TABLES OF CONTENTS 1.0 2.0 Introduction CRM Literature Review 2.1 CRM perspectives and definition 2.2 The importance of CRM 2.

3 The roles of KM in achieving CRM objectives 3.0 CRM Framework 3.1 The information process 3.2 The strategy development & the value creation process 3.3 The multichannel integration 3.4 Performance assessment process 4.0 Corporate Appraisal 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 5.0 Company history and background CRM in Airasia CRM Deficiency Analysis Recommendations for improvement




Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework 1.0 Introduction

The logic of marketing is shifting from the exchange of goods toward intangibles service, interactivity, connectivity and ongoing relationships (Vargo and Lusch, 2004). Many companies have recognized and managed customer as assets and adopting customer-centric strategies, programs, tools and technology for efficient and effective customer relationship management (CRM). Many CRM software tools and technologies such as NetSuite CRM+, Seibel CRM on Demand, Oracle, Microsoft CRM and etc have been introduced for commercial application. The majority of these tools promise to provide individual applications and services allow company to focus on enhancing their customer-centricity in terms of specific industry processes, sales and service processes, and in terms of the customer/role experience as a whole.

Organizations that invest in flexible, proven CRM solution will position themselves for success both today and tomorrow (, 2009). So, what is CRM? Simple explanation, CRM is putting customer at the heart of the business. In this report, we will study further on the conceptual foundation for understanding the domain of customer relationship management. To do so, this report will reviews on the definition and importance of CRM, CRM framework and contemporary practices of CRM with KM environment. The main objectives of this report are as below:a) To analyze and understand the concept of CRM and the frameworks b) To appraise the CRM system in Airasia. c) To provide recommendations of improvements on CRM to Airasia.

2.0 CRM Literature Review Page 2 of 25 20Nov2009

Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework

2.1 CRM perspectives and definition Over the past decade, the information technology (IT) vendor community and practitioner community has been explosion of interest in Customer Relationship Management (CRM). The terms “relationship marketing” and CRM are often interchangeable used in academic community (Parvatiyar and Sheth, 2001).

CRM is a comprehensive strategy and process of acquiring, retaining, and partnering with selective customer to create superior value for company and the customer (Parvatiyar and Sheth, 2001). Vavra (1992) defined CRM as seeking customer retention by using a variety of after marketing tactics that lead to customer bonding or staying in touch with customer after a sale made. Some even said CRM meant a loyalty card scheme, a database, a help desk or a call center. Definition of CRM is important as the key reason of CRM failure is viewing it as a technology initiative (Kale, 2004). Different authors and authorities’ have different definition or

description of CRM (Figure 1); Payne and Frow (2005) had summarized as below:

“CRM a strategic approach that is concerned with creating improved shareholder value through the development of appropriate relationships with key customer and customer segment; CRM unite the potential of relationship marketing strategies and IT to create profitable, long term relationships with customer and other key shareholders; CRM provides enhanced opportunities to use data and information to both understand customers and co-create value with them: this requires a crossfunctional integration of processes, people, operations, and marketing capabilities that is enable through information, technology, and application.”

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework 2.2 The importance of CRM According Customer Think Corporation (2004)’s survey, 68% of customers leave due to service problem (Figure 2). Therefore establishing and strengthening long term relationships with customer is the key to success. CRM is important to pursue mutual benefit among customers and sellers. Customers can enjoy personal treatment, together with appropriate advice on getting the best out of their purchase; while the firms are able to improve retention and increase the volumes sold. In fact, CRM also helps to simplifying the sales processes and helping sales staff to close deal faster.

The organizations are able to provide greater opportunity for cross-selling and upselling to their customer who is loyal and committed to firms through CRM. This will helps the organization to improve the quality of its relationship management with customer and increased customer satisfaction; thus gained customer loyalty. Research shows that acquiring a new customer cost 5 to 10 times more than retaining an existing one, and Cannie and Caplin (1991) also suggested that keeping customers for life rather than with only making a one time sale.

CRM enable organization to construct predictive customer purchase behaviour with the support of IT on multi-channels of communication with customers and information stored in corporate database. As customer expectations have been change rapidly, the most prudent way to keep track of customer change and appropriately influencing them is to build co-operative and collaborative relationships with customers (Sheth and Sisodia, 1995).

