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You are on page 1of 6

http://videolectures.net/mit801f99_lewin_lec06/

(please stop watching at minute 31:05)

**• Acceleration is caused by a “push” or a “pull”. When you push an
**

object initially at rest, it starts moving (it is no longer at rest), hence

there must have been an acceleration (“change of velocity”) in

between.

• Push or pull are examples of “force”. More properly, a force is a physical

quantity that makes a body accelerate (change its state of motion or

rest) when it acts upon the body.

• If the body cannot move (e.g. it is constrained), the force deforms the

body (think to a pushed spring!). Well, actually a force deforms also a

free body during the acceleration.

• Force is a vector quantity. Two or more forces add up like vectors.

• The SI unit is Newton (N) (later, we will see that 1𝑁 = 1
𝑘𝑘

∙𝑚
𝑠

2

)

**Newton’s Laws (First Law)
**

• Newton’s First Law (or Law of Inertia): “If there is no net force (the

**vector sum of all acting forces) on an object, then its velocity is
**

constant. The object is either at rest (if its velocity is equal to zero),

or it moves with constant speed in a single direction”.

**• Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist any change in its
**

motion.

• What is the most basic logical consequence of FL? If you see an

accelerating body, then a non zero force must act upon it !

• The first law is valid only in inertial reference frames; those are

reference frames which are not accelerating. For instance, a

carousel is not an inertial frame (centripetal/centrifugal

acceleration).

**Newton’s Laws (Second Law)
**

• We now know that a force applied to a free body causes it to

accelerate. But how, quantitatively speaking?

• Newton’s Second Law: “The acceleration a of a body is parallel

**and directly proportional to the net force F acting on the
**

body, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely

proportional to the mass m of the body, i.e., a=F/m or

F = ma.”
𝑚

= 2𝑘𝑘
𝑎

⃗ 𝑎

⃗ = 𝐹

⃗ = 𝑚 ∙ 𝑎⃗

2𝑚/𝑠 2
𝐹

⃗ = 4 𝑘𝑘

∙ 𝑚

= 4𝑁
𝑠

2

**Newton’s Laws (Second Law) … continued
**

• Every object falls with constant acceleration ( 𝑔⃗ = 9.8 𝑚/𝑠 2 ).

According to the First and Second Laws, this means that a

force is acting upon every object: what is its name? What is its

magnitude? What is its direction?
𝑚

= 2𝑘𝑘
𝑃

= 𝑚 ∙ 𝑔⃗ 𝑘𝑘

∙ 𝑚
𝑃

= 19.6

= 19.6𝑁
𝑠

2
𝑔

⃗ 𝑔

⃗ = 9.8 𝑚/𝑠 2

**Newton’s Laws (Third Law)
**

• Newton’s Third Law (Action and Reaction): “When body A exerts

**a force FA on a body B, the body B simultaneously exerts a
**

force FB = −FA on the body A. This means that FA and FB are

equal in magnitude and opposite in direction.”

**Newton’s Laws (Third Law) … continued
**

• The reason why you feel pain when you punch the wall with a

certain force is because the wall “punches” your fist back with

the same force: Newton’s third law in action!

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