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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems

Lesson 1 From Cells to Organs


Vocabulary:

Tissue- a group of cells that work together to perform a certain function

Organ a group of different tissues that work together to perform a specific


function

Organ System - a collection of organs that function together to perform a major


function

Notes:

All systems in an organism must work together to keep the organism alive.

What happens when a system is weakened?


o If one part of a system is damaged, the entire system may fail. If one system
fails, the entire organism is at risk.

How do cells know to become a certain type of cell?


o

It follows the instructions in it DNA, as a result the cell becomes


specialized. Each type of cell in your body has a different function (job)
Levels of Organization:
CellsTissuesOrgansSystemsOrganism

Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems

Lets Practice
Using this information, fill in the blanks below. This first one is
done for you.
CellsTissuesOrgansSystemsOrganism

1. Lung cells make up lung __tissue___.


2. Brain tissues make up the brain, the brain is an __organ___.
3. Muscle tissue is made of muscle _cells___.
4. Organisms are made of different __systems_____, like the immune
system.
Label the diagram below using the words:
organ, cells, organ systems, tissues, organism

Cells

Tissues

Organs

Systems

Organism

Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems

Lesson 2 Muscular and Skeletal Systems


Vocabulary:

Muscular system- responsible for the movement of the human body


Skeletal system-supports and protects the body
Exoskeleton- the hard outside body covering of some animals. Ex: crabs, insects
Joint-where two bones meet, makes movement possible
Ligaments-connects bone to bone
Cartilage- end of the bones shock absorber
Skeletal muscle- attaches to bone, you can relax and contract these muscles
Cardiac muscle- found only in the heart
Smooth muscle- found in the walls of organs, cannot voluntarily contract
Tendon-connects muscle to bone

Notes
For many animals, the skeletal and muscular systems work together to maintain the
animals form and let the animal move.

Lets Practice!
Label the diagram below with these words:
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle

Lesson
Respiratory System

4:
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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems


Vocabulary
Respiratory System-picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide in the body
Notes
The structures in the respiratory system include the:
1. Mouth and nose
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Pharynx part of the throat


Trachea -- windpipe
Lungsair sacs
Bronchi-- tubes leading to lungs
Bronchioleswhere air passes to the
alveoli
7. Alveoli-where
Oxygen
exchange
happens via DIFFUSION
8. Diaphragm-- sheet of internal skeletal
muscle that extends across the bottom
of the rib cage. As the diaphragm
contracts, air is drawn into the lungs

Here you can see the oxygen in an


alveolus is being passed to the blood
stream, while carbon dioxide is being
passed to the alveoli, where it will be
exhaled.

Lets Practice!
Use the notes to help you finish labeling this diagram of the respiratory
system.

Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems

Nose
Mouth

Pharynx

Larynx-voice
box
Trachea
Lung

Bronch
i

Bronch
i

Bronchioles
Diaphra
Alveoli
gm

Lesson 5: Circulatory System


Vocabulary
Circulatory System-transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and removes wastes
from them
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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems


Notes
The structures in the circulatory system of most animals include the:
1. Blood vesselstubes that carry blood, includes, arteries, veins, and
capillaries
2. Arteries-carry oxygenated blood away from the heart
3. Veins-carry deoxygenated blood to the heart
4. Capillaries-very tiny blood vessels that connect veins and arteries,
also found in the lungs for oxygen exchange
5. Bloodmade of water and blood cells
6. Heart organ that pumps blood through body
How is the respiratory system connected to the circulatory system?
o The respiratory system brings in oxygen and the circulatory
system transports it around the body.
Diagram of the blood
vessels in a human.
Diagram of the human heart

Lets Practice!
Directions:
1

Color all the veins in blue and all the arteries in red and color in the key.

2
Fill in the missing words in the sentences below. Use these words: pump, capillaries, lung,
heart, oxygen
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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems

heart
pump

lung
oxygen

capillaries

Lesson 5: Digestive and Excretory Systems


Vocabulary
Digestive Systembreaks down food so the body can use the nutrients
Excretory Systemremoves waste products from the body
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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems


Notes
Pathway of human digestion:
Mouth esophagus stomach small intestinelarge intestine expelled through
anus

Two types of digestive systems:

Incomplete--Digestive System- a single opening where food enters and


undigested food exits ex. Hydra, jellyfish, flatworm

Complete-- Digestive System-tube-like form, mouth at one end where food enters,
and an anus where undigested food exits ex. Earthworm, humans and most
animals

The structures of the excretory systems include the:


Liver-- converts ammonia into urea and then the kidneys remove urea from the blood
and send it to the ureter and the bladder for urination
Kidneys--the main organ, filter the blood
Bladder--holds urine
**Sweating is part of excretion as well***

Lets Practice!

