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Sound Effects

Description: A Sound Effect can be described as any sound, other than music or speech that is artificially reproduced to create an effect in a
dramatic presentation; such as a storm or a creaking door (Dictionary.com). These types of sounds can also be reproduced using ones own
voice "sound effect."
Curriculum (Grade 5): Overall - B1: Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process (see pages 1922) to process drama and the
development of drama works, using the elements and conventions of drama to communicate feelings, ideas, and stories. Specific - B1.4:
communicate thoughts, feelings, and ideas to a specific audience, using audio, visual, and/or technological aids to achieve specific dramatic
effect. Integrated (Language): Overall - 2: use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a
variety of purposes. Specific - 2.6: use speaking skills and strategies appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety of
purposes.
Classroom Example: One major example of how you can incorporate the sound effect theory into your classroom is to group students into 3
or 4 (4 being the preferred number). In a group of 4, have 2 students act out a scene and 2 make the sound effects. Before they begin, start
with asking them a series of question regarding characters, setting, problem, etc. This is referred to [in improv] as an ask in. Once they have
all of the foundations of a scene, they can begin. As far as grades, this strategy would work best with late primary/junior grades such as 3-6.
You could even present this to intermediates grades like in 7-12). As far as resources go, it would be beneficial to stay clear of already
developed ideas. You want your student to be creative and us as much improvisation as possible.
Extensions/Modifications: For younger students you may incorporate picture/narrative resources (e.g., stories) in order to give them some
example or ideas as to what sounds they may need to use. In older grades, perhaps trying to create more complicated scenes so that the sound
effect students are more challenged (e.g., acting out a scene from an ancient civilization, etc.). Children with special needs can also
participate in this strategy by perhaps choosing sounds from pre-recorded resources.
Resources 1) http://dramaresource.com/strategies/69-drama-techniques

2) http://www.utexas.edu/cofa/dbi/teaching_strategies

News Reporting
Description: News Reporting is a dramatic activity which requires students to present a certain story (e.g., historical event/issue, a scientific
breakthrough, the weather, etc.) in the form of a news report. Each member of the news report team takes on a different role such as the
reporter, the interviewee (perhaps two or more with different opinions), and the camera person.
Curriculum (Grade 3): B1. Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process to dramatic play and process drama, using the elements and
conventions of drama to communicate feelings, ideas, and stories. B1.1. Engage in dramatic play and role play, with a focus on exploring
themes, ideas, characters, and issues from imagination or in stories from diverse communities, times, and places.
Classroom Example: In grade 3, one of the main focuses of social studies is communities in Canada from 1780-1850. Specifically, students
learn about the lives of Indigenous peoples at this time as well as the lives of pioneers settling in Upper Canada. In groups of 4, students
would act out a news report which takes place in this time period and which demonstrates either an aspect of pioneer or Indigenous life, or
which shows the conflict that existed between these groups at this time. (Social Studies: Overall Expectation A1, Specific Expectation A1.1)
Extensions/Modifications: For younger students, news reporting can become integrated into the daily classroom routine with more teacher
assistance; educators can act as the news reporter while students respond to the questions she/he asks (e.g., the student could act as a weather
person and describe the current weather). For older students, topics of news reports could become more complex and involve more
parties/points of view. This activity requires roles of different kinds which will suit the diverse needs in the classroom (e.g., a student who
cannot walk can be the newsroom person; students who cannot speak can rather act as the camera person).
Resources: 1) http://citz.co.uk/images/fileuploads/Intro_to_Drama_Resource_Pack_v2.pdf
2) http://brockdrama101.blogspot.ca/2012/12/strategy-4-news-report_12.html
Graffiti Strategy
Description: This strategy involves students working in groups to generate and record ideas on chart paper. Students will be split into groups
and each group will have a piece of chart paper and a different coloured marker. Each chart paper will display a question or a topic for the
groups to respond to. The groups travel in rotation from chart to chart, writing responses to the topic in and out of role and responding to
comments previously written by other groups. The teacher can choose to assign roles within the groups (e.g., recorder and reporter) and the
activity topic can be based on a text that was read in class.
Curriculum (Grade 5): Overall - B1. Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process (see pages 1922) to process drama and the
development of drama works, using the elements and conventions of drama to communicate feelings, ideas, and multiple perspectives.
Specific - B1.1 engage actively in drama exploration and role play, with a focus on identifying and examining a range of issues, themes, and
idea from a variety of fiction and non-fiction sourced and diverse communities, times, and places.
Classroom Example: Grade 5 students will take on the roles of the bully, the bystander, and the victim during the Graffiti strategy. The
students will work with their peers to act and write out the feelings of individuals involved in bullying. This activity is integrated with
language arts, as it requires students to communicate their thoughts about bullying through different perspectives through written and spoken
word. It is also connected to grade 5 health. The specific expectation C3.2 requires students to explain how a persons actions (bullying) can

