian upper class religion. 1926). And the Roman lower classes had no notion of Athenian civilization. Yet throughout Roman history the artisans and the citizen farmers that were the backbone of early Roman society learned their skills by apprenticeship and example. One of the first functions to be delegated to others was child-care and education. It was the fundamental economic. A well-schooled Roman child was termed “eruditus. religious and educational unit of Roman society. 14 23 . p. a substitute mother with whom the children lived and took their meals — they dined with their biological family only in the evening or on holidays.CHAPTER 4: THE ROMANS Rome. (Breast-feeding by an aristocratic natural mother was not the fashion. p. but also relatives.47 Early in their history the Romans educated their children by means of the family. (New York. controlling most of Europe and the Middle East.50 47Burns. And the state claimed an ever-greater share of familial authority. servants and slaves. A History of Private Life from Pagan Rome to Byzantium (Cambridge. Roman power increased as that of Greece declined.W. 50Paul Veyne. Western Civilizations: Their History and Culture. 49Gies. the biological family delegated more and more of its responsibilities to surrogates. in effect. the Romans never equaled the Athenians in intellectual or artistic refinements. They also adopted the system of schooling upon which it was based. a sophisticated agricultural society. Up until the age of puberty it was the wet nurse’s responsibility to educate the children in conjunction with a pedagogue. 559. (New York. “educatio. Mass. 48James Breasted. Norton.” The Athenian Model Although they were very sophisticated in technical skills.) The wet nurse’s duties went far beyond offering the child her breast. had already conquered the Italian peninsula by the time Athens entered her Golden Age. 1987) p. Shortly after birth upper class Roman children were turned over to a wet nurse. they recognized its value. W.” the Latin root of the English word “education.. The Conquest of Civilization. the conqueror was herself conquered by the civilization of the Greeks. Edward.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.48 Pedagogues and Tutors The Roman familia consisted not only of parent and child.49 As Roman civilization developed. but to a child’s upbringing at home. Harper Brothers. for more than six centuries. Eventually the Roman Empire became a colossus. op.
Literacy was required of upper class children, and teaching them was delegated to the pedagogue. As in Greece, this educated slave or freedman (former slave) functioned as a surrogate father. He was charged not only with teaching basic academic skills, but also with the child’s moral and physical well being. We see, then, that the nurse and pedagogue functioned as surrogate parents. Under the supervision of the paternal grandmother, whose role was to be a strict enforcer of social convention, they often lived in the countryside with their charges, far removed from the temptations of Rome. In such a setting the love between nurse, pedagogue and child became strong indeed, usually lasting a lifetime. Roman history affords many examples of emotional attachments between the child and his or her nurse and pedagogue. One of the most notorious concerns the Emperor Nero, who murdered his biological mother with the help of his pedagogue. Later, facing certain death at the hands his enraged subjects, only his nurse stood by him to the end.51 The services of the pedagogue and nurse were often supplemented with those of a better-schooled tutor who usually charged a hefty fee. Having been tutored became a distinguishing feature of a Roman upper class child — a practice wealthy Britons copied until well into the twentieth century. This system of education had a clear-cut status function. The prestige of a family could easily be measured by the fame of the tutor they employed. Members of the royal family were tutored by academics of the greatest reputation. Seneca the philosopher and Quintilian the rhetorician are two examples. There was considerable competition for the services of such teachers, and their pay was handsome. 52
Although Romans greatly preferred private tutors, most could not afford them. For them the ludus, or primary school, was the only alternative. Here, a fairly substantial proportion of Roman children, boys and girls together, were taught reading, writing and counting for a fee. Some ludi were conducted on street corners or in public arcades. Others were established in the teacher’s home or in rented shop space. Parents paid only after services were rendered, and many looked for an excuse not to pay at all. The child’s pedagogue expected a cut; otherwise he would use his influence to undermine the teacher. In general, this sort of teaching was a mean business involving little pay, less status, and even less technical sophistication so far as teaching technique was concerned.53 By age 12 girls were considered nubile, and were often married. Sexual maturity marked the end of their schooling.54 Sometimes aristocratic girls were better educated than that, though the primary purpose was to prepare them to teach their male children.
51Ibid. 52Stanley J. Bonner, Education in Ancient Rome (Berkely: University of California Press, 1977), pp. 1033. 53Bonner, Op. Cit., p. 46. 54Veyne, Op. Cit., p. 19. 24
Less well to do boys also had to drop out at that age because they could not afford to go on. Those who could, attended a higher tier of schools (equivalent of our secondary schools) that emphasized Latin grammar and literature. Well-educated freedmen or Romans of high birth who had come upon hard times operated these Latin Grammar Schools. Attracting boys in the general age range 12 to 16, such schools were unregulated and ranged from street corner makeshifts to prestigious enterprises run by famous grammatici who had become affluent by teaching the sons of Rome’s “best families.”55 Following completion of Latin Grammar school, at approximately sixteen years of age, the more privileged boys enrolled in Schools of Rhetoric. They were the equivalent of modern higher education. At first Romans were reluctant to adopt this Athenian institution. By the time of Christ, however, there were many tutors and even more schools specializing in rhetoric. Schools of Rhetoric were at the top of the prestige hierarchy. Their importance was partially vocational, reflecting the usefulness of many of the techniques of the rhetoritician in governance and legal matters. But these schools served status better than vocation. Their requirement that kids learn hefty doses of vocationally useless Greek bear witness to that fact. At one point the Roman Senate even attempted to require the study of Greek in all schools of Rhetoric. This was intended to effectively limit rhetorical training to the children of the aristocracy. (Apparently Latin based schools of rhetoric were becoming popular with the middle class.) Requiring Greek was intended to make such training too expensive for those of limited means.56
Roman Formal Education
Latin Grammar Schools Schools of Rhetoric
The Roman government neither created nor sustained Roman schools. A formal education was not compulsory, literacy was haphazard and there were not even any buildings designed as schools. Teachers were untrained in pedagogy, largely unregulated and received no government pay. They were left entirely
55Dobson, Op. Cit., p. 26. 56Good, Op. Cit., p. 49. 25
to the mercy of a free market economy. For this reason inequality of educational opportunity was the educational order of the day.57 The social functions of Roman schooling were technical training, status maintenance and social control just as they were in Sumer, Egypt, China and Athens. Social renewal also was involved, though neither the Roman Senate nor Emperors were interested in an elite selected from the ranks by rigorous examination. The main difference between Roman schooling and its Greek parent was that Greek schooling was a very public business with half of the day devoted to sport. Roman schooling was a more private affair, and physical education was relatively unimportant.58
The Education of Roman Women
Although many more honored and less restricted than their Greek counterparts, Roman women were still educated only for home making. But the great importance of family life, coupled with the fact that the mother expected to personally rear and educate the younger children, did much to legitimate the formal schooling of upper class Roman women. By the second century BC it was possible for aristocratic woman like Cornelia, mother of the great liberal Tribunes Tiberius and Gaius Grachus, to have acquired a classical Greek education. She put it to use teaching her children—achieving such remarkable results that she became famous for her contribution to Roman history.59 Basically, however, Roman attitudes toward women and their education were similar to those of the Greeks. The father governed the all-important family with absolute authority. If women were formally educated, it was done grudgingly as a concession to class distinctions and the requirements of aristocratic motherhood. It was also done with deep misgivings, for it was widely held that educated women were troublesome. The Roman dramatist, essayist and tutor of Nero, Lucius Seneca (c. 4 B.C.--65 A.D.) spoke for many Roman men when he commented in Hippolytus, “When a woman thinks . . . she thinks evil.”
Schooling and Bureaucracy
Throughout most of its history the Roman world did not rely upon a vast bureaucracy to govern and administer. During the early years, when Rome was a Republic, government was accomplished through citizen participation with a rapid turnover in office. It did not depend upon career bureaucrats selected through formal education and examinations. Even in the early Empire the administration of local affairs was still in the hands of wealthy citizens rather than career bureaucrats. Only in the later stages of Roman history (in the fourth through the sixth centuries AD) did the government begin to utilize large numbers of
57Bonner Op. Cit., pp. 328-329. 58Veyne, p. 20. 59Gary Clabaugh, "A History of Male Attitudes Toward the Education of Women," Educational Horizons, Vol 64, number 3, p. 131. 26
119-120. from Portugal in the west to the Euphrates River in the East." Harvard Educational Review. and eventually became a basic model for collegiate higher education even to the present day.60 The form of classical schooling corresponded to this style of governance. 70 62Veyne. rather than the dictates of necessity. Vol. 47. Rome’s leading orator. Whatever they knew of technical subjects. For the most part. Medieval History (New York: Macmillan. such as Cicero and Quintilian. mathematics and history. 1977. eventually helped inspire the Renaissance.61 Roman Educational Ideas The Roman lack of emphasis on teaching technical subjects corresponded with their attitude. 27 . For example. they picked up indirectly by reading the classical writings. The Remnants of Empire Latin outlived the Roman Empire to become the universal language of educated people throughout the Western world. "Some Comparative Principles of Educational Stratification. this period also featured the imposition of regulations governing teachers and schools. articulated an elitist educational value system that still remains influential. But Rome’s greatest educational contribution was the preservation and extension of Athenian culture.). Marcus Tullius Cicero (106--43 B. Part of the very essence of the vast Roman empire itself. a “liberal education” amounted to teaching upper class students of independent means how to read and to write and speak in accordance with the ostentatious eloquence then popular in governmental circles. shared with classical Athens. cit. cultivated notables who exalted idleness because it permitted the cultivation of virtue.” This meant that wealthy Romans had to be educated for the type of life that was the exclusive province of men who could afford to do as they pleased according to their ideals.C. centuries of Roman rule had made Athenian educational practices and ideals an integral part of Western culture. pp. 60Randall Collins. statesman and man of letters during the later part of the Republic. 1.professional officials. these principles and practices eventually held sway from the Sahara in the south to Scotland in the north. Cantor. natural philosophy (science). 1963. pp. By the time Rome’s Western Empire crumbled. 61Norman F. such as geography. the writings of Romans. To this end he outlined the type of study necessary for a class of wealthy. The elitist curriculum he articulated was later codified into law by the Roman Senator Cassiodorus. 15-16. What is more. No. In De Oratore (The Orator) Cicero maintained that a well-rounded background in the liberal arts is what makes an individual truly educated. that the virtuous life lived by a man of quality had to be one of “idleness.62 The Romans developed distinctive ideas about teaching and learning which reflected this point of view. op.. p. Characteristically.
Improved instruction only could be accomplished by making use of scientifically derived knowledge. When these did finally develop. however. Teaching methods were based solely on tradition. the former Secretary of Education during most of the Reagan administration. In this same work Quintilian observed that knowledge of child growth and development is of central importance to any educator. Although this Socratic method was based on the philosopher’s erroneous theory that we are born knowing all there is to know. They had no sense that more efficient instruction could be derived from a systematic study of children or learning. recommended that the foundations of teaching must be derived from the psychology of the student rather than tradition. level of culture. In fact the ancient notion that teaching should be understood almost exclusively in terms of tradition and knowledge of subject matter is still very much with us. Of all the educators and teachers of this period. research on teaching and learning. There was a “right” and “wrong” way of conducting instruction. only the famous Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (AD 35 97) seemed to have some understanding that schooling and teaching could be understood in terms of the technical rather than the formal level of culture. and little formal instruction. and simply need reminded. seems convinced that there is little technical level knowledge concerning teaching or children that teachers need to know.The Nature of Teaching Throughout most of this period there were few schools. Indeed. and an understanding of the basic principles of human growth and development — a view that Quintilian would have found congenial. As the history of schooling developed. For example. 28 . Quintilian was far ahead of his time. more and more thinkers came to the conclusion that improving teaching required grounding it in technical culture. And so far as motivation was concerned. Quintilian’s twelve volume Institutio Oratoria. it was primarily based on the threat of physical punishment. at least one of its consequences was a systematic inquiry into the nature of knowledge. William Bennett. teachers received no formal training in pedagogy. and knowledge of subject matter was regarded as not only necessary but sufficient preparation for teaching. All of this indicates that teaching was conceived and executed at the formal. which was an elaborate treatment of Roman schooling. It is true that Socrates pioneered the teaching method of asking a series of questions that led the student to an ever-deeper understanding. rather than the technical.
social control and status reinforcement. 4. of understanding the evolution of teaching and schooling. technical and informal levels of culture provides a useful way history the later developed. 5. elements in the broader culture. Spartan and Athenian educational practices illustrate how educational practices correspond to Athenian and Roman educational practices are the source of many Western traditions of schooling. The distinction between the formal. 2. Ancient China added another function. 3. that of social renewal. 29 . The crucial distinction between education and schooling is emphasized by how late in human The first schools were involved in vocational preparation.Section Summary 1.
Recently. various neo-Marxist historians. pp. Can you cite any evidence in this chapter that supports or undermines the Neo-Marxist point of view? 9. 10. 7.Section Questions 1. several new reasons for this development have been suggested. an instrument of domination and exploitation. What is the significance of the complexity or simplicity of methods of writing with regard to the How do Quintilian. 3. Sumer developed schools which taught a governing elite socially necessary technical skills which also legitimated and reinforced their high social status. 5. for example. have argued that public schools have historically imposed middle class interests on an often-reluctant working class. “Correspondence and Contradiction in Ancient Greek Society and Education: Homer’s Epic Poetry and Plato’s Early Dialogues. Imagine would have happened to their civilization if a whole generation of Sumerian children somehow failed to learn anything about their culture whatsoever. socializing the young. though not necessarily the schooling first originate in our “planetary year?” formal schooling. There is a difference between power-holders and stakeholders. Thus. How long ago did The very existence of a culture depends upon the effective education.” Educational Theory. Imagine the Earth’s entire history to be compressed into one year of time. They have been.) 6. for example. The correspondence principle holds that the functions of schooling are consistent and compatible with broader societal practices. 33:2. were the chief motives for the development of schooling. of the young. Do you see any evidence that the contradiction principle may have been at work in the period of history described in this chapter? If so. We argued that the capacity for language and symbolism are uniquely and vitally human. 8. such as Michael Katz. 49-59. Looking back on your own experience in school. schooling formality. Focusing on the development of public education. Spring 1983. and teaching methodology relate? image of the school as Temple? 30 . was the development of language and symbolic competence a central feature of the curriculum of the schools you have attended? How? 4. Sichel. where and when? (For a summary and examples of these principles see Betty A. 2. Identify the four functions of schooling. however. How does the distinction help us What intellectual tool is Aristotle credited with developing which made it possible to subject Until the late 1960s most experts held that fostering socially necessary technical skills and understand the discrimination against women with regard to access to formal schooling in the early years? formal culture to more effective technical analysis. say these theorists.
Finally. The second concerns the conflict between the technical culture. preparing the ground for a more sophisticated understanding of colonial American educational practices. good or evil. which is changeable and understood in terms of efficiency. the church and schools. emphasizing broad social trends that had a great impact on education and schooling. and the scientific revolution. The first trend concerns the shift of emphasis from the family to broader social institutions. stressing its educational implications and relating it to the Renaissance and humanism. We review the precipitous decline of schooling that accompanied the fall of Rome. The last concerns the degree of social consensus and the related presence or absence of conflict and bargaining. which is more enduring and understood in terms of right or wrong. which emphasizes that developments in education and schooling are reflections of far broader events in the broader society.SECTION II: THE AGE OF FAITH THROUGH THE RENAISSANCE In this section we trace the history of education from the Age of Faith to the Renaissance. the Reformation. 31 . Throughout we offer different illustrations of the principle of correspondence. and the formal culture. We recount the slow breakdown of the Church’s control of schooling that was initiated by the rise of towns and hastened by the Renaissance. We also describe the impact of the invention of printing. we summarize the educational impact of the Reformation and the CounterReformation. such as government. and then describe its slow redevelopment within the Christian Church.
Emperor Theodosius II decreed that followers of other religions were. Intent on eliminating dissensus and establishing Christianity as the soul source of spiritual authority in the Roman Empire. 66Herrell DeGraff. “mad and demented. Commercial agriculture gave way to what were essentially agricultural villages little more sophisticated than those of the horticultural age. more primitive. The stability and seeming unchangeability of both the technical and formal levels of medieval culture produced regular. Those of us who are troubled by the transience of modern life might envy such stability and permanence. A Short History of the Ancient World.”65 When Rome fell. harsh and exploitative. (New York. consensus in a sea of dissensus. passed on from grandfather. Romanized Christianity remained widely practiced. 1987) p. Originally hated and feared as subversive. This was accompanied by the disintegration of Rome’s advanced technical culture. civil engineering emphasis of the Romans. 33 . 16 64Paul Moorhead. The Encyclopedia Americana. the Christian Church represented a broad. a reversal of urbanization. It depended for its foundation on a technique of open fields agriculture. and general disorder. Though it was at the mercy of local lords.” “guilty of infamy.D. replacing the commercial agricultural. to son. In its last years Rome had been strongly influenced by the spread of Christianity modified by Greek thought and Roman concepts of law and administration. It was almost universally regarded as the only guide that could show both nobleman and commoner their way to Heaven. to father. technical culture slowly took root. badly fragmented and ill disciplined. 1962) p. Vol. It was simply too bad for anyone foolish enough to experiment with a new crop that was still maturing.CHAPTER 5: SCHOOLING AND THE AGE OF FAITH In the late 5th Century the last remnants of the Rome’s multinational military empire fused with Germanic or barbarian society. and the opening of the crop fields to the village livestock. 438 A. for example. History of Agriculture. though shallow.63 The result was a decline of trade. 1939.66 Such a system discouraged technical level innovation while simultaneously fostering a broad yet deep consensus regarding the formal level of culture that was reflected in the religious values of the age. A New Social Order A new. When. repetitive lives in an apparently unchanging world. 609 65The Theodosian Code. Americana Corporation.64 The formal level of Roman culture faired better than the technical. Christianity became the state religion. The peasantry. (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts). lived in the shadow of their local war lord 63Frances and Joseph Gies. the Church bells rang on Lammas Day (August 15th) it signified the end of harvest. 256. p. for example. 1. Marriage and the Family in the Middle Ages (New York: Harper & Row.” and “subject to the wrath of both God and the state. Education reverted to the family and the Church. which required everyone to do the same thing in the same way at the same time. but it sustained a system that was often cruel.
The educational aspects of family life involved imitation and explanation either in one’s own or in someone else’s home. relics. 1899. Belfort Bax. even if they had surviving relatives. educate and instruct them concerning matters both spiritual and practical. Man. were performed within the household. for example. that they may read in imagery and painture what clerks [clerics] read in the book. required their wage less labor. Brown and Company. 91 69Quoted by Lawrence Cremin in.68 Indeed. discussed later. Stories. boy and girl attended Church services on a regular basis both on Sundays and in response to the seasonal round of holy days. 34 . American Education: The Colonial Experience (New York: Harper&Row. Here they heard sermons intended to exhort.”69 To this end the churches were filled with statuary. and inherited their goods. Since not only farming. Indeed. 1970) p. The Peasant War in Germany (New York: Russell and Russell. Biblical and secular. Even the church windows were filled with educational messages in the form of beautiful displays of stained glass. the family was the heart and soul of this new social system. religious affiliation. individually and in series. The putting out of male children into another’s home was necessitated by the fact that male children did not universally follow their father’s occupation. it worked so well that this informal system of education proved perfectly adequate to meet most of European society’s educational needs for the next thousand years. 42-43. it provided food. 139. economic opportunities and education to all classes of society. and paintings intended to educate and inform. regulated their marriages. 1985) p. The ceremonial was also seen as “a book to the lewd [uneducated] people. forbid them to carry weapons. were depicted with the intention of 67 E. but also crafts and trades. clothing. he would try to locate a blacksmith who would be willing to train the lad in return for him doing most of the menial chores around the forge. and this made it perfectly natural for the Church to supplement the family and draw together the community in much the same way that public schools do today. shelter. 68James Burke.67 Household Education Even more than in Roman times. From its inception Christianity had an essentially educational character. such an arrangement was eminently practical. The Day the Universe Changed (Boston: Little. this system of apprenticeship became the primary method of training youngsters for induction into the guilds which came to dominate European town and city life The Educational Functions of the Church The great authority and educational importance accorded the family in the medieval world was complimented and reinforced by the Church. pp. reissued 1968). woman. So if a boy’s father wanted him to learn blacksmithing. Traditionally patriarchal.who compelled them to pay heavy market tolls and handicraft taxes. In the later part of the Age of Faith. in some ways church attendance was very much the medieval equivalent of public school attendance. social status.
The faithful were also required to memorize the Pater Noster. In time these productions moved from the Church into the village square where there was more room for ambitious productions. 143.” He even proclaimed that the “pitiable Aristotle. 58 72Justo Gonzalez. Upper class churchmen still required some measure of literacy in order to read the scriptures. 69. most of the church fathers 70Idem. a corresponding educational system that taught upper class youngsters the skills of knighthood largely replaced classical studies. there were many within the Church who were very suspicious of schooling. p.” the very embodiment of intellectual authority in the classical world. and they almost unconsciously transposed the fundamental attitudes of Roman thought into Latin Christianity. The Roman upper classes had been even better schooled than the middle class. Predictably. they frowned on all books except the Bible. 73Quoted in Norman F. p. vol 1 (San Francisco. was no longer valued and very nearly disappeared. 71Janet Roebuck. Medieval History (New York: Macmillan. Christian thought eventually adopted classical culture. the Apostles’ Creed and the Decalogue. the North African church father of the early 3 rd Century. who denounced Greco-Roman philosophers as “hucksters of wisdom and eloguence. This process had been bitterly resisted even in Roman times by radical fundamentalists like Tertullian. Cantor. Intended to instruct the laity.”73 Classical Culture and the Reemergence of Schools Despite this sort of opposition.70 In addition to regular services. 1984) p. these plays were often entrusted to a single craft guild to carry out. But classical learning.72 Even the more sympathetic Church fathers discouraged the study of ‘heathen’ authors and “pagan” classics. Like many of the Latin Fathers of the Church who had preceded them.informing the faithful. the intellectual leaders of the Church were still men who had received a classical education. Harper & Row. The guilds would compete with one another in the elaborateness of their sets and costumes. 35 . The medieval secular upper classes needed skill at arms. However.. as Aristotle understood it and both the Greek and Roman upper classes experienced it. 1963.” and “animals of self-glorification. The Story of Christianity. not rhetoric or Greek. because books and teachers were very scarce. 1974) p. the Church also promoted morality plays based on Christian teaching. and shunned scholarship as a source of damning pride. But the middle class had taken school attendance pretty much for granted. Moreover. The Shaping of Urban Society (New York: Scribners. Now an educated sword arm was more to the point. 140. Also. was a “fountain of heresy. in large measure. This was due. to the fact that as products of classical schooling themselves. In the early middle ages this class itself had nearly disappeared and the corresponding educational institutions and practices had nearly disappeared with them. schools themselves were practically non-existent.71 The Near Disappearance of Schools In Roman times schooling almost never touched the lives of ordinary people.
74 The influence of St.75 Despite Jerome’s and Augustine’s contributions. in Benedicts day. Benedict required it as an act of devotion and discipline. monasteries had to provide some sort of schooling. “To work is to pray. it found a particularly sympathetic refuge in monasteries operating in the Benedictine tradition. discipline and. labor and devotion. 36 . a library and a scriptorium which prepared copies 74Ibid. because. demonstrated that classical humanism could render enormous service to the faith. the Christian Church kept the remnants of Romanized Greek learning alive.). Nevertheless. p. wrote most of the books. original publication 1904). above all. Jerome was a classically educated scholar whose work. and classical humanistic authority on the other. was a highly persuasive advocate of Christian adoption of the Roman system of education. Jerome (c340-420) and St. 76-77. schooling reawoke with the development of the Western monastic tradition. 345. Vol. pp. Martin's Press. 76William Ker. such as the Abbey of Monte Cassino (Founded 529 A. 77James Bowen.D. A History of Western Education. Monastic formal education was further encouraged by the work of the Roman aristocrat and scholar Cassiodorus who. It featured a school. That. Benedict. but they also preserved the pagan classical values that had been abandoned in the world outside. most particularly a brilliant translation of the Bible from Hebrew into Latin. Augustine (354-430) were decisive in this regard. monasteries developed in Western Europe during the 6th Century under the direction of St. the dignity of work. obedience. He also drew heavily on Platonic philosophy in developing his highly influential theological writings such as The City of God. p 25. Since few Monastic novices were literate when they arrived for training. (New York: St.77 They toiled to capture the purity of God’s truth and offered their lives in the prayer of work.” As a consequence of Benedict’s belief that scholarly work was an act of devotion. copied priceless manuscripts. and maintained the only libraries in the Europe of the Early Age of Faith. But while Eastern orders shunned formal study. 1972).D. Growing out of an Eastern tradition that held the material world in disdain. I. Cit. He adopted Eastern monasticism’s life in religious communities with strict rules of poverty.) and Cluny Abbey (founded 910 A. Augustine while less sympathetic to the values of classical culture. Monastery Schools Ultimately. In the early years candidates for the order were taken from all social levels. His purpose was to encourage piety. Benedict did not intend monastic scholarship to be motivated by a search for truth. 75Op. was already at hand. The Dark Ages (New York: Mentor 1958.76 As a matter of fact. set out to establish a large monastery that would serve as a center for Christian education and scholarship.could not imagine another system and curriculum than the one that had been universal in the Mediterranean world for nearly a thousand years. a fundamental tension remained between the authority of the Bible on the one hand. the monks of monasteries. however. he believed..
37 . and all of these services were a source of considerable income. 23. And since the medieval period is chiefly characterized by the fact 78Cantor. In the two centuries after the founding of Cassiodorus’ scholarly monastery. Despite initial reluctance on the part of many Abbots. libraries and scriptoria. Authority was clearly established.) This. because clerics were virtually the only ones able to read and write. probate wills. requirement. role models were readily available. 79Ibid. 78 The early Benedictine monasteries did not accept children as novices. p. By 800 the more important Benedictine monasteries had flourishing schools and large libraries. p. corresponded with an increased need for schools. their only students were adults. only the literate could read and interpret the word of God. cit. courts of law — even an army. when schooling had regained some of the substantial value it enjoyed in Roman times. the costs of this model also made them felt. other parents. only they could record treaties. Later.of the works to be studied in the school.. Cantor estimates that fully 90% of all the literate men between 600 and 1100 B. In addition the monks and were producing the manuscripts that kept Christian scholarship alive. craft contracts. there was a great sense of community. Benedictine communities all over Europe established similar schools. began enrolling them in monastery schools for a fee. such children eventually became a very important part of the student body. the ends controlled the means. however. read letters. uninterested in monastic life for their children.80 The growth of the Church’s governmental role also increased individual incentives for attending school. The growth of this infrastructure required increasing numbers of literate administrators and clerks. Because of the almost universal illiteracy of the age. and consensus was very deep. Also. C. Ideas and Institutions in European History (New York: Holt. parents were permitted to offer their youngsters for training and initiation into Holy Orders. 1948). were trained in monastery schools. et al. Most importantly. 188. Suppression of variety and dissent and the fact that ends were not open to discussion led to intellectual aridity and the persecution of the very people who could have provided the system with the renewal it required. Governance and the Substantial Value of Schooling During the tumultuous centuries following Rome’s collapse the Church assumed more and more of the governmental functions that the state could no longer sustain. On the other hand. These children were drawn almost exclusively from the class of the nobility. monastic schools had a disproportionate impact on early medieval society.79 Monastery schools were very much in the Temple image. Eventually. Church officials developed administrative offices. All of the benefits of this type of school were present.” the medieval term for clergyman. in turn. (Significantly. “clerk” is a derivation of “cleric. op. Being schooled now gave an individual great advantage within the Church’s growing administrative bureaucracy. 80Thomas Mendenhall. register births and deaths. and draw up deeds.
p. 64. 302. 85 Gary Clabaugh. O'Sullivan and J. 83J. "National Literacy Campaigns: Historical and Comparative Lessons. A remnant of the Roman tutorial system. to some extent. the Gregorian “reform” movement of the 11th Century severely discouraged female monastic orders. the vocational concerns of 81G. since literacy of any kind was utterly distinctive.85 . 1932). 1938). 131-32." Educational Horizons. it was considered proof of his status as a religious and he would be turned over to the Church for trial. This meant that with the cautious encouragement of Gregory I (590 .83 Thus the ideal of a fully literate clergy was not realized. Burns. 205. Hildegard of Bingen. this was an enormous advantage.604).that thirty generations of human beings defined their conduct in terms of God’s word." Phi Delta Kappan. 84Loren MacKinney. their place in the church receded and their schooling became more and more unlikely. B. it were discovered that an individual accused of a crime could read and write. long on connections but short on knowledge. p. Ultimately. 38 . November. A few Court Schools were also available to a very limited number of upper class children. however. This effectively stifled the schooling of women.84 Schooling Women Initially. Court Schools Monasteries did not operate the only schools in the early period of the Age of Faith. churchmen were so distinctive in their literacy that throughout the early Age of Faith it was assumed that an educated man had to be some sort of clergyman. a goodly number of the high clergy were political appointees. Number 3. a more reactionary attitude toward women began to assert itself. Number 3. It helped them solidify administrative control through uniform training of Church bureaucrats. Civilization During the Middle Ages (New York: Scribner. Women had their own monasteries and monastic leadership. As the revolutionary fervor of Christianity faded.81 Church officials also had organizational incentives for making certain that priests were schooled. In fact. schooling further legitimated the high social status of the clergy. the early medieval church benefited from the accomplishments of well educated women such as Hild of Whitby. these schools addressed the status and. Medieval Europe. "A History of Male Attitudes Toward the Education of Women. 655. pp. an almost universal scarcity of resources and educated persons meant that many of the lower ranking early churchmen were nearly illiterate. Spring. Finally. p. monasticism was not confined to men. 190 82Robert Arnove and Harvey Graff. 1986.82 Despite these individual and organizational incentives. As a result. 1946). Vol. The Medieval World. and Roswitha of Gandersheim. p. A common school experience also promoted group solidarity and a similar perspective on the world. 1987. If. the public activity of women declined. (New York: Crofts. Vol 69. Also. for example. Adams. New York: Farrar and Rinehart. Despite this. many early monasteries enrolled both men and women.
aristocratic families. The most influential was sponsored by Charlemagne (crowned Emperor by the Pope in 800 A.D.). To insure the preeminence of his Court school, Charlemagne recruited Alcuin, a famed English schoolman, to be its principal teacher. Gathering scarce intellectual talent from throughout Europe, Alcuin established a school that enrolled the Emperor, his family and courtiers.