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework CRM also creates new knowledge sharing platforms and processes between companies and their customers. Many case study evidence proven that CRM is a potentially powerful competitive tool, contributing to improved success of both companies and their customers.

2.3 The roles of KM in achieving CRM objectives There is a consensus from marketing, sales and services that data are highly valued; but information has no value if it is not transformed into knowledge (Oubrich, 2003). However, identifying, extracting and transforming data into actionable information is an ongoing challenge. Thus, company needs to enhance their ability in KM to leverage the value insight. KM can be defined as the process of extended knowledge becomes key value added resources shares among the company; however, CRM proposed an additional dimension that “if only we also knew what our customers know” (Gibbert et. Al., 2002). CRM may seem just another name for KM, but it can be differentiate by a number of key variables as shown in Figure 3 (Gibbert et. Al., 2002).

CRM process required customer knowledge to pursue the goals of relationship market (Bueren et. Al, 2005). Belbaly et. Al (2007) argued that customer knowledge creation development is supported by a new category of IS referred to as KM system which enables the management of the knowledge embedded in the new product development process. There are three sorts of knowledge required in CRM process which play an importance in the interaction between a firm and its customers (Bueren et. Al, 2005 & Salomann et. Al, 2005). Firstly, knowledge about customer (needs and wants) is to be

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework incorporated for product development. Secondly, knowledge for customer about products and firm is to support buying cycle. Thirdly, customer posses’ knowledge about product and services (feedback) is for improvement purpose. Therefore, KM techniques are necessary for the creation, storage, dissemination of relevant knowledge in CRM processes; this is proven that KM capabilities in a firm play a key role in CRM success (Croteau and Li, 2003).

KM is useful for CRM activity and it has become strategic resource of organization to maintain their competitive advantages. Furthermore, CRM and KM having the same goals to provide an organization with the information on their customers’ wants and needs; it is help to identify their valuable customer, generate quality sales lead, and plan and implementing campaigns with clear goals and objectives.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework 3.0 CRM Framework Conceptual frameworks and theory are typically based on combining previous literature, common sense, and experience (Eisenhardt, 1989). Due to the different influences may leads to the different development of CRM framework, but there is no one “right” CRM framework for every business sector (Duane, 2009). Many researchers have addressed that the integrated and comprehensive framework should be based on a process-oriented cross- functional conceptualization (Payne et al., 2005; Dous et al, 2005; Parvatiyar et al., 2001; Figure 4).

Payne et al. (2005) develops a framework for CRM based on five generic processes: (1) the information management process, (2) the multichannel integration process, (3) the value creation process, (4) the strategy development process and (5) the performance assessment process. The framework (Figure 5) is the result of literature review on Payne et al. (2005)’s CRM frameworks combining with actual CRM tools (ERP Baan, An effective CRM now has to support a wide range of roles, channels and devices in order to support and adding value to a wide network of partners, customers and employees.

Basically, CRM activity will involve collecting customer, suppliers, partners and other relevant data through multiple channels such as web, phone, fax, email and etc (the multichannel integration process) and using KM approaches intelligently transforming data into actionable information (the information process). Company vision and objectives must be clearly identified (the strategy development process) in order to transforms it into programs or business process that deliver value for the customer, business and associated co-creation activities (the value creation process).

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework The CRM process cycle for next step was to interact with customer through multi channels to maximize commercial exposure and return (the multichannel integration process). Finally, proper monitoring processes are needed to safeguard against failure and helps to keep track the alignment of goals, results, and resources (performance assessment process).


The information process

The fundamental to a successful CRM strategy requires seamless customer-centric processes, supported by integrated technology across the enterprise and its supply chain which provide the right information at the right time (Radcliffe, 2001). To ensure that technology solutions support CRM, CRM tools must be making tradeoffs in flexibility, customizability, cost, convenience and speed of deployment; certainly it must match to the needs of the business. However, CRM tool is just a supplement to CRM strategy, appropriate strategy and excellent implementation is essential for a successful CRM (Parvatiyar et al., 2001).


