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Chemistry of Living Things

Atoms

Everything is made up of matter.


Matter exists in small units called
atoms.
Atoms have a nucleus in the center
made up of protons and neutrons with
electrons outside the nucleus.

protons - positive (+) charge


electrons - negative (-) charge
neutron - no charge

Energy in matter is locked in


chemical bonds that hold atoms
together.

Elements
An element is something made up of only
one kind of atom.
example - oxygen (02), hydrogen (H2)
More than 90 elements occur naturally on
earth.

How Elements Combine


Compounds - when two or more elements are
combined
ex- H2O (water), CO2 (carbon dioxide), C6H12O12
(glucose)
Small numbers represent how many atoms of that
element.
Molecule - when atoms of elements combine
ex- 2H2O or 4 CO2
(big numbers represent how many molecules of that
compound)

+-+-+-+-+-+-+- Ions
+-+-+-

+-+-+-+-

ions - electrically charged atoms


ions are attracted to each other when they have opposite
charges.
a positive charge is attracted to a negative charge
a negative charge repels another negative charge
a positive charge repels another positive charge

Mixtures
A combination of substances in which
individual substances keep their own
properties
ex- mixing sugar with salt > their
make-up stays the same

Mixtures can be solids, liquids or


gases.

Types of Mixtures
Solution
a mixture in which one
or more substances mix evenly with
other substances.
ex- Kool Aid, saltwater
Suspension
a mixture that is evenly
spread through a liquid or gas but
settles to the bottom over time.
ex- Italian salad dressing, blood