Charlemagne’s Educational Initiatives
Charlemagne also issued edicts upgrading the education of the clergy and directing “ministers of God’s alter” to educate all children, rich and poor. He also supported scribal activity that improved libraries throughout Europe. Ambitious as they were, these efforts produced little of lasting consequence. Not even the commands of an Emperor could alter the basic tenor of the times. Formal education simply had little substantial value outside the Church.
Necessity, Scarcity and Schooling
Scarcities of all kinds also stood in Charlemagne’s way. There were very few literate individuals who could act as teachers, and there was also an extreme scarcity of books. It took a monk approximately a year to hand copy an average volume and books were so valuable they were sometimes traded for vineyards or houses. Libraries were small, enormously difficult to establish, and meaningful to only a handful of people. Textbooks were an impossibility, paper was unavailable, and parchment very expensive.86
In the past historians have often emphasized a “Great Man” theory of history. They assumed, without much validation, that history was, in the words of 19th Century historian Thomas Carlisle, “the biography of great men” like Charlemagne or Alcuin. Serious challenges to this assumption developed in the mid 20th Century — possibly as a consequence of the democratization of Western culture. Some historians began suggesting that history was really written by the actions of thousands of obscure and quite ordinary individuals. Others argued that powerful impersonal forces, such as economics, class interests or even hidden psychological mechanisms, shaped human affairs. Though these disagreements remain unresolved, contemporary historians have come to recognize the limitations of the “Great Man” theory. The “Great Men” and women in this history were included for three reasons. First in the hope that by identifying past educational trends with historic individuals we will help the student understand and remember the trends. Second, because it is possible to identify individuals whose accomplishments have forever changed some particular aspect of education. Third, because tests required for teacher certification often include questions on famous individuals.
The Rise of Towns
By the 12th Century the changes initiated by the collapse of the Roman Empire had been accommodated. A subsequent improvement in public order encouraged a
revival of trade. European culture was beginning a slow transformation from a rural agrarian to an urban, commercial base.87 86O"Sullivan and Burns, op cit., pp. 302-303. 87Thomas Mendenhall, et al, Ideas and Institutions in European History (New York: Holt, 1948), pp. 3 and 88 39
The old knightly nobility had always looked with suspicion upon the merchants and craftsmen who had gathered for protection behind town walls. There was not even an official place in the medieval social structure for those who made their living in them. But despite the nobility’s harassment, blackmail and oppressive taxes, towns, and the economic activity and rule of law that they sheltered and promoted, were now becoming the dynamic element of medieval life.88 The type of community one lives in has a decisive influence on the character and destiny of its inhabitants, and for this reason the revival of towns was a very important development in the history of education. Not only did town growth encourage the development of new and dynamic forms of schooling, which we will review shortly, but they also were educative simply because they represented a broader world than that of the medieval village.
Guilds and Education
During the 1100’s and 1200’s many new occupations developed within the protection of city walls. Most were associated with guilds of merchants and craftsmen who carefully regulated commerce and industry. Created for mutual assistance, the defense of free citizens against the nobility, and the furtherance of trade monopoly, guilds came to dominate medieval city life. And as cities grew, the influence of the guilds grew with them. In time guilds became extraordinarily powerful. They often were able to successfully oppose the nobility and prevail upon kings to grant their members certain privileges and immunities. In some parts of Europe, North Germany for example, they also managed to totally regulate the practice of trades, set tough standards for the training of apprentices, and demand real competence from aspiring masters. This laid the basis of the excellent workmanship that is still characteristic of many German products. The guild’s carefully structured training systems were modeled loosely on the family. Apprenticeship training was widely employed for those who wished to learn a certain trade and gain membership in the guild. During these apprenticeships pubescent unpaid novices lived as surrogate members of the master’s household. Here they learned trade or merchant skills from a master craftsman or merchant who provided supervision, training, room and board. In turn the apprentice provided cheap labor and, ideally at least, familial faithfulness. The workplace was commonly in or near the Master’s home, and the apprentice was obliged to live within his family. Since he was not a true family member, he had more independence than at home. In fact, when he was not working, he often lived in a condition of semi-independence that many young men found very congenial. It was not all that pleasant for the townsfolk, however. That was because after the working day was over they had to put up with bands of adolescent apprentices roaming about the town getting into all sorts of trouble.89
88Cantor, op. cit., pp. 278-79. 89Michael B. Katz, "Connections Between the Origins of Public Education and the Major Themes in American Social History," unpublished paper distributed at the University of Pennsylvania. 40
The apprenticeship system was part of the hierarchical structure of guilds. The apprentice was at the bottom of the hierarchy. After a number of years of training, typically seven, the apprentice was promoted to journeyman. In this capacity the master was required to pay him. After several years of journeyman status he might qualify to become a master himself, if, in examining his “masterpiece,” the guild was satisfied with the excellence of his skills.
Guilds provided social welfare services to their members. Sometimes guild officials went beyond providing relief to destitute and disabled members and set up funds to pay for the formal schooling of members’ children. This supplemented the apprenticeship system. In time, as the wealth and power of the guilds grew, it also became increasingly common for them to start their own schools. They offered elementary instruction to their member’s children. As with municipal schools, the Church was not in direct control.90
Typical Steps in The Education of a Master Craftsman Apprentice
Seven Years of Training
Creation of a Masterpiece
A few careers required some sort of formal education. Bankers, lawyers, physicians, notaries, clerics, teachers, and others simply had to be able to read and write. In this way schooling opened more and more occupational doors. Formal education was regaining more and more of the substantial value it had enjoyed in Roman times. At first, monasteries offered virtually the only formal schooling available. With the increase in demand, however, Bishops began to establish schools. In the early middle ages bishops had established some Cathedral schools. But often the next Bishop would be a semiliterate who would disband the faculty and sell off the library.91 As Age of Faith progressed, the growth of cities increased the wealth and power of Bishops, while undermining that of the abbots in their rural monasteries. These developments were accompanied by a new and sustained commitment to schooling on the part of the Bishops. Using their abundant resources, they not only erected magnificent cathedrals, but also began offering schooling on a continuous basis. Cathedral Schools were customarily located in or near the Bishop’s palace. The diocese paid the teachers. Their urban locations meant they could easily attract both students and teachers. They also 90 S. E. Frost, Jr.,op. cit., pp. 151-153 91Cantor, op. cit., p. 189. 41
Cathedral School teaching positions or similar high status careers. nicknamed “wolves” specialized in reporting violations. philosophy. p. and the Quadrivium.95 Because of this vocational connection. 97Burke. Latin was essential to both Church and scholar because Europeans spoke many languages and these broke down into even more dialects. cit.) 95O'Sullivan and Burns. p. Indeed. energetic and ambitious young men of low birth. p. Mastering Ovid and Cicero was a badge of membership in the upper classes. canon and civil law as well as medicine to their curriculums.39 -41. were able to use such schooling as an avenue of upward social mobility. composed of grammar. 1923) . 306) 96Roebuck. consisting of arithmetic. the dialect spoken in one village was nearly incomprehensible in a village fifty miles away. cit. By the 1200’s Cathedral Schools were playing a major role in providing higher education throughout Europe. op. many of these schools added a general education component based loosely on the so-called seven liberal arts. p. cit. A Master’s degree. but its rhetoric component faded as Latin grammar and Aristotelian logic emerged all powerful. These “liberal arts” were taught unevenly in Cathedral Schools.97 Latin was the language of power and privilege. Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Western Education (Columbus. 92 98Gies. however. Ohio: Merrill.benefited from every increase in urban life and wealth. Holt. Frost.93 . as in Monastery Schools. 1960. Students were penalized for lapsing into their native tongue or dialect. Op. Such learning would have startled an illiterate nobleman of the 8th Century. rhetoric and logic.96 It was not easy.. Soon they replaced monasteries as the chief educational institution of the age. helped one qualify for the growing ecclesiastical bureaucracy.98 92The liberal arts were most likely passed to the Middle Ages in a book written in the 5th century by Martianus Capella. 93 S.92 The program of study was divided into the Trivium. E. 254 42 . cit. This curriculum was derived from the Greeks and further defined by the Romans. 84. Cathedral schools also had a distinctly vocational function. p. Originally stressing religious instruction. op. pp.. requiring about six years of study and a final examination which some scholars likened to the Last Judgment. such as Thomas a Becket. The Trivium fared better. Later in their development Cathedral Schools added training in vocational specialties like theology. op. Instruction in Cathedral Schools. The Rise of the Universities ( New York.94 Although they appealed to status interests. and informants.. was entirely in Latin. The Quadrivium was widely neglected. the typical terminal degree from a Cathedral School. 58. 94Haskins. geometry and astronomy. music.
not only because it changed behavior but also because it properly subdued the child’s self-assertiveness. By approximately 1. The Family Sex and Marriage In England 1500-1800 (New York: Harper & Row. In large parishes this often resulted in schools that were bigger and better 99Lawrence Stone. 1980) pp. the village or the Church. 101Phillippe Aries. At Odds (New York: Oxford University Press. Until this was accomplished. The Medieval View of Children Another elemental reason for the rigidity and inflexibility of medieval schooling was that school practices corresponded with medieval attitudes toward and practices in regard to children. 100Ibid. particularly whipping. point out that the lack of emphasis on cumulative or incremental learning (e. childhood was not generally understood as a period of life worth cherishing or extending. Parish priests were being officially urged by high Church officials to promote teaching. such as Phillipe Aries. personal initiative or innovation corresponded to the medieval world outside the school.D. medieval teachers made nearly universal use of physical punishment. for example. nor look foreword to the mindless memorization and recitation so characteristic of the schools of that period. it was believed. end with the hard). little true education or spiritual growth could take place. 1977) pp. Groundbreaking historians. took precedence over the desires of the individual. we can be quite certain that they did not welcome whippings. 1962) 102Carl N. In this world the interests of the collective. Degler. reflected the absence of our present-day appreciation of human growth and development. 43 . Indeed. authoritarianism and preoccupation with the next world simply reflected the rigid group-mindedness of the Age of Faith.101 Similarly. Children were not seen as particularly special. be it that of the family.Correspondence Between School Practices and the Broader Society The lack of room in Cathedral or Monastery Schools for individuality. to control and motivate students — a nearly universal practice from the birth of schools until well into the 19th Century. Neither individual privacy nor autonomy were recognized as desirable.102 Parish Schools Cathedrals and monasteries were not the only source of church-sponsored schooling.g. 4-5.100 In this context obedience to school authorities came easily. But their underlying resentments were tempered by the fact that personal accommodation to social circumstances. Centuries of Childhood (London: Cape.99 So far as the students were concerned.000 A. nor were they understood to be fundamentally different from adults. This too was a reflection of the broader societal view that physical coercion was desirable. necessity and authority were required in all aspects of their life. and support the growth of literacy. Similarly. medieval schooling’s rigidity. This fundamental difference in the medieval view of children had a great influence on school practice. 86-87. start with the easy.
They were the lesser of evils. 44 . Satisfying a growing popular demand for schooling. just as it was of daily life. For this reason they were inclined to tolerate them. Alternative institutions formed which corresponded to the needs of a new social order.103 Municipal or Town Schools The growth of towns and cities that began with the revival of trade in the 10th Century signaled the emergence of a new urbanized social order based on commerce. It was not long. p. such schools were originally concerned with providing the children of the town’s upper classes with a status-related Latin Grammar type literary education similar to that offered in Cathedral and Monastery Schools. 45. These elements allowed some very limited aspects of a town meeting image of the school to assert themselves. For their part. to study scripture and begin the mastery of Latin. 104Mendenhall. 1970). Such schools were intended to instruct middle class males in technical skills relating to the growing complexity of business and commercial life. Town schools were one of these institutions. The first conflict involved a struggle between the sacred and the secular for place and power in the world. Sponsored by municipal authorities rather than the Church. Nevertheless. elements of the technical culture. Town Schools still corresponded to the temple image. the technical and the formal. Main Currents in the History of Education (New York. and their imminent dawning was announced by two conflicts that were becoming more and more apparent. The End of the Church’s School Monopoly Town Schools were a fundamental threat to the Church’s control of schooling. But that was already being threatened by the free-lance instruction available from itinerant teachers. much to the horror of some Church officials.. Church officials felt that Town Schools would deal these itinerant teachers a heavy blow. 103Edward Power. op. cit. mainly Aristotle’s logic. p. This struggle found expression when.staffed than those of the monasteries. to learn to read and write. Close connection to business and commercial life encouraged changeability and responsiveness.290. They were a power base that had the potential for rivaling both the Church and the landed aristocrats. Religion was still very much a part of the Town School curriculum.104 The second conflict involved two levels of culture. This struggle was clearly embodied in this Church-town competition over control of schooling. before some municipalities were also sponsoring elementary level schools taught in the vernacular language rather than Latin. these entrepreneurs had multiplied as towns grew. However. were put to work to analyze the faith. however. As towns and cities developed they began throwing off the limitations of feudalism. We will learn the results shortly. McGraw-Hill. The age was too authoritarian to permit otherwise. most municipal officials felt they had to compromise with Church officials regarding schooling. major changes were just over the horizon. In such parishes it was now possible for boys whose parents could afford the tuition.
and Church officials had no intention of loosing control over this aspect of instruction. They demanded an oversight role, and they got it. Church officials had another major concern. Local clerics suffered a loss of income once those educated in Town Vernacular Schools no longer had to pay them for writing wills, keeping records, reading letters, and the like. To allay this concern, municipalities often paid the Church an amount equal to the estimated loss. Given these concessions, Church officials lapsed into uneasy silence regarding their increasingly formidable secular competitors. As the centuries advanced many Town Schools became exceptionally well supported. Some even had the resources to offer very substantial wages and special privileges in order to recruit first-rate teaching talent. These Town Schools came to rival all but the finest Cathedral Schools, joining them as a source of the first medieval universities.105
The Rise of the Universities
The 1100’s saw the origin of the great universities of Western Europe. First referred to as Studium Generale, these institutions evolved from Cathedral or Town Schools. Technically, to become a university a cathedral or town school required only the incorporation of its masters into a universitas or guild.106 Universitas means “corporation” in Latin. Members of the universitas had no common library or buildings of their own. They were simply a society of masters and scholars with their own corporate organization. Their lack of buildings was of little importance to the first universities because of their very loose and privatistic character. In Paris, for example, students merely registered for instruction with a particular master. It was up to him to furnish accommodations. They were usually rented in the vicinity of the Cathedral of Notre Dame on the left bank of the Seine. Congregating here in great numbers, this community of scholars gave the area its nickname, the Latin Quarter. Once established, most universities grew quickly. In Paris, for example, the transformed Cathedral school rapidly became so extensive that it attracted teachers and students from all of Christendom. This was due, in large measure, to the fact that under the patronage and protection of the Bishop of Paris, the original Cathedral school had attracted to its faculty some of the great leaders of European thought. Who was permitted to teach in these fast-growing institutions? At first Church officials had sole authority regarding this matter. But when the teachers gained control, they developed a licensing process that became the basis for our present system of academic degrees. The faculty also gained control of the disciplining of students. This too was originally under the authority of Church officials.107 This gradual erosion of Church authority corresponded with the progressive secularization of medieval society. The teachers’ guilds eventually became very powerful and came to command special rights and privileges. They could try their own members, were exempt from local taxes, could not be conscripted into 105Charles Haskins, op. cit., pp. 119-126. 106Cantor, op. cit., p. 395. 107`Loren C. MacKinney, The Medieval World, (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1938), p.663. 45
the military, and had the right to suspend classes in protest of unjust treatment.108 (Notice that teacher’s strikes are about 800 years old and very much part of the university tradition.)
As students and teachers crowded into university towns, residents realized that renting accommodations could yield handsome profits. Rents soared, and many students, already impoverished by fees for tuition and the rental of books, found it impossible to continue their studies. Wealthy individuals sometimes endowed a hospice, hall or residence for these poor scholars. These were called “colleges.” In time, particularly in England, these colleges became centers of university life and teaching. After all, they had buildings and endowments while the corporation controlling the university had none.109
The system of study and writing that developed in the universities was called “Scholasticism.” The term applied to a wide variety of philosophical studies guided by Aristotelian logic, but dominated by theology. At its best the scholastic method cut to the heart of complex questions, revealing contradictions and truth with startling clarity. At its worst, it became “decoupled” from the actual requirements of scholarship, becoming, instead, the chief instrument of those who loved empty formalism more than truth. Scholastics did not subject all things to logical scrutiny. The Church set limits beyond which logic dare not stray. But even when Scholasticism worked within these boundaries, laboring to prove Christian truths, the results sometimes were more embarrassing than helpful to the Church. An unresolved tension between the formal and the technical culture was building just beneath the surface of things.
108Frost, op. cit., p.142. 109 A.B. Cobban, The Medieval Universities: Their Development and Organization (London: Methuen, 1975.), p.47 46
The Nature of Scholasticism
DOCTRINES OF THE CHURCH
DOCTRINES OF THE CHURCH
DOCTRINES OF THE CHURCH
Deductive logic used within bounds of church doctrine to search for truth.
DOCTRINES OF THE CHURCH
Scholars and Students
When a scholar published a work perceived to threaten the existing order, the public hangman commonly burned it — usually. Unauthorized translations of the Bible were a favorite target. It was also common practice to place the author, usually a professor, in the pillory. After they placed his head through the hole, they often nailed the author’s ears to the board. After a suitable period of public abuse he would be released by cutting off his ears. These were left nailed to the pillory as a warning.110 (Note that academic freedom is a relatively recent convention.) Most professors did not risk their ears. Few offered more than bookish formalism.111 Some, however, were brilliant teachers and daring scholars. They were the stars of the university system, attracting hundreds of students and persecution. Pierre Abelard (1079 - 1142), philosopher and theologian, was such a teacher. His lectures attracted hundreds of students to the infant University of Paris. Unfortunately, his brilliant logical explorations of Church doctrine, while helping to renew the Church, also attracted official disapproval. Dissecting theology with Aristotle’s logical scalpel proved a dangerous procedure. Abelard was first compelled to burn one of his treatises with his own hand. Ultimately he was condemned to prison for heresy. This did not prevent his methods from eventually winning out. They were to influence theology for over 300 years. Most medieval professors were not like Abelard — risking all in the pursuit of daring truth. Indeed, many professors taught nice, safe, practical subjects like letter and document writing.
110 William Andrews, Old Time Punishments, (London: Tabbard Press, 1890) pp. 90 - 103. 111Hayes, Baldwin and Cole, op. cit,. p. 247. 47
87. for example. Their love continued for a lifetime from afar. medieval scholars were not musty intellectuals whose biggest thrills were the products of logic. It should also be noted that. her uncle. popularized in literature. More than one contemporary professorial account of university life laments the ‘students’ who spend their time drinking and wenching.”113 The reason for this indifference to learning is easy to discover. op. Such behavior corresponded to the generally violent nature of medieval life. they competed for students. 48 . He was the principle figure. these so-called scholars fill their book bags with imposing volumes to impress their parents. When Heloise’s condition and marriage were revealed. Remote both to logic and scholarship. despite the rhapsodic fantasies of some present-day conservative reformers. Even in the middle ages a college degree was a commodity that could be exchanged for a good job or other substantial benefits. It also reflected the fact that many national and regional antagonisms came to a boil when students from all over Europe got together. Similarly. One professor noted dryly that when they finally have to return home. such professors frequently attracted record numbers of students. their traditional costume and mace are used only to add color to academic processionals. This encouraged efforts to secure the degree while avoiding the learning that was supposed to accompany it. cit. then secretly married his 17 year-old student. Virtually all of the instruction was designed with very practical ends in mind. Abelard’s personal life gives the lie to this.112 As a matter of fact. whom the professor could not recall having read himself. Like Abelard. Drunken brawls. existing on his student’s fees. Eventually. along with the beautiful Heloise.. Naturally. 113Haskins. Violence was also a common feature of university life. wills and other documents instead. of one of the world’s most famous love stories. going to class only once or twice a week. and learn to write letters. Today. and occasional full-scale combats between “town and gown” were not at all unusual. One enterprising professor at the University of Bologna. op. becoming a nun. Eventually they were reunited. just to keep order. but only after death when they were buried side by side. In response. is celebrated to this day. the traditional garb worn by academics at medieval universities is still 112Haskins. complete with uniforms and headcracking maces. sword fights. the focus of the medieval university was very vocational. medieval students were also interested in extracurricular activities. a high Church official. brutally castrated Abelard.. on his orders. urged prospective students to forget Cicero. This mutilation made Abelard ineligible for clerical advancement. university officials were compelled to hire marshals. He hired a band of thugs who. Heloise took the veil.Each professor was an independent entrepreneur. A favorite tactic was to water down requirements and cater to popular tastes. stone throwing incidents (even in chapel). impregnated. 45. It also convinced him to join a monastery. vowed revenge. traveling “with a full sack and empty mind. While teaching in Paris the passionate cleric fell in love with. Their story. p. cit.
Said Aquinas. Like other aspects of the formal level of culture. Old ways were disintegrating before new ways could be born. Secular Knowledge For centuries religion had been taught by precept and admonition. the task of reconciling the secular and the sacred was risky and the results limited by the power of Church officials. and simply understood to be true.used in modern academic ceremonies. Many now regard the Summa Theologica as the greatest achievement of medieval philosophy. Nevertheless. The Death of Feudalism In the 1300’s Europe entered into a crises lasting more than one hundred years. he claimed.” Today he is one of the most celebrated Saints of the Catholic Church. and land remained untilled. But the great medieval schoolmen tried to harmonize the methods of the Greeks. Economic stagnation set in. with the doctrines of the Church. It was certainly the ultimate triumph of Scholasticism. These accomplishments eventually won Aquinas the more flattering nickname. as civil wars between competing cliques of feudal lords laid waste the countryside. Thomas Aquinas came up with an answer that proved definitive for Christendom. the famous Dominican. Compounding all of this. particularly Aristotle’s logic. in the later half of the century came the greatest disaster of all — the Black Death. As a student he had pursued his studies in such dogged silence that his companions nicknamed him the “Dumb Ox. “the Angelic Doctor. rationally and deliberately. proper. But the question was could this be done without killing Christianity? Reconciling Faith and Reason In the 13th Century. He reinvigorated a heavily institutionalized Church by applying Aristotelian logic to theology. or right. he addressed the reconciliation of faith and reason with the same purposeful intensity. In so doing he produced a systematic exposition on Christian theology that he based upon Aristotelian logic. population declined. It permitted technical experts to analyze religion systematically. Aquinas was a scholar of uncommon devotion. These are visual reminders of the way the past always infiltrates the present. Aquinas’ contribution can best be understood as an example of the social renewal function of schooling. Aquinas painstakingly developed the idea that faith and reason have two distinct spheres which. In his work Summa Theologica. were complimentary. it was taken at face value. 49 . there was this great temptation to put Aristotle’s logic to work on questions of faith. still a standard authority in the Roman Church. Before it was over 1/3 of the population of Europe was dead. Often. as with Abelard.” As an adult. they can live happily side-by-side. Things were coming apart. There were mass insurrections of desperate peasants and the urban poor that spread throughout Europe.
So far as the socio-educational system was concerned. This was because it had become institutionalized.D. 4. Emerging national monarchies filled the vacuum. cit. and coercively transmitted to newcomers without sufficient thought or evaluation.D.D. 800 A.D. op. medieval schooling’s rigidity and inflexibility eventually became counter-productive. Benedict 600 A.5.D. economic and social basis of medieval civilization — was dying. 41 50 . 114 So did a new upper class of wealthy merchants. many of its forms. imitative way now copied assignments. Bishops Take Control of all Schooling 853 A. survived. feudalism — the political. Thought puzzles were still resolved according to the dictates of Aristotelian logic.Nearly a thousand years after its beginnings. Founding of the Order of St. But their substance was altered so substantially over time as to make them virtually new institutions. * 1977: p. A History of the European World (New York: Little. Council of 853 Orders Schools in all Cathedrals and Churches 855 A. Brown and Company.D. Beginning of Monasticism 500 A. Decline of Monastic Schools and Rise of Cathedral Schools 1050-1300 A. but the process had often become wooden and mechanical.D. Rondo Cameron and Thomas Barnes. Church Approves Teaching of Liberal Arts and Sciences 1050 to 1300 A. First Cathedral Schools 300 to 600 A. pp. even in an age when such characteristics were the norm.D. Founding of First Universities . With a conservatism characteristic of education. 115Meyer and Rowan. Charlemagne's Court School 826 A. broad social changes compelled major reforms. Growth of Municipal Schools 1100 . Meanings and routines had become typified.D. such as apprenticeship and the university. 346. Schooling In the Age of Faith 300 A.116 Ultimately.115 Teachers and students alike in a simple. 1050 -1300 A. 1966). 114Jerome Blum. Even student’s letters to parents reflected. a curiously generic and artificial quality.D.. 600 to 1050 A. which once had deeper meaning.D. 116Haskins. bankers and traders. at least by modern standards.D.D. p.1200 A.
was porous enough to take the ink from the type face. THE RENAISSANCE. supported the growth of national consciousness. p..120 117S. But printing was not confined to scholarly uses. technical knowledge became the property of anyone who could read. In fact printing with movable type was one of the most important technological advances in human history. The Story of Philosophy. The Black Death had decimated Europe’s skilled artisans. even thousands. of colleagues. Spurred on by ever widening patterns of trade. had created a desperate need for craftsmen.119 Initially. op.. Significantly. Most printed material concerned the how to of trade and industry. Jr. there were approximately forty printing presses in Europe that had already printed about eight millions of volumes. 120Burke. Printing spread knowledge far beyond its customary boundaries of monastery. 113. The use of gunpowder. At about this same time.117 All of this supported the emergence of a new confidence that both man and nature was worthy of study — a view that was to have a profound impact on schooling. But print technology made it both possible and desirable for a wide variety of people to become readers. This inexpensive print medium. AND HUMANISM The disorder of the 1300’s reflected exciting developments. Frost. there was a limited market for the printed word because few could read. Pocket Books. an invention of the technical culture. 105 119Burke. local loyalties were taking on regional and even national character as the rustic Latin spoken in different parts of southern Europe became languages of their own and. as a result of the Crusades. education entered a new era. p/ 116. which. was leveling the distinction between knight and commoner. With the printing press. 86. few of these presses were in university cities.. in the process. (New York. E. 1947) p. unlike parchment. 51 . The Revolutionary Impact of Printing These developments were followed by a technical revolution that had an enormous impact on education and schooling. Travel and discovery were bringing people in touch with new ideas and inventions. Theologians and philosophers carried on dialogues with hundreds. It was made possible by the happy confluence of the invention of the printing press and the newfound availability of inexpensive paper. paper imported from Egypt began replacing the expensive parchment that had helped make books scarce. op. banking or royal government. Most were in centers of business. p. Men of science and letters were able to share ideas and discoveries with great facility.118 By 1500. often through self-instruction. And as they did so. made it possible to mass produce books on a previously unimagined scale. Printing appears to have originated in Europe around 1440. 1960). cit. This. church and university. cit. sixty years after its invention. and the restrictive practices and lengthy apprenticeships of the guilds. Essentials of the History of Education (New York: Barrons. 118Will Durant.CHAPTER 6: SCHOOLING.