The strategy development & The value creation process

The strategy development process shall include basic steps of strategy formation, decision making and implementation. Bell (2000) points out that understanding the present allows people to attain an orienting perspective to provide a basic for moving forward. Hence, the strategy formation for CRM shall be based on the company mission and objective with taking into consideration of value creation for customer,

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework employees and investors. Then, decided on the long term plan and operating plan based on the objectives set. Finally, take necessary action to effect implementation.

The value-creation process is built on the capabilities and motivation of the company's employees to develop product and process innovation according to customer needs; to identify existing and potential customer profitability for decision on customer acquisition and customer retention activities; and the organization's value to customers, and the basis of its valuation by shareholders. At this point, KM participate an important roles by putting the information processing power of technology to anticipating or predicting customer needs.


The multichannel integration

The multi-channel integration process plays important roles to translate business strategy and value creation into value-adding interactions with customers. These include all pre-sales communications, the sales interaction, post-sale service and support with the customer. Now days, there are many channels option available in the market such as field sales forces, internet, direct mail, business partners and telephony; or a hybrid channel model which involves multiple channels. Therefore, it is important for company to define distinct channel roles and tailoring them to the needs of targeted customer segments rather than trying to provide “Everything to Everyone Everywhere”.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework 3.4 Performance Assessment Process

The performance assessment process covers the essential task to monitor CRM indicators is aligned with the objectives set; which helps managers collectively formulate plans, make decision and guide ongoing daily activities. Kaplan & Norton (2001) pointed out that the traditional financial measurement tools such as profit and loss statements, balance sheets and cash flow statements are measuring the past activities and are “lag” versus “leading” indicators. Since companies implement the measurement methods very differently based on their internal decision making styles, Kellen (2002) suggested a comprehensive CRM measurement frameworks which involving the point of view from a variety of different business units. The CRM measurement frameworks shall includes brand building, customer equity building, customer-facing operations and leading indicator measurement.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework 4.0 Corporate Appraisal (This part of report is solely used for academic purposes only and it should not be disclosed to any third party.)


Company history and background

AirAsia is the largest low cost carrier with the widest route connectivity in Asia. AirAsia recognized as the lowest fares, quality services and dependability LCC; and with the unmistakable tagline, “Now Everyone Can Fly” (Annual Report 2008).

AirAsia is working out with five fundamental values – Safety, Valuing Our People, Customer Focused, Integrity and Excellence in Performance as corporate culture to achieve everything in exceptional results.


CRM in AirAsia

“The most important thing about great customer service is ensuring that the customer has an opportunity to speak with you” said Tony Fernandes, Group CEO of AirAsia; and he strongly believes that CRM is a very useful tool if managed well. Many types of CRM tools in the market, but the common CRM framework for airline will be as provided by Siebel and IBM on 2005 (Figure 6).

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework 4.3 CRM Deficiency Analysis Using Lambe’s KM Framework

AirAsia has invented to new CRM system in March 2009. Ideally, CRM system is analyzing the information gathered to gain insight into each customer’s needs and behavior, and used it to improve the customer’s dealing with company. But in actual fact, is AirAsia able to mange well their CRM system? In this section, we will analyze the CRM system in AirAsia using Lambe’s KM Framework.

4.3.1 The Two Laws AirAsia has an effective CRM system to address the route that has proven to be high yielding and delivered sustained profit. In fact, AirAsia has identified and expected the Malaysia to Singapore route can delivered a sustained profit and will double up the destinations link to Singapore by end of 2009. By the way, AirAsia also identified their high value customer, and provide loyalty program to serve them better. Base on the customer reviews on website /AK.htm (Figure 7), out of 98 customer review, 36% of the rating is below 5. The main reasons for low rating are flight cancellation without notice (48%), poor customer service or call center (22%), flight delay or change schedule without notice (17%), and others (13%). This is proven that AirAsia only managing the early part of the customer life cycle and neglecting service after sales and very little attempt on customer complaints.


The Three Activities

Buying patterns are analyzed; customer will receive email or sms to suggest the destination of interest with travel guide in website for their decision making.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework AirAsia has customized their service after sales by providing variety choice and recommendation of hotel, hostel and car rental service. Introduction of AirAsia GoCorporate to provide special package for corporate travelers; whereby AirAsia had predicted that some of corporate sector wish to cut travel costs during economic downturn.

