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You parachute deep Into enemy territory on desperate
solo missions against overwhelming Odds.
-An arcade-style game from MicroProse? Yes, and a
domed good one. • Computel"s Gazette
F-19 SteaHh Fighter: the revolutionary combat flight simulator
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display terrain and targets on thousonds of missions with
breathtaking clarity and detail. Sneaking post enemy radar
odds unprecedented excitement.
-a Winner. Best Simulation Award. Software Publishers Assn. -a
"Colling F-19 Stealth Fighter a computer game Is like colling
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Gunship: the best-seiling simulation of the world's most
formidobte attack heHcopter. The AH-64A "Apache- skims
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and air-to-ground missiles. Solid-filled 3-D graphics draw you
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"A remarkable piece of simulation software.' PC Week
Plratest: oction-odventure role-playing simulation of fortune-
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"Action Game of the Year. 1988." Computer Gaming World
• I
Red Storm Rising: Immerse yourself In nuclear submarine
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know who's out there - and where - you hove the latest
torpedoes and missiles designed just for them. Based on
Tom Clancy'S best-seiling novel. developed with his adv1ce.
-Don', miss this one... highest recommendation. - Compute!
Look for this mid- 1989 release from MPS Lobs:
Ml Tonk Platoon: You're In command of four tanks. each with
four men. Give orders to just one M 1 or 011 four ot once.
Toke over as commander. gunner or driver In any tank. Call
in air support. infantry. other tanks to help. Spectacular
SUper 3-D Graphics create real-life. real-war roiling terrain.

And Coming Soon:

Sword of the Samurai. Unparalleled action-adventure. role-
playing simulation In feudal Japan. A true advonce In the
art and science of game design.


F-15 Strike Eagle" '"
Computer Simulation


180 Lokef/onl DrIve, Hunt Volley, MD. 21030

All rights reserved.

Copyright ., 1989 by MiCroProse Software. Inc. This book may nol be repro-
duced In whole or In port by any means without permiSsion, except the
quotation of brief passages for reviews.

Original F- 15 Strike Eagle 0 1985
F-1 5 Strike Eagle II c:l1Q89

Prlntlng: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

IBM Is a registered Ilodemor\< of International Business Machines. Inc.

Apple and MOCintoSh ore registered trademarks of Apple Computer. Inc .

Commodore 64 and AmigO ore registered trademarks of Commodore Business

Machines. Inc.

Hercules is a registered trademark of Hercules Computer TechnOlogy, Inc.

Tandy is a registered trademark of Tandy Corporation.

Atorl is a registered trademark of Alarl Corp.

F-15 Strike Eagle and F-15 Strike Eagle II ore registered trademarks af

MicraPrase Software, Inc .

The F-15E Strike Eogle _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Deslgner/ Manufacturer: McDonnell Douglas. USA

Ilole: Strike fighter
Crew: Two
Mission Weight of Takeoff: 35 Ions
Engines: Two General Electric FllO engines
Range: 1200 kms
Ceiling: 65(((l'
Maximum Speed at 0': 810 kts
Maximum Speed at 36000': 1260 kts or more
Maneuverability: Very Good

The F·l se Strike Eog~ Is the Joles! In a long line of F-1 5 Eagles. whose
development began In The mid '60s. Originally conceived as on ultra-
powerful. ultra-fost oir-superlority fighter. the design has developed into
on air-superiority fighter with ground-oNack capabilities.
The F·15 Strike Eagle is one of the foslesl. most maneuverable. cnd
most powerful military oircraft in the wOrld. II has the capacity locorry the
latest air-to-air and olr-to-ground armament In addition 10 its 20mm
connon. The Iolesl vers40n of the Strike Eagle is equipped with a sophis-
ticated zoom fUR{TV flOser 100gai tracking system that allows the pilot to
see close up views (either TV or lhermal) of the lorgel 01 all times.
'!Jtar'fritnds anl{
'ftffow Computtr 'Pifols:

(t is w;t6 gnat pftasurt t6at 1.41( at ').{i,rrf1"rrut 6ring you r6t

stqrltf 10 our aU'tmf.winning, off.timt .6a t ·sdfing proiuct 7· J 5
S'1'lUx..£ 'UUjL,£, 1.4flu6 S,tlrttd 16t com601 JfI!J6t simufotor mD~t .
'11+i'tcn in 1984 6y '}.fr. Sid Mtitr, MurrfProst Co.'foundtr, ana
pfoyttsUd 6y~, Major "'l11\"{tf'Bilf" Sttalty, 'f-15 S'1'l(j'jJ:, 'UUjL'£
set a s'a1l'orrl diat is 601' '0 top - hut 1.4'l! anaoing to Iry!
'We 6afJt 'aK./n alf of our flying andJfI!J6t simufation t{ptri.
tnu, comhint'it wit6 our SUptr J.'D (jrap6ic.s system, on' 6rougfil
YO" :T.J5 S1'J{J'A,.'£ '£JUjL'£ II. 'Wt ,6;nl(,,1( 'lie tlont il again; a
com6at flyi n9 simufation 16at is fun, t~itin9' c6a{{tn9in9, an'
tdutaliontlf, 'lI'e 6/Jpt!Jl'u agrft!
So, lIIil6 our 6tst 1.4ri.s6t.s ana 60pts for your continutd" SUCCt$S,
ana also our 'tsirt to continut to tlo 16t 6tst tom6a/ flying simufa·
tions in tnt uJOrta.Sid anti f 6n'1Ig you 'f·15STlU?\.£ ~(jL,£ II!

(jootfflying to you,

U ,~ifB?s~y,~,~:'~ey
Introduction 7
Quickstort 9
1. Tutorial 13
Preflight Brleling Options 14
Helpful Hints 14
Check QuI the Cockpit and the HUD 15
Flying to the Target I.
Attacking Enemy Alrcroft 17
Anocking the TOlget
Reluming Home "19
2. Operating Instructions 21
The Head-Up Display (HUO) 22
Cockpit Displays 25
Flight Controls 2.
Weapons and Defenses 2.
Views 29
Simulation Controls 21
The Pilot Roster 32
Difficulty level$ ond TheaTers 32
Ending Your Career 32
Missions 33
Ending a Mission 33
MultH>toyer Option 34
3. Flight Techniques 35
The FOfces 36
Taklng Off 38
Flying the Fighter 38
landing The FIQhl8r
4. Air Combat "
Missiles In General 44
Your Missiles 4A
YOUI M 16A 1 20mm Vulcan
Enemy Missiles
Enemy Guns 50
Missile Attock Warnings 51
Responses la Missile Attacks 51
The Missile Exchange 56
Doglightlng Maneuvers 58
5. Theaters 63
Ubyo 64
Pe/slan Gulf 67
Vietnam 72
Middle East 75
6. Warplanes 79
US-Builf Aircraft 80
Soviel~BuiIf Airclafl 85
Designer's Nates 91
Credits 94
The pilot glances up ot his HUD 10 verify his suspicions, It's frue: the
Ironion SAM battery at Bushehr Is slill active - the computer savs il fired
the SA- 12 thot almost took off the wing of the fighter .
The pllol rolls the jet over Into a 90 0 bank ond pulls back on his control
stiCk . causing the screaming Strike Eagle 10 angle lett in a deep tum that
sends the G-counler to the max, The pilot taps a button on his console to
Olm his AGM -65D "Maverick " missile ond a small SQuare box appears on
Ihe HUD showing the ground location of Ihe enemy radar - the Maverick
already sees the talget. The SAM rador at Bushehr. 30 kllcks away, pops
into view on the tlocklng comera CRT.
Just as the box on the HUD changes to a circle, indicating the
Maverick can hit the torgel, a horn sounds in the pilot's eor, and a tiny red
light on the console begins 10 flash . A burst message appears on the HUD:
MiG-29 firing AA- 10.
"So. the Russians are getting Involved in this little party too!"
The pilo t tops another button and the range of his scanning radar
expands to show the enemy MiG behind him about 20 kliCks. At tha t
moment lhe close proximity klo xon begins lIs chirping - the missile Is only
seconds from Impact. The pilot squeezes the Irlgger to release a choN
cartridge and swings Into a tight right turn. The missile flies through the
choN and out the other side only to discover that the Sleek Strike Eagle
has disappeared.
The pilot rolls the fighter upside-down and pulis the stick a ll the way
bock. causing the fighter to power dive then level oN 1800 from its former
heading. The MfG is there, right in front! The p ilot quickly tops the button
to orm on AIM -9M "Sidewinder." The tracking box appears around the
enemy Jet and Immediately becomes a Circle.
As the Russian pilot frantically jerks his sUck bock to climb a w ay, the
Sidewinder finds the underbelly and explodes, send ing the MIG to a fiery
e xplosion lS.OCX), below.
But before the enemy jet slams Into the glOund. another horn
sounds. The message on the HUD now is: SAM radar al Bushehr firing SA-
The pilot rearms his Maverick. circles around SO loot he's flying
perpendicular to the approaching missile. and begins to turn toward it.
The missile turns too. but the pilot g radually tightens his turn until the m issile
con·t keep up. It rushes harmlessly past the Strike Eogle's toi!. Now the
fighter turns toward Bushehr with a vengeance.
One hundred -twenty miles away. high above the Middle Ea stern
plains. on American AWACS detects two MiG-21s taking oN from the
runway at Bondar Khomeny i or)(! shoots a burst of encoded data to the
Strike Eagle flying over the Persian Gulf. The message is unscrambled ond
appears on the HUDwhere the pilot makes a mental note to e )(pect more
compony. He switches his toctical ladar display to long range and
begins tracking the progress o f the MIGs.
The all facilities at Kharg Island are slipping beneath the aircraft now
as the pilot adjusts his heading to bore In on the enemy SAM site 01
Bushehr. As he crosses the Iranian coastline his trocking box changes to

a circle and he launches the missile. which has made an electronic
snapShot of the target with Its video·like camera and will fly directly into
ii's center.
Before the Maverick hits the target the pilot heads back toward AI
Hufuf. He pulls his Strike Eagle into on upward half loop to gOin altitude so
he'lI have the energy advantage on the MiGs he's been walching. He
arms on AIM -l20A AMRAAM and gets ready to fire.
The MIGs are 40 l(licks away now but coming on last as the Strike
Eagle continues climblf)Q. At 25.COJ' the plane levels of!. heading directly
for the two MiGs. A horn sounds and another message appears: two
more MiG-21saretaklng of!. this time from Bushehr. Maybe it's best not to
challenge all of them . but then".
The pilot launches a pair of AMRAAMs. then reaches over and hits
the afterburner switch, There Is a sudden explosion as fuel is dumped
directly Into the chamber and the Eagle leaps forward . The pilot pitches
the nose down and begins to drYe. gaining even more speed
With a resounding crash . the Eagle breaks the sound barrier. as first
one. then the other AMRAAM finds Its mark. By the time the last MiGs
reach the wreckage. the F- 15 Strike Eagle will be home.

Spec:lal Welcome to Veterans 01 F-15 Strike Eagle

Welcome back,oId MendaI

YOVI ,. JS SIrIIt.~ "hal many new r.atur..1hat you',. going to

enjoy, but undemeath I', .... 1M 101M hCftt-hltHng. laIt·acHon bird
you'~ COIM to know and kNe. fOf a fait cMckout 01 your new Eagle.
I'ICJve; a IOc* at 1M ~ TutoItaI on 1M MKt PGOI'. n..n 0-1 out
"..... and lei 'em I'ICJve; Itt
There ore severol ways to gel into playing F-15 Strike Eagle II. The most
obvious and perhaps the masltun way is the try-ooo-see oppfOoch. But
for those whO Pl'efer 0 little guidance we have provided 0 short tutorial
10 help you gel started.
We suggest thaI you try this method. Just dive in and try things oul.
referring to this manual and the Technica l Supplement as necessary. We
strongly suggest thol you
• use the Keyboard Relerence Cord. and
• glorx:e over A ircraft Controls in Chapter 2 (pgs 22-28) 10 familia rize
yoU/self with the HUD and cockpit.
You con use the -Abbreviated Tutorial" method described below for
your first flight . or you con woo through the mOle detailed tutorial on pgs
13-19, If you like to be guided through 0 siluotloo . we sug gest the futl
tutorial. Nole thol the tutorial urges thol you at Ieost skim through
Chapter 2 (pgs21·34),
You can study the actual controls and operating InsTructions 10/ the
croft. then attempt to fly It. This IswhOt real pilots do. In this case, read all
of Chapter 2 (pgs 21-34) before flying and refer to the section 05 neces·
sary. You c an use The tutorial on your first flight 0/ skip it. as you pl"efer.
However, we suggest a practice mi!.Sloo as your firST flight.
Abbreviated Tutorial _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
I . InsleU the game as suggested onto floppy disks 0/ hord disk (il you
have one). See -Installation" In the Technical Supplement for details.
You can skip Installa tion. but If you do none of your records can be
2. load the Simulation: see "loading Instructions" In the Technical
Supplement fO( details and specific commands.
3. log onto the Pilot !loster: Following the on-screen Instructions.
erose one 01 the pilot names and type your nome.
4. Difficulty level: As a new pilot. you should try the "Rookie" difficulty
level first.
5. Theater: Then accept the Ubyan Theater.
6. Todcy's Misslon: Your commanding officer Informs you of your
mission for l oday. He alwa ys gives you a two-part Job to complele, a
primary and a secondary lorgel.

Slop! Now, belore you push the selector to continue:

BefO/e starting the game, examine the KeybOard Reference Cord.
This is on Invaluable old In flying your fighter. You will notice that the
command keys you'lI need most otten ale mnemonic - thot is. they will
be easy to remember. once you are fomillar with them. The cord contains

a list of these keys and their functions, and shows you the other command
keys In the game.
Find the Pause key. This is a very use/ul key while learning.
Skim through Aircraft Controls (pgs22-2B) 01 this manual lor on over-
view of the cockpit and HUD (head-up display). You 'lI need some
familiarity with these before you fly.
You are also Invited to look at VIews and Simulation Controls (pgs 29-
3l). especiolly the Out of Plane Views. Experiment with these on your firSI
few flights. YOU'M find the views quite Interesting and useful.
Now, while the mission screen is still before you, tap the selectOf
button and you 'll lind yourself already airOOne. (If you d idn' t select
"Rookie " from the Difficulty screen, see How ro Fly. pg 38, for how 10 lake
Tuman the autopilot (tap the Pilot. Automatic Key) to gel on course
to your torget. Every time you tOUCh the contrOl stiCk. the autopilot
automatically tUIrlS off. Therefore, you can experiment a bit with flight on
the way to the target . then tUlrlthe autopilot on once more to get bock
on course.
Note that there Is a triangular marker on the horilontal bar at the top
of the HUD thOt Indicates the bearing of your target: make sure this
Indicator remains centered on the horizontal line as you fly 10 your
torgets. Alternatively. the autopilot will always get you bock on course.
During the flight to the torget . you will undoubtedly encounter
enemy aircraft that ore trying to stop you from completing your task.
You'll wont to shoot them dOwn or, at leost, ovoid being shot down. Rood
Weapons and Defenses (pg2B) lor more Information.
look 01 the map on Ihe left side of your cockpit. You will see two
cross-shaped markers: these indicate the locations of your two torgets in
Ubya. When your fighter gets close to one of these, orm a Maverick missile
(top the GroundAttack Missile Key). If you are close enough to the lorget .
it will appear in the right cockpit CRT, and a box will appear In your HUD.
This box is a trock.lng box. and you can see what is being tracked in your
right-hand cockpit CRT. You can cycle through all available ground
targets by tapping the rargef Search Key repeatedly. When you find the
primary or secondary torget stop searching and get ready to fire.
As you get closer. the tracking box In the HUD changes to on oval.
and the CRT screen shows the words "Missile Lock." Your Maverick missile
is now locked on and ready to fire.
To fire. tap the Fire Missile Key. The missile will find Its own path to the
torget. If you want insurance . wait a second or two, then top the Fire
Missile Key again to fire a second missile at the some targel.
You can either continue the mission according to Ihe tutoriallnslruc -
lions. or you can return home Immediately.
To return home Immediatety.tap the Woypoint Seloct Key to display
the wcypolnts In The center Of your HUD. Repeated tappings of the
Woypoinl Select Key will cycle through Ihe waypolnts fOf the prlmcry.

secondary. and friendly alrbose. When ' Waypoint: Friendly Alrbose-
appears there. turn on your auto pilot (top the PilOt. Automatic Key) to
get on course for home.
As you approoch the friendly airOOse. top the Ground Attack Missile
Key to swltch the HUD to AlR·GROUND mode. When you are near the
land ing strip. it will appear in your right-side cockpit CRT. When you ore
very close to the alrbose. your fighter will be set down safely onto the
runway. This happens automatically. You have completed your first


,- - - -_. .. ~
This tulorial is designed 10 help you through your first mission. Though
recommended. flying this tutorial Is not required: it is pl'Ovided purely as
a convenience. For 0 foster entry into your first game. tum to Abbreviated
rutorio/on pg 9. If you prefer 10 study Ihe aircraft before you fly it. go
directly 10 Chapter 2. starting on pg 21 .
In either case. before you stort the simulation you may wish 10 install
it eilher on floppy disks or 0 hord di$l( (see "Installation" in the Technical
Supplement for details). You can run Ihe simulation without installation.
but your score will not be saved at the end.
To begin ploy. load the Installed game (or the original disks, if you
didn't install if) into your computer. See "Loading" in the Technical
Supplement tOl' details.