With the invention of print technology. Studying the classics was known as “humanism” which was derived from the term studia humanitatis — the Latin term for studies that empower a human being to express his own individuality in conduct. Wealthy men put their surplus capital into art.”121 Not since the dawn of the written word had there been such a revolution in information technology. Nearly everyone desirous of influencing others or bettering themselves sought to use it. What is more. Watts.. Florence and Venice. 1968) pp. Rondo Cameron and Thomas Barnes.).122 The Renaissance and the Growth of Humanism The Renaissance was a particularly powerful expression of individualism.. and the various city-states vied with one another for economic and cultural preeminence. beautiful buildings and patronage for scholars and writers. the sale of which was intended to pay for the construction of St. those in power found such control far more difficult.This new opportunity greatly increased demands for schooling. Centralized monarchies enhanced their control and revenue collection. Twenty Centuries of Education (Boston: Ginn and Company. 52 . 1966) p." in Jack Goody. p. Their material wealth focused attention on things of this world. and it was this that captured the imagination of the leaders of the northern Italian city-states. communication could occur without the social interaction of members of society. A History of the European World (New York: Little Brown and Company). most of the developments encouraged by the explosive growth of printing boded well for schooling. Unaligned with traditional power. thousands upon thousands of ordinary people set about to teach themselves to read. withholding or influencing the flow of information is a key element in social control. With private reading. * 122Jack Goody and I. speech and writing. They fell in love with the nearly forgotten legacy of the Greek and Roman classics. ed. or to learn the skill informally from someone who already knew how. cit. 1940. “Printing made mighty for the advancement of learning. As the great scientist Francis Bacon put it. 'The Consequences of Literacy. 66 124Jerome Blum. These cities were ruled by a new upper class of rich merchants and displaced landed aristocrats who had accumulated wealth from the growth of banking and trade. in rich and independent city-states in northern Italy such as Milan. p. Literacy in Tradtional Societies (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 123Blum. their influence soon created a social climate different from any other part of Europe. Such communication in seclusion encouraged a new sort of individualism that is probably one of the most important differences between traditional and modern societies. All in all. op.123 This was the beginning of the modern. but 121 (Edgar Knight. Peter’s in Rome. 67. as opposed to the medieval. the proliferation of books encouraged private reading as opposed to public reading or the oral tradition. Most importantly. outlook. The term Renaissance refers to the revival of classical learning. It even printed thousands of indulgences.124 Many of these works had been studied by the scholastics during medieval times.P. As we have seen elsewhere. but ill for established authority. The Church disseminated devotional literature and decrees. It began in the period 1350 1450. 27-68.
scholars turned their attention to things human rather than divine. p. too. and Power. the humanists reaffirmed the importance. cit. 498. During the Age of Faith. but I believe in order that I may understand. op. Anselm (1033 . They sought to know in order to understand. they were able to use their leverage to effectively promote their employee’s conclusions. Inexpensive printed editions of Greek and Roman classics greatly stimulated interest in “Pagan” sources. p. St. went so far as to give Papal offices to men of learning regardless of their orthodoxy.1455). was largely irrelevant. asserted their independence from theologians and even defied the censorship of the Church.126 Now that knowledge could be picked from a book. The medieval universities had served the old feudal order well. cit. p. cit. The Renaissance spread slowly throughout Europe. 127Burke. the value of physical education and the schooling of the common man.. Belief. The study of Greek became a new enthusiasm. They accepted the classics on their own terms because they reflected their own secular and individualistic notions of how humans should live and act. 68. the first humanist Pope. This tended to bring Church teachings into critical scrutiny.” Fortified by the ready availability of the printed word.. the age of unquestioned authority was over.scholars of that period had attempted to reconcile them with Christianity.128 And we will see that the Jesuits turned humanism into immensely valuable educational coinage when they incorporated it into their school curricula. Philosophers.125 The reverence for authority once reserved for the Church was now directed toward the ancients. “A man can do all things if he will. 495. and independent of the universities by virtue of their wealthy patrons. they reinvestigated the value of the classics. Finally. 122. 1945) p. 53 . The Latin Grammar School Many humanists were intent on revolutionizing schooling. The spirit of this new age was captured in the boast of the Renaissance architect.” These scholars stood this dictum on its head. Nicholas V (1447 . 126Bertrand Russell. op. officials or teachers. newly optimistic about the human prospect. 379. cit. the relationship of content to teaching style. 128Russell.127 Propelled by the optimism inherent in this realization... for them. 66. the Church itself made peace with humanism. supplementing the study of Latin. But when a new elite of 125Idem.129 The Renaissance and its attendant Humanism reflected fundamental alterations in European status relationships. the education of women. A History of Western Philosophy (New York: Simon and Schuster. dignity and possibilities of humankind. op. Humanist scholars did no such thing. Since men of wealth and power employed many humanists as secretaries. p. “I do not seek to know that I may believe. p. 129Blum. Rejecting the medieval model. painter and writer Leon Alberti. op.1109) once declared. since the ancients disagreed with each other and individual reason was required to choose among them.
In any case. (Chicago: Loyola University Press. They also emphasized social control concerns like good manners and athletics. p.1536).. Humanists also formed academies for adult education. letter writing and even business administration. many school practices still reflect the Latin Grammar School curriculum. his merciless attacks on empty formalism and vice within the Roman church complimented the Lutheran revolt. The charge stuck. cit. such as Boston Latin Grammar in Massachusetts and “prep” schools like Phillips Academy. p. 130Kane. The contemporary vocational utility of Latin is not what it was in the 1500’s. The present emphasis on giving students a liberal education intended to broaden and deepen their intellect is a direct reflection of this tradition. pp. His widely read publications did much to popularize Humanism in northern Europe. one of the most famous scholars of the Renaissance. 1954). the new class found it necessary to support the establishment of a new type of school. called the Latin Grammar School. tend to be strongly status oriented.131 Schools that still retain some elements of the Latin Grammar School.133 Desidarius Erasmus (c. were accused by humanists of being unwilling or unable to learn. such as the famous John Duns Scouts (1274 . Latin Grammar Schools became very popular and survived for three hundred years as the schooling of choice for upper and middle class boys. Rhetoric and public speaking were supplanted by prose composition. and the ‘moderns” representing Humanism. 131Blum. Conservative scholastics. Though he remained a Catholic throughout his life. 1962). cit.. was now subject to increasingly effective ridicule by humanistic scholars. The term Dunsmen or Dunce came to signify someone of invincible stupidity. Scholasticism. once totally dominant in Cathedral School and University. 132 The Encyclopedia Americana. Perhaps they were tied too tightly to the old institutional order and the related scholastic way of thinking. 254. op. typified the humanist educator. op. university officials were very reluctant to accommodate their interests. Their name derived from their emphasis on the study of Latin grammar and literature. It was devoted to humanistic studies. 70. But before that happened many universities were wracked by strife between the “ancients” representing Scholasticism..132 The chief impact of Humanism was on the university curriculum rather than on methods of teaching. 68. p.1466 . History of Education.130 In fact. Here they taught one another and gave public lectures to large and appreciative audiences. Volume 9. 54 . 133Burke. as well as to the status concerns of this mercantile elite.merchants and bankers rose to positions of power and wealth. (New York: Americana. 401-402. Latin Grammar Schools accepted children of late elementary school age and retained them through part of what today would be college. Transforming the University Eventually humanistic influences led to changes in the Cathedral School and University.1308).
such as refining taste.” It remained for the Protestant Reformation to make major changes in the schooling of women. In his Colloquia the otherwise enlightened humanist noted. so learning is unsuitable for a woman. but just as a saddle is not suitable for an ox. “I do not know the reason. purifying morals. Schooling Women During the Renaissance Women remained largely outside the scope of the Renaissance. Here Erasmus advocated what were then radical goals for schooling. and promoting world peace and harmony. Schooling still played an unimportant role in their education. and even the most enlightened humanistic scholars still clung to views substantially similar to those of Aristotle. Erasmus was a widely sold author. In this Erasmus anticipated the ambitious goals of future educational innovators. 55 . These goals stood in striking contrast to the piety and obedience commonly promoted during the Age of Faith. who declared that women were “mutilated males. correcting ecclesiastical abuse. His many publications included several books on schooling.Thanks to the printing press. The Right Method of Instruction and The Liberal Education of Boys.” Erasmus offers an example.
Luther declared that all Christians had the responsibility to interpret the scriptures for themselves according to the Inner Light of faith. (1483 . he had no intention of changing the power holder stakeholder alignment. Martin Luther Martin Luther. Indeed. For him. He radically declared that there was a “Priesthood of All Believers. So the more indulgences a person bought." in The New Cambridge Modern History. he was as socially conservative as he was religiously radical. Wernham (Cambridge: University Press. Pascal. The Social Basis of the German Reformation. B. It provided Protestantism with similar support. Luther championed universal schooling. Luther did not simply condemn clerical abuses. Attendance would be compulsory “for an hour or two a day. 427. and schools were simply its servants.134 As a remedy.” (1524). The ascendancy of urban life.CHAPTER 7: THE REFORMATION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES Early in the 1500’s officials of the Christian church found their authority challenged by the Protestant Reformation. the rise of industry and commerce. Luther was convinced that government had a responsibility to support his proposal. London: Watts. the more risk free sin they might indulge in. and teacher. edited by R. Everyone — adults as well as children. It quickly swelled to vast proportions because of the power of the printing press. Bolger. Vol III. Fully half the men and more than half the women of this era were illiterate. Consequently. 221-226. pp. many still could not read. "Education and Learning.135 He wanted to school everyone for religious reasons — nothing more. political and intellectual forces.” and even suggested that in the eyes of God there was no difference between priest and layman. Peter’s in Rome by selling large numbers of nicely printed indulgences. The flaw in this prescription was that while printing presses were turning out millions of Bibles. A staunch supporter of the political and economic status quo. 1933). was moved to protest by top Church official’s deciding they were going to finance the building of St. the social order was a gift of God. Luther was not a social. R. theologian. the creation of a new class of capitalists and the emergence of nation states had all provided a helpful environment for the Renaissance. in his “Letter to Mayors and Alderman. 135R. p. And he quickly became associated with conservative German national affiliations.” (1530). 57 .” 134R. and the support of newly emerging economic. females as well as males. and his “Sermon to Parents. Enraged by the indulgence scheme and blocked in his attempt to promote reform from within.1546) a German Roman Catholic priest. These guaranteed the remission of certain sins. poor as well as rich — was to be schooled. Relying on the availability of inexpensive printed Bible’s. revolutionary. he urged the organization of government sponsored German language primary schools for boys AND girls. 1968). a surprised Luther soon found himself at the head of a massive protest.
1564). municipal authorities built vernacular language Town Schools for the broad masses and Latin Grammar Schools for students of exceptional 136W. 644. a Frenchman. Calvinism eventually became the international form of Protestantism. The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community (New York: Mentor. during the formative early years of colonial American history. Here the Calvinistic Puritans established schools that were of central importance in the history of American education. and Cathedral schools while also weakening the universities. Church. insisted that the Bible was the supreme authority for every aspect of life. MaNeill. Directed by famous Protestant schoolmen such as Philip Melanchthon (1497 . But since he enjoyed secular as well as religious power in his refuge in Geneva. newly powerful secular governments used confiscated resources to build and staff new schools. Its influences spread far and wide. even to New England. Despite their quarrels regarding the meaning of the Bible.H. This development crippled many Monastery. He founded the college at Geneva.1589). Calvin (1509 . Among the most influential was John Calvin. A New System of Schools In Protestant areas the Reformation led to a massive redistribution of wealth and land from the Church to civil government.136 It also increased the availability of colleges and seminaries as each new denomination sought to marshal its own school resources. Later. a theologian and religious reformer noted for his scholarship and stern morality. Schism and denominationalism followed. 1963) p. This accidentally widened the scope of tolerance.1560) and Johann Sturm (1507 . John Calvin This matter of religious authority represented a fundamental difference between Protestants and Catholics. Protestant reformers unanimously echoed Luther’s call for common schooling. Protestants found it impossible to establish a broad consensus based on Biblical interpretation.This was the beginning of the Protestant practice of support for government sponsored compulsory schooling that continues to this day. From this it followed that universal literacy was a non-negotiable objective. logic and rhetoric for all church leaders. That was the one area of agreement. Urged on by Luther and other Protestant reformers. Only the Town Schools escaped unharmed. This was often the price secular authorities put on their cooperation with Luther and similar reformers. Lacking the authority of Pope and universally accepted dogma. Calvin set out to promote basic literacy for the broad masses. this tradition would provide the basis for our first schools. Greek. theology. and also promoted secondary education in Latin. Untrammeled by the national affiliations of Lutheranism and informed by Calvin’s comprehensive scholarship. 58 . Like Luther. he was able to move quickly.
organized “to employ itself in defense of the Holy Catholic Faith. cit. won papal approval to found a new religious order. his call for female literacy. though they were often taught at a lower level and always in the vernacular.”138 Nevertheless. This led to standardization of the training of the clergy and redoubled support of reorganized Parish schools.1563).” By the time of Ignatius’ death it was clear that he had launched a movement of great educational significance. Protestantism and the Schooling of Women Despite the Protestant belief in the necessity of schooling females. we should not imagine them champions of women’s rights. “.” was developing Latin Grammar Schools for boys and what they called “Colleges” for young men all over Catholic Europe. in part. the Society of Jesus. the chief of which was Protestantism. some of which brought charges of heresy. keep house and bear and bring up children. Citing anatomy. Girls were included. we ought always to hold that we believe what seems to be white to be black. declaring: “To attain the truth in all things.. Motivated by mystical visions. Latin was their only language. A few charged a fee. seminaries and universities had this as a goal. 137 Frost. His order. and religion dominated their curricula. Protestantism’s stress on individual Biblical understanding and knowing one’s spiritual destiny also contributed to the growth of schools. Since each denomination needed to train its own cadre of ministers. to be accomplished by government compulsion if necessary.ability. from the divided nature of the movement. He still relegated women to the kitchen and the nursery. Catholic Church officials hammered out policies intended to deal with a wide assortment of threats. . much of the effort that went into the establishment of Protestant Latin grammar schools. but most were free. Establishing tighter control over schooling in order to reestablish social control was one of their principle objectives. Social control and status concerns were a key element. Early disagreements about the meaning of the scriptures had led Protestantism into denominationalism. a young Basque aristocrat who had been invalided out of military service and rejected by the Franciscans. was direct and unapologetic. if the Hierarchal Church so defines it. These schools combined the development of Catholic faith with selected aspects of the humanistic culture of the Renaissance. They also had a vocational aspect. pp 184-195 138Martin Luther. In this same period the newly formed Society of Jesus (1540) was assigned the mission of reforming and reinvigorating Catholic secondary and higher education. op.137 Protestant enthusiasm for the creation of schools derived. he even argued that women had broad hips. Martin Luther provides an example. .to the end that they should remain at home. Schooling and The Counter-Reformation At the Council of Trent (1545 . sit still. Table Talk * 59 . Ignatius of Loyola (1491 1556) demanded that its members give complete obedience to the Roman Catholic Church. It would eventually have an effect far beyond what the Protestant reformers of the time could ever have anticipated.
Broad social changes were abroad in the land.J. nations were forming. and rewards substituted for punishment as a means of motivation. geography.139 Instruction was self-paced. the leaders of the various Protestant fragments of Christianity labored to establish their own preeminence.. and threats to do it. Calvin persecuted those who disagreed with him. monarchs were gaining unprecedented power. p. floggings reduced to a minimum. It spelled out a standardized curriculum as well as classroom methods and management. p.141 All of these developments were working their profound effects. op. The modern age was at hand. and they used persuasion.Using the actual experience of thousands of teachers. S. the medieval consensus of faith was also being replaced in schools by the dissensus. none of them could put the consensus back together. 140William T. Dissensus and The Dawn Of The Modern Age As the Jesuits worked to reestablish Catholic hegemony over Europe. But the extremity of the efforts mirrored the desperation of the practitioners. good manners and Holy Scripture. the practical arts were flourishing. But the religious conflicts of the 1500’s. schooling. p. printed propaganda. simply strengthened the intellectual ferment. The Jesuits were transferring pedagogy from the formal into the technical level of culture. the Jesuits devised a complete master program for their schools. cosmology. 242 60 . Kane. A torrent of books was being printed. In the face of persistent failure. 268. conflict and bargaining so characteristic of the modern era. and a new middle class were displacing the feudal aristocracy while also claiming many of the old prerogatives of a now divided church. Try as they might. the ambition to impose one or another total truth plunged Europe into a series of devastating wars. cit. Eventually. Op. Luther became increasingly dogmatic and intolerant. the 17th Century developments were merely a trickle rather than a flood. 128. Revised and refined over the years this Ratio Studiorum was issued in final form in 1599. 141Kane.140 Never had schooling received such a careful formulation.. There was study of the classics. cit.. Compared to what happened in the 19th Century. Though it must have looked like a torrent compared to what came before. Chief among the changes was a gradual acceleration of the shift of education away from the family to broader social institutions such as the school. destroying the last remnants of the medieval consensus. op. While this was happening. Each wanted to reestablish the Christian consensus on their terms. The socio-educational system now 139Burke. vicious struggles with no quarter given. Cit. math. But their efforts proved fruitless. and no amount of repression or reaction could undo them. a New World was being discovered. and neither education nor schooling would ever be the same again. rhetoric. and the Pope set up the Holy Inquisition to hunt down and destroy those seen as heretics.
61 .serviced a transformed economy in a reformulated society and the adjustments necessary to accommodate these differences would continue for many years.
” Educational Studies. There developed an ever-growing competition between the technical culture and the formal culture that often found expression in school controversy and conflict. such as the government.Section Summary 1. 2. The schools to some extent also encouraged social renewal. Assuming Lucas is right. social control concerns to schooling. Some intellectual historians. and governance of the medieval university and the humanistic Latin Grammar School reveal the continuing importance of status. vocational. pp. 343-356. and then it slowly re-developed within the Christian Church. 8. the church and schools. 5. 7. and for whom? 3. the Reformation. Can you see a relationship between a. Cathedral Schools. How did early Medieval Christianity preserve formal pagan culture? 62 . The family gained renewed importance with the Roman collapse. 1977. such as Christopher Lucas. and the rise of a revolutionary new culture which is still working its changes on education and schooling. but then once again gave ground to broader social institutions.structure. Lucas. 3. 6. Christopher J. There was a shift in authority from dogma to reason and from piety to passion associated with the loss of the medieval consensus. . education and schools? 2. is there is a prevailing view of humanity and society that typifies the age in which we live? If so. “Twilight of the Evening Lands and the Striptease of Humanism. the Counter-Reformation and the Renaissance. Monastery Schools. Parish Schools and Municipal Schools were new forms of schooling which developed during the Age of Faith. Lucas argues that the tension between opposing views has been perennial. the Age of Faith. A precipitous decline of schooling followed the fall of Rome. and that each historic period can be measured by its degree of optimism or despair. and b. A formal culture can be maintained unintentionally through technical means. The principle of correspondence is illustrated in the changes in schooling that were set in motion by the decline of Rome. Municipal schools represented a significant inroad on the Church’s educational monopoly that was already threatened by independent itinerant teachers. The origins. have suggested that a substantial part of history could be profitably analyzed in terms of recurrent cycles of optimism and despair regarding the human condition and the nature of society. 4. suppression of other religions? What are the costs and benefits of both a. adopting a religion as a “state religion” and b. Section Questions 1. how is it reflected in attitudes toward children.
From the powers granted to the teacher’s guilds can you surmise what kind of problems they were faced with? 7. and widespread lack of appropriate skills. Women were not included in the full educational benefits of either the Reformation or the Renaissance. What interests of Lutherans required schooling of women as well as men? Did Calvin support this interest? 10. and university. cost. Consider the personal computer. What long-term effect do you think it will have on the dissemination of knowledge? Are the cost/benefit elements similar? 8. church. How would you summarize the major educational developments of the Reformation? 63 . Do you see a parallel in the growth of the medieval Church to fill social functions and the growth in the 20th Century of the public school to fill social functions? What similarities and dissimilarities can you make out? Consider the expansion of learning opportunities.4. What do you think would account for this? Consider the relationship of power holders and stake holder’s costs and benefits. Printing eventually disseminated knowledge far beyond its customary boundaries of monastery. 6. Can you see any parallels between the educational use of books in Charlemagne’s time and the educational use of computers today? Consider scarcity of materials. 9. 5.
Focusing on the workings of their respective socio-educational systems. We also establish a context for describing America’s socio-educational system in the years immediately following the American Revolution. Finally. We show how each had distinctive educational practices that corresponded with their patterns of settlement. we describe the beginning of the great common school crusade that culminated in the present U. By describing Constitutional responsibility for school governance and finance.SECTION III: THE EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN SCHOOLING We begin this section with a review of educationally relevant European developments immediately preceding and accompanying the colonization of America. primarily in order to illustrate the educational importance of Colonial American class distinctions and status concerns. pointing out how this impacted the educational process.S. This is followed by a brief review of English educational and schooling practices that were particularly influential in Colonial America. We then highlight the educational practices of three Colonial regions: New England. public school system. we prepare the ground for the development of both of these matters later in the text. we illustrate how the many different institutions within those systems interrelated. We describe colonial higher education. the Middle Colonies and the South. We also focus on fundamental shifts in authority. 65 .
145 The French philosopher and mathematician. turned from the formal to the technical culture. 154-155. 67 . economic and religious systems. Rene Descartes (1596-1650) exemplifies the radical skepticism toward traditional authority which reliance on reason encouraged. and the Hellenic and the Christian to resurface. Harvey. cit. Take as false that which is probable. and only that which is “certain” should even be considered likely. especially science and mathematics. weakened traditional religious authority with its locus in the formal culture. and the growth of political and religious diversity which it encouraged. cit. It was replaced. 1965) p. even transoceanic commerce was expanding explosively..146 Only one thing can safely be regarded as truly certain — our own existence. the growth of commerce. p.pp. 649. a new breed of philosopher. the very European civilization they were attempting to transplant was undergoing wrenching changes. 642. All of this had a profound impact on education and schooling. political.. men like Copernicus.. What is more. the first settlers took with them the accelerating dissensus. hastened by technical level improvements in transportation. As tradition and dogma became less compelling. p. Encouraged by skeptical habits of thought stressing proof not dogma. In his famed Discourse on Method. he advised.144 Aquinas had not settled the matter after all. and fortified by progress in the practical arts as well as the rapid evolution of instruments like the telescope. And the only key to this certainty is that one cannot doubt that one 142Carl N. With respect to politics. 146 Idem. the secular and the sacred. Descartes advised that we doubt everything. Degler. uncertainty and impermanence of an age in ferment. certainty and permanence of the Age of Faith. Out of Our Past: The Forces That Shaped Modern America (New York: Harper & Row. Galileo. 632-633.CHAPTER 8: EDUCATION AND SCHOOLING IN COLONIAL AMERICA Colonial America was settled by Europeans concerned about transmitting their values to their children and anxious to reproduce familiar social. McNeill. op. by a growing belief in the value of religious toleration and a new respect for secular authority. and Brahe. was developing way beyond the feudal estate and the self-governing town. Interregional. in-group loyalty was shifting from the parochial interests of growing towns and shrinking feudal estates to much broader national loyalties. op. 145McNeill. for answers. The Age of Reason Change.142 They soon found that life on the frontier imposed its own realities. In the place of the consensus. H.143 In terms of economics. And this had a profound impact on Colonial education. Bacon. while causing the old tension between the formal and the technical. 1984) p. The Rise of the West: A History of the Human Community (New York: Mentor. 144McNeill. in part. they soon produced them in astonishing and disconcerting abundance. 171 143W.
their educational practices were also based upon English patterns. Even the authority of kings. some of the doubters were discovering an astoundingly powerful new order and unity in nature through experimentation. 1970) p. What is more. But when the initial settlement period was over. The Day the Universe Changed (Boston: Little Brown and Company. in the fact that our doubt exists. What is more. and became increasingly irrelevant. This meant that. Harper & Row. All fathers." in Exploring the Universe. therefore I am.. "The Creative Aspects of Science. 4-5. to the traditional institution of apprenticeship. Education and Nationalism (New York: McGraw-Hill. We see. American Education: The Colonial Experience (New York. it was also shared widely with the community. while the socialization of children was traditionally based in the family. Traditions of American Education (New York: Basic Books. masters and governors were also required to teach their children and servants some form of honest occupation and to link their efforts.151 The boundaries between family and community were thus blurred.doubts.152 147Jacob Bronowski. 149Lawrence Cremin. 12-13. Of course. not as a dogma but as process. of bishops.W. The English Educational Model North America was colonized by a wide variety of Europeans. The clergy were encouraged by royal injunction to oversee and encourage household religious instruction. 152Gladys Wiggin.150 Since the boundaries between home and work-place were not yet as sharply drawn as they would be during industrialization. 68 .149 For this reason it is illuminating to briefly summarize English educational practices at the time of colonization. the English were preeminent. 1963) p. we find our only proof that we exist. whenever possible. and the cultivation of the habit of truth. 150Lawrence Cremin. Schooling traditionally reinforced and legitimated established authority. this linkage represented a simply a variation on the theme of learning in the family. change ran contrary to the interests and instincts of educators who made their living and reputation in schools that had institutionalized the medieval. observation. 148James Burke. 4. at the time of the first American settlements Tudor social policy was both emphasizing and enlarging the role of the family as a systematic educator. 151Bernard Bailyn. 1985) p. 169. ergo sum. Louise Young. mother. Indeed. (New York: McGraw-Hill. “Cogito. 118. they modeled them on those they left behind. 1977) pp. and of received opinion was suspect. It was now possible to challenge nearly everything.148 What were school authorities to do? For a time many hunkered down. then. changed nothing. As they set about building Colonial communities. Norton. what was happening in Europe. Ed. Education in the Forming of American Society (New York: W. The Continued Centrality of the Family and Church The family still shouldered the vast majority of the educational burden in English life. In other words. 1962) pp.147 All of this proved a formidable challenge for school authorities.” (I think.) was the way Descartes put it. 1972) p. 17.