4.3.3 The Two Tools IT system is linked to most customer touchpoints as stated in CRM framework for airline provided by Siebel and IBM on 2005 (Figure 6). But base on the customer reviews (Figure 7), it justify that the call center and customer care emails is not responding. And there is discrepancy on the communication with customer on flight cancellation and change schedule. AirAsia has done well on targeting market, merchandising, and promotions by analyzing knowledge about customer. In AirAsia website, we can see that information on travel destination, hotel, transport, climate and recommendations is provided to customer for decision making before purchase.

The deficiency analysis (Figure 8) shows that AirAsia is focus on targeting marketing, merchandising, promotions, general information and other issue while have very little attempt on customer complaints.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework 4.4 Recommendations for improvement Based on the review of situational analysis of AirAsia’s CRM system, AirAsia has a well-established CRM strategies and framework. Recommendations as below made for further improvement in long-run.

(a) Implementation of TQM AirAsia recognized by SKYTRAX at 3 Star ranking. 3 Star ranking signifies a "satisfactory" standard of core Product across most travel categories - but reflects poor or less consistent standards of Staff Service / Product quality in selected Onboard or Airport features (

Without a doubt, poor or inconsistency services won’t have a relationship in long run. Therefore, AirAsia is recommended to embrace the Total Quality Management (TQM) philosophy to improve quality and reduce cost parallel with CRM system. The simple objective of TQM is “Do the right things, right the first time, every time; always striving for improvement and always satisfying the customer” (DOD, 1989 ). Application of Deming Management techniques (Figure 9) may hold the potential for improving both management practices and the quality of services provided through AirAsia.

(b) Monitor the customer experience by using FMEA. Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) is a globally recognized best practice risk planning tool widely used by automotive, medical, banking, business and so on. AirAsia is recommended to predict or measure the customer experience in systematic way by using FMEA rather than waiting for complaints from customers.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework FMEA analyses potential failure modes, potential effects, potential causes, assesses current process controls and determines a risk priority factor. The purpose of the FMEA is to evaluate processes for possible failures and to prevent them by correcting the processes proactively rather then reacting after failures have occurred.

(c) Dialogue with customers. A simple notification can be an opportunity for a valued dialogue. Certainly, AirAsia has done well on event notification; repurchase reminder, reward information and whichever that focuses on targeting marketing, merchandising and promotions. The portion that AirAsia miss out is service follow up. Service follows up such as a thank you or a satisfaction check is to ensure that each customer leave with a smile on their face, a feeling of having been well taken care of and for having purchased just what they needed or wanted; which provide positive customer experience. Satisfaction guaranteed but not a guarantee, regular studies or market research shall be carried out periodically to measure levels of customer satisfaction. A distisfied customer is our most important source of knowledge (Bill Gates). The results will provide excellent feedback on the efforts to improve quality and value-added. Make sure customers are recognized at all contact point rather than early part of customer life cycle. Customers’ time is precious, respond quickly to customer queries whether by email, sms or come to the service counter.

(d) Empower staff. Poor service after sales and problem on customer complaint is mostly due to front line staff can’t timely decisions nor effectively facilitating customer dissatisfaction and defection. Front line staff such as flight attendant (FA), customer services staff shall

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework be provided training on better knowledge and soft skill on customer service and communication skill to deliver service excellence. Basically, front line staff shall have good listening skills, problem solving skills and to be proactive and anticipate customer problems. Employees should be evaluated on their ability to deliver high level of service, and provide additional incentives to encourage employees to exceed customer expectations.

(e) Assessment on CRM system Assessment of results in CRM helps to safeguard against failure and mange conflicts in relationships. A balanced scorecard (Kaplan & Nortan, 2001) that combines a variety of measures based on financial perspective, customer perceptive, business process perspective and learning and growth perspective is recommended to measure CRM performance; rather than only based on market share and total volume of sales. The Balanced Scorecard (Figure 10) will allow AirAsia to monitor present performance and tries to capture information about how well the organization is positioned to perform in the future. Good assessment procedures shall included the periodic evaluation of goals and results, initiating changes in the relationship structure if needed, and creating a system for discussing problems and resolving conflicts.