_ ..
Keyt: foe" key control has 0 I'ICII'ne In JfOIics, which appears on tM
Keyboard Reference Cord. A most... lilt oppeon In tM T.chNCOi

ControIIet Of ConIroI SlIck rer.n to tM poInHng dev6ce used by your

computftf. ThIs may be a mouse, )oysHck, or CI.nOf keys, depending on
yeM' hardWare.
Seleclol rer.n to tM mouse buIton, )oystlck tr\ggef, htum key, ar Ent...
key, depending on '(eM' hordwore tel-up. s.e
tM TechNcoi Supplement
lor details.
The functIoN of joystick and mouse buttoN during tight ore deftned In
tM TechnICal Supplement. For example, on 0 typical two-button jOyStk:k,
tM ftnf
button acts os tM F". Connon ICe.." tM second
__________________________ _ 01 tM FIre MIuiIe

Prellighl Brieling Oplionlss_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Log onto the Pilot Roster: Foilow the on-screen instructions to enter
your nome into the roster. Use the controller to select 0 nome to erose.
press the proper key to erose it. and type your nome. Finish entering your
nome by pressing the Return or Enter key (For more Information oboutthe
roster. see The Pilot Roster pg 32).
Choose your lirst missiorl: On your first mission, be sure to choose the
following options:
• Rookie difficulty level. then press the selector;
• Ubya Theater. then press the selector.
Next. your commanding officer appears and tells you what today's
mission is. After reading this screen. press the selector.
Helpful Hinls _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
You wiil find yourself already airbeme when the mission starts (you do
not have to take off in Rookie difficulty level). The first thing you should do
is top the Training Key. In training missions. enemy weapons do no dam-
age. You can sofely ignore enemy aircraft and missiles. Furthermore. you

have on automatic borometrlc altimeter that adjusts your altitude to
keep you above JO)" However . It only makes mild correctiOns. and is
useless If you make wild maneuvers.
To get the most from this tvtOfioI. pause the simulation (top the Pause
Key) and read the ne)(t few paragraphs. then ' un-pause- and resume
action for a short period. Whenever yOU're confused. just pause. Note
that topping any key (except pause) will 'un-pause- and resume lhe
In training missions (only) you can get an infinite supply of fuel and
ammunifiOn. Each time you lap the Resupply Key. your fuel tonk Is filled
and your ammunition is inCfeased to the maximum passible level. This
option Is especially useful In torget practice.
Use a light tOUCh on the Control Stick. The most common pilot error
Is a "ham-fist- on the stick. throwing the plane around the sky in uncon-
trolled abandon. Only emergencies should couse you to -peg- your stick
(push it up against the stoppers. beyond which It cannot move).
When you roll on aircraft left or right. pitch it up or down. change the
throttle or the brakes. It tokes time for the plane to "settle out: Good
pilots fly by making a change, then waiting a couple of seconds to see
the results. If you don ·t. you 'lljuSI "chose gauges- that ore themselves still
Airspeed semes out much more slowly than other settings. II tokes
time for your plane 10 build up velOCity Of lose momentum in level night.
Check Out the Cockpit and the HUD _ _ _ _ _ __
look at your Keyboard Reference Cord . showing all the controls for
your Fighter. The most often-used key commands ore mnemoniC. so they
O/e easy to remember once you are familiar with them.
The upper hall of your screen represents the transparent HUD (head-
up display), through which you can see the world beyond . The vertical
scale on the left side of the HUD Indicates your airspeed and thaI on the
right. your altitude. The horizontal scale across the top of the HUD
indicates your heading. A full explanatiOn of the symbols and numbers
are described on pgs 22-25.
The HUD has two operallng modes: AIR-AIR for aeriol cambol. and
AIR-GROUND for ground attacks. Arming a missile (tapping the Short-
ronge, Medium-range . or Ground Attock Missile Keys)swllches your HUD
to the mode needed to operote the armed weapon automatically. For
emmple, it you press the Short-range or Medium-range MjgsJ/e Keys. your
HUD is automatically set to AIR-AIR mOde. beCause these missiles ore air-
to-air missiles; tapping the Ground Attock Missile Key places the HUD in
AIR-GROUND mode. because your ground attock miss~es are air-to-
ground missiles.
The lower half 01 your screen Is the cockpit 01 your aircraft, The
various elements are described on pgs 25-26. We suggest you look at the
three CRT displays to get familiar w;m them.
• The left-side CRT shows a mop 01 the worid in which you will be
flying. By topping the Zoom Mop Key you can zoom-In on the mop: by
topping the Expand Mop Key you zoom back out.
• The center CRT contains a radar tactical display showing the
situation occurring in the immediate vicinity of your aircraft.
• The right CRT Is your tracking carnera display. When your onbOOrd
targeting system is tracking a target. you get a close-up view of the target
In this display.
Beneath the CRTs is a series of warning lights. The two leftmost
(marked "R- and T respectively) are missile warning lights. When a
radar-guided missile is ttylng at you the "R- light flashes: when on infrared-
homing missile is coming at you the "I" light flashes (see Dealing with
Missile AttOCKS. pg 51 . for details).
The other two lights Indicate when your landing gear is extended
("l- ) and when your brakes are on ("B").
On the far left hand side of the cockpit is your fuel gouge (labeled
- F" ) and between the tactical display and tracking camero screen is
your throttle gouge (labeled T).
Flying to the Torget _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Once airborne your first step is to achieve level night. Push the control
stick forward or bock until the hOrizon is level across the middle of the HUD.
Then make fine adjustments until you 're neimer gaining nor losing alti-
Now it's time to get onto Itle right course. LOOk at the heading
Indicator across the top of your HUD and the INS Direction Indicator (the
small, bright triangle somewhere on the top of the scale). lurn toward the
indicator. As you turn. the triangle moves toward the center; when the
triangle is in the center of the scale you're "on course" to the first
waypolnl. your primary target.
To turn, push the stick left or right - b1Jt do it gently - and the plone
will bonk. Release (center) the stick when the bonk angle of the horizon
is about 45°, To turn foster. pull bock on the stick somewhat, but watch
your speed (on the left of the HUD) and altitude (on the right). A turn with
bockpressure on me slick turns you much more quickly. b1Jt can slow your
plane and rob you of lift. causing a drop In oltitude,
Minimum safe speed varies with the current situation of your aircraft.
A ' stall indicator" bar rises from the bottom of the speed scale when you
travel too slowly. II this bar reaches the tick-mark in the center 01 the
scale, your plane stalls - it is no longer airworthy. and begins to fall out
of contrOl. If this happens. lower the nose to regain speed. then pull out
Into level flight.
Minimum safe altitude is about 300'. However . in this training mission
stay 01 least 8CX)' above the ground.
If you're conlused about which direction to fly , and how 10 do it ,just
top the PilOt. AutomatiC Key II will lake over Immedialely, turning you
onto the correct course. II you 're below 4(X)]' the autopilot will climb 10
that altitude, II you touch the control stick the autopilot automatically
turns off,
Once on course, enjoy yoursell by Irying out the nifty viewpoints
available by toggling through the View Keys. You can return to the
cockpit at any time: just lap the Cockpit Key.
You con see out the Iront. rear. and sides of the cockpit canopy
usjng the Look Front, Look Rear, Look Left, and Look Right Keys. In moun-
tain volleys and over urban areas Ihe scenes can be Ihrilling,
You can also slep "outside" your aircraft and watch it using the
ChosePlone. Slot View, and SIde View Keys. Bonk the plane Ie" and right
to observe the difference between the chose plane (where you appear
10 be in a plane following In the "Iootsteps- of the tighter) and Ihe sial
(where you remain behind the fighter and atways remain level)
The roct;col View, Reverse roct/col View. and Missiie VieWS Keys are
used In combot situations. These views show the target Ihal is being
tracked by your tracking camero and your aircroff (or missile), always
keeping both on the screen. (See pgs 29-30 for a more detailed descrlp-
1100 of these options.)
On long journeys. you can speed Ihe poSSing Of time by topping the
Accelerated nme Key. This doubles the role at which time posses To
return to normal time, simply lop the key again. Combot activity or
landing will automatically return you to normal time
Attacking Enemy Aircraft _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
While flying , you will, no doubt , see enemy aircraft. These fighters will
oHempl to stop you from reaching your targel. You may wont 10 destroy
To do so, tap the Medlum-ronge Missile Key. This arms one of your
AMRAAM missiles and switches the HUD to AIR-AIR mode so that your
largeting system Will track enemy air largels. The tracked lorgel will
appear in the Iracking camero CRT on the rlghl side of Ihe cockpit Look
at the display it gives you the range to Ihe aerial largel (in kllomelers)
and the heading you musl fly to gel to it.
II a tracking bo_ appears on your HUD, Ihe target is in Iront 01 your
ajrcraM; If not ,look at the heading In the tracking camero CRT and turn
loward Ihal heading until you see lhe tracking bo_ (or ova\) oppear In the
HUD, When this occurs, wait for the tracking box 10 become an oval (if it's
not already) then tap the Fire Missile Key, This launches a missile. For more
information about attacking enemy aircraff and dealing wit h enemy oir
aHacks. see Chapter 4 (pgs 44-62).
Il lhe enemy lighter ~ within 15 kms you 'll wanl!o use your Srdewind-
ers inslead of your AMRAAMs. To use the Sidewinders. top Ihe Shari-range
Missile Key, Ihen follow the procedure above,
You could, if you 're feeling particularly heroiC , aHack Ihe enemy

fighters with your connon, This is more difficult, but it saves missiles and is
very gratifying If you hit. Top either the Medium- or Short-range Missile Key
to get the HUD into AIR-AIR mode. This will couse a small circle to appear
in the center at the HUD; tIlis is the gunsight. The gunSightls his.tarical. that
is, it shows where the shells would be hitting now it you had flred them 2
seconds ea~ier; therefore you must lead your target. (For details about
the connon and missiles, see Attacking the Enemy, pg 44.)
Attacking the Target _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
As you approach the primary target and the coast ot Ubyo Is on the
horizon, it's time to start thinking about taking thot torget out.
Top the Gtound Attack Missile Key. This switches tile HUD to AIR-
GROUND mode and arms one 01 your Maverick missiles. As you gel near
the target. it will suddenly appear in your trocking camero screen, Don't
be concemed if other targets appear thete first; the tracking system
Iocks--on to the nearest target. A message will tell you when the primary
or secondary target is being tracked.
You can search for your primary or secondary targets, or any other
ground target, by topping the Target Search Key. In AIR-GROUND mode
this will cycle through all ground targets that your tracking system can
find. You can stop anytime you find a target you want to attock.
You'll notice thot a small box appears in the HUD. This is the - Iargel
box: The torgel seen on lhe tracking camero CRT Is In the middle of this
box. When you get within missile launch range. this box changes 10 on
oval shope. In additiOn. "Missile lock" flashes on the tracking camero
The oval shope means your missile can hil if you attock at maximum
:speed. If you walt longer. eventually the oval changes color. This means
the missile can hit regardless of your speed. It's Important that you not
klunch a weapon toa low. You may be caught in the missile's explosion,
or a missile may hit Ihe ground before its motor can power It up and away.
A simple rule to get you started is thaI sofe launch of missiles requires at
least 5(JJ altitude.
When you have "missile lock," launch the missile by topping the Fire
Missile Key. After launching, you may wont to tum awoy slightly. since
flying through an exploding torgel could damage your aircraft. Shortly
after the launch the missile should hit tile torget. A successful hit causes
a fire and sends a cloud of smoke Into the sky.
You can now fly to the secondary torget and attack it as well, using
the some procedure. Or. If you wish, you can call It quits and Immediately
start tor home.

Returning Home _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Top the Waypoint Select Key until " Friendly Airbose" appears in the
middle of your HUO. This moves the Woypoinl marker along the heading
trock at the top of the HUD 10 a new position indicating the heading to
your olrbose.
You can either use the outopilot or manually fly the plone hOme. As
before. guide yourself using the heading scole (horizontal scole 01 the
lop of the HUD)_When the INS Direction IndicolOi triangie is lined up on
rne center of this scole. you're on course toward your hOme bose.
Now simply ftyloward the bose. and when you get near II your plane
wililond automatically.

C ongrotulofionsl You ' ve successfully completed your fi rst miSSion as

a fighter pilot.

Whol follows provides Ins/ructIOns for how to :>pelole me game
uSing the keyboard controls If describes briefly what each control does
and how il might be used For informallon on the best way to use your
fighters capabilities see chapters land 4. Flight Techniques and All

K.-,s: loch control hal a name In HaIles that Is used to del6gnate which
key on yow keyboard contrOh what funcHon. A moIferlilt 01 ~ names and
keys appecn In 1M Techn6cal SuppWMnt.
Controller or Control StIck refers to 1M ..............
P devtce used by yow
cotnpUtef. This may be 0 mouN , joystick. 01' cursor keys, depending on
your hcJrdwore;. SM 1M Technical SupptemenI for details.
S,lactor refers to the mouse button, jOystICk trigger, Return key, Of Entel
key, depending on VOW hardware setup.
The tunctIons of joyttIck and mouN buttons are deftMd In the TechNcai
SUpplement. For e.arnpIe, ona IypIC:CIItwo-button toyaHck,lheftnt button
octs c. the fire Connon Key, ... MCond aslhe Rre MIaIIe Key.

The Head-Up Display (HUD) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

The HUD is designed to provide crucial flight and weapon informa-
tion in a graphic format. HUD data is projected onlo a wlde-ongle clear
pane In the front 01 the cockpit. You look through the HUDto the outside
world. As a result, valuable information is right in front of your eyes. where
you can see it and lt1e outside situation simultaneously.
The HUD display has two modes: AIR-AIR and AIR-GROUND. When
you lap either Ihe Short-Range Missile or the Medium-Range Missile Keys
the HUD switches to AIR-AIR mode automatically. When you tap the
Ground AMack Missile Key, the HUD automaticaHy switches to AIR-
GROUND mode.
AIR-AIR mode is for attacking enemy airC/oft: your tracking system
will track these targets only. AIR-GROUND mode is for attacking ground
targets: your tracking system is restricted to lt1ese torgets.
Some HUD Information is universal across all modes. Other informa-
lion is specific, available in just one of lt1e modes.
When your HUD is In AIR-AIR mode. you will know by lt1e presence of
the following :
Missile Targeting Envelope: This is a large. faint circle fixed on the
HUD. II represents the area of sky in which on air-to-air missile can be
aimed and "locked on- to a target.
GunSight: In AIR-AIR mode lt1e gunsight circle repioces the flight
palt1lndicator. The gunsighl shows where your shells would be landing if
you ' d fired two seconds ago (Ihe lime il takes them 10 hovel Ihe 6
kilometer maximum range). If you're tracking a targetlt1afs closer than

6 km, it shows where the shells would Iond if you 'd fired the Pfoper time
in the past for them to trove! that range. See Your M61A /2{)"nm Connon
(pg 47) IOf details on using the gunsight.
AIR-GROUND mode is indicated by the absence of the missile tar-
geting envelope and presence of the flight path indicatOf, which re-
places the gunslght. This Indicator shows the direcllOn you are flying
(which may be different from the nose Indicator).
The plane is geometrically level when the nose indicator and flight
path indicatOf overlap. However. this is rare in an aircraft. Furthermore,
level Hight (where you are neither climbing nor diving) otten requires the
nose to be pitched slightly above the Hight path. to achieve a useful
angle of attack. See Flight rechniques. pg 35. for rT"IOfe Information.

,- - - '''''''''- - - -,

1 '"
- -; "

'.'.1, , " V','·""""""" - -
INS (Woypoln!)
" i- -
Dhc:1ion lndk:dOI
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1ndlc:0I0f - , - - -j"'" 1



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The great majority 01 information displayed on Itle HUD Is available
to you regardless of Itle mode your HUD is curren"y in. This inlOfmation is
described below.
Airspeed: Your airspeed appears on the leN-side vertICal scale, In
knots. Beside the tick-mark showing your current speed is a digital
readout of your speed.
Heodlng:Your heading (the absolute direction toward which you
are flying. where (X)<'=North and 18O"=SouItl. 9O"=East. and 270"=West) is
Indicated along the horizontal strip across the top of the HUD. By aligning
the tick In the center 01 your HUD wlltl one of the ticks on the scale you
determine your absolute heading.
Altitude: Your altitude appears on the right-side vertical scale, In
feet. A digital readout of your current altitude appears next to the scale's
tick-mark until you exceed 2O.aXr. at which paint only the slk:llng scale
Tracking Box: Your fighter is equipped with a computerized optical
tracker. A small box - a tracking box - appears around the nearest
target ahead . to help you Iocote it. The HUD mode determines whether
ground or air targets are traCked. Of course. the tracking box is visible
only when Itle target is in front of you.
On most systems Itle tracking box is CoiOf-COOfdinoted with Itle
current armament, The color of the box Indicates whether the current
weapon Is eHectlve against the target being tracked. See the Technical
Supplement for details on colors.
Missile Lock: The tracking box turns Into an oval when the currently-
armed missile is "lOcked on" to the target. This is a maximum range shot.
A missile fired at this point may or may not hit. When the oval changes
color. the shot is now a "sure thing: with hard~ any chance of missing.
Stall Speed Indicator: At limes a colored bar rises from the bottom of
your airspeed scale; this represents the stall speed. If it rises above the
center tick-mark. your plane stalls (see Stalls. on pg37 for more Informa·
Vertical Velocity tndlcator (VVI): A colored bar extending upward or
downward from the center tiCk -mark on the altitude scale IndiCates your
fighter's vertical velOcity.
If the WI bar extends downward, your plane Is losing altitude; if the
WI bar extends upward, your pione Is gaining attitude. Each tick-mark
represents 100 feel per minute. Therefore, the larger the bar. the taster
you 're gaining ar losing altitude.
Landing Speed Indicator: This colored arrow appears on the altitude
scaleon~ when your landing gear is down. II Indicates the sofe maximum
WI for landing. If the WI bar extends below this mark:, landing is danger-
INS (Waypolnt) Direction Indicator: The colored dlamand marker on
the top of the heading scale shows the heading you should fly 10 reach
the currently selected Inertial Navigation System (INS) "waypoint.· To gel
"on course: align Ihe diamond marker wilt1lhe center tick-mark.
For each mission, your Inertial Navigation System Is pte-programmed
with the primary and secondary targets and the olrbase at which you will
land after completing your miSSIon. You can cycle through these way-
points by tapping the Waypo/nt Select Key.
Nose Indicator. This cross-hairs symbol Is fixed In the middle of lt1e
HUD, and represents the direction your nose currentty points.
G-Fon::e Indicator: This readout In the upper left corner of lt1e HUD
Indicates Itle current G-forces on your plane's a irframe. In general , the
plane can withstand more G stress thon the pilOt. whOse limits are
between -3 G and "+"9 G, depending on training and experience.
Pitch Unas: Pitch lines appear on the HUD when the hOrizon Is Invisible
due to radical climbing or diving. Each pitch line represents 10" of pitch
up or down, If your aircraft Is geometrlcal~ level, pitch Is 0". If your aircraft
is climbing straight up Of dMng straight down, the pitch Is 90°,
ROll ISindicated by the relative angle of the horizon or pitch line to the
cockpit and nose indicator. If the horizon or a pitch line is perfectly
horizontal. your Claft Is level, If the line slants to the left Of rlght. your craft
Is rolled to the right or left.
Radio Messages: Coded bursltronsmlsslons arrlve by radio periodi -
cally, These are decoded by your onboard computers and displayed as
text across the top of the HUD,
Whenever you orm a new missile, by topping the approprlate missile
key a message appears In the middle of the HUD Indicating this. When-

ever you fire a miSSile or your connon. a message appears in the HUD
Indicating haw many of the weapon you have rema ining.
Whenever you release chaff or a flare (see Dealing With Missile
Attacks. pg 51. lor details) a message appears Indicating you have
released the defense and how many you have remaining .

. ......
, ... ......
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Vow f- 1$

. ~

Cockpit Disploys _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Your tighter is equipped with thlee CRT displays inside the cockpit to
help you Identify threats and fly to your target area.
This CRT appears on the left side of the cockpit and portrays the geo-
graphical features of the regiOn. It Is oriented so North is always toward
the top of the CRT. Your primary and secondary targets appear on this
mop as colored crosses.
Enemy radar sigools are displayed grapl'"lically: doMed orcs are pulse
radar. solid orcs are doppler radar. Ground search radO! ore entire 360"
circles. while ground fire-control trocking radar are Short orcs. Aircraft
radar, search or fire-control. are short orcs except for AEW&C aircraft (the
11·76 "Mainstay- or E-3C "Sentry-), which hove on entire 360° circle.
Missiles and aircraft also appear on this mop as color-coded squores.