By the mid -1500’s Bishops of the Church of England routinely inquired into the faith of schoolmasters. p.154 The tenuous nature of Protestantism in England — there had been a temporary restoration of Catholicism under Queen Mary (1553-1558) — encouraged a narrow. haphazardly arranged in a curious amalgam of privately funded grammar schools. 8.13 69 . did not embrace the cause of schooling the broad masses with the same zeal as that of the Puritans or other dissenting denominations. Many of those who did got only a year or two of indifferent instruction. the Established Church. This belief. however. Control concerns were very important. however. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. who were often fired for religious non-conformity. and school authorities were expected to defer to the authority of the official Church of England. defensive and very self-conscious religiosity in the schools. In the previous chapter we already indicated something of the educational functions of the church. parochial charity schools. In 1580 a law was enacted which imposed major fines on schools employing religious non-conformists. Schooling Officials of the Church of England. and this certainly applied to both the English established church and the dissenting sects. inherit from the Reformation the belief that schooling should nurture children in the faith.153..Changing Social Boundaries Workplace Family Community Pre-Industrial Social Boundaries Family Workplace Community Post-Industrial Social Boundaries Churches were second only to households in their importance to English education. and dissenting academies (schools serving religious dissenters excluded from Cambridge and Oxford in 1662) that most children still did not attend. They were. coupled with the educational efforts of dissident denominations and the growing sophistication of an urbanizing culture. They did. 1988) p. 154Ibid. Dissenting schoolmasters could even 153Gerald Gutek. made schools relatively common in the England of this period. Education and Schooling in America (Englewood Cliffs.
158Edgar W. versification. Such elite schooling incorporated the Renaissance definition of a well-educated person as competent in Latin and Greek composition.”157 However. 1927) p. A Brief History of Education (New York: Houghton Mifflin. In 1588 non-conformists were prohibited from receiving degrees in an English university. 215-216. The privileged were commonly considered innately superior. Education in the United States (Boston: Ginn and Company. Both lawns and Latin demonstrated the practitioner’s superior status by making it abundantly clear that they could afford to transcend the merely practical. was akin to cultivating lawns rather than pastures. Colonial America English heterogeneity was reflected in American colonial settlements. It is hard to over-emphasize the importance of status concerns in English education and schooling. including private tutors. rather than more practical arts. 172.159 155Ellwood P. The resultant lack of consensus led to a ruinous civil war (1642 to 1648). and literature. For these reasons. to the “Doctrine of Formal Discipline” — an elaborate technique for “training the mind.. Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Western Education (Columbus. There also were regional and religious differences. and/or Universities. 1941) p. 70 . 1922) p.be imprisoned. Reformers thought them to be blocking social renewal instead. as did religious beliefs.155 The authorities were determined to forestall any heresy. in part. and economic institutions. The dominating influence in England during the American colonial period was class. Cubberly. This pertained even though there had been a decline in the practical value of Latin. 1960) pp. A Student's Textbook in the History of Education (New York: Aplleton-Century. Frost. and uniquely qualified to rule. (It had been retained as an official language only by the Catholic branch of the Christian Church. Knight. 182. English colonial settlements quickly took on regional characteristics. it also reflected status concerns.) 156 The popularity of Latin and Greek was due. 156Stephen Duggan. In 1662 the Act of Uniformity required every educator. soils and terrain also imposed other distinctions. 159S. in a sense. In 1665 religious dissenters were forbidden from teaching in any school. 157Idem. Classical Studies and Status Concerns Ordinarily it was only children of the upper and merchant classes who received reasonably competent formal instruction by tutors and in privately funded Latin Grammar Schools. 64-65. Such studies were. Ohio: Merrill.158 Class differences were not all that divided England. pp. E. to conform to the liturgy of the Church under penalty of fines and imprisonment. a form of conspicuous consumption. 186-187. North American climate. In 1603 a license from the bishop became part of the schoolmaster’s job application procedure. The lower classes were widely regarded as inferior and born to obey rather than govern. Pursuing Latin or Greek. and had given way to French as the language of diplomacy.
The Centrality of Reason The Puritan’s great respect for schooling was an outgrowth of their Congregationalist religious beliefs and a related devotion to logic and reason. 243 162Cremin.” who established a religious state. Unlike many other religionists who found fulfillment in unrestrained emotion. are the most truly.. 71 .160 Even though their colony was divided along class lines. life in the wilderness gradually weakened the Puritan social fabric. “The most religious. 1967) p. cit. cit. the Puritans were convinced that the mere emotion of religion had to be mediated by reason. cit. p. pp.” This respect for reason reflected the old Scholastic impulse to reconcile faith with logic. Nevertheless.161 The Impact of the Wilderness Despite their tightly woven theocratic communities.” are capable of true righteousness. p. We will sketch their broad outline. colonials found themselves confronted with the same situation.11 161Christopher Hill. This strengthened the influence of their church. op. op.162 Of course. further weakened the family. In the years from the landing at Plymouth to the American Revolution. frugal and law-abiding Calvinists gathered together in close-knit villages. All along the eastern seaboard. these unforeseen consequences of life on the frontier were not confined to Puritan New England. In addition. children frequently adapted to the demands of life in the New World more quickly than their elders. all male Congregationalist Church members did have voting privileges in frequent town meetings. settled New England. hardworking.Each region developed their own educational and schooling practices.. op. The English Puritan Richard Baxter expressed it succinctly when he insisted. The Puritans leadership had added the humanism of the Renaissance. it was traditional Calvinist belief that only the enlightened elect.163 For this reason. and nobly rational. eroded adult credibility. schooling and culture. cheap land and a scarcity of labor undermined both the apprenticeship system and parental authority. These stern. and undermined consensus. the 160Bailyn. the “saints. but not in the medieval way.. and helped them maintain the broad and deep consensus necessary for the maintenance of a religious state.16-17 163Cohen. For that reason it was God’s will that a Two of the Puritan Elect small band of the elect still held positions of greater power over the unregenerate many. This gave their dogmatic moral community an apparently democratic quality. This upset traditional teaching and learning roles. iii. New England Congregationalist “puritans. Society and Puritanism in Pre-Revolutionary England (New York: Schoken. illustrating the systemic interdependence of education.
Satan.165 The Old Deluder. shall then forthwth appoint one within their towne to teach all such childeren as shall resort to him to write & read. “. to keepe men from the knowledge of ye Scriptures.that every towneship in this jurisdiction. yt so at least ye true sence & meaning of ye originall might be clouded by false glosses of saint seeming deceivers... and the laws of the Commonwealth. op. concerned with the further deterioration of traditional values the Congregationalist General Court declared: It being one Chiefe project of ye ould deluder.. after ye Lord hath increased ym number of 50 householdrs. Puritan Schooling Concern that these ministerial standards be maintained in New England led to the establishment of Harvard college in 1636. In the words of the Puritan founders..” The need to prepare youngsters for Harvard led to the creation of Latin Grammar Schools — the very rough equivalent of modern secondary schools. ordered logic of their sermons. they shall set up a grammar schoole.. so in their latter times by perswading from ye use of tongues. (Note that this first educational ordinance in the New World was facilitated by both broad and deep consensus concerning the proper ends of this instructional process.164 but in their knowledge of classical studies and Latin. yt where any towne shall increase to ye number of 100 families or housholdrs. also encouraged the founding of elementary schools.Congregationalists maintained a remarkably well-schooled cadre of ministers who not only prided themselves in their erudition and in the unemotional. the college had been initiated so that they would not. The Calvinist commitment to reason and to literacy as a tool in the search for salvation. as in former times by keeping ym in an unkowne tongue. Greek and Hebrew — the “holy” languages of ancient scripture. The law neither required school attendance. p. passed a law requiring parents to see to it that their children could read and understand Congregationalist doctrine. 256.it is further ordered. cit.. 10 167Frost. 165Ibid. p. through their General Court. It only compelled communities to establish schools for those who wished to attend. . when the present ministers shall lie in the dust. or by ye inhabitants in genrall... coupled with the fact that each Puritan had the terrifying personal responsibility of learning the full meaning of God’s word. officials of the General Court did not provide financial resources 164Quoted in Degler. cit. op. op.) 166 In 1647. 166Gutek. cit.. whose wages shall be paid either by ye parents r masters of such children. p. It is therefore ordered. 17.leave an illiterate ministry to the churches. .167 Similarly. 72 . Satan In 1642 the Puritan fathers.
In fact.. however. 1933) 171H.to accomplish their requirements. if the rod was spared. p. they tried to assure the benefits of schooling. however. This was not the case with the first truly public schools. and such a share As sinners may expect. Children and Puritanism: The Place of Children in the Life and Thought of the New England Churches. Like other public authorities past and present. they were in grave risk of becoming “undutiful. 148 172This is a paraphrase of the orthodox 16th Century Calvinist John Penry in Hill.”171 This perception grew out of the traditional Calvinist belief that. Norman Gardiner. 1904). Such you shall have. unsubmissive and disorderly … a curse on persons in this world. Conn. 243. 169Idem. “Man is sinful. p. he is by his nature an enemy of God. is very misleading. local Puritan communities did gradually make their schools tax supported. Over the years. by 1750 schooling in New England had generally become “free” to any child. for I do save None but my own elect. and most village schools charged parents tuition. ed.: Yale University Press. cit. One part of it depicts unbaptized infants pleading for mercy at the Last Judgement only to be told: You sinners are. They were the distinctive product of a heterogeneous society. Selected Sermons of Jonathan Edwards (New York: Macmillan. It would be years before any other part of the United States made schooling available to all children regardless of their ability to pay. 1620-1847 (New Haven. clearly portrays Puritan attitudes toward the young.168 The village elders did likewise. with theirs Who lived a longer time. he cannot understand and consequently cannot will the things acceptable to God. I do confess yours so much less 168Ibid. The interests of individuals and the community were simply assumed to be identical. The Puritan View of Children Puritans understood children to have been conceived in sin and born in corruption.170 For this reason. 73 .”172 Michael Wigglesworth’s widely popular Day of Doom. first published in New England in 1662. p.. A community that had such depth of consensus that it did not find it necessary to even distinguish between individual and collective interests backed the Puritan’s efforts. Puritan schools were a very different sort of endeavor from the public schools that evolved a hundred years later. while passing the costs to others.169 This “Old Deluder Satan Law” is often referred to as the foundation of America’s public schools. 257 170Standord Fleming. This. op. Yet to compare your sin. a rebel and a traitor.
public whipping. made them unwilling to force their religious principles on 173Ibid. or close by. these punishments corresponded to a harsh public penal code that featured branding.. the pillory.) Town Meetings and School Boards We noted previously that the Puritans used town meetings to determine many matters of government.174 The Middle Colonies The Middle Colonies lacked New England’s cultural and religious uniformity. The Example of Pennsylvania The Quaker Commonwealth of Pennsylvania provides a particularly good example of the Middle Colony pattern. Whipping posts were common in the schoolroom. p.173 (Their profession of Christianity did not much limit their fondness for severe punishments. the stocks and capital punishment for a wide variety of crimes. This was due to their emphasis on the importance of the “Inner Light” rather than reason. 20 74 . op. and their belief in universal salvation. cit.) 175 While they had control over schooling. The effects of this commitment were seen in all of their schools. op. the Puritans were determined to make the costs of sin and disobedience clearly outweigh the benefits. cit. Social Control Ever mindful of the power of Satan. But unto you. p. As a consequence they developed a greater variety of educational practices. Disobedient children literally had the Hell beaten out of them. and beatings were regarded as religiously therapeutic. Such boards have since become an integral part of the governance of America’s public schools. Thus began the American tradition of involving local elected boards in the governance of public schools. I shall allow The easiest room in Hell. could even be put to death.. (Thst is the origin of this term. had much less impulse toward popular schooling than the Puritans.) Young people over 16 found guilty of striking their parents. 174Frost. The Society of Friends.257 175Degler. And every aspect of the governance of the local village schools was a concern of these meetings. or of being incorrigible. who were very influential in early Pennsylvania. which stood in unmistakable contrast to the intolerance of the Puritans. Of course. A crime it is. the Quaker principle of tolerance. (They thought no one was so evil as to merit eternal damnation. therefore in bliss You may not hope to dwell.Tho’ every sin’s a crime.
268 75 . 266-67 177Frost. and most did set out to establish their own schools. 267 178Frost. the Middle Colonies lacked the consensus necessary to launch a colony-wide school initiative similar to Massachusetts. Incompatible status systems plus disagreements concerning the Bible made them impractical. The Absence of Consensus In general. These denominations were attracted to the colony by the opportunity for religious freedom. Quaker tolerance gave this inclination free rein.176 This proved so effective that these “Pennsylvania Dutch” are still able to maintain a style of life remarkably free of outside influences. cit. ministers and church officials. most of the denominations shared the characteristic Protestant commitment to schooling. Still. Protestant denominations were inclined to educate their own in a “guarded” atmosphere. cit.177 And so long as each denomination insisted on schooling its own teachers. However. The South Some historians have remarked that it was the Southern Colonies which should have been named “New England. then. Educational initiatives sponsored by a bewildering array of religious denominations started up. p. quickly created German language schools modeled on those of Germany. They organized a socio-educational system deliberately isolated from the “worldliness” of the broader community. for example. Southern colonial settlements were organized by middle and upper class members of the Church of England seeking economic advantage. op. They were intended to keep Lutheran traditions alive by separating the denomination’s children from the “corrupting” influences of the outside world. a common system of schooling seemed out of the question.. Often teachers were barely literate. For this reason Quaker dominance soon gave way. There were too many competing interests. And once in America they set out to replicate the life of the English country gentleman. cit. The Amish: still keeping apart The Mennonites and Amish took this Biblical principle of “total separation” one step further. p. Intent on promoting group solidarity. school credentials had little substantial value outside the congregational sphere.anyone. There was no “moral community” from which it could spring.” because here the English country way of life was replicated with the greatest authenticity. professors. op.. op. facilities primitive and standards lowered to fit necessity. pp. Since limited resources were divided among a multitude of groups quality suffered. The Lutherans..178 176Frost.
Officials of the Church of England. once schooled.. 86. souls might be lost. 200. a widely dispersed rural way of life and the mercenary interests of English officials concerned with tobacco revenues. 123. op. p. Otherwise.179 To facilitate this a large number of “indentured white servants” and African slaves were imported into the region. Blair explained. In the Middle Colonies. Large landholdings of up to 200. 181Michael B. but also could not even sign their own names to legal documents.183 179Ibid. Both of these factors were muted in the South. cit. for example.000 acres were owned by upper class gentry. did not share the same enthusiasm for mass schooling as most Protestant denominations. 76 . In New England. “Souls!” roared the official. (Undated) 182Quoted in Knight. The Transformation of Virginia (Chapel Hill. cit. while agricultural labor was provided by the lower classes. they found it profitable to support the tobacco growing ventures of American colonials that soon supported the economy of the region. he reminded the custodian of the crown’s purse that a college was needed to train ministers. combined with a more unrestrained pursuit of personal advantage. and the South had exceptionally suitable soil and climate for its production. Indeed. upper class Southerners frequently adopted the view of traditional English conservatives who had always lacked enthusiasm for mass education because they knew it had a social renewal potential and believed it dangerous to their interests. 1982) p. Congregationalist values supported theocratic school initiatives. Girls were generally incapable of forming any letters at all. "Connections Between the Origins of Public Education and the Major Themes in American Social History. European demand for this product skyrocketed shortly after its introduction. Dorsett or East Anglia. As a consequence. This meant that there were fortunes to be made in Southern tobacco plantations. These factors.181 The South also lacked the denominational competition characteristic of the Middle Colonies. op. predominant among the upper class in that region. but encouraged private initiatives.The Plantation Economy In some ways. Protestant religious rivalry temporarily prevented governmental action. p. North Carolina: The University of North Carolina Press.." unpublished paper distributed at the University of Pennsylvania. “Damn your souls! Raise tobacco!”182 As a consequence of these circumstances. When. English government officials also discovered that the tobacco trade was a tremendous source of revenue. 183Rhys Isaac. About half of all boys were capable of a signature. the Virginia Assembly sent James Blair to England to secure a charter and financial aid for a college now known as William and Mary. The Plantation Economy’s Significance to Schooling The educational significance of this arrangement was profound. Katz. The primarily agricultural economy was organized into a two-tiered social system in much the same manner as Devon.180 The key to this Southern way of life was the cultivation of tobacco. the Colonial South did come to bear a curious resemblance to parts of England. After all. produced conditions that were largely hostile to schooling. most Southern colonial youngsters not only failed to go to school. the lower classes might revolt. 180Cubberly.
they often failed. but these initiatives were limited in scope and local in influence.185 184Quoted in Degler. as liberty. The planter’s children were also often sent to England for the university phase of their education. Wealthy planters were able to employ private tutors to supplement their own efforts just as country gentlemen did in England. this educational initiative turned out to be of no consequence. Poorer white families had a tougher time meeting the educational needs of their children. the yeoman farmers and indentured servants who constituted about 80% of Southern white settlers had none of the help that was available in the Churches. despite the efforts of public officials. republican and free institutions. for example. they were “re-educated” in a manner calculated to keep them in chains. pp. 354-355. through legislation. etc. op. 189. J. there were scattered efforts to teach black children to read. op. “The physical differences between the two races are so great as to make what is wholesome and beneficial for the whiteman.. Slavery and the Education of Afro-Americans There was one underclass of Southerners who received a rather extensive non-familial “education. So. 77 . but actually poisonous to its happiness. p. to force the children of the poor to become apprentices..” The thousands upon thousands of enslaved blacks had their family life and traditional patterns of education deliberately destroyed as a part of the “educational” practices of their owners. Then. and the heroic efforts of a few black men and women.B. they tried. cut off from their native cultures. not only unsuitable to the Negro race. like the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. One of slavery’s most eloquent apologists. unable to love with any hope of permanence. such as the scientist Benjamin Banneker. schools and apprenticeships of the nucleated settlements of New England or the Middle Colonies. Spread out across a rural landscape largely devoid of towns. and unsure that they could ever raise their children to maturity. 185Cremin. cit. This type of compulsory education was routine in England. Despite the good intentions of English missionary societies. the vast majority of slaves remained illiterate.”184 With respect to slavery and schooling.. American Education. but the southern colonial socio-educational system simply did not fit together in the same way.D. summed up this circular reasoning when he wrote. The semislavery of indentured servitude was not a stable base upon which to construct an apprenticeship system. De Bow. cit. Concerned about social disruptions. The disabilities imposed by this “education” were then used as “proof” that black Americans were essentially inferior and incapable of freedom. Neither was slavery. Familial Education The relative isolation of Southern agricultural life put a particularly great educational burden on the family.Even in those rare instances when Southern colonial officials tried to carry out educational initiatives.
many even were open for girls. They were secondary schools. Freeman Butts. p. Implications of Reform Bill Please the Grass Roots.” such as the ministry. Weak public school systems. the “great migration” of large numbers of poor whites and Afro-Americans to America’s industrial cities. 6. spread the costs of generating wealth for a handful of planters far beyond southern boundaries.189 186There is far too much information on these many reforms to cite here.186 Whether state and municipal authorities can or will match reform goals with requisite resources to accomplish them remains to be seen. In other words. chiefly. One of the handiest sources for details on the efforts of individual states or cities is Education Week. 20-21 189H. Warren Button and Eugene F. plague efforts to improve the economic vitality in a number of southern states. December 14.. March. which began during World War I. In addition. Virginia and Texas. Serving. a striking innovation for the time. relatively few of the total population attended. 46-47. 1960. Benjamin Franklin proposed a practically oriented. for example. such as Jersey City and Chicago. New Jersey: Prentice Hall." Education Week. and college teaching. "In Chicago. "Search For Freedom — the Story of American Education. Colonial Secondary Schooling What we would call secondary schooling was offered in Latin Grammar Schools and Academies in Colonial America. discussed in the previous chapter. William Snider. “published in 1749. medicine. These schools catered almost exclusively to the upper and middle classes. We will briefly highlight each. not usually preparatory for college. made all the weaker by years of official racial segregation. specialized in preparing the sons of upper class colonials for college. 1986) pp. Jr. 1989) pp. secular “Academy” for the colonies. including Tennessee. History of Education and Culture in America (Englewood Cliffs." NEA Journal. 188Joel Spring. the middle class. Provenzo. 78 . Also. attempts have been made to effect substantial school reforms in a number of southern states.The Legacy The Southern United States still suffers from educational problems that originated in this period of American history. 187R. The American School: 1642-1985 (New York: Longman. it was one of the traditional steps in preparation for the ‘Higher professions. Recently. It would train students in the skills required to build and maintain a civilization on the edge of the wilderness. 1988.188 Franklin’s publication helped promote the evolution of this distinctively American school. Latin Grammar Schools The Latin Grammar School. See. which were heavily impacted by migration. Dismay Others. law. Other reform efforts are under way in industrial cities.187 The Academy Movement In his influential “Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pennsylvania.
Most also retained religion. Among them were “useful” subjects such as English. but also emphasized studies more closely connected to vocational rather than status interests. This pattern of setting up basic schooling in anticipation of the demands of higher schooling was typical throughout the colonies. Some.From their inception Academies took on a form different from Franklin’s proposal. William and Mary (1693) and King’s 190Cubberly.. 1970) pp. American Education: The Colonial Experience 1607 . Eventually they were established in the thousands. Franklin’s proposal for a more practical schooling was never brought to full fruition at the Academy whose creation he inspired. the more vocationally oriented “English school” quickly became little more than preparation for the status oriented “Latin school. Predictably.”192 In time. Latin and Greek classics with formidable doses of Calvinistic theology. op.191 Ironically. 48. however. writing. 194Lawrence Cremin. p. It has always been one of the indirect controls on primary and secondary schooling. but were often free of denominationalism. Its President instead. Most retained Latin in their curriculum. arithmetic. which was poorly organized and often composed of part-timers.190 Academies quickly eclipsed Latin grammar schools that were something of a struggle to maintain in the Colonies.” Predictably. did not govern Harvard. becoming the precursors of our presentday comprehensive high schools. p. usually the ones that stuck more closely to the old status oriented Latin Grammar School curriculum. When the Academy and College of Philadelphia opened. cit. and was heavily religious. Cambridge. and remains with us to the present. it was originally intended to prepare the most capable youngsters for study there. the Academy metamorphosed into the University of Pennsylvania. they emulated Emmanuel College. The need to train ministers and provide an alternative to Harvard (or far-away Oxford or Cambridge in England) also prompted other Protestant denominations to sponsor colleges. controlled Harvard and an outside board of trustees — a pattern that became general for American colleges. and is still very much with us. also metamorphosed into elite secondary “prep” schools. 193Ibid. At the time of the Revolution eight were in existence. The one significant departure from the English tradition was that its faculty. 192Button. the curriculum combined the seven liberal arts. 248. 210-212 79 . Soon. drawing. op. Colonial Higher Education Colonial higher education was modeled on that of England. 191Ibid. Significantly.. Seven were founded by denominations. cit. for example. In 1636 when Puritan officials voted to establish Harvard College.193 Vocational Concerns Harvard’s original purpose was to train a new generation of ministers for New England. it was also busy further legitimating the superior status of Puritan “gentlemen. geography. algebra and science. the course of study was based on the trivium.1783 (New York: Harper & Row.194 Most lower level schooling in New England developed after Harvard’s founding.
later Columbia (1754) were the work of Episcopalians. later Princeton (1747). The first president of Harvard. Sometimes the enforcement of social control became a bit too vigorous even for Puritan tastes. cit. the names of the students in the Harvard catalogue were not listed alphabetically but in an order indicating the social rank of their families. his dismissal did not mark the end of corporal punishment at Harvard.” One reason for this was that it was not uncommon to have youngsters attending college who were 10 or 11 years of age. From its inception. for instance. pp. 197Idem.196 Status Concerns It is difficult for students to fully appreciate the extent to which the class or social distinctions dominant in colonial America influenced schooling.195 Control Concerns Social control was often near the top of a colonial college administrator’s list of “things to do. a student convicted of uttering blasphemy was publicly beaten before a solemn assembly of all the scholars. op.. 78 80 . When Yale was established in 1701 they also used family pedigree to determine a student’s place on the list.” and for beating his assistant in an “inhuman manner. was the creation of Presbyterians. the Academy and College of Philadelphia. 128-129. was dismissed for cruelly whipping students. The beating. was secular in origin. later Rutgers (1766). cit.College. later the University of Pennsylvania (1749). accomplished in the library. 20-21 196Knight. freshmen at both institutions took their places in classes. The College of Rhode Island. for example. was founded by officers of the Dutch Reformed Church. op. dining rooms and chapel according to carefully graded precedence. Only one. was preceded and followed by prayer. for example. This practice continued for 136 years.197 195Degler. p.. In 1674. In addition. “giving them twenty to thirty stripes at a time. The College of New Jersey. Higher education provides a particularly clear-cut case.. Queens College.” However. Yale (1701) and Dartmouth (1769) were established by Congregationalists angered by developments at Harvard. pp. was the product of Baptists. later Brown (1764).
was attaining and disseminating knowledge of the natural laws that governed the physical world. 1900) 81 . prominent American colonials chaffed under the British government’s regulations and taxes. 198Charles and Mary Beard. pp.CHAPTER 9: SCHOOLING AND THE AGE OF REASON As the 18th Century advanced. Comenius urged that instruction be fitted to the individual child. Protestant pastor and educational theorist by the name of Johann Amos Comenius (1592 -1670) penned one of the earliest and most influential elaborations of this idea. yet conscious of their rights as Britons. it became more and more apparent that novel social and economic forces were encouraging and reinforcing a skeptical view of traditional authority and received opinion. and that learning is more efficient if it is correlated with other learning. 434-35. every person would not only be their own priest. Unlike the great thinkers of the Age of Faith. organizing it to be in reach of ordinary persons. Armed with this knowledge humankind could subject the physical world to the requirements of human welfare and even reshape the social order itself. This view reflected the growth of an idea that the historians Charles and Mary Beard have labeled “the most dynamic social theory ever shaped in the history of thought.”198 We call it “progress. Comenius developed these insights while attempting to understand schooling in the same way that physical scientists were coming to understand the natural world. His efforts represented a major step toward placing pedagogy in the technical. but also. Comenius maintained that education was the key.” A 17th Century Czech teacher. 199Will Monroe. regardless of their economic or cultural status. Significantly. I. Vol. 1927. culture. In dozens of popular publications on education. change of opinion concerning the human condition. Far removed from London. he argued. Comenius and the Beginning of Educational Reform (New York: Scribner. the radical thinkers of the Age of Reason were convinced that all humankind could continually improve their condition in this world. the most famous being The Great Didactic. (New York: Macmillan. Rise of American Civilization. He also pointed out that children learn by doing. who awaited a better life in the next world.199 The school curriculum Comenius proposed was breathtaking in ambition. as Luther had advocated. This spirit found a particularly congenial home in England’s American colonies. it could transform the human condition. If this were possible. Properly conceived. and then teaching it to everyone. rather than the formal. The spirit of revolution was abroad in the land. yet fundamental. The key to this social renewal. their own authority on secular matters as well. In Pansophiae Prodromus he discussed amassing all knowledge. perhaps reform is a better word. Schooling and the Idea of “Progress” Changing views of authority were accompanied by a gradual. and Comenius thought it was. to a large extent.
and even played a role in encouraging the American Revolution. 89. 204 Degler. Due. church." Educational Theory. p..200 Such an idea had vast implications for education and schooling. 631. in part. John Locke (1632-1704). Cubberly. 202J. 113. 433. In other words. Conduct and Revelation in the Educational Theory of Locke. his basic conceptions still helped provide a justification for the American Revolution. A History of Western Philosophy (New York: Simon and Schuster. cit. of tracing our beliefs to their psychological origins. as well as the basis for American government which Jefferson so elegantly summarized in the Declaration of Independence. community and the economy. Again and again he insisted that it was these procedures. It arose out of the changing fortunes of family. legitimate power holders base their authority on the consent of the stakeholders and use their power to defend the right of the individual to life. it suggested the more dangerous conclusion that given equality of opportunity there should be no difference between the mind of a King and that of a commoner.202 With respect to politics. liberty and property. This made him a founder of modern psychology. 1920) p. 1956) p.J. and these procedures alone. "Reason. op. as well as the reformulations of education and schooling that these changes entailed. philosopher and social theorist. selected and with Introduction and interpretive commentary by Isaiah Berlin (New York: Mentor. Locke pioneered in the application of the methods of scientific investigation to a study of the mind. Locke stressed the necessity of absolute clarity of expression. Many of the influential thinkers of this “Age of Reason” believed that rationalism could provide truly comprehensive knowledge that would provide a new source of authority free of the inertia of received opinion. physician. 203Bertrand Russell.New Sources of Authority Such faith in the power of reason and optimism regarding the human condition represented a new force in human affairs.204 200The Age of Enlightenment: The 18th Century Philosophers. and basing conclusions on observations of the natural world rather than received opinion or emotion. and then is furnished by experience. The English teacher. Chambliss. to his devotion to the rights of property. Fall 1976. pp. Locke proposed that the human mind is a “tabula rosa” or “blank slate” at birth. The History of Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin.387. which could lead to true knowledge. 372.203 However. Locke assumed the exclusion of women and the poor from these full rights of citizenship.201 With respect to learning. although a 17th Century thinker. his views exerted a major influence on 18th Century thought. Indeed. a force that influenced politics. This not only held forth the hope that humankind could be bettered. 201Ellwood P. Locke argued that the just powers of government derive from the consent of the governed. the understanding of learning and hopes for schooling. 1945) p. Watts and Burgh. clearly articulated this revolutionary spirit. 82 .