We truly are in an era of transformation. If AirAsia do not give their customers some good reasons to stay, their competitors will give them a reason to leave. The ability to address these customer need, it will not only exhibiting best practices, but also to ensure AirAsia surviving quite nicely in an uncertain time.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework 5.0 Conclusion CRM is a powerful competitive tool, contributing to improved success of both companies and their customer. However, the process cannot be completely enabled by technology; it can only be done when the technology and KM are deployed. The successful of company-customer interaction required an excellent communication skill, customer service skill, and the ability to abstract, analyze, understand and act upon patterns arising out of customer encounters.

CRM is more than just a set of technologies, it is repeatedable process to ensure ongoing, continually improving, and consistent results and this requires the active involvement of business management. CRM strategies fail or succeed for many reasons. When they fail it’s often because they lack of knowledge about CRM and proper guidance. It is important to setup a comprehensive and balanced conceptual framework to facilitate their understanding; and as a base in the development of CRM used to leverage the customer-centric vision across all departments and employee levels. Key success lies on ensuring that customer experience is relevant, personalized, and supported with excellent customer service, support and fulfillment.

“It is central to our philosophy as a company that provides 5-star service… every single one of our staff is taught and encouraged to put our customer first” said Dato Abdul Aziz (AirAsia Annual Report 2008). Understanding these attitudes is just the start for AirAsia; it is an art to leverage this insight in the marketing effort. Bear in mind that technology solutions is just a tool, but understanding the mind of the customer goes far beyond technology, and it is a challenge yet to be widely met.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework APPENDIX Figure 1
No. 1 Definitions and Description of CRM CRM is a term for methodologies, technologies, and e-commerce capabilities used by companies to mange customer relationships. Author Stone and Woodcock, 2001


CRM is an enterprisewide initiative that belongs in all areas of an organization.

Singh and Agrawal, 2003

CRM is a comprehensive strategy and process of acquiring, retaining, and 3 partnering with selective customer to create superior value for the company and the customer CRM is about development and maintenance of long-term, mutually beneficial relationships with strategically significant customers

Parvitiyar and Sheth, 2001


Buttle, 2001

CRM includes numerous aspects, but the basic theme is for the company 5 to become more customer-centric. Methods are primarily Web-based tools and Internet presence. CRM can be viewed as an application of one-to-one marketing and 6 relationship marketing, responding to an individual customer on the basic of what the customer says and what else is known about that customer. CRM is a management approach that enables organization to identify, 7 attract, and increase retention of profitable customers by managing relationship with them. CRM involves using existing customer information to improve company profitability and customer service.

Gosney and Boehm, 2000

Peppers, Roger, and Dorf, 1999

Hobby, 1999


Coulwell, 1999

CRM attempts to provide a strategic bridge between information technology and marketing strategies aimed at building long-term 9 relationships and profitability. This requires : information-intensive strategies". CRM is an enterprise approach to understanding and influencing 10 customer behavior through meaningful communication to improve customer loyalty, and customer profitability CRM is an integrated effort to identify, maintain, and build up a network with individual consumers and to continuously strengthen the network for 11 the mutual benefit of both sides, through interactive, individualized and value-added contacts over a long period of time.
Journal of Marketing Vol. 69 (October 2005), 167-176

Glazer, 1997

Swift, 2000

Shani and Chalasani, 1992

Figure 2 Page 18 of 25 20Nov2009

Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework

Figure 3
Key Variables Source of knowledge Axioms Rationale Objectives Metrics Benefits KM Employee, team, company, network of companies. If only we knew what we know. Unlock and integrate employees' knowledge about customers, sales processes, and R&D. Performance against budget Customer satisfaction Employee, team, company, network of companies. CRM Customer database. Retention is cheaper than acquisition. Mining knowledge about the customer in company database. Performance in terms of customer satisfaction and loyalty. Customer retention Customer retention. Customer. Captive, tied to product / service by loyalty schemes Build lasting relationships with customer.

Recipient of incentives Employee. Role of customer Corporate role Passive, recipient of product Encourage employees to share their knowledge with their colleagues.

