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Cambridge Primary Mathematics

Curriculum outline
Cambridge Primary combines a world-class curriculum with high-quality support for teachers and
integrated assessment. The curriculum is dedicated to helping schools develop learners who are
confident, responsible, reflective, innovative and engaged. Cambridge Primary has curriculum
frameworks for English (including English as a Second Language), Mathematics and Science which
have been designed to engage learners in an active and creative learning journey.
The curriculum frameworks for each subject for
Cambridge Primary are organised into six stages.
They reflect the teaching target for each year group
and provide comprehensive learning objectives. For
Cambridge Primary Mathematics, the curriculum is
presented in five content areas or strands. These are
further subdivided into substrands. The strands and
substrands are:
Numbers and the number system
Calculation Mental strategies, Addition and
subtraction, Multiplication and division
Shapes and geometric reasoning
Position and movement
Money (until stage 3)
Length, mass and capacity
Area and perimeter (from stage 4)

The Cambridge Primary Mathematics curriculum

framework provides a solid foundation upon which
the later stages of education can be built.
Cambridge Primary offers an optional testing
structure to assess learner performance and report
progress for both learners and parents. These
assessments provide an international benchmark
that enables teachers to identify learner strengths
and weaknesses for individuals and class groups and
develop further teaching and learning support using
the information from the test results.
Cambridge Primary Progression Tests are available to
schools registered for Cambridge Primary for stages
36. These tests are marked by teachers and come
with full mark schemes and marking guidance. At
the end of Cambridge Primary, schools can also offer
Cambridge Primary Checkpoint, a diagnostic test
which offers comprehensive feedback at the end of
the Cambridge Primary stage.

Handling data
Organising, categorising and representing data
Probability (from stage 5)
Problem solving
Using techniques and skills in solving
mathematical problems
Using understanding and strategies in solving
problems (from stage 4)
The first four content areas are all underpinned by
Problem solving, which describes using techniques and
skills and the application of understanding and strategies
in solving problems. Mental strategies are also a key
part of the Number content. This curriculum focuses on
principles, patterns, systems, functions and relationships
so that learners can apply their mathematical knowledge

and develop a holistic understanding of the subject. On

the following pages, you will find some examples from the
Number strand and the substrands for stages 1, 3 and 5 of
the Cambridge Primary Mathematics curriculum.

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Curriculum outline

Stage 1
Strand: Number

Strand: Number

Substrand: Numbers and the number system

Substrand: Calculation

Recite numbers in order (forwards from 1 to 100,

backwards from 20 to 0)

Mental strategies

Read and write numerals from 0 to 20

Count objects up to 20, recognising conservation
of number
Count on in tens from zero or a single-digit number
to 100 or just over
Count on in twos, beginning to recognise odd/even
numbers to 20 as every other number

Know all number pairs to 10 and record the related

addition/subtraction facts
Begin to know number pairs to 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10
Add more than two small numbers, spotting pairs
to 10, e.g. 4 + 3 + 6 = 10 + 3
Begin using pairs to 10 to bridge 10 when adding/
subtracting, e.g. 8 + 3, add 2, then 1
Know doubles to at least double 5

Begin partitioning two-digit numbers into tens and

ones and reverse

Find near doubles using doubles already known,

e.g. 5 + 6

Within the range 0 to 30, say the number that is 1

or 10 more or less than any given number

Begin to recognise multiples of 2 and 10.

Use more or less to compare two numbers, and

give a number which lies between them

Understand addition as counting on and combining

two sets; record related addition sentences

Order numbers to at least 20, positioning on a

number line; use ordinal numbers

Understand subtraction as counting back and take

away; record related subtraction sentences

Use the = sign to represent equality

Understand difference as how many more to make?

Give a sensible estimate of some objects that can

be checked by counting, e.g. to 30

Add/subtract a single-digit number by counting


Find halves of small numbers and shapes by folding,

and recognise which shapes are halved.