See the Technical Supplement for details.
Zooming and Expanding the Map: You can zoom in on or expand
the mop by topping the Zoom or Expand Keys.
This mop is drown by your compuler from analysis of radar signals. It
portrays Ihe lactical silualion surrounding your fighter and is arlenled so
the lop corresponds 10 your flight paTh. ThUS the map rolales as you lum.
The display graphically depicts aircrott, missiles. ground rador sources.
airfields. and incidental ground lorgels. A l6km square grid is superim-
posed for range reference. See the Technical Supplement for details on
the color coding of this mop.
Warning: The airbose symbols on this mop are icons only. They may
not be correclly aligned. Do not use this mop for landings!
Radar Ranges: You can adjust the range of the radar Signals that
draw this map. Top the Rodor Range Keylo change to Short. medium. or
long range rador. thus changing the scale of the tactical display.
The camero CRT, located on the right side of the cockpit. shows a
close-up view of the target being tracked. In addition. it displays the type
of target tracked (the type of aircraft or grOUnd installation). the range to
the target, and the heading at which you must fly to reach it .
Primary and secondary objectives are listed os such. Civilian and
friendly targets (which you shOuldn't hit) are noted also.
Your F-15 cockpit has two gouges: a throttle gouge and a fuel
gauge. The gouge in the center of the cockpit with the letter -r beneath
it is the throttle gouge and Indicates the amount of thrust being gener-
ated. On the extreme lett side of the cockpll is on illuminated vertical bar
with on "F" beneath it. This is your fuel guage. As you use fuel during a
mission this bar shortens.
At Itle bottom of your cockpit ore found warning lights. One marked
-R- and the other marked "I. - The -R" stands for radar and this light begins
flashing when a rador-gukled missile Is In the air and tracking you. The "I'
slands for Infrared and this IIghlflashes when on infrared-homer Is In the
air and tracking your fighter.
When yaur landing gear Is extended. the -L" light is illuminated. If
your fighter is going too fast for the gear to be safley extended. this light
flashes. When your brakes (air or wheel) are on the -B" light Is illuminated.
Along the lower left side of Itle cockpit is a ponel that gives a
constant digital readout of Itle number of each type of missile you have
remaining. The leftmost $haws AMRAAMs (medium-range AAM). the
center Shows Sidewinders (short-range AAM), and Itle right, MaverickS
(AGM). For details about your missiles, see ANocking the Enemy. (pg 44).
Flight Controls _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
YOUr fighter has a standard aircraft control slick. Pushing the stick

forward pitches the plOne down. pulling it bock pitches it up. Pushing the
stick left rolls left. while pushing it right rolls right.
Note that the more you push the stick. the more the aircraft pitches
or rOlls in that d irectian. When you release the stick (Le .. center il) the
aircraft remains in the new attitude until you move the stick again.
The control stick may be represented by a physical joystick. nu-
meric/cursor keypod. or some other device (see your Technical SUpple-
ment for details). If you are not USing a reol joystick. a control stick k>coter
box appears In the lower right corner of the HUD to show you the current
position of your -stick:
The throttle controls the power output of your engines. Maximum
throttle ("full military power") gives you maximum speed and perform-
ance. but also uses up fuel foster.
Thronle Controls: The Maximum Power Key immediately opens the
throttle. gMng you maximum thrust . The No Power Key closes the throttle.
shutting down the engines. The Increase Throttle Keyopens the throttle a
small amount. The Decrease rhroffle Key closes the throttle a small
The Afterbumer: Your fighter is equipped with an afterburner thot
allows you to gain a sudden burst of thrust power at the expense of a
great deal of fuel. To use the afterburner. fly at top speed. then top the
Afterburner Key and watch as your a irspeed shOOts up dramatically. This
can be very useful in tight situations where escape is the better pori of
There are situations when it is best to boil out of your a ircraft. When
you are so damaged by enemy fire that you can no longer keep the
aircraft In the air . II's probably time to eject. Just tap the Eject Key and
you"re out Do not. howevec eject if your fighter is inverted. or if you are
less than 100' from the ground; you"1 end your career if you do
The Londing Gear Key toggles your landing gear up and down. The
"L" light in the cockpit indicates the landing gear positiOn (see the
Technical SUpplement tor coors).
If the "L" IIghl flashes. it means the gear is down ottoo high a speed
- you should either slow down or raise the landing gear. Extended
land ing gear slows you down. and high speeds can rip it off entirely.
If your aircraft Is airborne. the Bloke Key toggles the alrbrake re-
tracted (in) and extended (out). When the broke Is extended the aircrafi
slows down because the airbrake causes extra drag.
I! the aircraft is on the ground. the Bloke Key toggles the landing
gear brakes on and off. In either case. if the bfakes are on. the -S- light
Is illuminated in the lower right corner of the cockpit.
The PiIof. AutomoHc Key toggles the automatic pilot on and off. The
autopilot. when active. lIies you toward the current INS woypolnt. If
you're below 4OC(l' altitude. the autopilot climbs to thot altitude. When
the autopilot is turned on. a message appears In the center of the HUD.

If you lauch Ihe control stick in any way. Ihe autopilot turns off.
Warning: The autopilot does not ovoid hills and mountains!
Weapons and Defenses' _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
These instructions give only the bore rudiments of how 10 operate
each weapon. Many important secondary considerations (like not launch-
ing some too low) and laclicaltricksore described In Air Comoot(pg 43).
Missiles: To fire a missile you must firsl arm it. This is done by topping
the appropriate key for the missile you wanllo fire. Once a missile 01 a
particular type has been armed all missiles 01 thaI type are armed until
you arm a misslle of anolher type.
To arm yoU(:
• medium-range air-Io-oir misslles (AMRAAMs). top Ihe Med/um-
range Missile Key.
• short-range air-to-air misslles (Sidewinders). top the Snort-ronge
Missile Key.
• ground attock missiles (MaveriCks). top the Ground
ANack Missile Key.
When a missile is armed. a brief message appears in Ihe cenler of
your HUD indicating the nome of that missile. When a missile is fired a
message Indicates hOw many of thOt missile remain.
Once armed a missile may be fired by lopping the Fire Missile Key.
Before firing a missile. make sure your targeting system is locked on 10 a
largel (the targeting box is on oval). If you wont 10 be more certain of a
hit. wait for the oval to change color. (For more infarmation about your
missiles and how and when to fire Ihem see Firing Your Missiles. pg 46).
Missile Targeting: When you arm a missile, the targeting system in Ihe
missile begins tracking the closest possible target , and this target appears
In your Irocklng camero CRT. This may 01 may not be the target you wont
to track.
If you ' ve armed on air-la-air missile. the tracking system will focus
only on the closest lorget. But if the missile you've armed is a ground-
attock missile, you can top the Torget Search Key to switch to 0 different
target. You can cycle through all possible ground torgets by repeatedly
tapping the Target Search Key until you find the largel you wont to track.
Note thaI when on armed ground-attock missilo (0 Maverick) finds
the primary or secondary target. a message appears on the tracking
camero CRT Informing you ollhis.
Cannon: Your 20mm connon is always available for use (unless out
01 ammo or damaged); il doesnol have to be armed. To fire the connon.
press the Fire Cannon Key to fire one burst.
Your fighter is equipped with two types of missile evasion devices:
chaff and flares. Chaff is used to confuse radar-guided missiles and flares
are used to fool infrared-hOming missiles (see Dealing Wit/1 Missile ANocks,
pg 51 , for more Information).
• To release a chaff cartridge, top the Chaff Release Key.
e To release a flore , top the Flare Release Key.

As on o ld to learning Hight maneuvers. a variety of aut-of-plone
viewpoints are available. In all these vlews your viewpoint Is outside of
your aircraft ,looking 01 If ond/O/ the enemy. These alternative views con
be very helpful in learning maneuvers because you con clearly see the
effect yOU! octlons hove on the flight of the plone.
Other contrOls are 01So available that allow you to manipulate
various aspects of the gome itself. such as the level of detail thot you
wanllo see. how many sounds you wont to hear, and so on.
Views ______________________________________
Press the Cockpit Key to return to the normal. In-the-cockplt view-
This control is used 10 get you bock into the cockpit - looking
through the HUD - otter you ' ve switched to another view.
Top The Look Front Key to look out the Iront 01 your fighter.
Top the look Left Key to look oul the left side of your lighter.
Top the look RIght Key to look oul the right SIde of your fighter.
Top the Look Reor Key to look out the back of your fightef.
Press the Slot View Key.
Here you ore positioned dlrectty behind your fighter, This view is
nomed fOf the famous "in the slot" position used by aerlol acrobatic
teams. Unlike the chose plane view. slot view remains level with the
ground. so you can clearly see the degree of pitch and rotl your tighter
Is making.
The Zoom and Expand Keys function In this view. moving your
viewpoint closer to acom) Of farther from (Expand) the fighter.
This view Is on excellent one for learning the most effICient and
effective flight maneuvers.
Press the Chose PIone Key,
Here you are positioned in a hypothetlCol "chose aircraft" that
follows a short dlStance behind your flghte/' Although this view Is very
dramatIC. Its use as a teaching and learning old Is limited.
Press the Side View Key.
Here your viewpoint Is from the right side of the fighter. The Zoomand
Expand Keys function In this view. moving your viewpoint closer to aoom)
Of farther from (Expand).
This view can provide a useful reference point. 11'$ also an excellent
way to check the state of your landing gear. Missile launches ale mosl
dramatic when seen from this viewpoint.

Press the Missile View Key.
In this view. you ore positioned directly behind your own missile as It
files to its torget. 1f more than 01'19 weapon is in flight. you are positioned
behind the missile launched most recently. If no ordnance Is In flight. you
are positioned behind the plane. and will follow the first item launched.
The Zoom and Expand Keys move your viewpoint closer to (Zoom) or
farther from (Expand) the missile.
This view Is very entertaining. as It lets you follow the weapon directly
to the target. If you 're having trouble understanding why your weapons
sometimes miss, switching to this view after launch can be helpful.
Press the Tactical View Key.
Here you are positioned near your fighter. but looking post It at
whatever target is being trocked on your tracking camera . This view
outomoHcol1y rotates to keep both your fighter and its torget in view. The
Zoom and Expand Keys function in this view, moving your viewpoint
closer to (Zoom) or farther from (Expand) the fighter.
This view is Invaluable when dogfighting. It helps you outmaneuver
and line up on on opponent (although it·s wise to return to the cockpit
before shooting, to ovoid wasting ammo), The view Is also useful if you
wont to return for a secOfld or third attock fILl on a ground target.
Press the Reverse Tactical VI9W Key.
Here you are positloned near the fighter'S target. looking post It to
your own fighter. The torget may be another piane. or a ground torget -
whatever your tracking c amero is following. In either case. you see the
target In the foreground. and your fighter for away. In fact. often your
fighter Is nothing but a dot In the sky. This view automatically rotates and
pans to keep both the torgel and your plane In view.
The Zoom and Expand Keys function In this view, moving your
viewpoint closer to (Zoom) or farther from (Expand) the target.
Experienced pilots find this a very dramatic view when making
aHock runs on ground targets. II's 0 great shOwoff view. swinging to
follow your piane as you tty overhead.
Press the Director Mode Key to turn director mode on or off.
Director mode Is p.'ovided to allow you to watch all the neat views
deScribed above attha most appropriate times. Whenever you receive
a radio transmission describing on event taking place In the theoter (such
os on enemy plane scrambling to Intercept you. or a SAM site firing a
missile at you). the Director will show this toyou. It 000 shows when you file
a missile or someone fires at you.
Director mode can be very entertaining bulls not recommended
when you are in close proximity to enemy fighters. because It can be
distracting when you are Irying to dogfight. We recommend that you use
Director mode only when not near the enemy. or when you ore showing
the game off 10 your frteods.

Simulation Conlrols _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The Pause Key Immediately and Instantly freezes the simulation. To
resume actlon, press any kay. Some computers have a special 'pouse"
or "hold" key, Depending on the internal design of your mochlne. this key
moy olso wor\(.
The Accelerated rime Key doubles the rale at which time posses.
Accelerated time is useful when flying long distances without encounter-
Ing any significant threats 01' opposition.• ACCEl" appears on the HUD
when the accelerated time option Is on. Topping the Accelerated nme
Key again returns tile simulation to Its normal time rate,
You should return 10 normaillme before combat: it's very hard to
control your fighter and respond to enemy octlons In occelerated time.
The Detail Adjust Key allows you to change the amount and depth
of ground detail viSible through the cockpit. See the Technical Supp~
menT for deTails. In general. the slower your computer. Ttle lOwer The level
of detail you should use.
The Volume Adjust Keyallows you to change The Type and variety of
sounds used In the simulation. See the Technical SUpplement for details.
When you press The key. the new sound setting appears briefly on the
The Re--supply Key Is available only In training missions. Pressing this
key fillS the plane's fuel tanks and gives It extra weapons. R&-supply Is
designed for slghl-seelng and largel praclice.
The Boss, Hide Game Key Immediately pauses the simulation and
clears the screen, effeclfvely concealing what soMwore IS really running
on the computer. To resume. press ony key.
This key Is not only useful at the office, but OISO to forestoll Irate
parents. children. spouses. and relatives whO complain about your
computer gamlngl
The Quit Key Immediately ends the simulation. It does not save any
InformatIOn to disk, so your score will be lost.
For any additional simulation controls. see the Technical SUppl&-

Your Career as a Fighter Pilot _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
A!; a fighter pilot In F-15 Strike Eagle /I you will fly missions 01 foul
ditf6fent levelS of difficulty - Rookie. Pilot. Veleron, and Ace - and In
four theaters - Ubyo. Persian Gulf, Vietnam. and Middle East. (For more
Information about the theaters, see chapter 5, Theaters, pgs 63.)
For each mission you My successfully, you receive points. When
you've accumuloted enough points you will be promoted. and If you
receive a large number of points In a single mission, you may receive
special commendation In the fOfm of a medol.
The Pilot Roster _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Each time you boot up the game and before each new mission you
will be shown the Pilot Rosier. This screen shows the ranks. scores, and
medols of pilots that hove flown before, and allows you to continue the
career of a pilot Who Is slill active or begin a new pilot's career. You may
erose a piloT from The rOSIer. buIll you do H is permanent and connot be
Difficulty levels and Theoters _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
After each mission you Ole given a choice of difficulty level and
theate!. You may choose any theater or difficulty level you like. but be
warned that the higher difficulty levels are no "piece of cake" and you'lI
probably wont some time In the easier ones to gain experience.
The four theaters are ananged In order of difficulty: Ubya Is the
easiest and Middle East is the hardest; Vletnom is more difficult than the
Persian Gulf. You can score more points in the higher risk areas, but yau
may last longer if you progress thraugh the theaters and difficulty levels
slowly, Yau Ole never forced to progress to a new theater or level of
difficulty. but the game does suggest a slow. steady progreSSion,
Ending Your Career _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
A pilOt·s career ends when he Is killed, which can occur In one of two
ways: 1) he crashes or unsuccessfully balls out of the fighter during a
mission,or 2) he boils out of the fighter (even successfully) too many times
during his career.
There are two ways of being killed: crashing your fighter Of bailing out
under less than desirable circumstances,
Crashing: As you ore hit by enemy fire during a mission and your
plane becomes more damaged. It also becomes less and less effective
- harder to ny, slower, and less maneuverable. Your air$p99d will
decrease to the extent where you may go into a stall from which you
can't recover. Finally, your fighter will crash.
II's a goad ideo to ball out before you reach this paint. because if
your fighter crashes while you Ole aboard. you'll be killed.
Fatal BailOut: If you eject (by topping the EjeCt Key) at an altitude
less than 2,OClO" or greater than 14.(XX)' you sland a good chance o f being
killed. In addition. If you ball out while the plone Is Inverted you will olmosl
certainly lose your life.

Too Many Boll Outs: The Air Force will retire you from octNe flight duty
if you lose too many of its! fighters, It you boil out of the fighter
too otten during a career . you end your carE!ef.
Missions __________________
Your career as a fighter pilot Is a series of missions In each of whiCh
you are required to destroy two ground targets. You will constanlly be the
objeCt of enemy SAM and AAM fire and may have to dogfight enemy
fighters. but success Is measured by whether you destroy your objeCtives.
Your objeCtive In every mission Is given to you by your commanding
officer on the "Todely' s Mission" screen. There are always two objectives
and they are always the destruction ot enemy ground targets.
To obtain a high score. you must destroy the primary and secOfldary
targets and shoot down as many enemy oifcratt as possible. You should
atwoysossume a fUll state of war exists with the enemy and should cripple
him as much as possible, Therefore. destroying enemy ground installa-
tions such as SAM rodors, 011 stOloge facHilles, runways. missile boats. and
so on Is also very good. Remember. lhough . that your primary and
secondary targets must take priority.
Ending a Mission _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
A mission ends once both your main targets are destroyed and you
have landed or boiled out sofely.
After you 've destroyed the primary and secondary targets you can
land at any friendly bose to end the mission. When you land, stop and turn
off your engines. Once you 've destroyed your main targets. you cannot
replenish fuel Of ammunition (see Landing the FlghtSf . pg ~I).
Landing During a MIUIon: Until you destroy your targets. you cannot
end a miSSIon by landing the fighter.
You may replenish your weapons during a mission by landing at any
friendly airbose. But you cannot end the mission at this time unless the
primary and secOfldary lorgets hove been destroyed; you may only
replenish your supply ot weapons.
You should not land until both main targets are destroyed and you
are ready to end the mission. because replenishing your weapons during
a miSSion costs you a substantial portion of your finol SCOfe.
When you boil out of your o lrcratt under sofe cOflditiOns (not In-
verted. and not too iow) you end the mission. It you have destroyed your
primary and secondary targets. the mission Is consld8fed a success. even
though you didn' t bring the fighter home - these things happenl
Safe ejection can be accomplished between 2XXXJ and \ 4.000'
altitude with the fighter In a gentle climb. Ejecting outside of these limits.
especially at low altitude Of In on Inverted dive, can kill you . thus ending
your career,
Warning: Strike Eogles are expensive pieces of equipment The Air
FOfce values its pilots but it alSo values lis planes. It you boll out too many
times during your CClE!ef . the Air Force will toke away your wings and give
you a desk job. ending your career.
Being Captured: Where you ejeCt IS important as well. Ejecting over
friendly territory. or over water away from an enemy coastline is ldeol-
you can easily be rescued.
If you eject over enemy territory or near an enemy coastline,
however. you may be captured. You. of course. are a top pilot. so the
authorities will not let you languish In a POW camp: you are exchanged
if you are captured. Your career doesn't end - but you will not receive
a good score.
ANer completing a miSSIon. you may watch a replay of what hap-
pened. Just select "Review Mission- from the "MiSSIon Debriefing- screen.
Multi-Player Oplion _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
If you wont to play F- 1511competitlvely against another player. there
is a "same mission- option. Anytime you choose the same difficulty level
and same theater as me Immediately ptecedlng mISSIon. the game will
ask if you wont to tty the same mission as the one just completed. If you
say yes to this questiOn. the next miSSIon will hove the same primary and
secondary targets as the previous one and the tighter witl begin the
mission from the some bose.
This IS very convenient for playing against on opponent. Each player
can tty his own pilot in identical miSSIons and try to SCOfe the most points.
You COUld. of course. use this option In solitaire ploy Just for grins.