affect the feelings, self-concept, emotional well-being, and reputation of themselves and others. Students will have to think of all of these
factors when collaboratively generating and recording their ideas on chart paper.
Extensions/Modifications: Younger students can choose to draw pictures instead of writing out their answers. Older students can summarize
and present their ideas to the class and write a response piece to the activity. Teachers can pre-teach some vocabulary related to the topic or
issues, to support struggling or English Language Learners and can put key words on a Word Wall. The roles involved in this activity can be
differentiated to suit the needs of students. For example, the teacher can assign two students the role of reporter, to ensure that struggling or
English Language Learners are supported if they are chosen for that role. This strategy can be utilized in any grade, as the teacher can choose
the subject matter and the level of difficulty.
Resources: 1) http://www.edu.gov.on.ca/eng/studentsuccess/thinkliteracy/files/ThinkLitDramaDance.pdf
2) http://www.eworkshop.on.ca/edu/pdf/Mod36_coop_graffiti.pdf
Alter Ego
Description: Alter ego is the drama strategy where students work in pairs, one as the role and one as that role's thoughts. The student playing
the role plays out the action and speaks the scripted dialogue, and the student playing the alter-ego speaks and acts out the inner thoughts and
feelings that the character may be having. This strategy deepens the understanding of a characters personality and is a great way to reveal
what they might be truly feeling about a given situation.
Curriculum (Grade 4); Overall - B1. Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process to dramatic play and process drama, using the
elements and conventions of drama to communicate feelings, ideas, and stories. Specific: demonstrate an understanding of the element of role
by selectively using a few other elements of drama to build belief in a role and establish its dramatic context. B1.3: plan and shape the
direction of the drama or role play by posing questions and working with others to find solutions, both in and out of role.
Classroom Example: This strategy fits nicely into a grade 4 Language Arts class as a way to teach the Oral Strand expectation 1.5 that asks
students to make inferences about texts using stated and implied ideas from the texts as evidence as well as the Reading strand 1.9 requiring
students to identify the point of view presented in a text, and suggest some possible alternative perspectives. Using the alter ego strategy,
one group of students could read the dialogue of the characters from the text being studied, with another group playing out and verbalizing
the unspoken feelings of the characters. Through these extensions of the characters, students could explore alternative points of view in the
stories, and provide dramatic demonstrations of the inferences that they have detected in the book.
Extensions/Modifications: For younger students, provide them with the visual support of a picture book, reading the dialogue for them. A
book that covers the topic of their feelings would be a good tool, so that you could help them work through potential scenarios such as their
first day of school or having a new baby sister or brother. If the dialogue of the story has the character saying how excited they are, for
example, you could ask the students how the character is really feeling, as a means to address issues of hidden anxiety etc., in order to teach
the children to feel safe about talking honestly about their fears with their parents so that they can get the support and reassurance they need.
For older students, one half of the class could be asked to write an original script, and then invite the other half to play the alter ego in an
improvisation format. For non-verbal students, or students not comfortable acting in front of a group, they could be asked to paint or draw a
picture of how they feel the character is really feeling, using a variety of colours and textures to depict different emotions.
Resources: http://artsonline2.tki.org.nz/ecurriculum/drama/glossary.php
Eavesdropping
Description: Eavesdropping is the idea of two people having a conversation and one person actively is listening in. In order for this to be the
most dramatic, the teacher can tell the two students who are having the conversation to talk about something specific and then you can tell the
eavesdropper that they have a phobia of their same topic (e.g., spiders, snakes).
Curriculum (Grade 4): Overall - B1. Creating and Presenting: apply the creative process to dramatic play and process drama, using the
elements and conventions of drama to communicate feelings, ideas, and stories. Specific - B1.2 demonstrate an understanding of the element
of role by selectively using a few other elements of drama.
Classroom example: In a grade 4 language class, this strategy could be integrated with literature circles. You can pair off groups that are
reading different books and in those pairings you would have two people who are reading the same book create some dialogue around an
interesting point in the book. Then, you would have one person from the new group eavesdrop on the conversation and report back to their
group about what the heard. With this, you can have students write a report about common themes, events or other aspects are similar or
different from their own book. (Language curriculum writing: Overall Expectation 1 Specific Expectation 1.2).
Extensions/Modifications: For younger students, keep the conversations simple and short and have students orally present some of their
findings in front of the class. Have them focus on specific aspects; e.g. how many people were involved and what was the main problem. For
older students, conversations can be formed around a mystery that students have to solve, while the two people having a conversation give
minimal clues. Students with exceptionalities can participate to the best of their ability, those who are unable to speak can be the
eavesdropper and use facial expressions. Those students who cannot hear can be the ones talking (with aid from an EA).
Resources: 1) http://50shadesofdrama.blogspot.ca/2013/02/strategy-3-eavesdropping.html
2) http://code.on.ca/sites/default/files/assets/resources/874-code-conference-2012-039the
island039/documents/patricebaldwin-theisland.pdf