radical points of view developed under particularly favorable conditions in the Colonies where established authority had already been undermined by the realities of living in the New World.” as John Adams said years later.205 When that happened. As rationalism increased. 206Frederick Jackson Turner. a general intellectual revolution. enlightened education and/or schooling would be required to free humanity from the dead weight of superstition and received opinion. the affairs of human kind could be reorganized and social and personal perfection would become more likely. Once this was done. as he claimed. op. cit. p. Holt and Co. Instead.Damnable Heresy and High Treason In the years following Locke’s death the prestige of rationalism grew rapidly as more and more thinkers became convinced that the universe operated according to patterns or laws. op. 1920) 207Quoted in Faulkner. 83 .”207 And it should not escape the attention of educators that this was the consequence of the spread of an idea.” It occurred “in the hearts and minds of the people. “was effected before the war commenced. Indeed. pp. Such ideas were not simply an update of the classical humanism of the Renaissance. viewed by Protestant and Catholic traditionalist as a damnable heresy. protests against established authority and settled opinions gained momentum both in Europe and the colonies. 76. they could be discovered. Rationalism was representative of a revolutionary spirit.. Locke himself failed to appreciate that his writings provided a basis for developing a true science of instruction based in the technical rather than the formal level of culture. and by the officials of established governments as high treason.206 “The Revolution. The Frontier in American History (New York: H. and that.. Nor were they similar to those that gave rise to the demands for spiritual probity and Biblical authenticity during the Protestant Reformation. through science. Shifting Authority During The Age Super-natural Theology Other-worldliness Tradition Schooling and the New Rationalism Of Reason Natural Science Worldliness Reason The Age of Reason did not always find its way to the schoolroom. he rejected schooling in favor of 205Gutek. Of course. 27-28. He even failed to recognize that schooling had utopian possibilities if people were really a product of their environment. cit. the possibilities were nearly infinite.
he claimed. innocence. (See Chapter 5 for a description of the consensus model of society. created wants. More important.” but “naturally good. astronomy from the superstition of astrology.the private tutor. p. contending that it had developed from ignoble origins. In particular. and confined himself to writing about educating gentlemen of “good character. science was an enemy of virtue. as far as possible outside of society. and despised the old “proofs” of scholasticism. but also provoked opposition. Hobbes. For this reason.210 Thus he prayed that humanity would be delivered from “the fatal arts and sciences of our forefathers” so that we might return to “ignorance. In short. they substituted generalities about “human nature. and poverty that alone can make us happy. Rousseau’s writings reflected the growing impatience among some European thinkers for sole reliance upon observed facts and reason and their profound contempt for traditional authority. Rousseau boldly maintained that everything that distinguishes civilized humans from the “noble savage” is evil.” Despite his debt to Locke. And because technology. claimed Rousseau and those like him were the emotions of the heart. He reversed the Christian conception of original sin. But in place of the authority of the scientific method. cit.” and some sort of social consensus model of the “general will. there was a romantic reaction that soon became an integral part of the general culture of the late 18th Century. 691. for example.” based largely on emotion and their own personal “sense” of right and wrong. only to the extent that they were corrupted by tyranny. most important of all. p. drew far more radical conclusions. pp. 687. Rousseau argued. faulty institutions and. Rousseau also attacked science. cit. 1947) p. They also put considerable emphasis on reason and investigation.. and only by institutions is he made bad. 84 .” They became evil. E. it too was bad. social critic and educational theorist strongly influenced by Locke.209 The writings of Jean Jacques Rousseau.”211 In contrast to Locke. For this reason he recommended that children should be schooled in nature. deeply influenced by Locke’s ideas and the tenor of the times. to argue that in a purely natural state “man is good.. The Romantic Reaction The formal. In a number of popular books Rousseau attempted to make hamburger out of a wide variety of societal sacred cows. op. and detailed rationalism of Locke. for example. 138. 208 Duggan. Even schooling and printing promoted corruption. Rousseau claimed that children were not born a “tabula rosa. which is sciences’ stepchild." 210Idem. 211Quoted in S. op. (1712-1778) were among the most famous and influential of this genre. improper education. Like the rationalists. Frost. Spencer or Mill. the romanticists stressed the central importance of humanity and nature. or of other empiricists such as Bacon. precise. Essentials of History of Education (New York: Barrons. A French Swiss writer. 192-193. 209Russell. enjoyed a great influence.”208 Other thinkers.
Rousseau described a program of instruction following this naturalistic principle. education empowers the learner. but Russell wants to know why anyone should accept his feelings as authoritative?214 It should be noted that Locke’s source of authority was not his emotions. But the uncompromising empiricist and unapologetic romanticist were united at one critical juncture. claimed Rousseau. 85 . The teacher sets aside conventions and preconceptions. 212Joel Spring. op.212 How all of this is to be reconciled with conformity to the “general will” is not clear. The American School 1642-1985 (White Plains. 25. Rousseau had placed all five of his own common law children in an orphanage as soon as they were born. cit. then constructs a learning environment based upon the child’s development. is that there is no reason to suppose that they are based on anything substantial. Rousseau’s educational publications. earlier in his life. p. 490. In this they helped mark a fundamental change in adult’s attitudes toward children that began to gain great currency around the turn of the 18th and 19th Century.. It has since become nearly universal. Marshall Baldwin and Charles Cole. Paradoxically. 214Russell. 694.213 Much of his educational commentary was written after he had begun to long and grieve for them. 1986) p. The philosopher Bertrand Russell points out that the essential difficulty with Rousseau’s speculations and prescriptions. He asks how one refutes an argument that does not attempt to prove its points? Rousseau’s “heart” may have told him that “savages” are noble and children both free and good. (1762) one of the most influential books on education of the 18th Century. and that memorization should be replaced by the development of reason. Vol. New York: Longman. In this manner. They both were convinced that children were fundamentally different from adults. II (New York: Macmillan. History of Western Civilization. characteristic of a romantic genre of educational writing that persists to this day. The Changing View of the Child Locke and Rousseau took completely different positions with regard to their source of authority. rather than serving as an instrument of oppression or exploitation. before addressing the matter of education. were influential in shaping public opinion. 1967) p. The educational setting is designed to make it possible for learning to take place when the child experiences the necessity. studies the natural child. His observations that schooling should be adapted to the unfolding capacities of the child. 213Carlton Hayes. for example. but reasonably careful application of the methods of scientific investigation to a study of the mind. gained wide acceptance.In Emile.
comparing it with sources of authority. Creeds and Dogma Rationalism: "Reason" and the results "Human Nature" claims. 86 .Three Views of the Child Christianity Born in sin and naturally corrupt. Rationalism: A "tabula rosa" upon which experience writes. Romanticism: The above chart summarizes key differences in the three most influential views of children. Three Sources of Authority Christianity The Bible. wrong. of scientific a sense of right and investigation. These differences are still very much with us. and emotion. Romanticism: Born free and naturally good. but often corrupted by society.
is but a Prologue to a Farce or Tragedy. perhaps both. Madison. miller. schooling had acquired a new importance. many prominent leaders of post-Revolutionary America believed that the preservation of the Republic required a system of distinctly American tuitionfree public schools. to individual citizens. Recall that in the years between Jamestown and the first Continental Congress in Philadelphia. 87 . The prevailing agricultural life of that time did little to encourage schooling. this omission left it to the respective states or. it was not necessary to go to school. George Washington.. Apprenticeship was the way to go. they crafted the Constitution and its Bill of Rights in terms of civil and political rights.”216 215Bailyn. The institutions that had served so well in England and the Continent formed a new and problematic socio-educational system in the New World. cit. or. p. and a people who mean to be their own Governors must arm themselves with the power that knowledge gives. Even if one wanted to be a blacksmith. George Washington was framing his first administration under an American constitution. Noah Webster and Benjamin Rush were convinced that free public schooling was essential for a strong democracy. wheelwright. America’s first flag The Absence of Federal Responsibility This was one reason why the Constitutional Convention. Under the 10th Amendment. shelter or food as it is about schooling. who provided the basic plan of the Constitution. rather than a farmer. James Madison. As a consequence. Knowledge will forever govern ignorance. Men like Thomas Jefferson. By 1789. or the means of acquiring it. if state officials did not see it as their responsibility. without popular information. The Preservation of the Republic Despite schooling’s omission from the Constitution.CHAPTER 10: EDUCATION AND SCHOOLING IN A NEW N ATION The English tradition of constitutional government and liberty under law were used as a basis for freeing the colonies from the mother country. which was essentially a process of compromise in order to establish consensus. op. Perhaps some of the framers simply could not foresee that schooling would become more and more important. Most.215 For a time this development went largely unrealized. simply did not consider it to be among the basic rights of American citizens. not affirmative rights. however. 21. and the Constitution is just as silent regarding the right to a job. After all. since only educated citizens could fulfill the obligations of self-government. did not include schooling among the functions of the Federal Government. put it this way: “A popular Government. America had already been caught up in a hidden educational revolution.
88 . than they were American. pp. 1-4. Congress required that as land was sold. in spite of the fact that the Constitution gave the federal government no such power. George Washington chief among them. Scottish. Some means of creating a more close-knit national community was 216Quoted in Butts. And some of Jefferson’s plans for education in America even excluded large numbers of children. op. The “Northwest Ordinance of 1787” was the first of many federal efforts to promote schooling in the somewhat indirect ways permitted under the Constitution. Swedish. p.218 This required an informed rather than obedient citizenry.Madison. did not want to develop the same style nationalism which common schooling supported in Prussia. 8. The Historical Evolution of Modern Nationalism (New York: Macmillan. and the others mentioned earlier.217 But Founders also wanted to encourage civil rights and the liberty of the individual by restricting the power of government. cit. Schooling and Self Governance Federal legislators considered various plans for encouraging the growth of schooling. Pennsylvanians or New Yorkers. Indirect Federal Support When. instead. by emphasizing the schooling of a gifted few. cit. The Great School Legend (New York: Basic Books. cit. cited in Wiggin. 50.. they decided to adopt Jefferson’s concept of allocating land for the support of public education. eventually prevented federal officials from taking such an action. a scarcity of resources. The Demands of an Infant Democracy Setting up and operating the institutions that should replace colonial rule was a very difficult undertaking. Like Prussian leaders. This established the original endowment of Ohio University. too. white as well as black. those that had been successfully Americanized thought of themselves as Virginians. The land was divided into townships of 36 square miles. the Americans who won the war were really more English. however. a total of 72 square miles. Madison and Webster were determined to promote through a system of publicly financed common schools. op. who championed establishing a federally controlled and financed school system. op. pp318-319. Dutch. 1972) p.. There were some. 217Colin Greer. 5-7. 1950) pp. in 1787. They turned. Two townships. the Congress of the Confederation of States began selling the wilderness of the Northwest Territory to land companies. Each square mile constituted a “section” of a township. and the jealous guarding of state prerogatives by state officials. purchasers were required to set aside the cash equivalent value of every 16th section for the support of schools. In the first place. 219Frost. and so forth. they wanted to enhance group loyalties. 218Carlton Hayes. grade school through university. Often. and it was this which men like Jefferson.219 Respect for the 10th Amendment. rather than as citizens of the United States. Many similar initiatives followed.. were also donated to the Ohio Company to be sold to fund a university. to indirect methods of encouragement. German.
As a result.) There was little to build on. 8.221 Wealthy Americans continued to employ private tutors. Should the state governments fund the educational efforts of every denomination desirous of running schools? And if they did. 224Wiggin. Throughout the new nation elementary schooling was largely undeveloped. 89 .. 30-33. which were seen to be “. Jefferson.222 Thus it was that a deliberate cultural nationalism became one of the most important characteristics of the Common School crusade that emerged on the American scene in the 1820’s and 30’s. Essentials. 222Noah Webster. p. cit.” prominent patriots like Noah Webster called for a distinctly American system of public schooling. They wanted to public schools to promote an American “state of mind. only in New England was it free and open to all. were thinking of.223 Tax Supported Public Schools The old tax-supported “public” schools of Colonial New England were essentially religious institutions. 221Frost. 223Button.. A Collection of Essays and Fugitiy Writings on Moral. Historical and Political Subjects (Boston: Thomas and Andrews.. Worried about the long-term effect of this arrangement. (Women were disenfranchised and could not vote. cit. free public schooling in most of the U. op. p. and others like them. op. op. Outside of this region the only children able to get publicly supported schooling were those too poor to pay.”224 Religious Liberty and Secular Schooling Denominationalism was a major barrier to all such efforts to establish public schools.S. how could they be assured that this would contribute to the creation of a nation? 220Butts. cit... Madison. one who could to participate wisely in his own governance. cit. This is not what Webster. 65.. 173. No Bill of Educational Rights was tainted with the stigma of poverty.220 It was also widely believed that self-government demanded a different sort of citizen. In such circumstances it was difficult to imagine how common schooling could ever proceed. 1790) pp. hence the masculine pronoun.required. While many states made direct Constitutional provisions for schooling.directly opposite to our political interests. p. or even send their children to Europe for schooling. There was no state church in America and very little consensus among the prevailing Protestant denominations as to religious truth. and school opportunities for ordinary Americans were often poor or non-existent. p. send to Europe for teachers. 8. op.
in particular. their government’s support of schooling lagged far behind. They wanted to preserve the ethic of hard work and perseverance that they thought was being ruined by the industrial lower class and immigrants. 225 Cubberly. 270 226Randall Collins. Immigrants also found their school opportunities limited. a formal education had little value in the marketplace. European Developments While. that schooling did not bring liberty to slaves or survival to the culture of Native Americans. Mired in the class distinctions that still trouble this island nation. who upper class and upper-middle class reformers depicted as the chief beneficiaries of public schooling. Farmers often viewed schooling as unnecessary. private school leadership and those with interests in charity schools vigorously opposed it. as did women of all backgrounds. They point out that there were a multitude of pro-school groups. Other historians. op. albeit in fits and starts. schooling remained largely unavailable to both. p. Even the urban lower classes. are less skeptical. and in the meantime. The Credential Society (New York: Academic Press. The popularization of schooling was finding expression in the U. As a matter of fact.When the framers of the Constitution confronted the question of religion. there would be a strict separation of religion and publicly financed schools. argue that public schooling was expanded so that traditionally powerful groups could revitalize and preserve traditional middle class morality. Ultimately. they had taken a practical course and forbid Congress to ever establish a state religion or impose a religious requirement for office holding. there were corresponding developments in Europe. In spite of opposition to its expense. Great Britain provides vivid contrast. and in spite of its lack of full integration into the cultural exchange system.. the popularization of American public schooling developed. and even artisans and tradesmen were often either indifferent or downright hostile. it was these Constitutional provisions that were the basis for a solution to the religion question in public schooling.225 In the end. were often very reluctant to enroll their children. however. In addition.S. who usually embrace a consensus or individualistic view of society. Diplomas and the like were not well integrated into the cultural exchange system. Taxpayers. and the schooling that their efforts created was broad enough to give a range of choice to individuals who had no such choices before. Point/Counterpoint Some historians. 106-107 227Ibid. But this solution was more than a hundred and fifty years in the making. all agree that these groups also experienced physical and psychological barriers once they gained admission. particularly those embracing the view that society is made up of exploiters and exploited. however. each with their own motives. 90 . was very progressive in using statesponsored schooling to unite and modernize a previously disunited and unprogressive nation. Both factions agree. Prussia. 1979) pp.. Opposition to Public Schooling The idea of a public school system did not inspire universal enthusiasm.227 Job skills were usually learned informally. the religious question remained problematic.226 This opposition makes more sense if it is remembered that with the exception of a few professions. cit.
With a rule and a pair of scales. Increasingly ambitious attempts were also made to school the English lower classes. Nevertheless. sir. and relied on the elite tuition charging boarding schools such as Winchester. 229Idem. they were directly inspired by the Industrial Revolution.. and who is not going to be talked into allowing anything over. This was accomplished via a systematic mass process based on the division of labor characteristic of factories. Joseph Lancaster (1778 -1838). Instead they employed tutors. motivating many upper class parents to withdraw their children. 91 . p. Andrew Bell (1753 . A man of realities. elementary education to poor children no longer well served by traditional methods of education. a case of simple arithmetic Dickens felt such teachers were “Murdering the Innocent. Harrow and Rugby. “dictators. It is a mere question of figures. Spurred on by this decline of informal education.” and the older children who read out the lesson according to highly detailed plans were termed. In Hard Times. The massive conversion of farmlands to pasture for sheep raised for the wool industry had displaced many farmers and disrupted the family centered socio-educational system that the agricultural way of life had always supported.The Decline of English Privatism During the American Colonial period many of the growing English middle class enrolled their children in Latin grammar schools. and the multiplication table in his pocket. Dickens describes an industrial pedagogue of this type: 229 Thomas Gradgrind sir.” and Lancaster referred to them as ‘the steam engine of the moral world. ready to weigh and measure any parcel of human nature and tell you exactly what it comes to. although very limited and uninspiring.”228 Learning relied heavily on the memorization of facts. Also the replacement of hand power by machines had caused the decline of home industry. by 1800 several thousand privately funded “charity schools. Initiated by the Englishman. Thomas Gradgrind sir. preemptorily Thomas — Thomas Gradgind.1832). The need was great. Monitorial Schools “Monitorial Schools” were the most distinctive of these charitable activities. Bell even boasted that Monitorial Schools were a “mechanical system of education.” 228Ibid. the teachers controlling the process were called “operatives. A man who proceeds on the principle that two and two are four. and dealt a heavy blow to the apprenticeship system. Significantly.” including Sunday Schools were providing free. Eton. the middle class enrollments resulted in a very substantial increase in the number of English children attending school. and nothing over. A man of facts and calculations. 12. and further developed by the flamboyant English émigré to America.” The most distinctive feature of Monitorial Schools was the use of a hierarchy of pupil “monitors” to teach large numbers of less advanced students. The subsequent growth of the factory system only intensified the destruction of this tradition.
236 Nevertheless. in 1832 Parliament adopted the Reform Bill designed to alleviate the worst of the social nightmares which had developed in crowded industrial cities such as Leeds and Manchester. 230Gerald Gutek. there was a new emphasis on broadening the availability of schooling in Roman Catholic countries. shackles.”234 Lancaster’s ideas were widely popular in America. 202-203. and.232 Arousing Expectations.. cit. 1978) p. though tied in with the official Church of England. p. p. Apparently. cit. p. p. deS. for example. op. 62-63. It also encouraged the view that good teaching involved little more than proficient repression and following a printed course of study “by the numbers. 235Quoted in Idem.. who feared that they were becoming overeducated and. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. it was not long before various newly formed religious orders took up the task.233 But the rigid mechanical methods of the Lancastrian system remained as a less positive legacy. cited in Button. In France. 232H. he was a practicing sadist. cit. French Developments England was not the only European nation where schooling was expanding. 1986) pp. In 1847 schooling was nationalized. Honey. op. a technique of sewing boys into blankets where they were left overnight.231 Significantly. p. even called them as “a blessing sent down from heaven to redeem the poor and distressed of this world from the power and dominion of ignorance. would become rebellious. Setting Patterns Monitorial Schools helped prepare the way for the development of public schools... Instead of the birch. 233Richard Stephens. op. the procedure of placing malefactors in baskets and then hoisting them to the ceiling. 231 Button. 234Ravitch. 82. op.With respect to managing such large numbers of students. schooling the poor concerned many among the privileged classes. 43.230 He also devised yokes. Tom Brown's Universe: The Development of the English Public School in the Nineteenth Century (New York: Quadrangle 1977) pp. Education in the United States: An Historical Perspective (Englewood Cliffs. DeWitt Clinton. 64. cit.”235 In England his reception was more mixed. perhaps the most inventive. There was to be a Catholic answer to Protestant efforts to school the children of the poor. he substituted tags hung around the neck announcing misdeeds. Governor of New York. But that did not mean he was uninterested in social control. The following year the first government aid was given to schools. 76. 76. Monitorial techniques promoted the idea that the chief end of schooling was the rote mastery of facts and skills by a submissive child.. hence. Despite the obvious need. With the encouragement of the Council of Trent. 236David Snodin. a letter published in 1977 suggests that Lancaster devised these “innovations” for personal reasons. Lancaster theoretically rejected the corporal punishment common to schools of his era. 92 . A Mighty Ferment: Britain in the Age of Revolution (New York: Seabury. 12.
Prussian Developments Recalling Luther’s urgings that the state promote schooling. They ran elementary and secondary schools that were served by the beginnings of compulsory education. these initiatives set in motion a chain of events that culminated in the General Code of 1794. Heretofore teachers dealt with each child individually while the others waited their turn. Cubberly. 1786-1797). started one such order. Scion of an aristocratic family and heir to a fortune. by farmers who thought schooling useless. 1740-1786) recognized the social renewal potential of schooling and made a state system of schools part of their general plans to promote the unity. 1920)pp. Nevertheless. and Frederick died before he could bring it to fruition. Frederick the Great (r. Frederick the Great. 239Edward Burns and Philip Ralph. which has since become the largest teaching order in the Roman Catholic Church. Vol II (New York: Norton. op. He also founded one of the world’s first successful teachers’ training academies at Stettin (1735). decreed that all Prussian children aged 5 to 13.. Issued by Frederick Wilhelm II (r. 41 238Elwodd P. and devoted his life to establishing free elementary schools for poor boys. cit. A Pioneer in Modern Education. it is not surprising that during the late 17th and early 18th Century most of the German States organized state-church school systems. J.238 Prussia was the first to organize and centralize a universal and compulsory system of schooling. for example. p. It was intended to serve a mystical nationalism that Rousseau had anticipated in his notion of the “General Will. more in sympathy with the Enlightenment.1719).(1651 . the Law of 1791 established a national school system. must attend schools taught by licensed and examined teachers 240 This decree was opposed by teachers who feared they could not pass the required examinations. The History of Education (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1949). strengthened and codified secondary classical schools and. encouraged academic freedom in universities. His son. p.” In 1802 Napoleonic Law founded the French secondary educational system that featured status oriented classical Lycees emphasizing the traditional Latin. 240Cubberly.239 Frederick I. La Salle gave away his wealth.000 elementary schools with money saved by economizing in the royal household. 283 93 . in 1763. De La Salle. 1713-1740) and his son. it declared: 237 W. A national university was established in 1808. 1958) pp. Battersby. 552-553. established nearly 2. Frederick Wilhelm I (r. power and prosperity of this once backward Kingdom. To this end he established the Brothers of the Christian Schools. and by nobles who feared an educated peasantry. 20-21. and state grants for elementary schools followed in 1834. World Civilizations from Ancient to Contemporary. He also founded early teacher education schools and devised a method of simultaneous instruction that permitted more efficient teaching of large groups.The French religious Jean Baptist De La Salle.237 Following the success of the French Revolution. (New York: Longmens.
3444-360. Ii. charged with the instruction of youth in useful information and scientific knowledge. 244Edgar Knight. 1940) p.”241 The principles of the famed Swiss teacher Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) were particularly influential in the schools of Prussia. he was made a “Citizen of the French Republic. “Father of the Kindergarten. Friedrich Froebel. 242Edgar Knight. 12 as quoted in Ibid. said Pestalozzi. Switzerland it was remarkably successful. 94 . Johann Herbart. 358. “Father of the American Common School. developer of model schools for the rural poor. and the fame won by his books on education. A century later some governments would make schooling a total state monopoly. 1940) pp. Twenty Centuries of Education (Boston: Ginn and Company. tit.” and even knighted by Czar Alexander of Russia. Above all.” and Horace Mann. not efficiency. Historical and Philosophical Foundations of Western Education(Columbus. Twenty Centuries of Education (Boston: Ginn and Company. inform it. 243S.“All schools and universities are state institutions.. Such institutions may be founded only with the knowledge and consent of the state.244 His followers and enthusiasts included Phillip von Fellenberg. Among many other honors. he was insistent that mechanical learning and harsh discipline were harmful. Ohio: Merrill.” The Sacred to Secular Transition These developments in England. Frost. 241Allgemeine Landrecht. Pt. Of equal importance was that a detailed understanding of how instruction could be integrated. In Prussia.E. with the organic development of the child. When Pestalozzi put his method to work in his own boarding school for boys at Yverdon. pioneer in the scientific approach to schooling. we even have a decree that all schooling exists at the sufferance of the secular state. Teaching. should be motivated by love of children.242 Pestalozzi eventually became something of an international celebrity. His principles also carried considerable weight both in Europe and America. France and Prussia were all expressions of a process that began during the Age of Faith — the shift in the control of schooling from the Church to civil government. 359-360. step by interlocking step. As a result of this.243 with children Pestalozzi Pestalozzi’s influence was so great that the German philosopher Johann Fichte compared it with that of Martin Luther. Pestalozzi’s boarding school became a mecca for famous visitors and scholars. The King of Prussia was so taken by the ideas in operation at Yverdon that he ordered the famous Prussian Volksschule reorganized along the same lines. 1966) pp.
op. and reinforced religious values. 95 . 55. they were still under the control of civil rather than religious authority..A Key Transition In The Control Of Religious Authority Schooling Civil Authority The Age of Faith Modern Times American public schooling was also at the center of the American movement from a religious to a secular based society in the formative days of the republic. cit. p. 245Greer. One need only think back to the Age of Faith to see how dramatic this transformation really was.245 Even though American public schools remained nominally Protestant.
6.Section Summary 1. cit.22-23. and economic realities.. 4. 3. American enthusiasm for public schooling was the consequence of a gradual but constantly intensifying commitment that began with largely religious motives within an essentially English context. Colonial America had three regions each with different social. 2. 7. schooling acquired more importance. The Constitution gives the responsibility for school governance and finance to the respective states when it fails to mention it as a Federal function. Teachers were expected to teach what had previously been soaked up through social contact.246 5. European educational developments illustrate the transition from religious to secular control now common throughout the modern world. As the informal elements of the socio-educational system faltered. and apprenticeship system was eroded by the restless and fluid civilization of the colonies. The educative functions of the extended family. political. In the South. with little success. op. In the Middle Colonies sectarian differences led to a parochial school tradition with little in the way of government sponsored education. pp. 96 . 246Bailyn. settlers attempted to emulate the educational system of England. but. except for the wealthy. church. American statesmen like Washington and Jefferson insisted upon the necessity of schooling for the preservation of a free nation. In New England their faith community permitted the establishment of a tradition of governmental maintenance of schools.