European Management Journal 9October, 2002) Vol. 20, No. 5, pp. 459-469

Figure 4

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework

Figure 5

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework Figure 6

Figure 7
AirAsia Customer Rating (Oct2008~Oct2009)
4% 23% 6%

Rating 0 1 2 7% 2% 4%

AirAsia Customer Review (Oct2008 ~ Oct2009)
Others 13%
Cancellation without notice 48%


4 5 6 7

18% 9% 11%

Flight Delay / Change schedule without notice 17%

9 10

Poor Customer Service /Call Center 22%


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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework Figure 8

KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Moderate Moderate - IT system is linked to most - Effectively targeting market by analysing customer touchpoints. knowledge about customer. - Call centre and customer care email is no respond or inactive. - Providing information on travel guide, and recomemdation for - No email / sms on flight cancellaion or change schedule. customer to decide before purchase. - Little effort on improvement plan for customer feedback.


PROFILE Effective - Buying patterns are analyzed, send email or sms to suggest destination of interest & travel guide.

COLLABORATE PREDICT Effective Effective - Discover customer needs on - Foreseen corporate sector hotel, hostel and car rental after would like to cut travel costs flight booking. during economic downturn. Provide variety choice of hotel to suit Introduced AirAsia GoCorporate customer needs & provide to provide special package for recommendation. corporate travelers

MANAGE THE ENTIRE LIFECYCLE Poor - Poor service after sales - Very little attempt on customer complaints.

IDENTIFY HIGH VALUE CUSTOMER Effective - Identify the route that has proven to be high-yielding and is expected to deliver sustained profit. For example - Singapore.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework Figure 9

Figure 10

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework REFERENCE AirAsia Berhad, 2008. Annual Report. Belbaly, Nasim., Benbya, Hind., Meissonier, Regis. (2007), An empirical investigation of the customer knowledge creation impact on NPD Performance, In Proceedings of the 40th Hawaii International Conference on System Sceinces, pp. 1-10 Bueren, A., Schierholz, R., Kolbe, L., and Brenner, W. (2005), Improving performance of customer processes with knowledge management business, Process Management Journal (11:5), pp. 573-588. Cannie, J.K. and Caplin, D (1991), Keeping Customers for Life, Chicago: American Marketing Association. Croteau, A.M. and Li, P (2003), Critical Success factors of CRM Technological Initiatives, Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 20, 1, 21-34. DOD, 1989, Duane Sharp (7 Apr 2009), CRM Issues and Methodologies: Many Issues Need Addressing in Early CRM Implementation Stages, Eisenhardt, Kathleen M. (1989), Building Theories from Case Study Research, Academy of Management Review, 532-50 Glen Urban (2005), Don’t just Relate – Advocate! A Blueprint for Profit in the Era of Customer Power, Wharton School Publishing wide_Choose_Microsoft_Dynamics_CRM/ (2009) Julius Chritauskas, Nin Bzys (2006), Problem of Implementing TQM Principles in Lithuanian Chemical Engineering Enterprise, Vadyba / Management 2006m. Nr.2 Kale, Sudhir H. (2004), CRM Failure and the Seven Deadly Sins, Marketing Managemnt, Vol. 13, pp42-46 Kaplan, R.S. & Norton, D. (1992), The Balanced Scorecard – Measures that Drive Performance, Harvard Business Review, 70, 71-79.

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Knowledge Management (MGT 503) – Individual Coursework Oubrich, M. (2003). Processus d'intelligence economique: transformer l'information en connaissance. Cret.log-Universite de la Mediterranee, Aix en Provence. Parvatiyar, Atul and Jagdish N. Sheth (2001), Customer Relationship Management: Emerging Practise, Process, and Displine, Journal of Econimic and Social Research, 3(2), 1-34. Patrick Lambe (2001), Knowledge-Based CRM: A Map, Payne, Adrian and Pennie Frow (2005), A Strategic Framework for Customer Relationship Managemnt, Journal of Marketing, Vol. 69, pp 167-176 Radcliffe, John, “Eight Building Blocks of CRM: A Framework for Success”, Gartner, December 13, 2001 Salomann, H., Dous, M., Kolbe, L., and Brenner, W. (2005), Rejuvenating Customer Management: How to Make Knowledge For, From and About Customers Work, European Management Journal, (23:4), pp. 392-403. Vargo, Stephen L. and Robert F. Lusch (2004), Evolving to a New Dominant Logic for Marketing, Journal of Marketing, 68(1): 1-17. Vavra, Terry G. (1992), Aftermarketing: How to keep customer for life through relationship marketing, Homewood Ill.: Business One Irwin.

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