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Set Theory Lecture Notes|Views: 1,958|Likes: 28

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11/22/2012

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In this subsection, we show that if (*N*1,S1,O1) is a structure satisfying the

Peano’s Axioms (deﬁned below), then there is a (unique) bijection f :*N*−→*N*1

such that f(S(x)) = S(f(x)) and f(0) = 01 for all x∈*N*. This will show that a

structure satisfying Peano’s Axioms is unique “up to isomorphism”. We make

this more precise:

Let* N* be a set, S :* N* −→* N* a function and 0 ∈* N* an element. Suppose

that the triple (*N* ,S ,0 ) satisﬁes the following:

PA1. S is a one to one function from* N* into* N* .

PA2. If X is a subset of* N* with the property that

a) 0 ∈X,

b) For all x∈X, S (x)∈X,

then X =*N* .

Then we say that the triple (*N* ,S ,0 ) satisﬁes the Peano axioms. Of course,

for a triple that satisﬁes the Peano axioms, all the results of the previous sections

xxx hold.

Theorem 11.11.1 Any two triples (*N* ,S ,0 ) and (*N* ,S ,0 ) satisfying the

Peano Axioms are “isomorphic”, i.e. there is a bijection f :* N* −→* N* such

that f(0 ) = 0 and f(S (x)) = S (f(x)) for all x∈*N* .

Proof: Since the composition and the inverse of isomorphisms is clearly an

isomorphism, we may suppose that (*N* ,S ,0 ) = (*N*,S,0). Deﬁne f :*N*−→*N*

by the rule,

f(0) = 0

and

f(S(x)) = S (f(x)).

By Theorem 11.8.1 f is a function. We just need to prove that it is one to one

and that it is unique.

We ﬁrst show that f is one to one. Assume f(x) = f(y). We will show that

x = y. We proceed by induction on x.

Assume x = 0. Then f(y) = 0 . If y = 0, then y = S(x1) and so 0 = f(y) =

f(S(x1)) = S (f(x1)), contradicting the fact that 0 is not in the range of S .

Thus y = 0 = x.

Assume now x = 0. Then x = S(x1). So S (f(x1)) = f(S(x1)) = f(x) =

f(y). In particular f(x) and f(y) are nonzero. Therefore y = 0 as well. Let

y = S(y1). Then S (f(x1)) = f(y) = f(S(y1)) = S (f(y1)). Since S is one to

one, it follows that f(x1) = f(y1). By the inductive hypothesis x1 = y1. Hence

x = S(x1) = S(y1) = y. This proves that f is one to one.

We now show that if f is another such function then f = f . By assump-

tion f(0) = 0 = f (0). Assume f(x) = f (x). Then f(S(x)) = S (f(x)) =

S (f (x)) = f (S(x)). This proves that f = f .

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