.. -- ..
ThIS discussion of the princlpies of fllQht is not scientifically precise nor
mathematically figOfOUS. It is provided here only to fomiUonza new fighter
pilots WIf/1 the fundamental pnnClples at work while nylng and landing a
combot fighter



The Forces _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Four basic forces act upon on aircroft In flight: thrust. drag, weight
and lift. Thrust pushes the plane fOfWord; It varies with engine power Drag
(friction) reduces Ihe effect of thrust and Is relatively constont. Gravity
pulls the plone toward Ihe ground. regordless of the plone's attitude. Uft
pushes upword from Ihe wings. directly opposing grovity.
Aircraft fly because of the difference In pressure created by air
flowing over and under Ihe wings. The wing design causes air 10 flow

faster over the top of the wing than under the boHom, creating high
p/sssure beneath the wing and low p/8SSlXe above It. This difference In
pt"sssure pushes the wing upward and Is called lift. If the pressure differ~
ence Is great enough. the upward lift Is greater than the plane's weight
(I.e .. the fOfce of gravity) and the aircraft files .
The amount of 11ft gerl8fat9d by the wing varies with a irspeed. The
foster the plane files. the foster the a irflow. SO the greater the p/8SSUre dif-
f8fence. If your plane is In level flight. reduc ing the speed reduces lift and
causes a descent (even though you dldn' t point the nose down).
The amount of lift generated also varies according 10 the angle
between the wing and airflow. If you pull the nose up (thereby changing
the angle of the wing relative to the airflow). you Increase the pressure
difference, Increasing lift. If you dive. the reverse occurs. This difference
between the airflow direction and a line through the wing (the wing
"chord") Is the "angle of attock:
Angle of attack is visible on your HUD In AIR-GROUND mode. In level
flight. wtlenever your nose Indicator is above your flight path. the differ-
ence between the two is the angle of attock.
Uft Is a force perpendicular to the wing. If the wings are tilted (you
are foiling or bonking the fighter) the lift force is no longer straight up.
Instead It has two components: one moving the aircraft sideways. the
other straight up. This causes the plane to turn. However. II also reduces
the force opposing gravity.
During a turn a pilot can adjust the angle of attack by control stick
"bockp/essufe," thot is. by pulling bock slightly 00 the stick. The amount
of adjustment needed Is very small. Overcorrectlf"lg is a common elrOf
among beginner pilots.
To achieve "level" flight at a given power setting, raise Of lower the
nose of your fighter until the WI shows zero (I.e .. no ascent Of descent
appears 00 the "V" strip gouge). Note that a pitch Of 0 0 may show ascent
Of descent . depending on airspeed. NoSing up Of down to a new "angle
of attack" odds or subtracts 11ft as needed to achieve level flight. Never
assume that a pitch of zero automatically means level mght.
An aerodynamic stall occurs when !he wlng 's angle of attock
becomes too Iorge. The air stops flowing smoothly over the wing. and
Instead port of the airflow breaks away onto an Independent path. This
erases the pt"essule difference, vaslly reduces lit!. and generally causes
the nose to drop. Stoll speed varies COnsiderably depending on aircraft
attltude. flop configuration . etc. Tight turns Increase the stall speed.
Simultaneously, the act of turning will tend to decrease your airspeed. As
a reSUlt. stalls are quite common In tight turns.
Your fighter has an audible stoll warning horn and a thin . coloied bor
$hawing stall speed 00 the HUD' s airspeed indicatOf.

If you ore flying 01 Rookie IevaL you wiN not have to worry about
takeoffs and landings - you begin the game already flying. and ofter
you' ve destroyed yoor primary and secondary targets you con simply tty
toward a friendly alrbose and be landed automatlcolly.
All other difficulty levels require you 10 lake off. Fallowing ore some
guidelines on how 10 toke off. fly, and land in your fights/.
Taking 011 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Look at the satellite mop 0f1 the !eft side of the dashboard and note
the locations of the primary and secondary torgets for your mission. Now
lOok at the heading scole along the top of your HUD and top the
Waypoinl Select Key severol times. noting the poSitiOr'IS of the woypoint
marker. leave the marker pointing to the target you wont to attock first.
Check yOUf ordnance (top the Short- and Medlum-ronge Missile
Keys and the Ground Attock Missile Key) to familiarize yourself with the
weapons you ore cOflylng.
Turn on your engines by topping the Maximum Power Key. As you
move down the runway or carrier deCk. watch the speed scale (left side
of the HUD) very carefully. A thin . colored bar on the side 01 that scale will
gradually go down. This is the Stall Speed Indicator. When the bar drops
below the center tiCk-mark your plane Is post stall speed. This happens
very quiCkly on a carrlet deck, and somewhat slower on a runway.
Once post stoll speed , pull back gently on the stick. Watch the
altitude scale on the rlghl side of the HUD: you 'll start climbing. Push the
c ontrol stick ~ft or right until the woypoinl marker along the top of the
HUD matches up with the center tick of the heoding scale.
Alternatively, you can simply top the PIlot, Automatic Key and lei
your autopilot turn you onto the correct course to the first waypoint.
Flying the Fighter _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Use a IIghltouch on your contrOller. The most common pilOt error is
a "ham-fist " on the stick, throwing the plane around the sky in uncon-
trolled abandon. That kind of heovy-handed flying may be tun In a
dogfight. but it's totally useless for lining up a cannon shot. or making a
landing. Unless iI ' s an emergency use light. smooth stick movements.
When you change on aircraft 's operating regime, by moving the
stiCk, changing the throffie, etc., the effects of the change don' t happen
Instant1y. II takes a second or fWO for your gouges and displays to "settle
out" and show the new situation. For smooth flying a pllal always makes
a change, then ObS8fVes the effects. Constant adjustment ond correc-
tion shOUld be aVoided , because all you 'lI do is "chose the gouges:
overcorrecting every move.

271 til _
I.I.I,I.I V I,I,I, I .I,I,I,I.I.
' .. 0 I

* -=- *

HUD In Level Righi

Vour . . . II In ....... tight ....... 1M tight paII'I RIcaIor II on 1M
hoIIIon (the gray" _ ~) c:n:I you en neIher CIICendIng not' deIcend-
_ (VVI II..., on the aIIIIude ICCIIe at rIghI). W. common lor ... note of
_ 10 . . - _ _ __


To be a good combot pilot. you need to moster level flight. Do this
in a training scenario. rather than real life.
Climb to 2.CO), (2K on the HUD altimeter) and level the aircraft so the
nose of the plane points at the horizon. Now reduce the throttle to about
75% to achieve on economical cruising speed,
AMhOugh the nose Indicator on the HUD may appear level with the
hOfizon. a glance at the WI probably shows that you ore graduolly
climbing or descending. 11 climbing, push forward slightly on the stlckand
let go to see what hoppens; If you' re descending pull bock. Your goolls
to keep the altimeter rock steady.
You ' lI noflCe that your flight pottllndicator alms at the horizon, but
your nose Indica tor may be pointed above Of below It, depending on
your speed. Generally. the slower you're trovellng. the higher you must
pitch the nose to achieve level flight.
Experiment. Top the Brakes Key. This slows your plane. Watch the
HUD and notice how the fHght path Indicator drops os your speed and
altitude drop. To achieve level flight at this new. lower speed. pitch up
(pull bock on the stick) until Itle flight path Indicator Is level with the
horizon. You may need to adjust once Of twice to find the setting,
Beware of stalls when pulling tight turns. As your roll angle increases
beyond 45~ (when tuming right or lett), your stoll speed rises from the
normall20knot range to over200 knots (In a 90° rOil). Since tight turns can
"bleed off" airspeed, a long . tight turn may reduce your airspeed below
the stall speed. Keeping on eye on your speed Is especially important
when making tight turns at low altitude - a stall can mean a crashl
To make a very tight turn . roll to 800 Of 90". Then you can signiflCantty
Increase yOllr turn rate by puHing back on the stick. However. this trick
bleeds off airspeed even foster than a bank turn, and the danger of a stoll
increases accordingly.
Ballistic ("straight up") climbs cannot be maintained lor excessive
periods: the engines are insufficient for a prolonged ballistic climb.
Remember that any prolonged vertICal maneuver greatly reduces
airspeed. However, going vertical Is a very clever maneuver lor chang-
Ing direction. since you can roll while vertical. quickly pointing your nose
In any desired dIrection, then push down Into level flight agaIn . For details
of these types of maneuvers, see Dogfighfing (pg 56).
At altitudes under fIX] you can expectlncreosed buffets.downdraffs.
and other irregularities that make ftying difflcult. Also beware 01 low
ridges and moontains. It's easy to Ily Into a mountain II you're not looking.
Good pilots develop a · cross check" routine 01 scanning the entire HUD
periOdically. to make sure everything Is okay.
In "Rookie' and "Pilot" /light options you have a barometric/loser
altimeter. If you drop below 300' this device automatically but gently
pushes your plane above 300 leet. Be warned. the device automatically
turns off when the landing gear Is dawn or when the gun Is firing. The
device Is not prool aga inst power dives. stalls. or other radical maneu-
vers. but worlo:s line In normal flight regimes.

In fully realistic flight the automatic altimeter that k.eeps you above
300' Is turned off. This allows a skillful pilot to cruise at extremely lOw
Landing the Fighter
One of the more difficult maneuvers in flying the plane Is getting It
safely bock on the ground. If playing In Rookie diffICulty level. all you hove
to do to land the plane Is fly toward a friendly alrbase: when you get near
the base . the plane will be set down on the airstrip almost Immediately.
If playing In higher difficulty levels. you hove the choice of IOnding the
plone yourself or allowing the autopilot to land it lor you.
All ground runways and aircraft comers hove a North-South orienta-
tion.On approach . a course 01 (OJ (If coming from the south) or 180 (If
c oming Irom the north) will aim you directly at the runway. Airbose
runways are more than twice as long as your safe landing distance at 200
kts. so you hove a large safety margin.
Alrcraft carriers hove arrestor wires on the stem. You must touch
down belore or on these wires, which catch and stop your plane. II you
miss you 'll roll off the deck. Do not attempt to land on the bow of on
aircraft carrier. There are no aHestor wires there. and other aircraft
spotted for launching may be pos/tIoned there - you don·t want 10
crash Into theml
Players who dOffl wont to worry about leamlng 10 land the aircraft
may use autopilot to land the plane for them. To do this. select friendly
airbase with the WaypoJnt Select Key. Then tum the autopilot on (top the
Pilot. Automatic Key) and sit bock.andwatch the plane land. You still may
be shot 01 by enemy alfcrott and ground-based weapons. but the
autopilot will land your aircraft perfectly evelY lime.
This approach can be quite useful In learning to land. Watch the
fighter's HUD and panel 10 gel an Idea of timing. descent, braking, and
so on in approoching the runway. After a few times you 'll probably be
ready 10 aHempt a lal"ldlng unassisted.

1..(XD- 1..500"


Probably the easiest way to land the fighter. short of autoptlot , is 10
toke the straight-in approach.
Simply put . you find the olrfiekt oppfOoch It nom dlreclfy North or South.
and slowly descend toward the runway. Just before touchdown. open
the brakes. thaI'S it In a nutshell. but for more details read on.
Une-up the Approach: Set the waypoint morker on the alrbose (by
topping the Waypoint Select Key) . Set your course so that you approach
with heading (XX), or 180. Beginners should plan to find this approach
aboul40km 10 SCI km from the runway. ANemptlng to find the approach
and make a landing less lhan 20 km from bose Is nol advised for
Approach 01 300 kts: As you approach In level flighl. reduce your
throttle until the airspeed shows 300 knots (about 70% thloHIe). You 'll
need 10 raise the nose 5° to 7° to molntain level flight until you're about
20 km from the alrbose or carrier.
Throttle 50%, Gear Down: Now reduce the throNle to about 50%. This
slows the plane to about 230 kts. As you reach this speed. lower your
landing gear. If you 're moving too fast . extend the brakes (lop the Brake
Key) for a brief period. then relract them again.
Descend: There are two methods for descending. One Is to reduce
the power sHghtty. If you were in level flight, you now hove less thrust and
will grodually descend. This method Is generally preferred by pilots.
The other method is to reduce the pitch of the nose slightly. Typically
you 're landing with the nose pitched up about 5° to 7°, to maintain level
flight at low power. Therefore. reduce this upward pitch a few degrees to
couse a gradual descent - do not poinl the nose down and dive for the
In either case. your nose should always hove a positive pitch (the
nose Il'Idicator should be above the flight path Indicator).
Keep on eye on your airspeed and slall bar. If the stoll bar indicator
is 100 close 10 your current airspeed (within 25 kts). your throttle Is too low
or you're flying w ith brakes on. Increase the thloNle or take off the brakes.
Conversely, if YOU're moving 100 fast (over 250 lets), exlend the blokes
(top the Broke Key) for a brief period, then retract them again.
Touchdown on Runway' : Your altimeter will read O' on a runway and
125' on on alrcraN carrier deck. These ore your - touchdown - altitudes.
The sofe louchdown vertical velocity Is shown by on arrow on the WI
portion of your HUD alfimeter. A WI of .aoo Imlnute or less (4 ticks Qf1 the
scale) is always sofe.
The easiest and safest touchdown Is simply to gradually continue the
descenl until you're on the runway. Then cut the power (top the No
Power key) and engoge the brakes (top the Brakes Key) .
Touchdown on Aircraft Colliers: Landing on a carrier 1$ slightly more
difficult, since you must touch down In the arrestor cables or90. To ovOid
overshooting the cables, Increase your descent by lowering the nose a
little extra, then 01 the last second extend the air broke (lop the Brakes
Key) os you pull the nose bock up a bit.
If you miss the carrier's arrestor coble areo. don'l bother trying 10
touch down. Instead clase the brakes (if you opened them earlier) ond
hit maximum throttte (top the Maximum Power Key), Since your nose Is
pointed up, you 'll climb upward again.

, _ r

- - .§». -

, ~.f.,.,
Your Strike Eagle Is equipped with ttuee types of missiles and one
connon. Two of the missile types, the AIM-9M Sidewinder and the AlM-
120A AMRAAM. ore olr-Io-air missiles, or AAMs. They are used for destroy-
Ing enemy aircraft. The other. the AGM-65D -Maverick: Is an air-to-
91ouOO missile. Of AGM. II is for firing at 'Clgats on the QfOOnd. The connon
(M61Al 2Cmm 'Vulcan") may be used effectively against either air or
ground. although It Is for more difficult to hit targets with the cannon.
Missiles in General _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
There 018 essentially three types of rooor-guided missiles: beam
riders. seml-.octive homers. and active homers. The vast majority of radar-
guided missiles fall into the first two categories, relying upon a rodor
beam emanating from the launcher to guide i1 to the torget. This means
Ina! the launcher, Whether on aircraft or ground-based rodor station.
must continue to trock the lorgel until the missile reaches if. The third
type. called active homers. is the most technologically advanced. the
most expensive. and the most deadly; they transmit and receive their
own rodor signalS. so once fired . they guide themselves to the lorget.
These ore commonly called "fire-ond"forget" weapons.
Most long- and medium-range missiles ore rador-gulded. because
of the penetration power and range of rodar beams.
Allinllared (IR}-homlng missiles ore "fir&-ond-forget" weapons. These
home-in on the heat coming out of your fighter's exhaust system or from
the tips of the wings. where air friction makes them hot.
Earty IR homers were somewhat unreliable because they were not
very sensitive to differences In temperatures; they were easily confused
by non-target heat sources. such os the sun Of even hoi rocks on the
ground. Modern IR-homlng systems are tuned to finer changes in tem-
perature and Ignore all but heat signatures characteristic of aircraft.
Your Missiles _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Your AIM-l20A AMRAAM missile is one of the best medium-range
weapons in the world. It Is the only "fire-ond-forget" rador-gulded missile
In AmerICan Inventory. It has sufficient circuitry to penetrate most enemy
defenses. and sufficient maneuverability to chase down most fighters.
nol to menllon f'IOlling bombers and transports. Because t he AMRAAM
hasgreoter range than the Sidewinder (32 km compared 10 17 km). pilots
typically open fire at long range with the AIM -I20. then switch to Side-
winders if any enemy aircraft survive to that range.
Note: The AMRAAM has been In development for a number of years
and is not yet generally available. They are available for your Strike Eogle.

The short-range. IR-homing AlM-9M Sidewinder is probably the beSI
dogfighting missile In the world. It is more maneuverable than the
AMRAAM. giving It a beNer chance of -hanging on- 10 a twlstlng. rurnlng
lorgel. The mosl advonlageous firing position for the Sidewinder is up the
enemy's tailpipes. The next best position Is from above. diving dawn onto
the lop (hoI side) of the enemy plone. The third besl position Is direclty
into the enemy's nose. Shots against the enemy os it crosses in fronl of
you, or 01 Its underside (the cold side) have very liHie chance of hlnlng,
The main weakness of Ihe Sidewinder is its limlled ronge.