10. 7.these are the duties of women at all times and should be taught them from their infancy. The early public schools stirred vigorous opposition from a wide variety of special interest groups. Early in our history the encouragement of nationalism became one of the most important characteristics of the Common Schools. Identify a nation or nations where schooling is presently monopolized by the state and where private schools are totally disallowed. “Pursuing Latin or Greek. to care for them when grown. The whole education of women ought to be relative to men. to be useful to them. console them.” What sort of major changes would we see today? 8. 3. Identify at least one contemporary group that is hostile to the public schools. to educate them when young. Contemporary public officials favor school changes that supposedly would make the US more competitive “in the global marketplace?” How would such recommendations compare with the concerns of Washington. rather than more practical arts. in a sense. To please them.Section Questions 1. Suppose the Founders had included the following in the Constitution: “Congress shall make no laws respecting the establishment of schools. Why do you think he was grateful for this? 4. to make themselves loved and honored by them. What new problems did the Age of Reason tend to generate for school authorities which they did not have to deal with in the Age of Faith? 2. In the chapter it was argued that Colonial era studies of Latin and Greek were. In 1672 Governor William Berkely of Virginia told authorities in England that he thanked God that there were no free schools and no printing presses in the province of Virginia. 97 . a form of conspicuous consumption. was akin to cultivating lawns rather than pastures. How would New England’s educational history have been changed if Anglicans rather than Puritan Congregationalists had settled that region? Use the Southern Colonial experience as a reference. nor prohibiting the free development thereof. Is that still true today? 9.” What present-day college majors do you think are examples of this same phenomenon? 5. Jefferson and Webster about the purpose of the schools? 6. to make life agreeable and sweet to them . ------Rousseau Comment on the costs and benefits of such an arrangement. to counsel them.
1865-Present.” -------. at least in part. 1962) p. immigration.Gladys Wiggin 247 In this section we review two later periods of American schooling. unjustified. Most of these criticisms are. The second.. describes the chief events that defined the essential characteristics of the American public schools. say others. industrialization and urbanization are seen in the context of the struggle for consensus regarding the ends and means of American public schools. 247Gladys Wiggin. Nationalism. No set of Americans in any generation in the past has ever argued for schools for such a puny purpose as the teaching of any set of specific subjects. Specifically examining scientific and Biblical creationism in an educational context accentuates the issue of authority. . outlines how these characteristics achieved there present configuration. they are weak in mathematics and science.. The first.SECTION IV: THE LATER DEVELOPMENT OF AMERICAN SCHOOLING “The public schools do not teach reading. The purposes were always more profoundly conceived and more broadly stated. [And] the fact that they are made often. with such venomous outrage. say some. vii. youth are not required to do homework. Examining the progressive education movement in the broader context of Progressivism emphasizes the principle of correspondence. 1800-1865. processes and ideas. the able are given short shrift. Education and Nationalism (New York: McGraw-Hill. The development of American schooling is placed in the broader context of social institutions. 99 . shows a vast ignorance of why schools were established in this country.
Property qualifications for voting were being eliminated. The majority. and unregulated and voluntary rather than state regulated and compulsory. The majority of Americans still were educated outside of schools. p.251 It was not intended that these would be schools just for the common people. state officials required the establishment of local school districts. cit. in the early years of the Republic. 9. 10. They were. The Transformation of the School (New York: Vintage. specified minimum school tax rates and a minimum curriculum. Madison’s or Webster’s vision of equal and universal schooling for all. and there was an increase in the number of public offices filled by popular vote. at least initially. but such benevolence fell far short of Jefferson’s. industrialism and urbanization. State constitutions were being revised or replaced to permit wider political equality and responsibility. build bonds of friendship and respect that would provide the basis for an American consensus. Later state authorities encouraged the establishment of local schools by providing state funding. accompanied by a gradual but decisive shift from private to public schools throughout the Northern U. It was also hoped that such schools could create the common bonds. particularly in smaller towns rather than cities. Private unregulated schools were widely available and steadily increasing in numbers throughout the Northeast as early as 1800. 1961) p. 250Idem. 101 .250 This process occurred in three stages.249 During the period 1830 to 1840 this began to change. The Common Schools Many felt that public schools were needed to deal with the effects of immigration. 252Lawrence Cremin. Such a community of children living and studying together would. Religious schools and private academies waved tuition for a fortunate few. op. England: Cambridge University Press.. but schools common to all the people. p.. 249Carl Kaestle and Maris Vinovskis. Madison and Webster were convinced that an educated citizenry was essential to the survival of the United States. Education and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts (Cambridge. however. At first state legislators permitted local communities to establish public schools.252 248Idem. 20.248 Schooling remained private rather than public. largely restricted to people of means. subject to the approval of voters. There was both a steady increase in school enrollment. loyalties. it was hoped.. such as the Volksschule of Prussia were. 1980) p. the basis of representation in state legislatures was changing from wealth to population. p. 251Knight. were apparently convinced that the informal education their society provided was already ample for the job. morality and informed citizens necessary to support new and vital conceptions of democracy which were then emerging in America. Finally. 11.S. 258.CHAPTER 11: DEFINING AMERICAN SCHOOLING (1800-1865) Despite the fact that influential men like Jefferson.
But one consequence of the Constitution’s not giving the Federal government authority over schooling was that it was left to the various state governments to set such schools in motion. 32-34. and encourage the use of the best in European teaching methodology. Freeman Butts. often referred to as the “Father of the Common School. like many other reformers of his day. In New England. 1960. Also.”254 Charged only with collecting and disseminating information. 102 .. Mann was determined to supplant private schooling. What is more.253 Horace Mann (1796-1859). Mann persuaded Massachusetts authorities to build hundreds of new schools. Compact settlements made it relatively easy to get the children to school. Besides. a history of community-sponsored religious schooling provided a fairly extensive pre-existing infrastructure. his efforts encountered opposition. conditions were particularly favorable. New England Sets the Pace At first.We have seen that influential Federal officials were enthusiastic about and supportive of this endeavor. p. lengthen the school term. he was convinced that free common schools were the key to social renewal and the improvement of humankind. many state officials were unenthusiastic about free public education. however. "Search for Freedom . cit. op. But through talks. Private school interests naturally worked against him. an increasingly heterogeneous society made it increasingly necessary and prudent to distinguish between individual and collective interests. providing every child a tax supported free education was a radical idea. March.” was needed to really get things moving in New England. and diverted some of the best students from the public schools. and traditional religious attitudes encouraged the belief that common schools were a good idea. He 253R. drew off the support of wealthy and powerful parents. establish a state “normal school” to train teachers. increase teacher’s salaries. 254Quoted by Nassaw. Mann accepted the apparently powerless job of Secretary of the new Massachusetts State Board of Education because.the Story of American Education. cit. He was also very concerned about controlling “the giant vices which now invade and torment society. pp. It was their activities that finally encouraged sufficient consensus to support the founding of the first truly public schools during the early 19th Century." NEA Journal. op. influential citizens were concerned about controlling the children of impoverished factory workers and immigrants who were crowding into fastgrowing industrial cities. publications and a particularly influential series of reports. In addition. 81 255Kaestle. They had other priorities in mind.” is the most famed of these activists. Horace Mann and the Common School Crusade Despite these favorable factors the prodding and persuasion of a number of extraordinarily dedicated “public school men.. He believed that it was divisive. the State Board Mann headed had no authority. 255 Of course.
cit.. The American School. op. that common schools would be “the best police for our cities.. Predictably. 172. this consensus proved hard to maintain under the pressures of implementation. for example.258 An Underlying Tension In a Democracy Promoting Community Respecting Individual Differences Consensus and the Common Schools Encouraged by leaders like Mann. there was no consensus on the shape that schooling should take. many teachers thought such a method undermined their authority and was an impertinent assault on “tried and true” methods.) Such rhetoric was eventually effective in building a broad but shallow consensus in support of public schooling. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi. 257Frost. p. and he felt that Pestalozzi’s emphasis on adjusting instruction to the individual differences of children could counteract this tendency.257 Mann was concerned that group teaching undermined the Democratic importance of the individual. David Nassaw describes it thus: “While there appeared to be widespread agreement among Americans on the importance of schooling for their children. There were differences of opinion over how the schools should be funded: over what form religious instruction should take. the most effective means of preventing pauperism. published journals and released a flood of sloganeering advocating free public schools. (Oxford. p. p. op.256 Mann also offended many schoolmasters because of his advocacy of the teaching methods of the Swiss educator. Unfortunately.. 399. the finest security for our banks. cit. friends of the common schools organized associations. and the proper language of classroom instruction. 1986) p. 1642-1845 (New York: Longman. 260Knight.”261 256Joel Spring. cit.”260 (Note the heavy emphasis on social control concerns with vocational concerns only sneaking in at the end. op. the facilities for schoolhouses.259 The hopes they encouraged were practically limitless. the lowest insurance for our houses.was also bitterly attacked by orthodox churchmen because it was Mann’s view that common schooling should empower children to decide for themselves what their religious obligations were. over the qualifications for schoolmasters. the content and objectives of school books. 393-396 258Ibid 259Frost. United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. 85. 261David Nasaw. Schooled to Order: A Social History of Public Schooling in the United States. One reformer proclaimed. however. however. 1979) p. 81 (He is quoting Horace Mann) 103 . agencies and institutes.
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press. struggle and compromise to establish sufficient consensus to get things started. 264Raymond Callahan. most of them Roman Catholics. pp.It is always problematic to convert the slogans of a crusade into practical tasks backed by adequate resources. 263Knight. Gradually other states fell in line By the Civil War (1860-1865). As soon as implementation began. It was more and more widely accepted that public schools would help hold the United States together and prepare children to participate in democracy.263 Significantly. op. assimilation was even more problematic.264 What were their interests? Concern for human problems was a secondary consideration. the crusade met with bitter opposition. Out of Our Past: The Forces That Shaped Modern America (New York: Harper and Row. Schooling and Americanization of Immigrants The importance of the common schools heightened as more and more immigrants began arriving in the U.266 Only the South continued to heavily rely on private schooling. 1965) 266Carl N. in 1790) tumbled ashore and spread out across America. That soon became apparent in the case of the American common schools.267 Had they been similar to the pre-existing population. Others assumed it involved the school’s encouragement of egalitarian change. p. Lawmakers who voted for public schooling were often turned out of office in the next election.265 Social control was the most important factor. Even among liberal Jackson Democrats. The Public School and the Private Vision: A Search for America in Education and Literature (New York: Random House. The next figure illustrates the extent of Irish immigration in the period 1820 to 1840. 172. It took a quarter of a century of sloganeering. cit. Legislation passed one year was sometimes repealed the next. But since there were a disproportionate number of Irish. 267Vincent Parrillo. Over time the consensus supporting the common schools broadened. Massachusetts adopted free public schooling in 1827. 104 . 1985) p. In fact..S. Education and the Cult of Efficiency. Some assumed this required using these schools to establish tight social control over the lower classes and foreign born. 1984) p. thousands of tuition free public elementary schools had been founded all over the North. 270-271. 114.. Degler. Battles were waged in every state. this influx would still have been difficult to absorb.S. Between 1820 and 1860 over 5 million (more than the entire population of the U. 1962)) 265Maxine Greene. But the slogans promoting the public school movement glossed over these contradictions. much of the support for public schooling came from businessmen. Strangers To These Shores (New York: Macmillan. their interests often predominated — particularly after 1900.262 Objection to taxation (Why should I pay to send someone else’s child to school?) was the main obstacle. 161. support was only partial. 262Idem.
condemned as a heretic. Others.270 But many Protestants were furious at the mere suggestion of eliminating religion from the public schools. Predictably. and burnt at the stake.. who lived in Bohemia. 41. He was bold and persevering. but at length. 104. But they wanted these schools to embrace children of all religions equally. Here is a sample biographical entry from a textbook used in New York: “Huss. The Catholic Issue The central problem for the Irish was that the “non-sectarianism” of the early public schools was really a sect less form of Protestantism. But all agreed that the public schools should play a central role in their Americanization. thought their beliefs and culture should be accommodated — at least to some extent. 270Ravitch.Sources of Immigration. most Americans looked to common schooling as a means of dealing with this influx of foreigners. 1820-1840 1% 11% 18% 27% 43% English Irish German Other N.268 For this reason the school curriculum was broadly Protestant. trusting himself to deceitful Catholics. he was by them brought to trial. and the beginning of the fifteenth centuries. 105 . It was only the Irish that weren’t too sure. p. John. They thought this could be accomplished by confining religious training to the home and church. Europe All others Adapted from Richard Current American History: A Survey. op. 1986) p. Most thought the public schools should aid in the assimilation of the newcomers by deliberately weakening their ties to an alien faith and foreign land. why should the arrival of foreigners with alien religious ideas disrupt a shallow and somewhat unstable Protestant consensus that had just been patched together? 268Idem.. towards the close of the fourteenth. a zealous reformer from Popery. and many textbooks contained anti-Catholic sentiments. 35 269Joel Spring.”269 Moderate Catholics preferred to send their children to public school. After all. p. The American School: 1642-1985 (New York: Longman. far fewer in number. Vol I. cit.
and dozens died. And there was nearly as much difference between these two groups as there was between Lutherans and Methodists. The initial conflicts had sharpened the boundaries of both the Catholic and Protestant communities and revitalized old antagonisms. and even excused them from other religious instruction. and the like. 273Theodore Maynard. Church authorities coped with the dissensus by permitting separate churches for single nationalities within the boundaries of the parishes established by the diocese. This arrangement kept things from falling apart. Convinced that Americanism meant Protestantism.272 Paradoxically. This time it concerned the nature of the Roman Church in America. who probably wasn’t too happy about having large numbers of Catholic kids in public schools.Militant Protestants denounced compromise as a sell-out to “Popery. at great cost. proposed using state money for Catholic schools. op. The Story of American Catholicism (New York: Macmillan 1941) pp. native-born Americans prevented accommodation of a minority committed to the authority of the Pope. controversy turned to conflict when violent anti-Catholic riots erupted in a number of American cities. This reflected a fundamental lack of consensus among Roman Catholics.” Their vitriolic tirades against the Pope.273 271Spring. for example. Public school officials in Philadelphia permitted Catholic youngsters to read their own version of the Bible. Similar conflicts were later repeated when Catholics from Southern and Eastern Europe began arriving in large numbers. Eventually. But these measures were too little and too late. as these schools were established they too became involved in a bitterly divisive controversy within the Catholic community.. Philadelphia’s Kensington neighborhood was the scene of particularly bloody violence In the end. But the Catholics refused to renounce their faith. these Protestants said it was assimilation or nothing. Even the Catholics Can’t Agree Although all Roman Catholics came under the nominal authority of one Church. Governor Seward of New York. Conservatives within the Church gained the upper hand in pushing the idea that Catholic parents were obliged to provide their children with an education intended to promote religious orthodoxy and subordinate to religious authority. 272Ibid. they developed their own parallel system of schooling that was to give American Catholicism many of its distinctive qualities. alleged Jesuit plots. 106 . In the beginning. So far as public schools were concerned. a few public officials made belated efforts to accommodate them. silenced the more moderate Catholic faithful. 106-107. pp.271 When it became apparent that the newcomers could not be ignored. arose in the North and Midwest. Mobs roamed the streets. Catholic churches were burned to the ground. Irish and German conflicts. neither side prevailed. 219-228. they were ethnically fragmented. In the early 1840’s. German-Americans and Irish-Americans were in the majority. cit. usually over the use of the English language in worship services and parish elementary schools.
A unique individual 274Harold Buetow.As Catholic elementary schools were established they inevitably reflected the distinctive ethnic culture of the parish that sponsored them. 107 . So those with the most power and influence had little personal stake in their operation. the wealthy and powerful overwhelmingly opt for elite private schooling. But in the meantime the ethnic Catholic elementary school sheltered millions of children from the gales of anti-foreign and anti-Catholic prejudice that accompanied their parent’s arrival. and a whole host of other Polish customs used to sustain cultural continuity. The ethnic elements of American Catholic schooling slowly ebbed away as intermarriage and the Americanization of the young rendered these elements obsolete. the nun’s Polish ties were a resource rather than a handicap. The Story of Catholic Education in the United States (New York: Macmillan 1970) pp. This consideration lent a particular urgency to the establishment and maintenance of Catholic schools by non-English speakers. And in the end it triumphed. discrimination and exploitation. Indeed.274 The building of the parochial school system was materially aided by connections with Europe. nuns could be recruited in the “Old Country” and brought to the U. nationally appropriate Saints Days observed. the school was the chief means of conserving the church member’s ethnic heritage by perpetuating its language and customs. African-Americans were typically excluded or segregated. and only an indirect interest in their quality. and involvement with. One other minority did not participate in the common schools — those with power and wealth. This lack of commitment to. No one can say for certain how different public schools would be if this situation did not pertain. and. Since instruction was predominantly in Polish.S. Other Minorities Catholics were not the only group refused accommodation in schools theoretically intended for all the people. If the church was Polish. So it was that most AfricanAmericans could not escape the educational consequences of prejudice. 60-63. Indeed. they did not need to know English. since Polish national holidays were celebrated. public schools on the part of the nation’s most influential citizens has proven to be persistent. But it seems reasonable to think that these schools would enjoy greater resources than they do now. Of Singular Benefit. they did not have the organizational equivalent of the Roman Catholic Church to start alternative schools. Pursuing status. and most continued to do so even when public schooling became available. Of course. Such individuals had employed tutors or sent their children to elite private schools since before the Revolution. for example. Americanism was stressed too. to teach.
classrooms intended to hold 50 to 70 students had between 275David Tyack (ed).: Blaisdell. This was due. By 1918. “Neglected” children were routinely “placed out. On his return he urged a similar measure for Massachusetts. that broadening and deepening the national consensus through public schooling was far more problematic than expected. 278Frost. sold newspapers. public officials had been empowered to remove children from their natural parents if it was determined that they were not being properly cared for. for example.275. For instance. The educational efforts of every family were to be supplemented by schools through compulsion. 108 . Other states followed this example. 1967) 276David Nassaw. 1979) p. cit. Diane Ravitch reports that there were thousands of poor children. were completely indifferent. Horace Mann had seen compulsory schooling in action while visiting Prussia. There was some precedent for such action. to a widespread lack of enthusiasm for the requirement.. At night they slept wherever they could. The reality did not match the dream. In 1852 state authorities passed legislation compelling all children from 8 to 14 years of age to go to school twelve weeks out of the year. just as the street people of today. both native and immigrant.277 Massachusetts’ authorities were the first to compel school attendance.” And much the same motivation was behind compulsory school attendance. Schooled to Order: A Social History of Public Schooling in the United States (Oxford: Oxford University Press. In New York City. The poor. for example. p. Many were beggars or thieves. when the Mississippi legislature passed its compulsory attendance law. When persuasion failed.276 Social control and having the child learn a vocation were the considerations behind “placing out. At first. who were living in the streets of New York and other major cities.” or apprenticed to individuals who agreed to accept responsibility for their rearing in return for their labor. op. Mass. 10 277Ravitch. During the day they shined shoes. The Matter of Compulsion Another difficulty with the common school crusade was that some parents were apathetic or downright unenthusiastic about sending their youngsters to school. some no more than six years old. Many were left out. then. Others were simply unconvinced that schooling was necessary. in part. Also. every state in the United States compelled children to go to school. op. or other items.We see.. 89. Since colonial days. 400. compulsory attendance laws were poorly enforced. compulsion seemed the only solution. cit. p. others opted out.278 These laws represented a fundamental shift in authority over the lives of children. public school officials were already coping with a lack of resources and severe overcrowding. Many depended upon the wages their children earned for family survival. Turning Points in American Educational History (Waltham.
and the length of the school year was increased. 89. In the mid-19th Century. Catholics started their own system of schools. the wealthy opted for private schools. the private school option was not always a welcome feature of compulsory attendance laws. Significantly. For this reason common schooling was often heavily influenced by the nature of rural life. for example. In 1922. p. state after state gradually strengthened their compulsory attendance laws. what should they be taught? Despite these practical problems. Given the anti-Catholicism of many Americans. and public officials were only wanted some of the remaining children to attend. cit. Should traditional academic subjects be taught to children who had been beggars.100 and 150 under one teacher. was divided into summer and winter terms that fit between spring plowing and the fall harvest. op.279 School officials did not need all the additional problems that compulsory attendance would bring. In the end. 109 . the “mentally weak” or otherwise handicapped were granted “exemptions. There was also the curriculum question to deal with. the original dream of a school experience common to all American youngsters came up short. thus alleviating upper class parent’s status anxieties generated by the prospect that their children might have to attend the same schools as the children of the poor. stiff penalties for non-compliance were provided. p. For instance. passed a petition virtually requiring public school attendance of everyone. the private school option was put to the test when Oregon voters. Compulsory schooling slowly became a fact of American life. It could be used by Catholics to escape the Protestant values of nominally public schools. In 1925 the United States Supreme Court declared this law unconstitutional. motivated by a groundswell of anti-Catholic agitation.. 434. The next chart illustrates the extremely rural nature of A sharecropper’s family American life in the period when public schooling was expanding rapidly 279Ravitch. private schooling satisfied compulsory attendance laws. thieves or sweatshop workers? If not. blacks were usually either segregated or systematically excluded. 280Idem. The age of entrance was lowered. the school year. It was only after 1900 — slightly more than 30% of Americans lived in cities at that time — that the school year was standardized into the nine-month term still common today. This preserved that option for those who could afford it. city or country.”280 Common Schools In A Rural America In their first years most public schools developed in a largely rural setting simply because that is where the vast majority of Americans lived..
the broad parental discipline.C. 7 282Carl F.S. cord wood for the pot belly stove was often bought as inexpensive long logs that had to be cross-cut and split by the older children. 1983) quoted in Andrew Guillford. Kaestle. They were usually crude one-room affairs utilizing poorly educated teachers under the control of poorly educated rural school boards with very parochial interests. As the historian Carl Kaestle notes: “. averaging about 8 by 16 feet with thirty or so youngsters packed inside. most American rural communities were strung out along the roads.: Preservation Press. Bureau of Census 3% 5% 8% % in Cities (Pop.281 This meant that country schools were scattered all over the landscape. This necessitated ability grouping. 39. American Country Schools (Washington.rural schools of the early nineteenth century reflected the close local control.000+) Country Schools Unlike Europe. They would not buy books. After teachers had taught long enough to move up the pay scale.. 1988) p. they were often fired to keep salaries at a minimum.283 Often the schools were unventilated cubicles. the parsimony and the limited educational needs of rural communities in the early American Republic. It also meant that children could advance at their own pace.S. Pillars of the Republic: Common Schools and American Society. 1780-1860 (New York: Hill and Wang. The Reshaping of Everday Life (New York: Harper & Row. 8. 283Ibid. the preparation of lessons to accommodate a broad range of learning. Country teachers were usually required to teach them all together in just one room.U. where towns had developed a sharply defined fortress-like quality.. D. and older children helping to teach the younger. 110 % LIVING IN CITIES . Urban Population 1790-1840 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1790 1820 Year 1840 Data: U. The stinginess of country school officials was legendary. 1984) p.”282 Rural schools commonly accepted everyone from children as young as four to adult farmhands and immigrants. In 1848 the Commissioners of the Common Schools of Connecticut 281Jack Larkin.
even reported that of the 1. and their practical circumstances made this more than a theoretical challenge. East of Eden (New York: Viking Press. 286Gulliford. 745 had no place whatever to go to the bathroom. . a coat and socks. cit. So far as their professional knowledge was concerned. Two coyote trappers. whether it was the crowning of the May queen. and smoking corn cob pipes. and the school teacher shielded and carried the torch of learning and of beauty. . John Steinbeck offers this description of the role of the country school in East of Eden. or an all-night dance. The Americans: The National Experience (New York: Random House. 1967) p. But they were shuttled from one child’s home to another where they were given minimal accommodations. Country schoolteacher Phoebe Nater describes her accommodations: “The door was warped out of shape. could be held nowhere else. 44. walked across the bedroom floor with traps slung over their shoulders and dead coyotes resting outside the door. 1952) quoted in Ibid. 287Quoted in Guilliford... country schools quickly became the centers of rural social life. It was common for them to be in their late teens. 285John Steinbeck. Living conditions in parental homes were often uncomfortable and devoid of privacy. It lacked four inches at the top of being closed.284 Primitive as they were..”287 284Daniel Boorstin. Lying in her bed this country teacher was nearly insane with anger. the eulogy for a dead president. cit. Social life. relatives of the family. “In the country the repository of art and science was the school. teacher training was virtually non-existent. p63. Literacy plus “good moral character” was usually all that was required. The door hung with icicles and heavy frost.”285 Country Teachers Most country teachers were young. op.. Shivering under blankets and dressed in a flannel robe and pajamas.286 Country school teachers were expected to model faithfully 19th century Pennsylvania schoolhouse the professed values of the communities in which they taught. They were the only place that people of different Protestant denominations could meet on common ground. The schoolhouse was the meeting place for music.. And they were little better educated than the children that they taught. 111 . The polls were set in the schoolhouse for elections. The country teacher’s pay usually included room and board. 68. for debate. and certification was not even available until the 1880’s. her breath made a thin sheet of ice around the pillow and covers as she kept her head under the covers and tried to sleep. op.663 schoolhouses in that state. p.. The supreme test came at dawn one morning. pushed the frosty door open.
Consequently. p. op.When country teaching was in a frontier school. Since women’s job opportunities were severely restricted. and men traveled armed throughout much of the country.) There were several reasons for the popularity of women teachers.. it took an especially tough and resourceful individual to carry it off..... . pp. Their manners are more mild and gentle. Quite a percentage of the big fellows considered the teacher Public Enemy Number One. especially in the winter term when the older boys attended. 288-289. getting possession of the premises. even fists. Tavern brawling was common. Catherine Beecher unconsciously reveals this dimension of the popularity of female teachers in an 1845 recruitment pamphlet: 288Larking.. however.. [Another teacher] was already in the school on New Year’s Day. 65. 64. and there was a scarcity of male applicants.”289 Such incidents corresponded with life in a society where casual violence was a part of the daily fabric of things. in the case of male teachers. 289Quoted in Idem. . and a new respect for the school was established. I reckon its called— down the chimney and smoked him out. op. because school officials assumed that a schoolmaster would overcome all challenges to his authority on his own.288 Frank Grady. Discipline was usually a matter of the rod or. the reign of terror ended abruptly. Horace Mann emphasized this when he noted in 1840: “. 288. single women teachers became predominant. This made their “natural” talents with children look especially promising. they could be hired much more cheaply than men — their pay being perhaps one third that of a man. “The first teacher in Raymond school was run out by the boys. p. If a teacher lost the struggle he would simply be driven out. teacher’s salaries and working conditions were notoriously awful. there was the matter of nurturance. male teachers were much preferred. First.. 112 . .females are incomparably better teachers for young children then males. recalls. who used stones as weapons of assault. and hence in consonance with the tenderness of childhood.. p. The second met the same gang. but when he had soundly thrashed one boy and the youth’s father coming to take up the battle shared the same fate.cit. (Those that married got fired.. Most Americans wanted the benefits of common schooling.290 The Feminization of Teaching In the early days of the common schools. In time. 291Quoted in Idem. a country schoolteacher in Nebraska in the early 1900’s. and [the students] threw brimstone — sulphur. 290Idem. but balked at paying for it.. because it often took the two fisted approach described above to get such boys to cooperate. dueling and no holds barred wrestling were customary means of settling disputes.”291 Mann neglected to mention that there was also a matter of cost. cit.
her faults. guardian and teacher of childhood. male attitudes toward schooling women still constituted a significant impediment. In his Conversation with Goethe Eckermann reports the great man saying: “We love things other than the intellect in a young woman. came to pay a disproportionate share of the costs of common schooling. Despite the poor pay and unpleasant working conditions. Vol. 293Polly Welts Kaufman.. 113 . teaching provided women with significant autonomy at a time when that was a very scarce commodity. Clabaugh." Educational Horizons... she has life and activity only under his eyes and in his business. in the words of historian Polly Welts Kaufman. But we do not love her intellect. "A Wider Field of Usefulness: Pioneer Women Teachers in the West. was unable to transcend this view. . No.294 The belief that scholarship was deleterious to femininity was widespread.”293 Schooling Females Protestant insistence on schooling females provided the necessary training for women to take teaching jobs. We love what is beautiful. teasing..demonstrated a greater will to direct their own lives than was usual for the majority of women of their time. And they gained very meager benefits for their efforts. "A History of Male Attitudes Toward Educating Women. 18481854" quoted in Ibid. youthful in her. her life has become a part of the life of her lover. confiding. Woman. Henceforth. however. 3. 64. In fact.. The least consequence is that she should renounce to him all her property and rights. Nonetheless. 294See Gary K. and God knows what other undefinable things. her whims.” Female intellectuality violated the stance of essential passivity that traditional male attitudes required.”292 It was in this way that women. particularly when it came to higher education. Even the great German poet Goethe (1749-1832) a man of nearly universal genius and exquisite sensitivity. her character. pp. Spring 1986. “[A woman’s] dignity requires that she should give herself entirely as she is [to her husband] and . 127-136.” Little wonder that women looked like such promising teachers to public school officials who required conformity to stated community norms and were chronically short of funds. 292Quoted in Ibid. She has ceased to live the life of an individual.. as well as the cheapest. frontier teaching was particularly attractive to an independent breed of older woman who. particularly young unmarried women. whom experience and testing have shown to be the best. “.“It is WOMAN who is to come in at this emergency and meet the demand. In his The Science of Rights the philosopher Johann Fichte (1762-1814) summarizes the reasons behind this requirement. utterly lose herself in him.