Find two more or less than a number to 20, recording

the jumps on a number line

Addition and subtraction

Relate counting on and back in tens to finding 10

more/less than a number (< 100)
Begin to use the +, and = signs to record
calculations in number sentences
Understand that changing the order of addition does
not change the total
Add a pair of numbers by putting the larger number
first and counting on
Recognise the use of a sign such as to represent
an unknown, e.g. 6 + = 10
Begin to add single and two-digit numbers.
Multiplication and division
Double any single-digit number
Find halves of even numbers of objects up to 10
Try to share numbers to 10 to find which are even
and which are odd
Share objects into two equal groups in a context.

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Curriculum outline

Stage 3
Strand: Number
Substrand: Numbers and the number system
Recite numbers 100 to 200 and beyond
Read and write numbers to at least 1000
Count on and back in ones, tens and hundreds from
two- and three-digit numbers
Count on and back in steps of 2, 3, 4 and 5 to at
least 50
Understand what each digit represents in three-digit
numbers and partition into hundreds, tens and units
Find 1, 10, 100 more/less than two- and
three-digit numbers
Multiply two-digit numbers by 10 and understand
the effect
Round two-digit numbers to the nearest 10 and round
three-digit numbers to the nearest 100
Place a three-digit number on a number line marked
off in multiples of 100
Place a three-digit number on a number line marked
off in multiples of 10
Compare three-digit numbers, use < and > signs, and
find a number in between
Order two- and three-digit numbers
Give a sensible estimate of a number as a range
(e.g. 30 to 50) by grouping in tens
Find half of odd and even numbers to 40, using
notation such as 13 12
Understand and use fraction notation, recognising
that fractions are several parts of one whole, e.g. 34 is
three quarters and 2 3 is two thirds
Recognise equivalence between
using diagrams





Recognise simple mixed fractions, e.g. 1 12 and 2 14

Order simple or mixed fractions on a number line,
e.g. using the knowledge that 12 comes half way
between 14 and 34 , and that 1 12 comes half way
between 1 and 2
Begin to relate finding fractions to division
Find halves, thirds, quarters and tenths of shapes and
numbers (whole number answers).

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Curriculum outline

Stage 3 continued
Strand: Number

Multiplication and division

Substrand: Calculation
Mental strategies

Understand the relationship between halving

and doubling

Know addition and subtraction facts for all numbers

to 20

Understand the effect of multiplying two-digit

numbers by 10

Know the following addition and subtraction facts:

multiples of 100 with a total of 1000

Multiply single-digit numbers and divide two-digit

numbers by 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9 and 10

multiples of 5 with a total of 100

Multiply teens numbers by 3 and 5

Know multiplication/division facts for 2, 3, 5 and

10 tables

Begin to divide two-digit numbers just beyond 10

tables, e.g. 60 5, 33 3

Begin to know 4 table

Understand that division can leave a remainder

(initially as some left over)

Recognise two- and three-digit multiples of 2, 5

and 10
Work out quickly the doubles of numbers 1 to 20 and
derive the related halves
Work out quickly the doubles of multiples of 5 (< 100)
and derive the related halves
Work out quickly the doubles of multiples of 50 to 500.
Addition and subtraction
Add and subtract 10 and multiples of 10 to and from
two- and three-digit numbers
Add 100 and multiples of 100 to three-digit numbers
Use the = sign to represent equality,
e.g. 75 + 25 = 95 + 5
Add several small numbers
Find complements to 100, solving number equations
such as 78 + = 100
Add and subtract pairs of two-digit numbers
Add three-digit and two-digit numbers using notes
to support
Re-order an addition to help with the calculation,
e.g. 41 + 54, by adding 40 to 54, then 1
Add/subtract single-digit numbers to/from three-digit
Find 20, 30, 90, 100, 200, 300 more/less than
three-digit numbers.

Understand and apply the idea that multiplication

is commutative
Understand the relationship between multiplication
and division and write connected facts.