Your AGM-65D MaveriCk Is on alr-to-ground missile. used for destroy-
Ing torgets on the ground, It is a "flre-ond-forget· weapon of almost
unsurpassed quality. Once your tracking camera is on the right targel. iI's
just a maNer of waiting for the trocklng box to change from a square to
an ova! (indicating lock-on). and then for the oval to change color
(indicating a high-accuracy firing solution). When firing at ground lar·
gets. il"s usually wise to waif far the oval to change color before launch-
ing the missile. Once the missile is launched you can find other targets
and maneuver as you please.
The Maverick uses a highly-advanced guidance system. When you
Iock-on to a target. the missile tokes a "snapshot" of the targers infrared
image Which II then stores in memory. When fired , the missile simply flies
toward Its "memortzed" lorgel. The missile Is smart enough to hit the
targelln the center.
You musl always arm the appropriate mlssiie before you can fire if.
thiS is done by tapping the apptopriale missile key (Medium-range. S1ort-
range. or Ground Attock), Once a missile is armed, if will begin tracking
the nearesl target (the targel appears In your trocking camero CRn.
If you are aHocking a ground target and wont to track a different
torgel, lap the Torget Search Key{nate thotthls key workS only tQ( ground
targets). Topping if repeatedly cycles through all currently available
ground targets. Stop when the target you wont appears on the trocking
comero CRT. If you hove armed on air-to-olr missile, you cannat switch
tram target totorget because the IR homer in the missile wililrack only the
nearest target.
If the tracking box appears In your HUD, the target Is in front of yaul
fight6f and you can fire the missile once if locks on. If Ihe tracking box
does not appear. check the heading of the target in the tracking
camera CRT and tum towards that heading until the box is in your HUD.
Always remember to wait fQ( lock-an before firing a missile. If you
don't wait tor the target box 10 become oval-shaped , you 're firing
wilhoullock-on and will almost certainly miss. Once you have a Iock,look
at your airspeed. If yau're moving fast (around 50) or mare kls) or the
target is closing. a maximum range lock-on shol wilt probably hit. How-
ever. It your speed Is low or the targel Is ttying away from you, wait until
the range closes, ideally until the oval changes color. Then simply hit the
Fire Missile Key,
Missile accuracy doesn' t lake into account enemy defensive equip-
ment or evasive maneuvering. First line and elite tighter aircraft may
ptove more difflcult 10 hit. Although the "Mainstay" AEW&C croft maneu-
vers poorly, It hos superior defensive equipment that may make your
missile go aslray. Yoo may find that guns are necessary against Mainstays
flown by capable crews.
Remember that missiles 1011300' to 400' before their motor Is powerful
enough to guide them away to the torgel. If you 're diving to a low
altitude, the missile could slam Into the ground betore It can tty away.
Firing in a tight turn. or while Inverted, can couse the missile 10 tumble. The
wisesl method is to fire only when you're level ond above sao'.
Sidewinders and AMRAAMs always home on the mosl prominent
target. Which is usually the nearest, They will do so even It yoo were
tracking someone else. You may be trocking a lorgel, fire a missile, and
then discover It goes for one Of the fighter escorts thot hoppens to be
YourM61A120mmVulcan _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Jet aircraft trovel so quickly thai conventional machine guns and
connons cannot file fosl enough 10 guarantee 0 hit: 0 plane could
IIterolly fly between the shells. Therefore. modem aircraft connon are
either a group of guns (such as the twin 23mm cannons In many Russian
MiGs) or 0 multi-borrel Gatling gun (such as the Six-borrel Vulcan on your
Strike Eagle).
AircroH cannons hove an effective range of 0.5 to 3 kilometers. with
a maximum range of 6 kilometers, Inside 0.5 kilometer use of a connon Is
unsafe. as there is Q significant danger that a piece from 0 disintegrating
target will hit you.
Your F-1 5 has the most modern. advanced gunsighl available: a
"historical" gunsighl with auTomatic radar rangefinder. In normal opera-
tiOn this gunslght ' ossumes' you ore firing at maximum range (6 kilOme-
ters). However. if your trocking bOx is on a clOser lorgel, thot shorter range
IS used Instead for gunSlght c alculations,
The gunslght computer constantly calculates range. flight path, and
ballIStics for you, If then displays where your sheils would be if they were
hitting the target now. The gunslght cootlnuol~ calculates firing, delays
me appropriate lime. and displays potential hits as Itley would occur.
Therefore. the sight IS "assuming- that you fired at the correctllme In the
past (hence the term "hIStorical" gunslght),
The historical gunslght requires conscious "retraining" to use well.
slnce!t doesn't require you to "place the sight on the target.· However .
this weakness Is more than compensated for by the advantages of
anticipation firing. The SIght allows you to fire sooner and more occu·
rately thOn any omer sight In existence. The historical gunslghl Is the
device of choice among "In-the-know· fighter jocks.
It tokes about two seconds for the Vulcan 's shells to travel the
maximum6kiiometerrange. Therefore, to hit a torget you must Judge the
speed at whiCh the tOlget and your sight converge. You should fire about
two seconds before they meet, II the range Is less than 6km, wait a lItt1e
less. For example, at 3 I<m wail until target 000 sight are one second
aport; at 1.5 km wolf until target and sight Ole a half second apart, etc.
You can use thIS sight like on old lasnioned predicting SIgh!. That Is,
walt until the sight Is on the target, then shoot. But at 6 km range you 'll
hove to hope the target stays on the some course lor two seconds to
insure a hit.
In short, the key to using a historical gunsight is anticipation. Don't
wait lor the sight to reach the target. Instead. learn to anticipate the
meeting of slghl and target. then shoot ahead of time.
Using your Vulcan connon against ground targets requires some sl<ili.
In a straling attock. dive low (under 5CX)') then straighten out and Ily level.
Because the connon gunsight is optimized for o ll-Io-a lr combat. "walk-
ing" your shells across the ground Is the best way to hit a torgel. but this
uses a 101 01 ammunition. Experienced pilOts conIine themselves 10
longing bursts untillhey're close.
The most difficult problem in slrafing is your limited range . Maximum
connon range is only 6 kilometers; effeclive range is Just 3 kilometers. This
means you have only 0 couple of seconds 10 hll Ihe largel be/ore II
passes benealh your gun.
A common error when sllaling is "Iargetlixotion" where you ignore
altitude. Remember Ihat slrafing means diving - and you've gal 10
come up again sometlmel Atter you pass your target. open the throttle
and turn away. Keep on eye on your missile warnings and be ready 10
drop chOff or flares.

The enemy will be firing sophistlcaled miSSIles 01 you in on attempt to
destroy your oircroft, He will use basicolly two typeset missiles: Surloce-Io-
Air Missiles (SAMs). Ihat ore fired from ground installations, and Air -la-Air
Missiles (AAMs). like your AMRAAMs. and Sidewlr.ders, lhot ore fired /rom
his fighters
His aircraft ore olso equipped with rapid-firing connon . like your
Vulcan. In general. the enemy's connon ore not 05 effective as your own.
but be careful of Ihe lucky mOl.
Enemy Missiles _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
As you fly into enemy rodor search zones, which include just about
all of Ille areas Into which you will fly. the enemy will cttampllo destroy
your fighter from ground-based miSSIle launch siles. In order to ovoid
being shot down by SAMs ills Important to understand how they work,
Rodar-Gulded SAMs: Medium- and long-ronged SAMs are rodar-
guided All types use the same three-step process to engage their target
( 1) Radal search: Enemy search radar periodically scans a 360° area
of the sky.
(2) Radar tracking: When a search radar finds a target (such as your
plone) it - honds off" to a narrow-beam tire control rodar\N'h i.:::h locks onto
your croft. At this point a missile is launched.
(3) Radar control: Once the missile is launChed, the narrow beam
continues tracking your plane so the missile's course can be updated
and COllected
IR-Homing SAMs: Short-range SAMs are usually Inlrored-homing
missiles. The only significant difference between the method used lor
killing you with IR SAMs ond lhot lor Radar SAMs Is thol once fired, on IR
SAM doesn't rely upon the fodof 10 update its course during Night;
instead, it guides itself to the larget
(1) Radar search: A search radar findS YOUf aifcroft.
(2) Radar tracking: A trocking radar follOws your aircraft,
(3) Missile launch: The IR homing missile Is launched. At this point
tracking radar is unnecessary, as the missile can guide itselt to target.
The enemy has a wide variety 01 threatening AAMs. but probably
themostdangefousone Is the Russian AA- IO -Alamo." Ukeyour AMRAAM.
It Is a -fire-ond~forget" medium range missile. and is difficult to shake. All
other Russian medium- and long-ronge AAMs are radal-guided. semi-
active homers - they rely upon a rador beam emanating from the firing
aircraft to guide the missile 10 your fighter.
By definitiOn. all IR-homlng AAMs are "flre-and-forgel" weapons.
These are usually short-range (B-12 \e.m). dogfighting missiles. The most
dangerous is the Russian-built AA-B • Aphid." whose maneuverability and
modem lR seeker is almost a match for your Sidewinder. If enemy MiGs or
Sukhois close to M-B lange. you could be in trouble; only your dogfight-
ing skill may save you.
Enemy Guns _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The enemy has cannons equivalent to yours in ronge a nd power.
However. the enemy still uses old predicting gunsights. This means Iney
ore virtually required 10 gel behind you before they can make a decent
shot. In addition, all but the most elite pilots will be slow to fira , since they
must place the gunsighl on th(J target and keep It there to score a hil.
If you sense the enemy is behind you and ready to fife cannons,
"jlnklng" (small. violent moves in random directions) con throw off his aim.
Flr.olly. Russian-built aircraft with Ihe older GSh-23 connon may not
alWays hit . since the !ower volume of firepower Increases the chance of
you "'lying between the shells' and escoping serious Injury. Don" rely on
this: not every 23mm shell Is on unlucky one!
Inevitably, you will find yourself under attock from both ground-
based and air-launched missiles. Your fighter Is designed to give you
ample warning before you ore hit and destroyed, and there are several
defense systems built into the plone to aid you in spoiling the enemy's
aHempts to shoot you down. In addition. with practice you con maneu-
ver your way out of desperate situations without having 10 rely upon your
fighter's defense systems,
Missile Attack Warnings ____________
Your first warning thol a missile has been fired at you comes In the
form of a beep and a message displayed In your HUD. This will Inform you
of the type of missile fired and the place from which It was launched if it
is a SAM or the type of enemy plane that fired It If it's on AAM.
AI this point one of the warning lights on Ine dashboard begins
flashing to remlr.d you that a missi~ has you targeted. If the ottending
weapon is rodor-guided . the -R- light Noshes; it it is on IR-homer. the T
light Noshes.
Your next warning appears on your tactical screen . In the middle 01
the dashboard. Yoo see the missile as it approaches your tighter. Finally.
when the missile Is within a lew seconds of Impoct , you hear the missile
proximity klaxon, a high-pitched beeping sound that continues until the
danger Is passed or until the weapon slams Into your fighter.
Responses to Missile Attacks _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
In some cases. especially when a missile is fired at you from great
distances, you can ovOid the danger by simply -hiding- from the radar
that must track you to guide the missile 10 your fighter. Unfortunately, IR-
homers thot ore olready emoote cannot be evaded in this way, but you
may avoid additional launches of IR missiles. since the first step in
launching is to find you with rador.
First and foremost , the further you are from the enemy rador site, the
weaker the Signal. Therefore you moy wish to simply turn and run oway for
a while. until the signal Is too weak to -see" you. Also remember thai
reducing your allitude. lowering your engine power. and levelling out
yoof flight will help.

Chaff a Missile Field of VteW

----+. E~
F-15 beVood
tIeId of view


". M.... 'OId

AI poinI 1 the F-15 releases
chaff. The millie homes on the chaff
\ / of View while the F-15 continues strolghl

I Missile
ahead. A12, the F·15 Is beyond tne

missile', ".w ewc.~ Onc. the mls·
palMI tne chaff, " wHl .... no
I tewget and tty off blindly.


Fo r defense against radar-guided missiles. your fighter is equipped
with chaff cartridges. Each chaff cartridge deploys a cloud of tiny tin-foil
strips that reflect enemy radar. For two or more seconds the strips form a
huge radar reflector. blinding the missile. like a smoke screen.
The classic chaff technique is to wait until a radar-guided missile is
just a couple seconds away (when the missHe proximity klaxon sounds).
At that instant fire a chaff cartridge (tap the Chaff Key) and turn away.
The blinded missile will fly straight into the chaff. missing you.
Note that you do not have on endless supply of chaff cartridges:
your current supply is constantly updated and indicated in the middle of
your HUD wtlenever you use one.
Doppler Missiles: Enemy missiles with Doppler radar guidance sys·
temsore a special danger. These missiles will not home on the chaff unless
your course is perpendicular (at right angles to) the missile. If the missile
chases you from the rear or aHocks from straight ahead . chaff has no
Only three SAMs currenlly have Doppler guidance: the SA·IO. SA·12.
and SA-N-6. Only one AAM (olr-Io-oir missile) has Doppler guidance: the
AA- lO.

For defense against IR-homing missiles, your fighter Is equipped with
heat-producing Nares. Although called "fiores: these ore really small.
finely tuned heat decoys. A Nare lures on IR missile toward it (and away
from you), but only during the 2to 3 seconds it burns, After that the flore
dies and the missile resumes seeking. Therefore. like chaff, the standard
technique Is to walt until the missile is a couple of seconds away (the
klaxon sounds) . then drop a flore while you turn away.
Uke chaff cartridges, you don' t have on infinite number of flares:
your supply islndicaled in Ihe middle Ihe HUD whenever you use one.
It's Impoltantlo remember lhat chaff and flores oren'l perfect. Bolh
rador~gulded and IR-homlng m~les continue seeking otter your flore Of
chaff expires and Doppler rodar missiles Ignore chaff altogether if you're
on the wrong course. Therefore. It's Importanlto maneuver out of Ihe
missile's "field of view" when the defense expires. If you don '1, the missile
will re-acquire you and continue on a cOlliSion coursel
If you're on especially skillful pilOt. you can out-maneuver on er.emy
missile without mechanical aids.
Evodlng the Missile's View: SAMs have a limited cone of vision; they
con only "home" on torgets within the acquiSition orc of their seeker, This
orc is 0 bore 45° aheod of the missile. If flores or chaff temporarily confuse
a missile, you can evade attock by turning rapidly to move outside this 45°
arc. Usually the quickest escape course is one perpendicular to the
missile's flight path.
Tumlng Inside a MIssile


n.. F-15 above turns so

HghttylMm..... can'tstaywtlh
" and PQIMS hOrmleslly to the
right. Thb It a good maneuver

Turning inside 0 Missile: When a missile is close, you still hove a

chance to outmaneuver it. because its turning orc is larger than yours.
If the missile is trying 10 fly up your tail. roil over onto a wingtip tOl 0
light turn, then pull bock hord on the control stick to tighten the turn
further. Keep on eye on your a irspeed, since you con', slay long In this
kind of a turn - soon the plane will stall. But meanwhile. the missile is
making Q wider, laster turn thol causes it to zoom past harmlessly

Tumlng Toward a MIssile

E -.. - _ _

1M Strike Eagle above II

evcd'Ig a m6aIIe ~ rna-
new. power c:IbM. AI IN
~ turns, the m6uIIe tries to
Enemy missile tlyng fOIow, but cannot tum fait
tOSI9f It'oOn F· 15 ~. the rMIIe "falls be-
hn;t'" end PQIMS 1'ICIrm.atw'

Turning toward a Mlsslle: II a SAM oppfOQches you from the side.

gradually furn toward it . Increasing the tightness 01 your tum as it comes
closer. The objective Is to keep the missile 's course o t right angles
(perpendicular) 10 your own.
This tactic works becouse the missile connollurn with you. Instead .
II gradually foils behind and zooms post your tail.
Evading Frontal A"ock s: If a missile opproaches you Irom the front .
wait until if's oboul8 to 12 kilometers awoy (about 2/ 3 01 a grid square on
the tactical display).
Then make a quick QO" turn. placing the missile toclng your side. Now
roll over 180" and turn toward the missile. Nowyou're set up for a turning
boM\e (see "Turning toward a Missile: above).
Missile Minimum Range: Lorge less-maneuverable missiles fireslralghl
up when firsllaunched . This means that they can ' t begin homing until
they·re beyond a certain distance (in range and a ltitude) Irom !her
launchers. As a result , circling right over a battery of low-maneuverability
SAMs can actually be very safe.
The best way to ambush on enemy plane Is to slide up from behind
il. Enemy aircraft hove forward-foclng radors only (except the Il-76
"Mainstay' AfW&C). so coming In from behind means you con catch
him off guard.
Traditionally. fighter pilots prefer to attack from above. This gives
them on energy advantage In a dogfight. However. missile tactics and
the Importance of secrecy make a height advantage less valuable.
Gaining height makes you visible to enemy rador. which moy worn your
lorgets. Therefore. approaching low and from behind is otten wiser. Only
if your missile attacks foil and the enemy discovers you should you begin
to seek on altitude advantoge.
If you 're 5urPf~ or "bounced" (attacked from above) by the
enemy, Immediately look for incoming missiles and lake appropriate
defensive action. Missiles arrive foster than aircraft, and must be avoided
first. Only then can you begin dogfighting.
The Missile Exchange _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Otten on alr-to-oir bottle Sfarts beCause the enemy has discovered
you and vectors fighters In your direction. The result, quite frequenlly, is a
head-to-head face-off.
In tNs western-style showdown each Side storts wi th an exchange of
medium-ranged AAMs. Be prepared to chaff the "incoming" or maneu-
ver it 10 a course perpendicular to your own. Once your medium-range
rodor missile is away. switch 10 a Sidewinder. You may get a second
Close-range missile shot if the AMRAAM foils. Scoring with a head-Io-head
connon shetls much more diffiCult; It"s not worth the ammo unless you're
oul of missiles or you're on incredibly good marksman.
In most cases. if you can gel off 0 second missile shot so can on
enemy carrying second-generation IR missiles (the AA-8 or AA-IO IR
version). These nestles Show up frequenlly on MiG-29s and Su-27s. but
oren'l unknown on other croft flown by veteran or elite pilots.

Earty Tum
on a head-te-head pass
F·15 tn


toward MIG's Toil

., AnF·1S • • ec:utelanearty
tum ogoInSto MIG. By posmon
4 the f -15 Is <*eody clollng
on the MIG', toll.


One of the most difficult buT usefulloclics in a head·lo-head match
is making an early turn. Agoinst inexperienced pilo ts Illis trick is easy. since
greenhorns usually keep boring in. hoping for a connon shot Against

velS, on early tum requires fine timing, If you tum mOl'e man a second or
two ahead of the enemy, you 're just telegraphing your intentions. II you
walt too long, you get no advantage at all (see diagram).
Dogfighting Maneuvers _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The essential rule In dogfighting is to get on the enemy' s toil. On all
tighTers, gun and missile guidance systems lace IOfward, so if you 're on
the enemy' s Toll he cannot shoot at you. II you can't get on his Tail, Try to
place his aircraft as much aheod 01 you as possible, so you have the
ma)(lmum number 01 tiring opportunities.
Maintaining higher speed Of altitude Is valuable in a dogfight. A
plane slower and lower can only dodge attacks, A plane foster or higher
can attack or retreat as desired. Having a higher speed or altitude is
termed the "energy advantoge."
II the enemy is behind you , tt"l8fe are various classic escape maneu-
vers: Turning Inside, The Scissors Tum, The Immelmann Tum, The Split-S Tum.
and the Yo-Yo Tum. NoT only should you learn 10 e)(ecuTe !hem, buT also
learn to recogniZe them so you can apply the appropriate counter"
Yoo can see enemy planes approaching on yoor tactical display_
The simplest SOlution to on enemy pIone coming up behind you is to tum
toward him. II you 're turning fasler and tighter than he is, yoo 'U gradually
circle around and get onto his toll. You make the tightest turn possible by
roiling onto your side and pulling bock hard on the control stick - but be
careful 01 stallingl
Of course, if the enemy is turning faster than you, he will eventually
come around behind you. lllhis happens try somelhing else Immediately.
The longer you wait the worse it gets. until he lines up a shot and toasts

Sclllors Tum F-15 In tlnng position
c -

c .-- MiG sees enemy behind
• 6 turns toword him

'5 F-l5 ignoIes di1tICuI!

passing shot and
.:-- " reverses ogoin

( F-15 _ MIG reacting.

1eve!SQS agan 10
close scissors


\ ~

\. "
opening sclssors

F-15 turns toward enemy.
luring him " 10 a lurn

-, \ MIG behind F·15

U but moving fOOElf

A more complex way to out-smart on enemy alrcroft is the scissors
tum. Begin turning toward him as if you 're planning to out-turn him. but
once he begins to turn with you. quiCkty rollover to turn In the other
direction. This opens the scissors. As the enemy realizes you ' ve turned

away and tries to follow, reverse the procedure and rOll bock toward him
again, If your turns were quicker and tighter than his, and/or you're a
slower plone, he will eventually pass in front of you. This allows you to get
onto his toil.
A novice enemy plot trying to turn with you can easily be lured into
a scissors trap, Even if his plane turns better. his slow reaction to each
reversal will quickly give you the edge, A more experienced enemy pilot
may ovoid your trap by anticipating your next turn and blasting you (if his
fighter is Jess maneuverable than yours), or by pulling up and over into a
yo-yo turn (if he's foster).