Federal officials took initiatives that dramatically increased the schooling available to poor Southerners of both races. conservative white oligarchy regained political power. Although these schools encouraged very modest vocational ambitions. schooling was gradually transformed into one of the nation’s most ambitious.. The wealthier whites depended on private schools and tutors to supplement their families. severely limiting the original control and freedom of action of local communities while consolidating school districts into ever-larger entities. Private Northern philanthropic organizations also sponsored schools for freedmen. degrees and licenses with social stratification. p. State governments also assumed more and more educational authority.295 Schooling in the Post-Civil War South In the pre-Civil War South common schools were virtually undeveloped. Schools were joined rung by rung into a single articulated system. As a consequence. 138 115 . Blacks and poor whites were educated at home and in the community. With respect to newly freed slaves. Southern public schools were then segregated in the same systematic legal fashion as all 295Current. Toward Universal Schooling The ideal of universal free education slowly became a reality in the decades after the Civil War. 296Gutek. Following the Civil War. and a market for cultural credentials developed that linked diplomas. 555. ended in 1877. enterprises. In the years that followed. to provide “Negro education” in over 2. there was some thought that these schools might be racially integrated. however. cit. By 1900 public schooling had become very widely available. At first. cit. the idea that every child ought to go to school gained nearly universal currency. a powerful.CHAPTER 12: TRANSFORMING AMERICAN SCHOOLING (1865 PRESENT) The end of the Civil War marks the beginning of the modern era in American public schooling.296 During the 1870’s reconstructionist Southern legislatures initiated common school systems serving both whites and blacks. and expensive. But when Federal military occupation. as did blacks themselves. op. op. most Southern whites viewed them with a mixture of alarm and resentment reflecting their own status States Rights vs. the federally sponsored Freedmen’s Bureau utilized federal funds.600 bureau schools. Human Rights and control concerns.. and compulsory attendance laws had been adopted by thirty-one states and territories. p.
299 By 1920 more than half of all Americans lived in urban areas. 465. there was not one U.. Current. 12. almost half a million Americans lived in cities that size. The following map shows this clearly. 116 . p. A Survey of American History Vol I: Since 1865 (New York: Alfred Knopf. 299Nassaw.other institutions. 1983) p. In 1790.297 Passage of compulsory education legislation in the South also lagged way behind that of the rest of America.S. the opportunity to integrate African . 156. By 1980 urban dwellers had grown to about three out of four Americans. State Compulsory School Attendance Laws 1852 to 1867 to 1883 to 1898 to 1914 to 1867 1883 1898 1914 1929 Common Schools In An Urbanizing and Industrializing America In this same period cities became more and more important as immigration and rural to urban migration due largely to industrialization. promoted their explosive growth. facilities and services.Americans into the mainstream of American life had been set aside in favor of defining them as a legally segregated underclass. In 1830. Despite their late start on compulsory schooling. al.000 people. 297Idem. p. cit. just 40 years later.. by 1880 more than half of all white children and about 40% of all black children were attending Southern public schools. 298Richard N.298 However. et. city of over 50. op. The next figure summarizes this trend.
An Urbanizing America 100 % of U. 1974) p. 1947) pp.300 The Changing Role of the Family City schools were more of a necessity than country schools. so it was possible to build large schools organized in ways that corresponded with the factories and business organizations that made cities possible. Such factory type schools grouped children homogeneously by age.301 300Diane Ravitch. Urban children were concentrated. adults outside the family trained the young while the vocational skills of family members became more and more superfluous. often grandparents too aged to work a full day. hierarchical and bureaucratic model of organization for American public schooling that has since become universal. Bureau of Census % Urban City schools were markedly different from their country counterparts. The urban middle classes encountered a similar phenomenon when the family firm began giving way to the modern corporation. Living in Cities 80 60 40 20 0 1890 1920 Year 1950 1980 Source: U. 117 . In both cases. Pop. With industrialization income derived from cooperative effort on the farm or home workshop was replaced by the pooled industrial wages of individual family members who worked at whatever jobs they could find. routinized. the similarity in occupations from one generation to the next meant that the family was a invaluable educational unit within which older family members. The Shaping of Urban Society (New York: Scribners. They were then required to take a uniform course of study formulated by the Superintendent. The Great School Wars: New York City. supervised by the building Principal. 301Janet Roebuck. and taught by teachers who specialized in teaching one particular age group and/or subject. could pass on vocational knowledge to the young. XIV. These developments were elements in the evolution of a formalized. Previously. 1805-1973 (New York: Basic Books.S.S. Factory employment weakened the bonds of the urban family and limited what parents could teach their young about making a living. 142-143.
disease. The political system of the city and state.The Struggle for Recognition and Accommodation From their inception city public schools were battlefields where social. ignorance. 81 305Parrillo. illiteracy. But no sooner was that accomplished than there would be a wave of new immigration that would start the struggle up again. The Bible is read in the public schools. The children are allowed to judge for themselves. terminating the contest. crime and vice. 302Idem. Education in American Life (Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Poles..5 million were foreign born. cit. it was Italians. Eastern and southern Europeans supplanted northern and western Europeans. religious and ethnic groups struggled for recognition and accommodation. The sects say. on each occasion engineered a political solution which satisfied both wants and fears. so did poverty. and that figure skyrockets to 80% if we include those of foreign parentage.. Richard Stephens and William Van Til. The Protestant principle is therefore acted upon. Over time a very shallow consensus would be worked out. and the schools are sectarian. they came to America as a part of the greatest migration in the history of the world. 118 . Instead of English. the role and purpose of the public school were bitterly disputed by intense and hostile factions. the public school was the battleground where the aspirations of the newcomers and the fears of the native population met and clashed. 303Ibid. Slovenes.303 Differences over the matter of authority were central to these disputes. judge for yourselves. The physical and cultural differences of these newcomers. pp.”304 The Second Wave In the late 19th Century a decided shift occurred in the origins of American immigrants which made their accommodation even more problematic. Czechs. 150-151. Sicilians. Jews and dozens of others each one seemingly more foreign than the last.. op. .305 And as these wretched slums expanded. unskilled. filth. fully 43% of New York City’s populations of 1. read the Bible. Scandinavians. made them easier to identify and harder to assimilate. Germans and Irish. silently inculcated. which usually aims to compromise differences and pacify discontent. In each case. plus the fact that most were often illiterate. By 1890. Ukrainians. 1972) p. A Catholic spokesman summarized his co-religionist’s views on that matter: “The Catholic Church tells her children that they must be taught by authority. In astounding numbers. rural peasants.. Plunged into a bewilderingly new environment with virtually no resources. XIII. Russians. p. they were forced to live in squalor in tightly packed poverty-stricken communities.302 Historian Diane Ravitch describes it this way: “Though the issues in each instance were different. 304Quoted in W.
The classroom could. Many of the children were similarly overwhelmed. In short. corruption reared its ugly — if familiar — head. was having growing pains. More often than not the public schools did not match up well with the non-school aspects of the socio-educational system that informed and shaped their lives. This meant that as the children of these newcomers flooded into public schools. which were often unsanitary. sometimes relying on the savvy they had picked up on the street. op. and politics pervaded everything from the assignment of textbook contracts to the appointment of school superintendents. 308Ibid. progressive reforms were instituted. But it soon turned out that this goal required greater resources than most Americans were willing to provide.Growth and More Growth Predictably. p. School buildings. but in this situation that was simply impossible. As a consequence the rate of school failure among children from poor and/or immigrant families was consistently and remarkably high.. cit.. Newly arriving farm children rubbed shoulders with young immigrants in classes averaging sixty per teacher and up. seventy.”308 In time. the school system. educators were often left with tasks that they did not have the resources to carry out. it was hoped that public schooling could bring this situation under control. Teachers gained a measure of job security through the enactment of tenure laws. poorly ventilated and inadequately heated to begin with. at best. The Great School Legend (New York: Basic Books. This made public schooling an ever-bigger business. be little more than an assembly line as educators found themselves overwhelmed. like every other organ of the urban body politic. School 306Cremin. Legislation requiring professional certification made it difficult to use administrative and teaching positions for political patronage. Lessons learned from immigrant parents or on the streets of impoverished city neighborhoods were often completely out of sync with those taught in schools. Lawrence Cremin describes the consequences: “.307 The Issue of Politics Undeterred by their lack of success with many children. 4. And as the dollars involved mounted. so did the number of politicians who wanted a piece of the action. school officials launched ambitious expansion plans. became vastly overcrowded. Teaching and administrative posts were bought and sold. Responsibility being difficult to define.. In the end such children dropped out in great numbers — sometimes falling back on the customs and skills their families brought with them to America. as we will see. a pattern that continues to the present day.school boards grew to fifty.306 Pestalozzi and Mann had both stressed the importance of considering the needs of individual children. 119 . 307Colin Greer. The worst abuses were curtailed. 21. 1972) p. even a hundred members. school buildings — like city halls and public bathhouses — suddenly became incredibly expensive to build.
most religious authorities. efforts to circumvent these rulings persist. p.boards were reduced in size via state legislation. This encouraged a feeling of “us versus them” that revitalized Christian traditions and norms while making the evolutionists even more determined to prevail. and also seemed to some to be particularly appropriate to a highly pluralistic democratic society. pp.309 Some liberal religionists came to terms with Darwin. saw evolutionary theory as totally unacceptable. in 1859. 120 . Concerns stirred by Darwin’s work quickly focused on the public schools. was arrested for violating a state statute forbidding the teaching of any theory that denied “the story of divine creation of man as taught in the Bible. In recent years several states have passed laws requiring that any teaching of evolutionary science be matched by equal time given over to Biblical creationism. cit. Charles Darwin published On the Origins of the Species he presented convincing evidence that life on Earth had evolved from simple to complex forms through a long process of “.” Scopes was found guilty. when.. His appeal to the state Supreme Court was denied.” This new vision of the past represented a profound challenge to traditional religious authority. In Darwin’s creation there was no Adam and no Eve. op.” In the subsequent “Monkey Trial.universal struggle for existence [in which] the right of the strongest eventually prevails. New ways of looking at humankind and the world were also creating additional difficulties. and most of the faithful. The longevity and intensity of this struggle illustrates how very central the matter of authority is to schooling. 260. Time and again it has turned out to be the critical factor. and the Tennessee law remained on the books until 1967. and humans were no longer God’s special creation. They were subject to the same evolutionary forces as all other life forms. Although the Courts have generally concluded that such laws are unconstitutional (note the authority that governs here).310 Authority conflicts concerning evolutionary science and creationism still persist.. 309Idem. Matters finally came to a head in 1923 when John Scopes. Responding to popular pressure a number of states passed laws forbidding the teaching of evolution. But because of Biblical pronouncements on the origin of life.. Darwinism and the Matter of Authority Massive waves of immigration were not the only reason that educators found consensus and authority to be problematic. 505-506. 310Frost. a Tennessee teacher. Science and Democracy As the 20th Century progressed scientific authority became more and more powerful despite the opposition of those who claimed a unique authority for the Bible. Science. But none of these changes were sufficient to enable the common schools to effectively teach all the children all the time. The scientific method was well suited to America’s changing technological civilization. For example.
313 In 1921 the National Origins Quota Act limited new immigrants to only 3% of the number of people of that nationality already in the U. they argued that all social institutions. 597. many public school systems had been overwhelmed by municipal corruption. a progressive school reform movement began to take shape.S. 555. op. They maintained that in a pluralistic democratic society decisions should not be based on received opinion. It would have an important influence on American public schooling. “Does it work?” In essence. would also eradicate the many problems. For pragmatists the ultimate test of any institution. But while this diverse coalition of social reformers were convinced that American society could be improved. In short order its practical problem solving approach was making itself felt in this period of multi-faceted reform. teaching frequently consisted of the machine-like inculcation of facts. Largely motivated by pragmatist thinking.. value or idea was. were overcrowded. so Americans should retain institutions or values only if they accomplished desired ends. cit. The Settlement House movement established outposts of civilization on the urban frontier. Suffragettes set our to win voting rights for women because this promised a better tomorrow. cit. 311Current. but most agreed that public schooling could be a very significant means of social reform. cit. social and political problems of his time.. they believed. known as “pragmatists.A number of influential thinkers. The Progressive Era Pragmatism first found expression in the late 19th and early 20th Century during the Progressive Era.313 Progressive Education Progressives disagreed as to fundamental tactics. Supremely interested in applying his ideas to the moral. And just as nature ruthlessly sorted the fit from the unfit. understaffed. Its members worked for the prohibition of drink.312 As the name implies. 121 . op. values and ideas should be measured in terms of their usefulness. 234. These restrictions remained in effect until the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 once again opened the U. 312Current.S.” were particularly interested in integrating science and American democracy. they disagreed on how that could be accomplished.314 Unfortunately. was one of the most famous and effective spokesmen for this point of view. reinforced with stiff doses of repressive discipline from poorly educated teachers. he saw schooling as one way of accomplishing this.S. to immigrants who are significantly different from natural born Americans 314Ravitch. As if that were not enough.. which. however.311 John Dewey (1859-1952). riddled by patronage and housed in substandard buildings.” movement equipped “Christian soldiers” to wage war on misery and poverty. philosopher and educator. p.. Municipal reformers launched major efforts to reform of urban politics. progressives were devoted to progress. Then there was the Temperance Movement. The “Social Gospel. p. op. In 1924 that was reduced to 2% of those already in the U. in 1890. p. generated by its abuse. but on their practical consequences.
not blind obedience. for example. 1976-1983) 317John Dewey. Democracy and Education (1916). In the end this became the “flip side” of progressivism. Schools officials adopted standardized achievement tests that were intended to measure progress through the system. progressive educators like Dewey managed to have many of their methods and programs adopted. Columbia University. and appeals to reason. cit. Stanley Hall. 603. impulsive attitudes and activities of children. popular agreement.316 He and his followers also maintained that American schools should be places suffused with cooperative and mutually helpful living..John Dewey soon became Progressive Education’s most influential spokesperson.” arguing that the school should be a sort of “embryonic community” in which children could learn by doing rather than by rote. while still requiring the tyranny they had lived in school. They also tried to maintain discipline through student involvement. Charles Burgess and Charles Strickland have written persuasively. 318Dewey op. about the elitism and racism of G. 316John Dewey. they tried to integrate originality and learning. 234-235. 1965) 122 .319 315Idem. Progressivism called for dealing with the “the whole child. hierarchical and bureaucratic model of school organization that emphasized social efficiency more than individual human dignity. They worked to relate learning to the children’s experiences. edited by Jo Ann Boydston (15 vols. Otherwise children would grow up rendering lip service to democratic ideals. 319Charles Strickland and Charles Burgess (ed. Working to capitalize on the instinctive. pp. a pioneer in applying psychology to public education. docility and submission. Stanley Hall on Natural Education (New York: Teachers College Press. some Progressives began endorsing a formalized. and to use “scientific” management techniques in school administration. The School and Society (1899) in John Dewey: The Middle Works. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.” but school authorities had barely enough resources to deal with traditional academics on a production line basis. p.318 They began using psychological testing to group children according to ability. To make matters worse. 1899-1924.315 Dewey was motivated primarily by humanistic concern for the dignity of the individual. Dewey and other pragmatists placed great value on scientific knowledge and technological expertise. and capitalizing on the changing public climate. It was science. but to positive human evolution as well. Given these sorts of pressures.317 Working from within the school hierarchy. in Ibid. such as the child labor laws. enlightened experts.) Health Growth and Heredity: G. The problem with all of this was that it was being applied in schools which were under pressure from soaring enrollments of students from increasingly diverse backgrounds.. Sometimes these bureaucratic procedures provided an unfortunate outlet for very unscientific prejudices. external factors. routinized. were encouraging more and more children to stay in school who did not appear to have the slightest desire to master traditional school subjects. and well-designed bureaucracies that they thought held the key not only to school reform. He championed educating the “whole child.
administrative. Here is one. progressivism left the schools better than it found them. They will be excused from classes on those days. To: All Teachers Latent maladjustments may exhibit themselves in socially unacceptable behavior in the classroom.. cit. And throughout the Progressive era such occupational groups worked to stabilize and protect their positions by building organizations and establishing standards. Teaching and the Professions The rise of Progressivism coincided with a tremendous expansion in the number of Americans engaged in managerial. and progressivism gave their professional aspirations a boost. McHabe. In order to provide proper orientation to adult responsibilities in a democracy.” and to “encourage creative self-expression. Harried teachers with hoards of youngsters and insufficient resources were often chided to “involve all the children. 123 . This is a crucial period in the development of the adolescent in the school atmosphere which consumes a large segment of his time. 604-605.” to “appeal to each of their interests. Up the Down Staircase contains numerous examples. It’s a memo from a guidance counselor to the high school’s teachers. Despite such aberrations.” Directives and circulars from central headquarters. a body of knowledge began to accumulate that could support a teaching profession. and despite organizational structures which cast teaching as a semi-skilled occupation.” But they were also swamped in forms. Lawyers followed with the establishment of professional bar associations and central examining boards composed of lawyers. please send all new pupils to me on alternate tuesdays (sic) for depth-coverage on personal interview sheets. and professional jobs. teachers are to acquaint themselves with the PPP of each student and send the disruptive elements to Mr. Bel Kaufman’s 1960’s bestseller. reports and other clerical details characteristic of so-called “scientific management.320 Some teachers were similarly inclined. technical. often intended to implement progressive ends. op. pp. In the meantime. generally became a bit better for teachers and children alike.The tensions between the humanists and the bureaucrats often produced unfortunate results. metamorphosed into grotesque jokes as directives made their way through layer after layer of administrative machinery. an affront to even modest humanitarian instincts. 320Current. Physicians were the first to form a national association that insisted on strict standards for admission to the practice of medicine. Physical and instructional conditions that had been unbelievably bad. Emphasis on scientific authority encouraged research.
In a succeeding era. state licensure is being supplemented by a voluntary process of certification by the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS). They would depress supply. but this proved extremely problematic. the American Federation of Teachers — founded in 1916 as a full-fledged labor union. and make teachers harder to control. To that end they are encouraging a number of initiatives. and more successful. Now. Here they were simply emulating the more militant. a growing network of two-year Normal Schools had begun offering training to novices in basic pedagogical techniques. As a matter of fact. podiatry. both of whom were threatened financially. Despite the opposition of taxpayers and private schools. In one era the prescription is for the schools to do something they are not doing. certified public accountancy and the like. and. normal schools turned into four-year teachers colleges and many universities established colleges of education. it is to undo the something they are now doing as a result of having adopted the earlier 124 . Before professionalism could be fully realized teachers needed to gain control of licensure. As of this writing. Such licensure is now an option for any teacher and some school districts recognize it for pay purposes. Even though they founded the influential National Education Association in1906. raise costs. tactics of their rival. state officials had a vested interested in forestalling the establishment of rigorous standards. Teacher preparation was becoming more and more a part of the technical culture. minimal requirements for teacher licensure were established. however.Small improvements had already been made in teacher preparation. With the help of researchers. an assessment process for measuring knowledge and skills. The Swinging Pendulum of Reform Progressivism was neither the first nor last school reform movement to influence American schooling. Teacher unionization was not the end of the story. After all. Eventually. teachers were unable to emulate the American Medical Association by wresting control of their occupation from state government. this board set up standards for excellent teaching. To this day. and a professional certification process intended to supplement state licensure. Officials of both of these organizations say they are still interested in the professionalization of teaching. depressed salaries. under the influence of progressivism. encouraged factory model schools in which the impact of teacher incompetence is minimized. it remains weak when compared with medicine. This has degraded occupational prestige. during the 20th Century American public schooling was the subject of repeated and competing demands for reform that swung back and forth from collectively oriented. declare that it was becoming a labor union. The continued triumph of the factory model encouraged the NEA (National Education Association) to give up trying to be a professional society such as the American Medical Association (AMA) and. instead. to individually oriented extremes like the pendulum of some great historic clock. law. A special report by the National Association of Secondary School Principals (NASSP) described this frustrating situation thusly: “Our schools are on the receiving end of every conceivable and inconceivable prescription for reform.
. for example. p.prescription. some prominent scientists were now denouncing the revised science curricula as “. 323Tanner.322 Stung by the Soviet Union’s space success. Despite these setbacks. Mass. It was in this context that school critics like Harvard’s Jerome Bruner denounced our national “neglect” of the nation’s brightest youth and called for a return to basics. 6&7.”323 Disillusion set in. they argued for the re-imposition of stricter discipline. these critics urgently demanded that the schools produce more and better scientists and engineers in order to serve what they claimed were national interests. Apparently the “why” of things interested the students less than American Bandstand and a host of other popular culture competitors. Vital in the 1930’s. Some of America’s best scientists. pp. "Are Reforms Like Swinging Pendulums?. President Kennedy’s new administration took the lead in this regard. The bright promise of these science and math teaching changes did not work out as planned. carefully crafted a new way to teach kids physics. p. Stressing the “why” of things it was intended to produce the scientists needed to best the Soviet Union." in Rethinking Reform: A Principal's Dilemma. for instance. national testing revealed a marked decline in student ability to make mathematical applications despite the “New Math.. in the fall of 1957. 10. 322Jerome Bruner..” Additionally. Their demands were given enormous vitality when. It came up against a new breed of conservative school reformers that resembled the reformers of the 1980’s. Claiming that academic standards had eroded under the baleful influence of Progressivism. 1960). No sooner was this Soviet triumph beeped its pioneering way through space than three more climbed into orbit. he urged that teacher 321Danniel Tanner. Among other things. Op. 125 . and a new emphasis on excellence.” It had been carefully crafted by a number of mathematical experts in order to improve quantitative skills. Cit. 5. Congress launched a multi-billion-dollar program to give top priority to science and mathematics in the school curriculum.: Harvard University Press. In 1962.”321 Back to the Basics Progressivism succumbed to just such forces. particularly in science and mathematics. In fact. Special-interest groups that seek to impose their solutions on the schools might well be saying. just wait until you see our solutions. In the meantime American satellite launch vehicles blew up on their pads. ten or so years after their introduction the number of students taking high school physics had plunged to just half the pre-reform rate. the Soviet Union launched Sputnik — the world’s first artificial space satellite. Discouraged. Students were also provided the opportunity to learn the “New Math. a crime against a generation. 1986). Denouncing the humanistic “life-adjustment” schooling that had emerged out of the progressive school reforms of the early 20th Century. The Process of Education (Cambridge. “If you think you have problems now. the money funded reconsiderations of how science and math should be taught. Herbert Walberg and James Keefe. the Cold War continued to spark Federal interest in school reform. Editors (Reston Virginia: National Association of Secondary School Principals. this reform movement lost its vitality and popularity in the years immediately following WW II.
the complaint is that this resulted in a nation of geographical ignoramuses. the civil rights movement. p. Previously the federal government had contributed just 6% of the total.324 The Johnson administration hoped that reformed schools would not only become a major weapon in their “War On Poverty but also a key weapon in defeating racism. 324E.” alternative schools. Jerome Bruner. a new crop of reformers began criticizing American schooling for its alleged inhumanity. “lock-step” methods. In this context the concern that America’s schools were graduating technical nincompoops gradually died down. The Pendulum Swings Again During the 1960’s and 70’s schooling was widely regarded as the key to a more fully human existence and a more humane nation. No. often of a radical/romantic persuasion. The New Romantics It should be stressed that the 1960’s were troubled times. Kennedy was not in office long enough to realize many of his ambitions for schooling. the counter-culture and growing opposition to a seemingly endless war in Vietnam all were front-page news. 4. highly vocal critics. argued that US schools were intellectually and spiritually stifling. Soon there were schools without walls. “open classrooms.” Today. The pendulum of reform had made swung to the other extreme. In schools all over the country changes were hastily implemented to bring about a new age.” Those hopes remain to be realized. 1970. To counter that science and math requirements were reduced in order to give students more “choice.education be given federal aid because too many of America’s teachers were poorly qualified. 51. abandoned his earlier complaint that the schools neglected the top quarter of the nation’s youth. cell-like classrooms and mindless memorization. which hopefully derived from the “natural curiosity” of the child. Hall. Under the Johnson administration that share increased to 12%. So the demand for academic rigor was replaced by enthusiasm for self-generated study. teacher certification in history and geography was replaced in many states by more general certification in “social studies." Psychology Today. schools with “mods. In place of demands that we beat the Soviets at technical education. This unprecedentedly ambitious venture launched a broad array of school reform measures and doubled the amount of federal dollars spent on public schooling. but following Kennedy’s assassination Lyndon Johnson vastly strengthened the federal government’s efforts to improve the nation’s schools. Instead.” In a similar spirit. America’s public schools also were denounced for failing America’s poor in general and AfricanAmericans in particular.” schools with “pods. Critics hammered home the argument that schools were neglecting the kids at the bottom. Urban riots. Chief among his initiatives was the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. for example. "Bad Education—A Conversation with Jerome Bruner. and instead stressed that they were failing the bottom tenth.” and so forth. student radicals. 126 .
In fact the report hit such a harmonious chord that it triggered a veritable symphony of criticism directed at the schools.” Meanwhile. President Reagan was spending on the military as no President had ever done in peacetime.” The commissioners even asserted. In fact.rising tide of [educational] mediocrity that threatens our very future as a Nation and a people. Moreover. In a highly inflammatory reform report titled. 7. . Soon there were more than 50 additional national reform reports from “blue ribbon” or “high level” commissions and between 275 and 300 state reports. 1987) p. laid-off scientists. Teachers College. in effect. and in their totality they reflected the pluralistic nature of American society...325 Although most were of the conservative “lets demand excellence” persuasion.It wasn’t long after these reforms were put in place than they were washed away by the same wave of conservatism that swept Ronald Reagan into office. and the like. graduate students. A Nation At Risk his administration claimed that the humanistic reforms of the 1960’s and 70’s had produced disastrous results. A Nation At Risk. each tended to represent the special interests of some particular constituency.” The commissioners asserted that our lousy schools were causing the US to lose the economic competition among nations. Crafted by a “Blue Ribbon” commission appointed by the President. As it stands we have done it to ourselves. the proposals sometimes contained fundamentally contradictory recommendations. we might well have viewed it as an act of war. it slashed the federal education budget in half. (Those unions both supported Reagan’s opponent for the Presidency. 127 . 325Martin Haberman. claims that one way of achieving “excellence” in schooling is to open non-traditional routes into teaching which require little professional training for unemployed holders of mathematics and science degrees. It soon became apparent. been committing an act of unthinking. Initially Reagan planned to cut the federal role in public schooling and return the responsibility to the states. Typically these reform proposals simply represented the special pleading of various special interests.) In 1983 Reagan shifted the attacks into high gear.. "Recruiting and Selecting Teachers for Urban Schools.” At the same time that the Reagan administration was announcing how important the quality of US public schooling was to the nation. however." (New York: ERIC Clearinghouse for Urban Education. The tone of A Nation At Risk harmonized with the new conservatism that had emerged in reaction to the excesses of the Age of Aquarius. unilateral educational disarmament. The administration’s explanation for this apparent contradiction was that US schools could not be improved “simply by throwing money at them.. that such a course of action was politically risky. We have. so Reagan did an about face and began to hammer away at the educational status quoin general and teacher’s unions in particular. engineers seeking more fulfilling work. He even planned on eliminating the US Department of Education altogether. Columbia University. this “open letter to the American people” described the alleged consequences of our alleged “unilateral educational disarmament. “If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance which exists today. for example. the report claimed that America was being engulfed by a “.