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Curriculum outline

Stage 5
Strand: Number
Substrand: Numbers and the number system
Count on and back in steps of constant size, extending
beyond zero

Recognise equivalence between:

6 ; 5 and 10

Know what each digit represents in five- and

six-digit numbers

Recognise equivalence between the decimal and

fraction forms of halves, tenths and hundredths and
use this to help order fractions, e.g. 0.6 is more than
50 per cent and less than 107

Partition any number up to one million into thousands,

hundreds, tens and units
Use decimal notation for tenths and hundredths and
understand what each digit represents
Multiply and divide any number from 1 to 10 000 by 10
or 100 and understand the effect
Round four-digit numbers to the nearest 10, 100
or 1000
Round a number with one or two decimal places to the
nearest whole number



, and




Change an improper fraction to a mixed number,

e.g. 74 to 1 34 ; order mixed numbers and place between
whole numbers on a number line
Relate finding fractions to division and use to find
simple fractions of quantities
Understand percentage as the number of parts in
every 100 and find simple percentages of quantities
Express halves, tenths and hundredths as percentages

Order and compare numbers up to a million using the

> and < signs

Use fractions to describe and estimate a simple

proportion, e.g. 15 of the beads are yellow

Order and compare negative and positive numbers on

a number line and temperature scale

Use ratio to solve problems, e.g. to adapt a recipe for

6 people to one for 3 or 12 people.

Calculate a rise or fall in temperature

Order numbers with one or two decimal places and
compare using the > and < signs
Recognise and extend number sequences.
Recognise odd and even numbers and multiples of 5,
10, 25, 50 and 100 up to 1000
Make general statements about sums, differences and
multiples of odd and even numbers.

Strand: Number
Substrand: Calculation
Mental strategies
Know by heart pairs of one-place decimals with a
total of 1, e.g. 0.8 + 0.2
Derive quickly pairs of decimals with a total of 10,
and with a total of 1
Know multiplication and division facts for the 2 to
10 tables
Know and apply tests of divisibility by 2, 5, 10 and 100
Recognise multiples of 6, 7, 8 and 9 up to the
10th multiple
Know squares of all numbers to 10 10
Find factors of two-digit numbers
Count on or back in thousands, hundreds, tens and
ones to add or subtract
Add or subtract near multiples of 10 or 100,
e.g. 4387 299

Cambridge Primary Mathematics Curriculum outline

Stage 5 continued
Use appropriate strategies to add or subtract pairs of
two- and three-digit numbers and numbers with one
decimal place, using jottings where necessary

Divide three-digit numbers by single-digit numbers,

including those with a remainder (answers no greater
than 30)

Calculate differences between near multiples of 1000,

e.g. 5026 4998, or near multiples of 1, e.g. 3.2 2.6

Start expressing remainders as a fraction of the

divisor when dividing two-digit numbers by
single-digit numbers

Multiply multiples of 10 to 90, and multiples of 100 to

900, by a single-digit number
Multiply by 19 or 21 by multiplying by 20 and adjusting
Multiply by 25 by multiplying by 100 and dividing by 4
Use factors to multiply, e.g. multiply by 3, then double
to multiply by 6
Double any number up to 100 and halve even numbers
to 200, and use this to double and halve numbers
with one or two decimal places, e.g. double 3.4 and
half of 8.6
Double multiples of 10 to 1000 and multiples of 100
to 10 000, e.g. double 360 or double 3600, and derive
the corresponding halves.
Addition and subtraction
Find the total of more than three two- or three-digit
numbers using a written method

Decide whether to group (using multiplication facts

and multiples of the divisor) or to share (halving and
quartering) to solve divisions
Decide whether to round an answer up or down
after division, depending on the context
Begin to use brackets to order operations and
understand the relationship between the four
operations and how the laws of arithmetic apply
to multiplication.

How can I access the full curriculum

Only schools offering Cambridge Primary can
access the full curriculum frameworks.

Add or subtract any pair of three- and/or four-digit

numbers, with the same number of decimal places,
including amounts of money.

If you are a Cambridge Primary school you can

download the full curriculum framework from our
password protected Cambridge Primary site

Multiplication and division

If you are a Cambridge school and would like to

offer Cambridge Primary complete and return our
Additional Qualification Types form

Multiply or divide three-digit numbers by

single-digit numbers
Multiply two-digit numbers by two-digit numbers
Multiply two-digit numbers with one decimal place by
single-digit numbers, e.g. 3.6 7

If you are not a Cambridge school and would

like to find out more about Cambridge Primary
complete our Expression of interest form.

Learn more! For details of Cambridge Primary, go to or contact our

Customer Services team at or call them on +44 1223 553554.


Cambridge International Examinations, June 2013