Immelmann Tum

.- •• = ------to

--------- ~. ---

This maneuver is an excellent way to reverse direction quickly,
especially useful when an enemy plane hos buued past In a heod-on
encounter OM you wont to gain altitude and gel on his loil at the some
time. First you perform a holf loop upwards to reverse direction. then a
half roll to right your aircraft. If an enemy fighter is behind you. an
Immel mann con bring you nose-to-nose with him.
Note thaI an Immelmann gives you an altitude gain but costs speed.
since a half-loap upward slows you down significantly,
The original Immelmann, a Germon WWI fighter ace. reputedly
rOlled while vertical. allowing him to finish the loop In whatever direction
he desired. He still finished Ihe half-loap inverted - it's aerodynamically
mrne efficient that way.

SpI/I-s Tum

. , •
HoH ,'"
• :4

(reduce tNattle on lower half

to minimil:e oItllude loss)

• 70

This is anottler way of reversing direction quickly, but Is more danger-
ous. Begin by rolling inverted, then pull the stick bock to holf.loop
downward. Many pilots begin the loop before the roll is completed.
rolling tne plOne while looping. The split-S causes you to lose considerable
altitude, so it's often wise to reduce throttle and/or use speed brokes 10
minimize altitude loss.
The $plit-S complements the Immelmonn because you gain speed
and lose altitude. Unwary lighter pilots hove sometimes tried to Split-S Into
or away from the enemy without remembering their altitude, The result
con be a Split-S righllnlo the groondl


This maneuver is used mainly by higher speed Jels against slower
opponents. Therefore, you should learn this maneuver well, because your
fighter Is one of the tostes'- mosl powerful in the world. You may see SU-
275 and MiG-29s attempting it agoinst youl This turn requires excellent
cockpit visiblity, something thaI earlier MiGs lack.
To execute a Yo-Yo turn . climb and roll toward the enemy, until he's
visible out the top of your canopy, Then pull over into a dive while still
turning, During the dive you lalithe plane to help line up your shal. Very
often you'll toke thol Shot while inverted.
In eHect you make a very big turn in three dimensions, Most of the
turn radius is ·consumed- with the climbing and diving. allowing a foster
plane 10 travel farther and turn wider, yet still come out on the lail 01 the
more maneuverable plane, As you gain altitude you gain the "energy
advantage" and the flexibility to tum either way your opponent goes.
American F-4 Phantom pilots used this maneuver with greot success
against slower but more maneuverable MG-21s over North Vietnam
during the Vietnam war.
Note that the best delensa against a Yo-Yo Is to reverse your tum, or
to use the third dimension yoursatl (usually by going into a spllt-S).
Because a Yo-Yo requires good spallal perception, first practice It
using the Slot View (If alone) or Tactical View (if you 've got a target),


. •
-'- .
• •
~ •
Introduction _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ __
Ubya is ruled by Col. Mu'ommar al-Qodhotti. leader of the secret
army mgonizotion thai deposed the former king in lQ69 The coplol city
is Tripoli and the notion's chief source of wealth is oil
A desert notion. Ubya has only one visually distinctive mountain
region: the Jabal 01 Akbar to the east of Benghazi. Deep In the desert.
east of Sobho. ore the desolate. isoloted mountains of the AI HoruJ 01
Aswod. while 10 the west are the great sand seas (ergs)
Rich by third world standards. Ubyo buys mosl of ils armament /rom
the Soviet Union. Its military Is trained by Soviet advisors, but national pride
has prohibited (so far) any significant Soviet presence. Soviet advisors do
not participate in combol operations.
Ubyo ' s army IS approximately 6O,CXlJ men slrong. its navy has 53 ships
and 6,500 men. while its air force has roughly 5JO planes. 30 combat heli-
copters. and 8.500 men. A 10.())}-manporamilitary "Pan-Africon Legion"
also exists 05 well as various terrorist training camps.
Sightseeing in libya ______________
Flying over Ubya is a unique experience. It Is a truly desert nation. a
land of red and brown hardscrabble with patches of Ion sand and gray
boulder fields. Water is all underground. seeping to the surface in occa-
sional potches of green oasis or mountain volley. Mountain ranges are
low. undulating areas full of small hillocks and short peaks. Flam the air it's
often hard to tell Ihe difference between aging roadways and dark
wadis (gullies) in the desert. But some works of man stand out. particularly
the rust red 01 oil wells ond pipelines or the distinctive star-pottern of SAM
Friendly Bases _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Slgonello on Sicily (UDI5): The USA maintains the SigoneHa military
field in saulheastern Sicily. The Sigonella runway is the main staging point
for air aNacks against Ihe North African coast. especially Ubya. Unfortu-
I1Otely, the flight distances are quite long.
CV Amerlco at Sea (UD70): This 6O.000-too "Kilty Hawk- closs con-
ventional aircraft carrier. designated CV66. serves with the US 6th Fleet
in the Mediterranean. It partiCipated in the 1986 raids against Tripoli and
Benghazi. The carrier Is ideally positioned for launching and recovering
strikes against Benghazi. the Gulf of Sirte. or targets deep Inside Ubyo.
Here it cruises on a southerly course with its traditional ring Of close escorts.
The carrier remains well north of the Gull of Sirte to ovoid SSM attacks from
enemy ships and aircraft. II is surrounded by escorts and regularly
replenisnes the CAP (combot air potrol) with F-18 launches.
Neutrol Boses _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
These alrbases are In neutral territory. Don·t use them unless specifi-
cally ordered to do so or il you must make on emergency landing.
Sudo Boy on Crete (VD41): Near Ihe city of Khania.this airfield is not
on American base. although in years post it was a major NATO air and
naval base. !t has the advantage of being both closer and less public

than equivalent fieldS in Greece ar Egypt.
Haltaron Motto (UD!3): Once a critiCal strength position for the British
Commonwealth In the Mediterranean . this is now a neutral port and
sometime tourist hoven.
Libyan Cities and Targets _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Tripoli (lC87): The capitol city of Ubya has a large military-civilian air-
base at Idrls. well protected by SAM batteries. Until recently. long-range
SA-5 Gammons watched the skies from these sites. but there are indica-
tions that RUSSian military advisors may replace these with mare formi -
dable SA-12 Gladiators.
Tripoli is also the site of a maJor army headquarters. various military
depots. all storage areas. and sometimes teNarist training camps. Missile
bOots can almost always be found prowling the coast nearby.
Sobha (UB 17): This southern town is the main military bose of opera-
tions far Ubya's southerly expansion. It was the major depot for the war
against Chad and is stili extremely Important to Ubyon trans-Saharan
ambitions. The most Important military InstoHatlons here are the large
alrbose and the SAM battery protecting it.
MiSfotoh (UC26) Il Slrt (UC43): These coastal towns house JaW-level
military headquorters and all storage tanks for refueling ships. Slrte Is a
secondary naval bose. supporting missile boots that cruise the western
side of the 'Une of Death.-
Ros Lanuf (UC82) Il Port Brega (UC92): Ras lanuf is Ubyo's Jargest and
newest all facility. A vast quantity of all for export is stored here. and a
large number of all tankers ply the waters nearby. There is also a refinery.
vast ' farms- of all tanks. and a maJor military headquarters. Port Brega oil
facility Is older but still in operation despite the completion of Ros lanuf.
A number of SAM batteries are sited In this vital area. Port Brega
airfield. west of town. serves both ports.
Benghazl (VC16): This city IS the site of Libya's second-largest military
base. including the Benlna airfield and powerful protective SAM batter-
ies. The city itself is large. with a military headquarters and a few small all
storage facilities to serve the ancient port. Terrorist training camps are not
uncommon in the hills to the east.
AI Bayda (VC37): This sleepy coastal town In the mountainous Jabal
01 Akbar has major military significance. It overlooks the narrow Ionian sea
between Libya and Greece. making it an ideal Site for anti-ship missiles.
There is 0 small airstrip and SAM site os well.
Oil Fields: The great all fl9lds of Ubya are In the southeast. where
literally thousands of wells pump crude from the ground. ThIS all is piped
to Ros lanuf and Pori Brega. The great producing fields can be found
near Raguba (UC90). Waho (VB 18). Arnal (VC30). Jalo Oosis (VC40). and
Gioia (VB49). Most fields have a few storage tanks on site to hold crude
temporarily until it can be piped to the port. However . the maprlty of
storage tanks ore at the ports. not on the fields.
Secret 8cses: Westem Intelligence operatives in Ubyo are preparing
two secret. hard-pock surfaces suitable lor aircraft landings. One is at AI
Mukhayli (ONC VC43). the other is on the edge of the great ergs. at
Yalron (ONe TC93).

Libyan Air Defenses _ _ _ _:--_ _ _ _ _ __
Ubyon air defense forces use Russian-built equipment ond ole
trained by Russian advisors, SA-2 Guideline and SA-S Gammon SAMs
hove been the backbone of Ubyon oir defenses, but there ore rumors of
upgrades 10 new SA-l0 Grumble and SA-12 Gladiator systems.
Local military forces make use of SA-7 and SA- 14 shoulder-fired
missiles. These ore olso popular terrorist weapons and con be expected
In the vicinity of terrorisl camps. Ubyon army units use various medium-
ronge SAMs. including SA-Ss. -9s. - lis ond -135.
Libyan Air Force _______________
Fighters; The Ubyon Air Force is composed of over 140 MiG-23MF
"Flogger" flQhters, a number of MiG-2S "Foxbots' (for reconnoissance
and long-range intercepHon). and sevelol antiquated MiG-21s. The Air
Force also has various Mirage 5D fighter-bombers for ground oHock
Intelligence expects Inat MiG-23s ar.d 25s will be your primary aiHo-
air opponents. although you may encounter the new MiG-29 "Fulcrum"
flown by Soviet personnel.
Reconnaissance 8omben: AlthOugh Ubya does not possess any Tu-
95 "Bear" reconnaissance bombers. Russian Bears frequentty operate
from Ubyan bases.
Air Transporb: It is suspected that Ubya'santlquoted fleet of C- l3OH
and C-.17 air transports (built In America) will be replaced with Russian
equipment. perhaps including the new An-72 "Cooler" Jet transport .
Libyan Navy_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The Ubyan Navy is composed primarily of missile corvettes and
missile potrol boots. The largest of these is the 77o-ton Russian-buill
Nanuchka II closs armed wilt1 Styx surface--to-surface missiles. SA-N-4
SAMs. and a twin 57mm gun turret. Other boots include the RUSSian Osa-
closs, italian-built Wadi M 'ragh closs, and the French-built La Combat-
tonte II types; Ihese have poorer mlsslles and SA-N-5 SAMs. or no SAMs 01
The Nanuchkos are the best boots in the Ubyon Navy. They perform
the most aggressive potrols. making them lt1e primary threat. Patrols
occur frequently In Ine Gulf of Sirte. south of the ' Una of Death."
Sometimes the Libyan air force flies fighter missions In support of these
naval potrols.
Introduction _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Iron has been ruled by 5I1i'ite radicols since the overthrow of the pro-
American Shah in 1979. In September. 1980.lrOQ oHocked Iron, begin-
ning a long. cosily war between Ihose notions that lasled for years. Both
contestants ore viewed with distrust by the Arab stoles south of the
Persian Gulf ond Iron' s support 01 inlemationallerrorism has not improved
the nallon's image.
Iran also colis for a $hi'ile religious revolution throughOut the Islamic
world. This noturally bothers the leadership of the Arab slales. since their
governments ore Sunni. However. Iron is populated by Persians, not
Arabs. So for this cuttural and linguistic barrier has hindered the 5ptead of
Iranian Shl'ife radicolism ocross the Persian Gulf to the Arab states.
Iran is a large notion with voried geogroptly. The Elbruz and Zogros
mountain ranges run from the northwest corner (where Iron touches
Tur\(ey and the Soviet trans.caucasus) diagonally southeast . along the
barder with iraq, and then parallel to the Persian Gulf. South of these
mountains. at the head of the GUlf. are Iran 's ollflelds. North of the
mountains the nation is dMded Into two regions. The western part, near
Iraq. Turkey. and trans-Caucasus Russia, is fertile. heavily populated , and
includes most of the major cities and Industrial plants. The eastern part.
bordering Pakistan , Afghanistan, and Soviet Central Asia . is largely bor-
ren desert and mountains with a small , Impoverished. undereducated
Under the Shah. lion's oil-rich finances permitted massive Invest-
ment In military forces. mostly from the USA, Since the revolution, how-
ever. many complex weapons have foiled for lock of spore ports and
maintenance. while most of the rest were damaged or destroyed In the
war with Iraq. Iron hos some sophisticated aircraft and missiles remaining,
but these are deployed to protect key cities In the interior. rather than as
a barder defense.
Sightseeing in The Persian Gulf _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Uke Ubya, the Persian Gulf is a desert region . except for the large.
high spine of mountains that runs dlagonaHy through Iron from the
northwest to the southeast. However. water is more plentiful, especially in
Iron. resulting In increased agriculture and large Jocal irrigation wor\(s 10
control the seasonal run-off from the mountain highlands.
The Gulf has many Interesting and exceptional areas. such as the
flgris-Euphrates watershed that reaches the head of the gulf around
Abodan. Once a great seaport and teeming metropeHs. the destruction
of the Iron-Iraq war has reduced the area 10 a ruin 01 small towns and
Kharg IskJnd . despite wartime attacks, Is one of the great man-
made wonders of the world. Surrounded by oil platforms and supertank-
ers. guarded by missile boats and fighter potrols, it remains the site of
numerous refineries and all starage tonks.
There are also great oilfields south of Kuwait City. north of Bushehr in
the Bandar-e-Rig, on Bahrain and Qatar. and along the UAE coastline