128 . strongly recommended toughening the professional preparation of teachers. each ignores competing interests while pressing for their own means or ends. Clinton also pushed for increased Federal spending on schools. The GOP is especially enthusiastically about charter schools (public schools specially exempted from most rules and regulations) and voucher plans (tax dollars given to parents to help them pay private school tuition). will inevitably force reform.” weaker teacher licensure. Early quality checks suggest that it is very uneven. they call for a return to “basics. Democrats have a different agenda. and what they say generally follows party lines. Charter schools get cautious support from some Democrats. Broadly speaking. for graduation. including stringent tests. Democrats generally oppose vouchers. a subsequent report of the influential Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. the elimination of cafeteria-style curricula and the reimposition of tough academic requirements. Republican reform proposals tout the very broadly defined goal of using schooling to make the nation more competitive internationally.) In contrast. each one of them has something to say about schools and teaching. Then they would take more demanding education courses and field experiences at the graduate level. They want to reduce K-3 class size. A Nation Prepared. provide federal support for renovating and building schools and toughen teacher certification requirements.” For a variety of reasons Philadelphia has a particular abundance of charter schools. Serious political candidates can no longer afford to ignore the issue as they did throughout most of the nation’s history. arguing that both will weaken. Both are touted as ways of introducing competition that. During Lyndon Johnson’s presidency Federal dollars for schooling increased dramatically. And they still argue “throwing money at school problems won’t cure them. As to the means of accomplishing this. public education. Into the New Century At the beginning of the 21st Century schooling has emerged as a top political issue at both the state and national level. but a Republican led Congress defeated most of the President’s legislative proposals. Such contradictory recommendations are typical of the way various reform proposals clashed. Students desirous of being teachers would first obtain a general undergraduate schooling in arts and sciences. Lacking comprehensive scope. (Teaching may be the only occupation where it can be seriously proposed that decreasing professional training is a sure-fire route to improved results. GOP politicos argue. The GOP initiated a drastic reduction of Federal financial support for schooling during the Reagan/Bush years. and their number continue to grow. not strengthen. Consequently. They recommend abolishing the undergraduate degree in education and replacing it with tougher graduate level training.It also calls for a reduction in professional training and an increase in other academic preparation for traditionally trained teachers.
326 Today. things are drastically different than they were.Lasting Changes While school reforms have tended to swing pendulum-like from conservative to liberal and back again. Non-college-bound high school graduates found themselves facing shrinking opportunities for “ a job with a future. This commission’s made recommendations. p. 67. there were only 100 public high schools in 1860. 329 129 . Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education. 150 years ago. cit. industrial and domestic as well as college preparatory needs. 1. By 1900 that number increased to 6. D. adopted on a massive scale. led to the N. 35 (Washington.E. Eventually many came to believe that this organizational structure did not provide the social and academic support needed to make the transition from 326Current. specialty high schools that youngsters may choose to attend based on their special interests.” They also faced high unemployment. there are over 16. commercial..C: Government Printing Office. The thought is that large comprehensive inner city schools are essentially unmanageable. secondary education was generally available only in private or semipublic schools for which tuition was charged. They also are building smaller. p. But as the 20th Century came to a close radical changes in the job market and a steady increase in the percentage of youngsters graduating from high school dramatically reduced the market value of the high school diploma. Junior High Schools evolved out of criticism of the academic inefficiency of the 7 th and 8th grade classes in traditional elementary schools.A. op. that saw the high school made over into a truly comprehensive institution that met business. During the early 1900’s another new secondary school type also emerged. For instance. 328Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education. For instance. in the mid 19th Century. A free high school education was unavailable. and a steep decline in real income over the previous generation of people with this educational background.000. Reflecting the recommendations of the National Education Association’s status oriented Committee of Ten (1892).” In many ways Junior High Schools were virtually indistinguishable from high schools with students moving from class to class and teacher to teacher every period.327 But dissatisfaction with this arrangement.328 This new comprehensive high school worked pretty well for more than half a century. typically 600 students or less.000 high schools. op. Bulletin No. 555 327Stephens. schooling still has changed. In fact. p. but eventually the tax supported Comprehensive High School emerged. cit. encouraged by broadening enrollment and fast-moving changes in the economy. say. What is to be done? Several things are being tried. early public high schools tended to be heavily college preparatory. Years of sloganeering and politicking was required. At first there were only a handful of these schools. They also helped take enrollment loads off overcrowded elementary and high schools experiencing the effects of the post World War II “Baby Boom.’s Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education (1918). Leaders of the School District of Philadelphia are busy reorganizing the district’s traditionally large high schools into smaller schools within schools..329 In low-income areas there was the additional problem of maintaining order in large high schools.1918).
Pre-school teachers are paid scandalously little and their training often matches the pay. Finding middle schools hard to keep orderly. however. Public school Kindergartens also began to appear in the late 19th and early 20th Century.elementary school to high school. These pre first grade classrooms enrolled a minimal number of students until women began to enter the labor market during the 1920’s. Another enduring change is the increasing number of years of schooling accomplishment by the average American. 7 and 8.000 to 5. For example. Junior High Schools began to give way to Middle Schools.. Membership in the National Middle School Association. quality and costs placed on families. since what happens to children in their early years is decisively important. two-year Community Colleges.. and often are organized into managerial units of less than a hundred students each. Moreover. 331Ravitch. op. The growth of early childhood education is a reflection of the increasing number of employed mothers in the workforce. 547-549.330 The middle school’s revised age grouping is intended to create a better developmental match among the attending children. Here again the principle of correspondence is at work. This inequity should be of great interest to public officials who profess concern about the quality of schooling in the US. cit. Consequently. two year branch campuses sponsored by major universities and. B7. This is one level of schooling where reforms are badly needed and the return from such reforms would probably be unusually high. April 12. in 1948 there were only about . especially. By 1985 there 330William Warren. But a parallel trend also was apparent. A team of teachers who share a common planning time leads these units. During the 1950’s there was a vast growth in the number of Americans attending colleges and universities that was made possible by the GI Bill (a scholarship program for returning WWII veterans. Unfortunately. for example. 547.331 Middle schools are also specifically tailored to the needs of early adolescents. By the close of the 20th Century. 130 . the education is highly unequal in access. middle schools had largely replaced junior high schools across the nation. during the 1960’s. Kindergarten classes now enroll more than 93% of five year olds. The popularity of Kindergarten has increased steadily since then.332 During the last three decades of the 20th Century the percentage of 3 and 4-year-olds enrolled in nursery schools rose even dramatically from about 11% to slightly over 50%." The New York Times.25 million students attending 450 such schools. p. state governments typically do little to eliminate slipshod nursery school and day care operations. 332Idem. They include teachers with either elementary or secondary certification. big city districts especially were reconsidering the value of the K – 8 elementary school concept.) Then and in subsequent decades there also was a great increase in the number of Junior Colleges.000 schools in the year of 1988 alone. usually containing grades 6. At this point. In the 1980’s the number of middle schools grew spectacularly. promoting good quality early childhood schooling appears to be of little interest to Bush administration officials or to members of the US Congress. In some schools they also teach together as a team. 1989. p. "Middle Schools Grow in Academic Importance. grew from 4. pp.
and minorities and the handicapped were either excluded altogether or segregated. Students in US Two Year Colleges This incomplete sample dealing only with the evolution of school types in the U. because continually rising tuition costs are putting college financially out of reach for more and more Americans. There were other significant changes.333 In 2005 the US Census Bureau reports that about 25% of Americans are college graduates. has enabled unprecedented access to information. illustrates substantial change rather than simple swings of a pendulum between collectivist and individualistic extremes. the original vision of who should be served by public schooling was very narrow. 1987) p 141. U.311 two-year schools.C. 131 . But no greater change has taken place than the broadening of the school community.S. Despite the fact that public schooling effectively paved the way to a more abundant life for some Americans. D. Government Printing Office. Bureau of the Census. 333U. immigrants often dropped out in bewilderment or disgust. Perhaps that will decline in the future. Technology. Teacher’s qualifications have generally improved. Broadening the School Community There were other enduring changes as well.:. Teaching methods are more varied and are better informed by scientific research.S. Those with wealth opted out on their own. however. women were granted very limited opportunities.were more than 4. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1988 (Washington.S. particularly the Internet.5 million students in 1.
Education and Schooling in America (Englewood Cliffs. they often were not part of the common school experience.” It 334Gerald Gutek. the Supreme Court ruled the racially segregated public schools common throughout the South to be unconstitutional. In 1957. 31-32. not in law) segregation of northern schools. black Americans have greater access to schooling than any time in American history. culminating in Public Law 94-148. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. mandating equal access to public accommodations and requiring full civil rights in employment and education. a series of Public Laws. Board of Education. 1964 and 1968 Congress passed civil rights acts intended to protect voting rights. During the 1970’s and early 80’s there was substantial progress in breaking down these barriers. 1988) pp. Subsequent lesser court decisions extended desegregation orders to include the de facto (in fact. Topeka. And much remains to be done to improve inner city schools. In 1954 all that began to change when. African-Americans The United States Constitution itself proclaimed that slaves were not full persons in the eyes of the law.334 These decisions were intended to integrate African-Americans into the social mainstream through a non-segregated common public school experience. “White flight” to the suburbs and private schooling has effectively forestalled total integration. Jr. who in 1955 refused to sit in the back of a Montgomery. The extraordinary bravery of individuals in the civil rights movement like Rosa Parks. Like blacks. These were backed up by numerous court decisions. 132 . handicapped youngsters were either excluded from public schooling. we have seen these limitations eased as we broaden our vision of who should be included in among the beneficiaries of public schooling. Some examples follow. still in its formative stages and very incomplete. 1954: Hatred and bravery in Little Rock Schooling Handicapped Children Traditionally. In addition. who successfully challenged racial discrimination despite enormous personal risk. In 1971. The results of this revolution. set fourth as national policy that no handicapped child may be denied a “free and appropriate public education. the Supreme Court also ruled that busing was an acceptable means of school integration and that future school construction must not be used to perpetuate segregation. Judicial decisions established that the right to access to educational services is protected by the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education. encouraged broad support for a reexamination of the Nation’s racial policies. Alabama bus. in Brown v.Over time. guarantee equal protection under the law. Nevertheless. 1960. Martin Luther King. and Dr. or segregated in special programs. in Swann v. We also saw in the last chapter that the discrimination and racial prejudice common to America were reflected in school practices that included exclusion and segregation. can be seen on all sides. however.
and Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 forbade discrimination against women in federally assisted education programs. 2002 President George W. as is the sloganistic mandate that all states must guarantee that every student. Establishing more effective education for handicapped students is still an ongoing process. Encouraged by the pluck of woman reformers like Elizabeth Cady Stanton. By the 1920’s even some conservatives. No Child Left Behind On January 8. more and more Americans came to share the opinion that women deserved equality of educational opportunity. greater encouragement of female athleticism. substantial progress has been made in getting away from this legacy of prejudice. Progressive reforms were instrumental in expanding women’s school opportunities. a guarantee that no child will be left behind. 133 . No Child Left Behind can be seen as the culmination of a process that began under President Lyndon Johnson Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965.L. achieve a "proficient" level of education by the 2014-2015 school year. Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibited discrimination in employment on the basis of sex. special programs to encourage female participation in science and mathematics. The idea that they should be schooled in ways more suited to their alleged “delicacy and sensitivity” was fast coming to a close. incurable prejudice. special programs to encourage female participation in school administration.also gave parents or guardians the right to protest decisions made by school officials and it provided that educational services must be accomplished in the “least restrictive environment” possible. This has encouraged the “mainstreaming” of handicapped youngsters in regular classrooms. had joined the ranks of those calling for complete equality of educational opportunity for women. Similarly. “That it should be necessary.” In the 1960’s and 70’s Federal legislation advanced female rights including those relating to schooling. As Mencken put it in In Defense of Women. Schooling Females The history of schooling reveals an almost unbroken pattern of discrimination against females. Although much remains to be done. This act began an ever-increasing federal role in schooling that has come to its fullest expression in No Child Left Behind. NCLB provides increased federal resources to states — though at a level that many find disappointing. Other gains include efforts to reduce sex stereotyping in curriculum materials. in essence. the removal of admission restraints in traditionally male vocational programs. Bush signed into law a bipartisan education package that vastly expands the federal role in public education. Exactly what “left behind” means is open to interpretation. regardless of socioeconomic factors. at this late stage in the senility of the human race to argue that women have a fine and fluent intelligence is surely eloquent proof of the defective observation. In return the federal government demands accountability from state and local education agencies. Nevertheless. For instance. public schooling has been established as a fundamental right for all handicapped children. and general imbecility of their lords and masters. Mencken. This may prove to be one of the most momentous changes in the history of American schooling. like the writer H. It even demands.
favored reducing the federal government’s role in schooling. there is more to NCLB than slogans. Poor people of all colors and national origins are not well served by our schools. States are nonnegotiably required to conduct high stakes student testing. But this situation has been with us since the beginning. and to disseminate the results. are also at the heart of why it is so hard to get public schools working the way we would like. and has always been as much a part of the nation’s genius as its folly. it demonstrates that even though federal spending on schooling has greatly declined since the Johnson administration. Early childhood education is unfulfilled promise. For one thing. Large-scale and long-term poverty still survives despite massive school-based efforts to wage war on it. federal control has greatly increased. And that is no small accomplishment. This mandated testing is extremely important. 134 . as well as the best means of achieving them. to organize the results by subgroup. A Word of Caution None of these remarks are intended to suggest that we have reached the educational Promised Land. is forfeit. social discrimination persists despite elaborately planned curricula and much conscientious effort.” though what that means is largely left up to the states. For another. Plainly we are putting too much faith in what schooling alone can accomplish. This is producing both intended and unintended consequences with the full costs of the later to be realized later. until very recently. There is one area that is crystal clear. And we need to be careful not to let our faith in schooling become a convenient way to put off dealing with fundamental social and economic issues like the distribution of wealth in Possibilities of Relationship America. If they fail to do so all federal education money. After all. Lack of consensus and related conflicts over both the proper ends of schooling. However. Much remains to be done. Paradoxically. this major shift in power was accomplished under an allegedly conservative President whose party had. Similarly. it places test results in a central position in American schooling. Despite our frustration and the swings of the pendulum from individual to collective interests and back again. which amounts to about 8% of most states school spending. we have seen that non-school factors are terribly important to school outcomes.states are required to insure that every teacher is “highly qualified. In a little over 200 years we have built a school system that is at least theoretically dedicated to providing everyone with equality of educational opportunity. more Americans have greater educational opportunities than ever in our history.
But it is a wonderfully difficult challenge that we have accepted. we continually fall short of the mark in many different areas. 135 . and we should not expect too much too soon.Yes. And there is no question that the non-school aspects of the socio-educational system have repeatedly confounded our best efforts at providing equally valuable educational benefits for every child.
School reforms swing pendulum-like between those advocating social efficiency and those more concerned with individual dignity. The basic characteristics of America’s public schools were defined in the period 1800-1865. From 1865 to the present these essential characteristics were transformed into contemporary educational processes and institutions. 4. In recent years there has been an expansion of educational opportunity for minorities. the handicapped and women.Section Summary 1. 136 . Nationalism. 3. 5. industrialization and urbanization all left their mark on schools and school practices. 7. 2. but America now offers more educational opportunities to a broader range of citizens than almost any nation on earth. The issue of authority is of central importance in controversies and conflicts regarding schooling. 6. Throughout American history there has been a protracted struggle to establish a meaningful consensus regarding both the ends and means of American schooling. Much remains to be accomplished. 8. immigration. 9. The progressive education movement in the broader context of Progressive social reform again illustrates the importance of the correspondence principle.
c. How does the conflict between Catholics and Protestants over religion in the public schools illustrate the five functions of conflict? 7. skilled handyman. Miss Poindexter. Imagine yourself to be a school board member of a small rural community in the late 1800’s. Yale in classics and mathematics. depending on which way it goes? 137 . 1800. b. Local School Board.) How might these sources have affected the professionalization process for both groups. had they tried to implement a Pestalozzian approach? 4. Under what conditions would you even consider hiring any of the candidates? 9. nor references. 200 lbs. 3.S.” Mr. particularly the control of licensure? b. creationism dispute: What is at stake? 10. Consider the relative rank of these different authorities as they bear on educating children: Federal Government. State Government. 1850. Ph. Consider the sources of revenue for doctors and teachers. Contrast and compare the motives supporting common schooling in the U. Family How do these rankings vary during the change of years 1750. use their absence to account for the slow development of public schooling in the South. 139 lbs. literate and from a “good family. 1900. good references.) What costs and benefits do they face. The following persons present themselves: a. and Prussia. Jones.? What problems would the monitorial school have encountered. 2.) Who are the stakeholders in the licensure struggle? c. The conditions in New England that favored the growth of public schooling can also be seen to impede its further development. 5. 1950? 8. a. Who are the stakeholders in the science vs. You are looking to hire a teacher. Explain this. Church. 6’2”. literate.S. Smith.D. 6.Section Questions 1. 5’4”. What concerns supported the public schooling movement in the U. Recalling the conditions in New England which favored the founding of public schools. Mr.
65. 71. 137 Fellenberg. 76. 35. 95. 41. 29. 34. 115 Cluny Abbey. 68. 123. 106. 82 Americanization. 57. 89 Descartes. 106. 26. 17. 46. 96 Columbia. 84. 55. 47. 80. 102. 67. 52. 81. 84. 53 Alcuin. 91 didaskalos. 18 De Oratore. 121. 51 Cryptia. 107. 20. 33. 46. 71. 27. 5. 62 Catholic. 125. 69. 95. 59 feudalism. 49 Academy. 9. 90. 81. 99. 97. 19. 67. 62. 77 de La Salle. 63 Calvinist. 116 Confederation of States. 26. 121. 101. 67. 34. 132 Age of Faith. 16 culture. 35. 101. 72. 120 Bill of Rights. 13 Congregationalist. 15. 105. 51 Emile. 27. 68. 27 democracy. 94. 83. 136 Egypt. 12. 75. 11 Church of England. 21. 77. 27. 11. 48 citharist. 70. 50 Fichte. 83. 57. 88. 85 Episcopalians. 27 Augustine. 57. 73 De Bow. 104. 85. 106. 39 Alexander the Great. 104. 118. 126 American Federation of Teachers. 94 C Calvin. 73 Cambridge. 36 Benedictine monasteries. 123 Denominationalism. 132 Council of Trent. 54. 30. 108. 78. 72. 71. 87. 71. 71 Beard. 35. 55 assimilation.INDEX A A Nation At Risk. 52 139 . 19. 30. 105. 49. 117 Civil War. 108. 83. 39. 45. 125 Banneker. 118. 73. 33. 23 ethnic. 31. 54. 69. 28. 112. 118. 93. 62. 58. 58. 37 Bible. 80 colleges. 33 Alberti. 107 Amish. 59. 136 Blair. 57. 101. 42. 118 Eton. 10. 87 Black Death. 108. 76 consensus. 67 Dewey. 84 Bandstand. 20. 93. 58. 122 Discipline. 12. 128 Abelard. 15. 72. 31. 91 dictators. 23. 97 Age of Reason. 21 alternative schools. 70. 113 educatio. 65. 11. 109. 80 Erasmus. 36 College of New Jersey. 3. 87 Copernicus. 63 Chinese civilization. 102. 21. 55 eruditus. 18. 81 Bell. 103. 47. 59. 91 Benedict. 5. 50. 83. 94. 71. 36 Cathedral School. 49. 15. 106 Athens. 80. 52. 9. 69. 105. 82. 44. 17. 92 country teachers. 78. 5. 47. 53. 54. 87. 104. 38. 13. 113 Florence. 39. 6. 23. 37. 79. 115. 33. 136 Constitution. 36. 75. 44. 127 Comenius. 36. 71. 65. 51 F Federal Government. 107. 62. 82. 26. 51. 128 Baxter. 62. 43. 124. 36. 99. 67. 49. 44. 15 Aristotle. 77 basics. 49. 19. 84. 11. 36. 96. 67. 11. 107. 15. 127 A Nation Prepared. 94. 136 D Dartmouth. 79. 99. 104. 87. 5. 76 Brahe. 88. 87 Continental Congress. 7. 89. 31. 107. 102 Comprehensive High School. 60. 115 compulsory education. 60. 120. 105. 49. 35. 103. 125 Cassiodorus. 87 Aquinas. 81 Common School. 118 Charlemagne. 102. 107. 58. 31. 80 Darwin. 111 Crusades. 81. 31. 58. 11. 94. 42. 122 Dickens. 80 Adams. 75 Apprenticeship. 124 American Revolution. 45. 41. 34. 52. 83 African-Americans. 122. 87. 60. 18 dignity of the individual. 105. 122. 129 compulsory attendance laws. 81. 54 Dutch Reformed Church. 7. 38. 86. 6. 97 agriculture. 88 Confucius. 67 Brown. 109. 18 City schools. 89. 134. 48. 132 Constitutional Convention. 120 Day of Doom. 67. 112 Duns Scotus. 21. 75. 12. 23 efficiency. 70. 53. 60. 126 cuneiform. 43. 94 female literacy. 91 B Bacon. 49 Arabs. 33. 6 Czar Alexander. 30. 62. 59. 42. 79. 120. 6. 92 Cicero. 104. 26 correspondence. 54 Cathedral Schools. 130 Colonial America. 18. 67 Cornelia. 80 E Eckermann. 124. 23. 36 authority. 40. 92. 20. 69. 92. 23. 106. 67.
73. 80 Quintilian. 102. 77. 108. 80. 36. 43 Plantation. 28 Iraq. 137 life-adjustment. 80. 27. 126 operatives. 79 Frederick I. 88. 113 Gradgrind. 62. 116. 90. 20 Guilds. 102. 58. 94 frontier. 18 Pansophiae Prodromus. 115 French Revolution. 75 Queens College. 115 New Math. 124. 60 140 . 89. 36. 124. 23. 42 Quaker. 9 noble savage. 91. 31. 38 Guerard-Juguet document. 30 N NASSP. 83 Prussia. 69. 106 P paedotribe. 74 Inquisition. 50. 125 Nicholas V. 119. 51. 109. 91 grammatist. 101 Jerome. 94. 106 physical punishment. 72 Hebrews. 54. 53. 91. 23. 103. 3 humanism. 119 Melanchthon. 63. 36. 70. 45. 19 immigrants. 43. 24. 91. 53. 89. 121. 52 Monastery Schools. 25. 80 O Odyssey. 27. 85. 30 Plymouth. 97. 82. 79. 65. 34. 136 Inner Light. 75 Philadelphia. 108. 41 L La Salle. 80 Priesthood of All Believers. 126 Mencken. 99. 79. 93 Goethe. 52. 40. 15 Herbart. 71. 75 Middle Colonies. 110. 121 Progressivism. 19 On the Origins of the Species. 70. 121 J Jefferson. 36. 1. 38 Homo sapiens. 26. 87. 58. 128. 38. 57 industrialization. 72. 130 King’s College. 54 Hwang Ho. 104. 87. 131 indulgences. 44. 48 helots. 58. 126 Jesuits. 84. 87. 81. 83. 76 Plato. 94.. 79 Latin Grammar Schools. 78. 93 Froebel. 9 Ovid. 94. 91 Harrow. 113. 79. 91 Pennsylvania Dutch. 137 public school. 69. 109. 102 Northwest Ordinance. 93 Frederick the Great. 57. 74. 9. 129 Negro education. 104. 78. 92 Latin. 23. 89. 122. 88 K Kindergarten. 57. 38 Hildegard of Bingen. 96. 62 parochial school system. 90 Greeks. 90. 42 Oxford. 122 Presbyterians. 104 Freedmen’s Bureau. 78 licensure. 83 Humanists. 33 Lancaster. 36. 74. 92 Monte Cassino. 52. 28. 121. 24. 126. 59. 20. 103. 101. 57 Progressive Era. 70 Francis Bacon. 52. 93 Lammas Day. 124 National Education Association. 15. 132 Puritans. 5 Q Quadrivium. 75. 67 Hebrew. 125 Harvey. 42. 60 Junior High Schools. 36 I Iliad. 97 Latin Grammar School. 112. 58. 58 memorization. 54. 18. 136 Hard Times. 72. 133. 72. 44. 122. 53 Nile. 132. 28. 18 Great Britain. 124. 67. 63. 118. 78. 105. 91 Harvard. 42. 132 handicapped. 88. 112. 42. 65. 59. 117. 52 Franklin. 52. 76. 124 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. 60 Institutio Oratoria. 59. 69. 133 Mennonites. 84 normal school. 71. 35. 78. 93. 52. 91. 107 pedagogue. 81 Parish Schools. 67 General Will. 5 M Madison. 93. 78. 25. 55. 99. 62. 53. 82. 6 Luther. 24 lunar calendars. 71. 123. 125. 62 Monitorial Schools. 88 Northwest Territory. 75. 27. 94 Hild of Whitby. 101 Mann. 85 love of children. 87. 59 ludus. 113. 54. 43. 71 popular vote. 129 R Ratio Studiorum. 108. 93 free public schooling. 108 G Galileo. 80 printing press. 121 pragmatists. 57 Princeton. 19. 19. 88. 132 Lutherans. 79. 96 Milan. 131. 43. 120 open classrooms. 91 Organized Religion. 57. 92. 74 H Hall. 60. 43. 15 Hellenic. 49 Gregory I. 68. 93. 67 Heloise. 53. 118. 121. 94. 5. 51. 102.Formal Discipline. 125 Locke. 54. 101 Pragmatism. 125 Protestant Reformation. 21. 94 Loyola.
80. 62. 126 V Venice. 58 Trivium. 43 Reform Bill. 120. 12. 85. 106 slavery. 55. 83 Romans. 132 Town Schools. CharlotteMecklenburg. 49 Sunday Schools. 21. 82. 72. 101 W War On Poverty. 15. 20. 129. 110. 79. 119 Schooling of Women.reason. 3. 80 Urban riots. 35 The City of God. 117 Volksschule. 77 slogans. 85 Roswitha of Gandersheim. 68. 70. 25. 26 Seward. 85. 48 vocational skills. 7 Tertullian. 131 Webster. 53. 69 Renaissance. 76. 34. 102 Society of Friends. 7 Social Gospel. 12. 9. 24. 68. 7. 94. 97 Rugby. 17 Stanton. 91 rural life. 6. 36 The easiest room in Hell. 46. 113 Scopes. 49. 5. 62. 84. 73. 9. 99 Wigglesworth. 125 Sparta. 87. 92 religious non-conformists. 7 Social Mobility. 28 Solon’s Code. 80. 15. 58 Sumer. 97. 97. 74 Society of Jesus. 80 S Satan. 40. 43. 63. 13. 45 Sturm. 59 Socrates. 33. 73 William and Mary. 80. 104 slums. 81. 11. 48. 15. 44. 71. 74 Violence. 96. 109. 17. 20 Southern Colonies. 57. 87. 38 Rousseau. 87 Russell. 54. 118 Social control. 76 Y Yale. 36 self-expression. 59 Schooling Women. 88. 112 T tax supported free education. 84. 26 tobacco. 55 Schools of Rhetoric. 126 Washington. 123 Seneca. 124 Temperance Movement. 137 Yverdon. 89. 78. 27. 44. 40. 29. 42 U universal free education. 79 Winchester. 101 Wiggin. 53. 91 Swann v. 108 social control function. 115 universitas. 102 teacher preparation. 88. 24. 55. 104. 53. 74. 82. 73. 26. 45 University of Pennsylvania. 110 Rush. 122 recitation. 25 Science of Rights. 93. 38. 121 Temples. 51. 72. 23. 73. 133 Studium Generale. 31. 73. 52 Vietnam. 30 Summa Theologica. 109 Rural schools. 91 women teachers. 85 Rutgers. 87. 88. 52. 19. 67. 126 village schools. 94 141 . 89. 42 romanticist. 59. 74 Scholasticism. 74 Tiberius. 49. 71. 49. 70. 18 Sophists. 105. 120 scriptorium. 54 school failure. 76. 42 social renewal. 75 Soviet Union. 84. 121 social hierarchy. 27. 59. 26. 76. 93. 45. 75.
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