Use the vocabulary to help find the correct match! Draw lines to
match them up!
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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems

Liver

Bladder

Excretory
System

Kidneys

Digestive
system

Mouth

Organ that holds urine

Removes waste products from the body

Breaks down food so the body can use


the nutrients

The main organ, filter the blood

Organ in the digestive system that helps


us chew our food

Converts ammonia into urea and then the


kidneys remove urea from the blood and
send it to the ureter and the bladder for
urination

Lesson 5: Immune System


Vocabulary
Immune System- recognizes and destroys disease causing organisms
Pathogenscause diseases. Some examples are bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi
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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems


White blood cellsdefend the body against invaders

Notes
The Immune system is all over the body. It is a network of cells, tissues, and organs that
work together to destroy invaders
The four main organs of the immune system are:
1. Thymustrains/develops white
blood cells
2. Spleenstores white blood cells
3. Bone marrowmakes white blood
cells
4. Tonsiltraps and kills germs you
breathe in

The skin, tears, saliva, and nose hair are also part of the immune system, and they are
the first line of defense, keeping invaders out!!!

Lets Practice!

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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems

Lesson 8: How Systems work


Together
Vocabulary
Nervous System-Control center, the brain,
analyzes the information and delivers chemical
messages
and
instructions
to all parts
the body.

spinal cord, and nerveswhich

of

Endocrine
System- produces and secretes hormones
that help
control many body functions, including
growth, metabolism, sexual development, and reproduction.
Reproductive System- The reproductive system makes it possible for an organism to
pass its genes on to new organisms.
Skin SystemCovers and protects organisms
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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems


Notes
If one part of a system is damaged, the entire system may fail. If one system fails, the
entire organism is at risk. In this way, all systems work together.

Lets Practice!
Fill in the function and organs/structures of the systems below. Use the info from the
study guide!

SYSTEM

FUNCTION ORGANS/STRUC
TURES

Skeletal
Muscular

To support and protect


the body

Respiratory

picks up oxygen and


gets rid of carbon
dioxide in the body

SYSTEM

FUNCTION ORGANS/STRUC
TURES

Circulatory

transports oxygen and


nutrients to cells and
removes wastes from
them

Digestive

responsible for the


movement of the human
body

breaks down food so


the body can use the
nutrients

bones
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle,
skeletal muscle, ligaments, tendons
Mouth and nose
Pharynx
Trachea
Lungs
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli
Diaphragm

Blood vessels
Arteries
Veins
Capillaries
Blood
Heart
Mouth esophagus stomach
small intestinelarge intestine
expelled through anus

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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems

Excretory
Immune

removes waste
products from the body
recognizes and
destroys disease
causing organisms

Nervous

Control center, the


brain, spinal cord, and nerves
brain, spinal cord, and
nerveswhich analyzes
the information and
delivers chemical
messages and
instructions to all parts
of the body.
To produce hormones
Glands such as thymus, pituitary,
adrenal
makes it possible for an Male: Sperm from male organs
organism to pass its
Female: eggs from ovaries, baby
genes on to new
develops in the uterus
organisms.

Endocrine
Reproductiv
e
Skin

Liver, bladder, kidneys


Thymus
Spleen
Bone marrow
Tonsils

skin
Covers and protects
organisms

Use the above notes for the Unit 3 Lessons 1-8


Body Systems Test in Sapphire
Lesson 11: Continuation of a Species and Lesson 12: Cells for
Reproduction

Vocabulary

Reproduction- when organisms make new organisms


Parent- The original organism that will make the offspring
Offspring- the new organism created by the parent(s)
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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems


Asexual reproduction- simplest form of reproduction requiring only one parent; can be
fission or budding. Each new offspring is an exact copy of the parent.
Sexual Reproduction- the most common form of reproduction requires two parents.
The cells from two parents join (fertilization)
Fertilization- when a male and female reproductive cell join together to create a new
organism
Gametes- Sex cells=sperm and egg cells

Notes

How does life continue on earth?


Living things are able to make others like themselves through the
process of reproduction.
If living things never reproduced again, life on earth would not
continue.

Lesson 13: Life Cycles


Vocabulary
Life Cycle- the distinct stages of growth, development, and reproduction an organism
goes through during its life
Metamorphosis- distinct changes in physical appearance during life cycle
Incomplete metamorphosis- the insect that hatches from an egg and looks like a
miniature version of the adult, but it lacks working wings and reproductive organs.

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Life Science Unit 3: Living Systems


Complete metamorphosis- insect will hatch from an egg and start off as a wormlike
larva, which looks nothing like the adult. Caterpillars, maggots, and mealworms are
all larvae of different insects.

Notes
All organisms have life cycles and they can be very different. Below are a
few examples:

Human Life Cycle


Cycle

**Use
the
notes from Lesson
3 L 11-13 quiz in

Chicken Life

11-13 for the Unit


Sapphire

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