near Ruwelss and Tarit. as well as assorted IndMdual platforms along the
Arabian coos!.
Another Interesting region of Iron is the great volley of Bondar-e
l engeh and BondaI' Abbas. Seasonal rivers ftowing from the mountains
have formed a fertlfEi vaHey floor thOt empties Into the Straits of Hormuz.
the strategic doorway to the Persian Gulf. On the opposite side (the
southern side) of the straits, the mountolr.ous peninsula of Musandam
knifes into tile straits. creating a narrow choke-point of naval traffic.
Friendly Bases _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ __
Amerlca's strongest allies In the Persian Gulf are Saudi Arabia and
ft1e tiny island kingdom of Bahrain.
CV Nimitz at Sec (KY83): This huge 8O.oco-ton nuclear corrier is the
closs ship of the latest and most powerful program of aircraft corrlers. Nor-
mally assigned to the Pacific Fleet. it Is prepored to visit the Indian Ocean
at any time. Here it soiis with a close escort of destroyers. and has Its F- ISs
on regular rotation in CAP (combat air patrol).
American aircraft carriers do not soil Into Ihe restricted waters of the
Persian Gulf. where they would be "Sitting ducks- for land-based air and
missile aNocks. Carrier task forces remain In ft1e Indian Ocean. although
the Nimitz and her ring of close escorts hove sailed deep inlo the Gulf of
Oman to provide a bose as clase as possible to Persian Gulf targets. If
threatened, the ship can olwoyssoll to the southeast and escape into the
vast expanses of the Indian Ocean.
!los os Soffonlyoh (JYI9): This is Saudi Arabia 's northernmost oilterml-
nal and port along the Guff. Its airfield Is In a useful strategic location.
Dhohrom (JYS4)' AI HuM (JY44): DhOhram is Saudi A!obla's IOrgest
port city on the Persian Gulf. However, the AI Hufuf airfield slightly Inland
is a strategically useful and less public position for basing miSSions and
Bahrain (JY65): This small island natiOn Is strongly pro-Amelican. pro-
viding large naval ond air base facilities fOl" American military forces.
Neutral Bases _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Kuwait is a friendly neutral notion. Oman Is neutrol but pra-Westem.
and the UAE (United A!ab Emirates) are studiously neutral.
Kuwait City In Kuwait (JZI2): Originally neutral. Kuwait sought US aid
and support after repeated Iranian threats and aNacks. The Kuwait
airport can be used occasionally to stoge missions that demonstrate
America's support of Kuwait. or for emergency landings. However.
Kuwait Is fearful of provoi<ing more Iranian hostility and therefore will not
grant America basing rights.
Qatar (JY75): This small independent nation works hord at the
appearance of neutrality. probably because It has boft1 strong pro-
American and strong pro-Iranian foctions. Although missions canr.ot be
staged from here. it IS possible to use the pro-American groups to old In
emergency landing situations.
Ruwelss (KY01) • Torlf (KYll): These small all ports of the United Arab
Emirates are not especially friendly to the American couse. Because the
UAE is a decentralized govemment, pressure and money In the right
places could permit on emergency landing .
Some of the Iorgest oil fields of the UAE are in this area (ONe KY22-
AOO Dhabi (KY3 1): Abu Dhabi 1$ the maJar city of the United Arab
Emirates (UAE). where the appearance of neutrality is most important.
Emergency Iondlngs at this base are very difficult. but not impossible If
Iranian diplomacy succeeds in making yet more enemies.
AI Khati at Dubal (KY65): This large airfield outside the city of Dubai
is the most strategically useful of all UAE airfields. It is the base closest to
south-central Iran and is on Important launching or retrieval point for
deep missions. However. as at Abu DhabI. political problems make the
use of this base difficult to Impossible.
Muscat in Oman (KY90): Oman is careful to remain neutral in all
affairs. but isstrangly pro-Western. For e){Qmple. much of itsarmy is trained
and officered by "retired " BritiSh military personnel. The military portion of
the Muscat airfield is available for miSSions and emergency landings.
provided everything remains secret and politically "deniable."
Iranian Cities and Ta rgets'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Dezful (Jl38), Mosjed SOIeyman (J147), and Ahvoz (J137): These
cities are the main "rear areas" behind the former Iron-Iraq boHlefront,
They have a variety of SAMs. Although all originally hod airbose facilities,
it is believed that only Masjed Soleyman's remains Intact.
Aboden (JZ24): This city is lOcated at the final junction of the TIgris
and Euphrates Rivers, near the Persian Gulf. Numerous battles in and
around this area have destroyed a Iorge part of the city and contami-
nated the once beautiful surrounding countryside with poisonous gas.
Bandar Khomenyl (JZ44): This Is the main Iranian military bose behind
the southern part of the Iran-Iraq front and a major staging bose for
military supplies and munitions of all sorts. It has a Iorge alrbase . powerful
SAM batteries, and a majar military headquarters.
Bandar-a"RIg 011 Fields: These all fields, clustered along the coast
and inland hills (JZ61 and JZ7l) are a key source of Iron's all wealth.
Kharg blond (JZ60): This island is covered with refineries, oil storage
tanks, and port facilities for oil tankers. Until the Iran-Iraq war it was the
greatest ail termlnol In the world. Repeated aNacks have ruined many 01
the facilities. but never all of them. Now protected by SAM botteries, and
missile boat potrols, It is stililran's main port for Oil e)(port.
Much of Iran's oil wealth Is offshore. One of the heaviest concentra-
tions of all plattorms is in the vicinity of Kharg Island. Beware that same
plottorrm are now used by Iranian Shl'lte "Guards" as mlillary bases.
Bushehr (JZ80): This Important coastal city was once a major Oil port .
but is naw completely overshadowed by neighboring Kharg Island. The
military forces on Its SAM baNeries and alrbose are not always first rate,
However, it is home port for many Iranian frigates and missile boots that
patrOl the gulf.
Shlr01 (KI03): This inland city. si1ed on a highland plateau, is one of
the largest Iranian cities. II Is also the nerve center and main headquar-
ters for Iran's southern military command -the forces responsible for the
Persian Gulf. There is on e)(ceptionally large military oirbase here that is
usually protected by powerful SAM boNeries.
Esfohan (JZ89): Nestled In a a Iorge gop of lt1e Zagros Mountains, this
inland city is the classic "gateway· to northwestern Iran. As a transpor-
tation and population center it naturally boasts an airfield and SAM sites.
VOld (KZ38) and Kerman (KZ84): These twa cities are distant popula-
tion centers on lt1e edge of the Iranian deserts. Both cities are dominated
by strong traditionalist sentiment. which in recent yeors has translated
into fervent Shl'lte extremism. However. the huge war has caused many
families 10 reconsider their support for the Jihad.
8andar·e lengeh (KY57): This weslern city on Ihe Straits of Hormuz
hos a minor military bose. Including an airfield and SAM battery. How-
ever. Its primary function is civilian. serving the large oil fields In this aroo.
Offshore oil platforms are especially common In KY35-45.
Seasonal rivers running from the mountains to tne west down Into
Bondar-e Lengen hove a variety of Interesting rood and rail bridges over
Bandar 'Abbas (KY68): This city is Iran's mapr military bose on the
Straits of Hormuz. Major Iranian Navy elements are based nere . as well as
tne kJtest SAMs and a large. well-equipped military alrbase
Secret Boses: Western Intelligence operatives In Iran are preparing
two secret , hard-pack surfaces suitable for aircraft landings. One is In tne
ShokJmzar volley (JZ67) In tne Zagros Mountains. tne otner in tne moun-
tains soulh of K9fman, ot KZ82.
Iranian Air Defenses ______________
Hawk batteries are lion's longest-ranged surface-to-air missiles. Nearly
exnausTed in fignting with Iraq. Ihese weapons are formidable defenders
of Iron once more.
Sold by Britain to Iron. Rapier batteries are fast. but snorter-ranged.
and nlndered by a fire control system Inatls primarily visuol. with the radar
Intended originally os backup. The Ropier radar SYSTem never approached
tne quality or sopnistiCation Of tne Hawk. In fact. In tne Falkland Islands
fignting, tne Ropier was surprisingly ineffective.
The TIgercat. an antiquated British design, appears in less-Important
areas. Many TIgercat sites nove liffie or no radar. since lt1e missile is
deSigned for visual control. The Seacatls a naval version of Ihe TIgereat.
found on Iranian Vosper Mk 5 type frigates. II is somewhat more danger-
ous because tne frigates nave decent radar searen systems.
Iranian Air Farce _______________
This serviCe arm Is composed primarily of American-built aircraft ac-
quired during lt1e Shah's rule. Before tne outbreak of war Ihe Air Force
hod a nominal strength of 75 F- 14 Tomcats. about 200 F-4D and F-4E
Phantom lis. 140 F-5E Tiger lis. plus various otner planes and helicopters.
Including C-l30 Hercules transports and P-3F Orion reconnaissance
Fighters: Iran lOcks Ine sophisticated technicians and parts to keep
Its F-l4S operotional. Within a year after the revolution fewer than five
were functional. No missiles or parts exist for the long-range Phoenix AAM
system. but some F-l4s sflll hove functlonallong -ronge fadar. F-l4s can
COlry AIM-7F Sparrows or AIM-9H Sidewinders.
The older bullesseffectlve F·4S and F-Ss ole easier 10 ma intain. These
planes are the backbone of lt1e Iranian fighting air force, Intefcepting
raids. guarding rear areas and Ships from attack. and occasionally
attempting a raid of their own.
Iranian fighters a re equipped with AIM-9H Sidewinders. one of the
lost and best first-generation IR AAMs. The F-4 Phantoms (but not the F-5
TIgers) are designed to corry the AIM-7F Sparrow. a medium-range rodar-
guided missile.
Reconnaissance Bombers: Iran has few naval reconnaissance
bombers. and most of those are P-3C Orions with IMperative electronic
gear. Such planes are reduced to visual patrols only - a waste of
aviatiOn luel ln a modem warfare environmentl
However. it's possible that long-range Russian Tu-95 "Bear' bombers
may make on appearance. flying from Afghanistan or Yemen.
Airborne Earty Warning &: Control: Iron has na "AWACS' or other
AEW&C aircraft. Instead. the few operational F-14s a re used in this role.
since the F- 14 has on extremely powerful air search radar.
AlrTranspom: Iron hasa variety of small, medium, and large air trans-
ports. Including the American C-l30 Hercules. German Fokker F27.
French Dossault-Breguet Falcon 20. and Boeing 707 and 747 transport
models. The exact types available vary greatly. depending on the supply
of spare parts and the presence of knowledgeable mechanics. Given
Iran's dislike of the West, some consider it likely that she will shop in Russia
for the nexl tronsports bought. perhaps the new and very rlexi~e An-n
Iranian Novy'_ _ _ _ _ _---,----,-_ _ _ _ _ _---,-_
The Iranian Navy suffered greatly In the Iron-Iraq war. Many ships
were damaged in the fighting 000 remain unrepaired; others have
deteriorated bodly for lo c k of maintenance. The great naval bose at
Khorramshohr, near Abadan. was destroyed early in the war 000 remains
a ruin.
It is believed that one Of more of the four Vosper Mark 5 frigates ore
still functiOnal. These 1.10000ton ships Include Seacat SAMs. a nd a 4.5' gun
turret. Occasional patrols by these or smaller ships can be expected In
the region of Kharg 151000 Of In the Straits of HOfmuz. If functional, the
Vosper frigates pose a significant military threat.
Iran 's Shl'ite "Guards' also man a large number of fast motorboats.
The crew corry rocket-propeHed g renades to attock shipp ing. 000
shoulder-launched IR SAMs to protect themselves from air and helicopter
attack. Virtually invisible. these "mosquitos' are a threat only to unarmed
merchant shipping . or an aircraft unlucky enough to pass over the areo.
These boots are based all along the Iranian coost. especially at Bondar
' Abbas, and from a variety of offshore oil platforms.

Inlroduclion _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Vietnam wor missions lake us back to when Southeast Asio consisted
of five countries: North Vietnam. South Vietnam. Cambodio. Thailand,
and Laos. North Vietnam Is attempting to conquer South Vietnam and
reunite me two countries under Communist control. The North Vletnom~
ese have established hegemony over Laos and CambOdia , and only
South Vietnam and Thailand remain friendly 10 the US.
The principal geogrophlc feature of the oreo Is the Mekong River
thot flows from Chino to the sea. The orea is heavily vegetated with
loWland swamps. Jungles, coo wooded mountains. Outside Ihe major
cities. civilization is marked mainly by rice paddies and villages of gross
North Vietnam is a poor notion. but Is supplied with weapons by Ihe
Communist superpowers. mainly the Soviet Union. Their army Is large
relative to Ihe notional population and highly motivated. DespHe heavy
losses and generally inferior equipment. they have thrown the French out
of the region and are fighting the South Vietnamese and their US a llies to
a standstill. Their air force is equipped with older MiG 17s. some reportedly
flown by pilots of sympathetic countries. Their northern cities and the
supply routes south are heavily protected by anti-aircraft missile batter-
ies. Their navy consists of only a few missile boots patrolling the coost.
The most Important targets for US air attocks are the two major
brklges on the supply routes heading south: the Paul Doumer BrIdge near
Hanoi, and the Thanh Hoo bridge. The majority of the supplies supporting
the wor In the south must pass over these two bottler.ecks.
Sightseeing in Southeast Asio __________
This region Is mostly green and overgrown. and often very little can
be distinguished from the air except rivers. rice paddies. and grass huts.
Mountain ranges are low and wooded. The most impressive man-mode
features ore the Iorge bridges in North Vietnam. Also noticeable ore
smaller bridges and ttle distinctive paMem of SAM baMeOOs.
Thewor Is being fought in South Vletnam,and hotspots c a n be found
in several areas of the country. Look for burning objeCts on the ground
and flights of Huey helicopters.
Friendly Bases, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Ton Sonh Nhut (XUSl): Located outside of Saigon, this is the largest
and busieSt airport and base in Southeast Asia. Military aircraft bosed
here a re used primarily to SUpport nearby ground flOops.
Do Nang (yUl7): The northernmost alrbase In South Vietnam. Aircraft
from here support locol ground troops. Interdict supplies on the Ho Chi
Minh Trail. and strike targets over the border to the north.
Nha Trang (yU12): Located to tne east of tne central highlands.
AIrcraft from tnis base support ground troops and Interdict supplies
coming south on tne Ho Chi Minh Trail.
Udom (XV95): Just over the border in Thailand from the Laotian
capital of Vientiane. Aircraft based here reach out to bomb targets In
North Vietnam and Laos.

Don Muong (XV90): located in the southeost corn&! of Thailand, this
Is an Important base for making attacks on the Ho Chi Minh Troll and
enemy troop concentrations in the central highlands of South Vietnam.
Korof ()(V43): Located southeast of Bangkok in cen tral Thailand.
AircraN from here conduct bombing attacks on targets in North Vietnom.
TokhH (XV45): This base northeast of Bangkok in Thailand is port of the
air defense of thecapital and was not on Important base far war missions.
Bangkok (XV14): The capital of Thailand. The alrbose here Is too for
from the war zones and North Vietnam to be porticularly useful.
CVs Constellation (YU77) and Kitty Howk (YV81) of Sea: These 80.(0)
ton carriers hove a complement of approximately 85 alrcraN. and are
placed In the Gulf of Tonkin to strike targets deep In North Vietnam.
Prohibited from striking civilian talgets. the navy concentrates on the
transportation routes bringing supplies south. especially the vital Paul
Doumer and Thanh Hoo Bridges.
Each carrier group consists of one carrier and a ring of escort de·
strayers. A combat air potrol of fighter plaf'19S is continuously overhead to
intercept any approaching North Vletnomese aircraft.
North Vietnamese Cities and Torgets, _______
Hanoi (yv68): Surrounded by numerous alrboses and SAM batteries.
the capitol city of North Vlelnam Is one of the most heavily defended air
lorgels in lhe wOrld. The SAMs deployed in ltIis aroo are either SA·2
Guideline or SA·5 Gammon missiles. Nearby alrbases are lOcated at Gia
Lam. Phuc Yen. and Kep.
To the southwest of Hanoi is the Paul Doumer Btidge. one of the
highest p riority largels in North Vlelnam. The bridge is also defended by
SAM batteries.
Haiphong (YV86): This city Is the most Important North Vletnomese
port. and Itisguorded by SAM mlssi!esand a fighter alrbase nearby at Cot
Bt located near Haiphong are numerous storage dumps a nd tankfarms.
Thanh Hoc Bridge (YV55): Southwest Irom Hanoi along the coost Is
this second Important bridge. a lso heavily defended by SAM batteries.
Vlnh (YV44): This cooslal town supports on interceptor oirbose that
helps defend the mo}or bridges to the I'IOrthwest. the approoches to
North Vietnam Irom thailand. and the supply routes to the south.
Dong Hoi (YV30): This town supports the southernmost North Viet-
namese airbose. Although often attacked by friend ly farces. it remains
operational and its fighters intercept attackers heading north or bamb-
Ing the Ho Chi Minh Troll.
Cambodian and laotian Cities and Torgets, _ _ __
Phnom Penh (XU36): The capitol city of Cambodia has fallen under
the controi of North Vletnamese·$pOnsored Communist forces. Enemy
planes are operating from the oirbose outSide ltIe city. SAM bolleries
hove been placed In the area.
Vientiane (XV97): The country of laos is controlled by the Pathellao.
a Communist group supported by North VIetnam. Enemy aircraft are
now based at Wallay. near the Laotian capitol of Vien tiane.
Ho Chi MInh Troll: This supply route flam the north is a maze of roods
and traits that winds through Ihe mountains and jungles of bolh Vietnams.

Cambodia. and Laos. Targets along this trail are generally not fixed. but
some bunker and depot locations are known.
North Vietnomese Air Defenses _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The North Vietnamese use Russian-built equipment and a re trained
by Russian advisors. The majority of the SAMs deployed are SA-2 Guide--
line or SA-5 Gommon missiles.
The majority of the fighter aircraft in the North Vietnamese Air Force
are MiG-17s. a highly maneuverable plane. but locking In firepower and
electroniCs. The air force also possesses a few more modern MiG-21 and
MiG-23 aircraft, possibly flown by foreign notionols.
Intelligence predicts thot MiG·17s will be your primary opponents.
although you el"lCounter MIG-21s and MiG-23s as well.
The North Vietnamese Navy consists of only a few torpedo boats
transferred to it from the navies of Communist Chino and the Soviet
Union. From the Soviets came 190-ton 5.0.-1 class boots and from the
Chinese came Shanghai-II class boats. Both bOot types are armed with
Hght anti-aircraft cannon. but no SAMs. and thus offer only a smallthreot
to aircraft.

Introduction _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The Middle East has been the scene of constant tension and recur-
ring warfare since the United Notions formed the country of ISo'oelln 1948.
In the crucible of this conflict . the Israelis hove forged a superior army ond
air force thot hove consistently out-matched their opponents. The ttueot
to Isroellodoy comes from Syria ond Iraq. although Iraq has been signifi-
cantly worn down by eight years 01 worlare with Iron. The Jordanians
hove adopted a policy of near neutrality and ore rIOt expected to toke
on active port in any near future contHer, Lebanon has been torn apart
by civil wor ond invasions by Israel, Syria, and Palestinian refugees,
The Syrians ond Iraqis are supported finoncialry by the Saudi Arabi-
ans. but receive most of their weoponsand training from the Soviet Union.
Jordon ond Saudi Arabia oct Independently and hove relatively strong
ties to the West.
Sightseeing in the Middle Eost _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The Middle East Is primarily a desert wOrld. with ogricutlure e)(lsting
only ak>ng the coosts and rivers. A low chain of mountains extends
northward along the coostthrough Israel and lebanon. up Into Turkey.
Between the Mediterranean Coost and the mountains of Turkey and Iran.
the desert is broken by the valleys of the flgris and Euphrates Rivers. Visible
from the air are many works of man. Including the ruins of ancient
buHdings and nuclear power plants in Iraq rumored to be assembling
nuclear weapons.
Friendly Boses _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Akrotiri on Cyprus (EII:13): Aircraft from this British alrbose are ca-
poble of reaching targets along the Mediterranean Coost. American or
Israeli a ircraft would not normally base here. but could U!;9 the facilities
In an emergency.
CVN Eisenhower at sec (Ell:46): This ao.(X))-ton "Nimitz" closs nuclear
corrler often serves with the US 6th Fleet in the Mediterranean. Here it
cruises off the coost of Lebanon. positioned to strike anywhere along the
Mediterranean coost . Carrying a complement of approximately 85 air-
craft. the Eisenhower is constantly guarded by a combat air potrol of
fighter planes.
Ramo! David (ER73), Tel Nol (ER82), Loci (ER81), ond Hotzerim (EII:9I ):
These Israeli alrboses are home for the fighters and fighter-bombers of the
air fOl"ce many consider to be the best In the world. Backed up against
the sea by enemies or non-friendly neutrals. the Istoelis must be prepared
to launch air defense or attock missions in any of three directions.
Malotya In Turkey (E525): Turkey is a NATO ally and no friend of Iraq
or Syria. Thlsalrbose Is home fOf aircraft assigned to defend Turkey' ssouth-
east border. and from here planes can reach the capitols and other
targets In both Iroq ond Syria.
Toook in Saudi Arobla (FS8I): This oirbose serves as a defensive post
along the Saudi Arabian northern barder. In any armed canfHclln the
region. US aircraft would be allowed to land here only in on emergency.
unless Circumstances called for Saudi Arabian support of US interests.
Jordanian Cilies _____________-,----,---
Ammon (ER94): Amman Is the copitol of Jordon and hOme for the
mojor elements of the Royal Jordanian Air Force. The most numerous
plones available ore Mirage F-l s and Northrop F-5s. Ground oir defense
is provided by Howk misslles.
Ma'An (FR21): Outside this city is the Prince Hasson airbase, where
holf o f the Air Force's combot planes ore deployed. Planes were placed
here to reach the Sinai Peninsula, but now thol the Israelis have mode
peace with Egypt. a ir elements here may be moved farther north to
cover the West Bonk areos.
Iraqi Cilies and Targels ____________
Baghdad (FS57): The capitol c ity of Iraq Is k>caled between the TIgris
and Euphrates Rivers. Although low in strength due to war losses. major
elements of the Iraqi air force ore based here. Outside the city Is a nuclear
power piont thol many believe is producing materials for nuclear weop-
Mosul (EW): The second largest c ity in Iraq also has heavy air de-
fenses. Another nucJeor facility is thought to be operating nearby.
Kll1c:uk (fS29), Hobboblyah (FS54), and H3 (FS20): At these locations
the Iraqis have airboses ringing their country. Kirkuk faces Iron and H3 1s
an outpost at a pumping station In the desert along a major all pipeline
to Syria.
Syrian Cilies and Targels _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Damascus (ER85): This ancient city. the capital of Syria. is situated
east of a gop in the coastal mountain ranges and was founded on the
east-west trade route. Damascus Is the major military base In Syria and
home to a majority of the Syrian Arob Air force.
Dayr As Zowr (ES92), Hims (ER59), and Palmyra (ES70): These towns
support airboses that guard Syria's northern and western borders. Dayr As
l owr is located 01 on ancient c rossing point on the Euphrates River.
Palmyre Is a desert oasis town near the center of Syria. Hims is northeast
of Lebonon, helping to surround that country.
Halob (ES40): Previously known as Aleppo, this city is located in the
northern hills of Syria near the Turkish border. Aircraft bosed here cover
the Turkish border and can reach south to Israel Of into the Mediterra-
At LadhiqyOh (ER48): This town north oflebonon on the Mediterra-
nean coast Is near the Turkish border and supports the oirbose closest to
C yprus. Il ls not a shipping pori but is a vocation spot and fishing center.
Syrian Air Defenses _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
The Syrians use Russian-built equipment and ore trained by Russian
advisors. They possess over 75 batteries of surface-to-air missiles, mostly
SA-2 Guideline and SA-3 Goo weapons. l ocal m llitaryforces are equipped
with SA-7 and SA- l'" shoulder-fired missiles. and these con also be ex-
pected In the vic inity of terrorist camps In Lebanon and Syria .
Syrian Air Force5 _______________
The Syrian Arab Air FOIce Is composed of over 450 combot alrcroft
and 5O,OCXl men. The maJority of the Interceptor aircroft available 018
MG-21s and MiG-23s. w ith one squodron of MiG-2Ss. The MiG-25 squod-
ron is reportedly serviced and manned by Eost Germans and Russians.
Intelligence 8)(pectS that MiG-21s ond MiG-23s will be your pt'imary
opponents, olthough you may encounter MiG-25s and possibfy new MiG-
29s flown by Russian personnel.
Iraqi Air Oelen5e5 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Iraq has 1"101 Invested large resources In air defense. and has only
10JXXJ men assigned to this bfonch. largely separated from enemies to
the west and north, II has concentrated most of ils defense ogainsllron.
SAM batteries deployed ore either SA-2 Guidelines Of SA-S GomlllOflS.
Iraqi Air Force ________________
The Iraqi air lorce has substanTially modern equipment . bul did nol
demonstrate 0 high degree of training or skill during the war ogolnst Iron.
The main air defense aircraft or8 MiG·21s and Mirage Fls.

---- .. '. -

-- "---"


Serving the US Navy and Air F()(ce 0$ fighter and strike fighter
throughout the 19605 and early 19705. this old reliable is now obsolete and
serves mainly for reconnaissance and electronic warfare CWiId Wea -
sen. However. hundreds were sold to western notions worldwide.lnclud-
Ing Iron under the Shoh. You con 8 Kpecllo encounter these flying patrols
over the Persion Gulf.

F-SE TlGEilll
This inexpensive and unsophisticated fighter was never adopted by
US combot arms. but has been widely sold abroad, including 138 to Iran.
Underpowered. with poor avionics, it is useful only against obsolete
opponents. II corries only shOrt-range oil-Io-oir weapons.

This heavy, long-range interceptor has extremely powerful avionics
for use with the AIM-54 Phoenix semi-octive rodar-homing missile , which
has a 200 km effectlve range. The aircraft is the US Navy' s long-range
defender of carrier baHIe groups.
The swinging wings are computer-controlled for maximum perlorm-
once but they signal the plane's energy state to the enemy. In 1987 the
Navy began a program that upgraded the original TFJO engines with the
newer, more powerful FlIOs. About 80 TF30-engined Fl4s were supplied
to Iron , but engine troubles, c omplexities in the avioniCS system . and the
delicacy of the Phoenix missile have greatly reduced their military value
They ore otten used os radar-warning patrol aircraft.

This large, powerlul ground support/airsuperiority aircraft is based
upon the famous French Mirage III series. This NG (new generation)
version is the most advanced Mirage fighter to dote. The prototype first
flew in 1982 and was still in development in 1985.

The latest pl'oduction fighter added to the US Air Force. the F- 16 is the
most maneuverable dogfighter in the world (with the possible exception
of the MiG-29) The inherently unstable airframe that gives this agility
would be untlyable except for the computerized electronic controls.
hence its nickname "ElectriC Jet.-
Advanced air-ground avionics and anti-missile defenses ore "ex-
tras: making the boslc aircraft relatively cheap. Many western notions
have purchased F-16s. However. until the AIM-l20 AMRAAM It hod no
Jong-range MM.

Although not os maneuverable as the F-16. this heavier multi-role
fighter has numerous avionic and defensive aids built in. These were
required by the US Navy. Its main user. who needed on aU-purpose fighter
and attack bomber able to fire a variety of sophisticated weapons. Uke
the F- 16. it also is sold to various western nations.

Designed 01 ttle end of the 19SOs as a low-level attack bomber for
use In poor weather, this plane remains an unqualified success, Avionics
and weapons have been rebuilt more than once to maintain the 'state
of the art: with upgrades under development.

Originally designed as a strike fighter. the American-BritiSh co-rede-
sign greatly enhanced maneuverability. Its avionics are designed for
ground attock rather ttlan air-la-air combot. Despile ttlis. Harriers were
successful as interceptors and combot air potrolln the 1982 Falklands
war. The Harrier is the primary fighter of ttle US Marines. the 8ritiSh Royal
Navy. and frontline squadrons of ttle BritiSh Royal Air Force (RAF) In
Germany, Usually it uses short segments of roadway or a "ski-jump- deck
for rolling takeoffs. and lands vertically. like a helicopter.


nr- I
- .:>-
UL- 11.,

This slow. heavily-armored plane was designed purely for !ranNine
ground support wittl "tonk busting" os its speciality. This role (unglamorous
10 the USAF) . along with ils peculiar appearance, earns it the unofficial
nickname ' Warthog.·
Although Intended for combal ln Europe where low clouds and bod
weather ore frequent. the A-IO is a fair-weather doy-only plone, but the
manufocturer hopes to inleresllhe USAF In a night-flying variant. Unless
protected by good fighters (F- I55 and F-I 65), this plane is doomed if sent
into airspace contested by USSR fighters.

This is a speCially-buill electronic warfare version 01 the F-l11 strike
and interdiction bomber. The original concept o f the F-l11 was a high-
speed bomber for deep strikes at night Of in bad weother. The EF-l11 is
popularly known as the "Electric Fox' or 'Spork Vork " (the unofficial
nickname of the F- \ 11 is • Aordvol1l" or ·Vol1l"). It Is designed to occom-
panV deep strike and interdiction missions, providing electronic screen-
ing and jamming. It is lIle fastest. most pawerlul such croft in the world.



This ogile. maneuverable, eosy-flying fighter was the premier dog-
fighting p lane of the 1960s and early 1970s. It has simple avio nics and a
standard armament o f 2 or 4 AA -2s (now often replaced by AA-Ss),
making it Inexpensive to buy. arm and maintain. However. it has little or
no HUD. weak rodors, and low-quality defenses, making II obsolete as a
fighter. Unfortunately. its limited carrying capacity makes it poor as a
strike fighter.

This swing-wing fighter replacement for the MiG-21 originally hod
few avionics and a 22A85 lb. R-27 engine. This coused serious perform-
ance flows. and the version sold abroad was unoble to fire sophisticated
weapons. The upgraded version. listed above. is still a mediocre per-
former. All versions commonly corry AA-2 and /or AA-8 missiles. Most USSR

and Easl European versions also use the AA-7 radar homing missile. With
lIs MiG-27 brother. this plane has huge production runs. making II the
cheapest fighter available today. This alone makes it one of the world's
most popular aircraft.

This is the ground-attack variant of the MJG-23. In Russian frontline
units It Includes a laser designator IOf lOser-guided munitions and simple
terrain-avoidance radars lef lOW-level attacks. Improved }ommers and
decoys are added 0$ well. However. many sophisticated attock aids
common on western strike fighters are not present. Presumably the MiG-
275 compensate for this with quantity, as huge production runs greatly
lower its cost.

This plane was originally designed to defend the distant borders of
the USSR from air attaCk. wotlclng with special ground radars to attock
enemy bombers with a special long-ranged AAM (the AA-6). It is ex-

tremely fasL but quite unmaneuverable, A few ore bought bV client
states for status reasons. but the reconnaissance version (MiG-25R) is
more popular. It has an 88,CXX)' ceiling. making it Immune to normal SAM
ar fighter interception.

Originallv designed to outfight the F-l5. this plane Is a modern.
lightweight doglighler with superlative agility. It has engine power In
excess of its weight. Common armament is M - lO "fire and forget " radar-
homers along with some AA-8 and/or AA-l0 IR missiles. The degree of
sophistication in the avionics is unknown. but unlikely 10 match western
models. This MiG is considered the Russian equivalent of the F- 16.

This aircraft is a redesigned MiG-25. Although $lightly slower. it is
improved in all other categories. especially low-altitude Interceptions
against planes and cruise miSsiles. The new AA-9 long-range missile is
designed far look-down attacks on low-level cruise missiles. 11 olso has M-
as and M-10s.



This Is the most advonced olr-ground oHock plone built by the USSR.
Externally il oppears similar to the F- Il r . lncluding the side-by-side seating
in the cockpit. However. its armament and avionics are designed lor
fronl -line and reor·orea strikes into the teeth of enemy air defenses.
Western air and ground commanders feor the Su-24 more than any ottler
Soviet aircraft. The oircroft may carry a few AA-8s for self-defense. but it
Is nol designed lor oir-Io-oir combot.

This aircraft was designed to defeot the F-14 and F· 15 fighters . It is 0
large. powerful dogfighter whose usual armament is probably four AA-B
and four AA- l0missiles.lncomporison lathe MIG-29. the Su-27 is 0 IOlgel.
heavier plOne. It ils avionics and flight controls ore truly modern. the Su-
27 moy be the superior plone. However. In doglighting maneuverability
the MiG-29 and F-16 probablv have the edge.

Originally known as tne Yok-36MP, tnis vertical toke-off fighter oper-
ates from the Kiev-closs aircraff carriers, whlcn lock the equipment and
deck space far conventional jets. Initially thought to be a Russian equiva-
lent of the Harrier. the Yok-38 is considerably inferior. It nos limited
interception ability and very limited strike capacity. Until ft1is plone,
however. the Russian navy hod nattling bigger tnan helicopters for its
worShips at sea,

Many of tnese swing-wing bombers are in service wiltl tne Soviet
naval-oir arm, carrying long-range missiles to attock hostile worsnips up
to 3JXXl kilometers out to sea. The Backfire's exceptiOnally long range
and nign speed. plus its powerful missiles make it a morfal threat to USN
aircraft carriers. With aerial refueling It has sufficient range to get within
cruise-missile-Iaunch position of the USA, As a gesture to arms control. ft1e
USSR has removed air refueling equipment from its air force Backfires.

This is the latest general-purpose medium air transport af the Soviet
Union. Its jet engines and short-takeaff perfarmonce make it an outstand-
ing utility craft for transporting all types af personnel and cargo between
remote airfields.

The MiG 17 represents the Soviet Union's first missile armed flghterl
interceptor. First seen In 1955 it was a major re-design of the MiG 15. While
considered obsolete in 1965, it sow extensive action in the skies over
Vietnam, where Its performance against the more modern US fighters
was admirable.

Why We Did 11 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
MicroProse ScHwale become famous in 1984101 ils closslc combot
flight simulator F- /5 Strike Eogle. Since then we ' ve done a host of fine
games and simulations Including Silent Service , Pirates!. Airborne Ranger,
Gunship. Red Storm Rising. and mosl/scently F- 19 Stealth Fighter. Eoch
of these games shows technological Improvements over its predecessor.
Since F· 15 (our flagship product). we 've come a tremendous long way.
The original F- TS was a phenomenal hit for us. ond we think rightly so.
II WQS Ine firsT combat flight slmulal()( on the marl<ello lake itself seriously_
It was not on arcade game, but a thoughtful attempt to give ployers the
feeling they're f~ng real combol alrClafl ln a feal combot environment.
It was so successful thol many other software houses quickly jumped on
the bandwagon, hoping to create the some kind of sensation. We were
- and continue to be - quite proud of F- /5 Strike Eagle
Bul we've come a long way since 1964, In foci if one were to
compare the graphics of the original F-15 with those of F- 19 it would be
hard to tell they come from the same company, By loday' s standards,
F-15 looks a bit ragged. The game Is still a blast to ploy, but its appear-
ance is five years behind,
So, near the end of 1988. Andy Hollis, one of our ace programmers,
said that he' d like to see F-/5 Strike Eagle updated to match the new
graphiC standards set by F- 19, Why not , he reasoned, toke the exciting
game in F- 15 and combine It with our new 3D graphiCs technOlogy? It
would give us a chance to make a complete circle and soy, -look - see
what we've learned in five years:
A Fighler Pilol's Dream _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
F- 15 Strike Eagle /I !s a player's game. We put everything In thaI is fun
and left everything thaI's tedious or boring out, We tried to imagine what
a fighter pilot would like most to hove in his jet. and what ports of his job
he' d most like to forget; we wonted realism on~ where realism is fun , So
we gave you all the newest ml~les, the newest targeting system, one of
the fastest. most maneuverable fighters In the world, and placed it all in
on action-pocked arena where you can use this stuff- it's a fighter pilOt's
You don' t have to think about anything much except flying , shoot-
Ing things down, and blowing things up, You don 't have to concern
yourself with flight paths that won't disturb the enemy; they're already
disturbed when you start playing, You Just have to dogfight.
You don " have to think about guiding your missiles to the target-
all your weapons are fire-and-forgeT, It a miSSile misses a target. well.
there's nothing much you could have done anyway, except maybe
waited longer to fire.
There's no hidden information - all you need to know Is right in froot
of you on three eRTs on the console of the cockpit. If you 're not feeling
up to much competitive action, ploy at a lower difficulty level - the
enemy pilots are still smart, just not as smart as you" ,perhaps, It you don' t
wont to bother landing the plane. the autopilot will land you perfectly
every time. (In "Rookie mode" you don ·t even hove to waiTfor this; when
you get close to your friendty bose a giont. invisible tractor beam reac hes
out and sets your p lane lighTly down on The runway.)
Don·t think the game is unreolistic - it's nol. All the weapons in the
game exist (or are in production). and the fighter flies very mUCh like a real
F-1 5. The cambot environment you choose when you pick a d ifficulty
level is about as real as you'll find in any flighT simulator on".....nere. The
only difference is that you don 't have to deal with the dull parts. Only the
fun parts of flying strike missions ore In this game.
In a word. The game is about ACTION. Where F-1 9 is - finesse In the
a ir: F- 15 is - Rambo in the a ir. - All the features of the game were designed
wilh this single overriding concept in mind. The Interface is simple to
accommodate action. There's a limited number of keys. so when the
action storts you don' t have to think about which of 50 buttons to push .
you just oct. We mode a ll the aclion-reloted keys mnemonic so on
overloy would not be necessary.
In F- 15, unlike most of our other games. there are exactly three
preflight screens - then iI's off to the MiG hunt. In - Rookie mode- you
don' t even have 10 take off to gel into the action-when the gome starts
you are already flying toward your targets and are surrounded by enemy
fighters. There are two ground targets that you must destroy to complete
your mission. but the meat and potatoes of the game is a ir-to-a ir dueling.
There is a constant cloud of enemy fighters flying around shooling missiles
at you. And ground-based inslallations throw up a withering screen of
miSSiles that you must dance to ovoid.
The original F-15 Strike Eagle had seven scenarios that were set-
piece situations. These were fun and exciting scenarios. but to fit in with
the concept of lhe "Ifghter pial's dream : we hod 10 have more. In F- /5
I/you have a virtually unlimited number of scenarios - each m~ion you
fly will be different from the lost. Even if you happen to get the some
primary and secondary targets. the enemy will come at you differently
every time; the game therefore is endlessly reployable.
All in a ll. we ore very proud of F- 15 Strike Eagle II. It is a worthy
successor to F- 15 Strike Ea gle.
Who Did II? _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
In projects as large as this. one numerous people are involved
besid es those In the screen credi!s. Many people give a passing opinion
or two that the designer Of programmer tokes to heart and uses in Ihe
final game. In fact. it's reosonably accurate to soy that everyone at MPS
Lobs hod something to do with the w ay the game looks ond acts.
However, without the dedicated work of a few lop-notch programmers
and designers. projects like this would never get done.
In this case. the instigator was Andy Hollis. He was not the original
designer of F- 15 Strike Eagle b ut it was his favorite game for ma ny years.
Atter he wrapped up his work on F-19. ln which he Cleated the code for
producing all that neat. highly-detailed 3D (incidentally. the new horizon,
for those of you with 256-color graphics. wasAndy'sinvention - looks real
neat, huh?). he started clamoring to re-do F-15.

This caught the ears of company president Bill Stealey and original
F- 15 designer Sid Meiec who immediately sow the potent ia l for suCh a
project. Sid began to work on designing and programming the game
almost at once. Soon there wos enough e)(citement in the halls for the
gome to become a full-blown project. and in 0 few weeks we hod
something to work with.
Bath Sid and Andy hod worked 00 F-/9 Stealth Fighter and fell
confident of producing a new. neat game. but to insure that. they
solicited the help of some of the other F-/9crew. Game designer 6t"uce
Shelley. who created the 3D databases for F- 19, was coiled upon to
make a couple of new 3D databases for the two new theaters: Vietnam
and the Middle East. And Ma)( (Ma)(imum) Reming ton was again enlisted
to make some new objects to place in the databases.
Veteran pi)(el ticklers (computer artists) Michael Haire and Murray
Taylor were called In to furnish the start and end screen ort and all the
neat cockpit shotsyou see in the game. Barbaro Bents got involved in the
closing stages to round out the mops and some of the illustrations in this
Someone hod to write the manual and I (Jeff 6t"iggs) wos osked to
undertake that job. Along with Lawrence Shick. a most patient editor.
and Iris Idokogi. a most ta lented artist. we were able to put the manual
together in near record time.
Finally, the Quality Assurance peopje.led by AI Roireau. must be ap-
plauded for their dedicated service ot trocklng down and stomping out
the Inevitable bugs that software design seems 10 foster. The QA
deportment here at MPS Lobs deserves 0 lot of credit for the final
product. 'cause they don" let il oul before it's lime.
We 011 hope you enjoy Ihis game as much as we do. We hope you"1I
agree thaI il is a worthy successor to F-15 Strike Eagle.

The F- 15 II Design Team

June 1989

Design and Programming

Wartd Graphics and Databases


Computer Graphics

Music and Sound


Manual Text

Print Media Directo r


Paper Graphics



Quality Assurance

Packaging Design

This Manual and the computer programs and audiovisuals on the
accompanying floppy disks. whk:h are described by this manual. are
copyrighted and contain proprietary Information belonging to Mlcro-
Prose Software. Inc. No one may give or sell copies of this manual or the
accompanying disks or of listings of the programs on the disks to any
person or institution. eKcept as provided for by the written agreement
with MicroPfose Software. Inc. No one may copy. photocopy. repro,
duce. translate this manual or reduce It to machine readable form. in
whole or in part . without the priOr written consent of MicroProse Software.
Inc. Any person/persons reproducing any portion of this program. in any
media. for any reason. sholl be guilty of Copyright Violation . and sholl be
subject to civilliablity at the discretion of the copyright holder.

Neither MicroPfose Software. Inc .. nor any dealer or distributor makes
any warranty. eKpreSS or implied. with respect to this manual. the disk or
any related item. their quality. performance. merchantability. or fitness
for any purpose. It is the responsibility solely of the purchaser to determine
the sullability of the products for any purpose. Some stotes do not allow
limitations on implied warranties or how long an Implied warranty lasts. so
the above limitatiOn moy not apply to you.
As a condition precedent to the warranty coverage provided
below and to ensure Identification. the original purchaser must complete
and mail 10 MlcroProse SoHware.lnc .. 180 Lakefront Drive. Hunt Volley .
Maryland 21030. within 30 days after purchase. the Regislrallon/War'
ranty card enclOsed in this product. To the or;ginal purchaser only.
MicroProse Software. Inc. worrants the media to be free from defects In
material for 90 days. If during the first 90 days after purchase a defect in
media should occur. the software may be returned to MlcroProse Soft·
ware.lnc .. who wili/eplace the media at no charge. If at any lime after
the initial 90 day period your media beComes defective. the media may
be returned to MlcroProse Software for replacement at a S10.00 service
In no case will MiCioProse Software. Inc. be held liable for direct.ln-
direct or incidental damages resulting from any defect or omission In the
manual. or other related items and pt'ocesses. including. but not limited
to. any interruption of service. loss of business. anticipated profit. or other
consequential damages, Some states do not allow the eKclusion or
limitation of Incidenta l or consequential domages. so the obove limita-
tion or eKciusioo may not apply to you.
This warranty gives you specific legal ~ghIS, and you may also hove
other rights which vary from state to state.
IMPORTANT: The preceding warfantydaes not apply if you make any
unauthorized attempl to modify or duplicate the product . or if the
product has been damaged by accident or abuse.

MicroProse Software, Inc.

180 lakefron! Drive, Hun! ValleY,Maryland 21030
(301) 771-1151


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