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Dubai Municipality

Drainage and Irrigation Department


Sewerage and Drainage Design Criteria
Dubai Municipality Drainage and Irrigation Department has developed standard design
criteria for its sewerage and drainage systems. The criteria presented in the following
sections are to be used as the basis for all designs prepared for Dubai Municipality
projects.
The criteria presented have been standardized to reflect typical installations and to
support the design intent of the Sewerage and Drainage Masterplan. It is understood that
certain situations may require deviation from the criteria. The Engineer is responsible
for ensuring that the criteria are appropriate for each system. If deviations are required,
they should be identified to the reviewer and justification presented. Deviations that do
not support the overall system design intent should not be proposed.
SEWERAGE SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA
The following sections present design criteria to be used for designing Dubai
Municipality sanitary sewer systems. Refer to the standard specifications and details for
complementary information.
1.0

Collection Network
The sewage collection network is to be designed to handle the projected range of flows
estimated over the design life of the project. Flows are estimated based on a combination
of factors such as population, rate of development, type of development and per capita
sewage generation rates. For current design projects in Dubai the design year is 2020. The
following sections describe the factors to be taken into account during system design.

1.1

Sewage Flows
Sewage flows are projected to vary through the design period (Year 2020). A constant
rate of increase in per capita flows is to be assumed. Flows will be a minimum of 220
lpcd and will increase to an ultimate flow of 280 lpcd as presented in Table 1.1.1.

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Table 1.1.1. Dubai Daily Sewage Generation Rates


Year
Sewage Generation Rate (lpcd)
1995
220
2000
230
2005
245
2010
260
2015
270
2020
280
Table 1.1.2. Per Capita Sewerage Generation by Community Type (Year 1996)
Community Description
Population Density
Per capita flow
Rating
(lpcd)
low medium
High
220
Medium high
High
205
Medium - high
Low
213
Medium
Medium
156
The sewage generation rates are based on population (discussed later in this section) and
have been developed to include limited commercial, institutional and industrial (domestic
sewage only) flows. The rates also include a limited allowance for inflow and
infiltration.
The Engineer is to note that the above flows are to be used on a catchment basis. It may
be necessary to design specific pipe segments on a separate basis. Per capita sewage
flow rates have been shown to vary based on the type of development. Table 1.1.2
presents rates for various communities based on 1996 data. The Engineer should identify
whether or not adjustment to flows is appropriate on a case-by-case basis.
1.2

Industrial and Commercial Areas Sewage Flows


Per capita sewage flow rates presented in Section 1.1 include an allowance for flows
from non-residential connections. However, the Engineer should design lines based on
connection-specific flows. This would require estimates based on actual activities for
commercial, institutional and industrial users. Table 1.2.1 includes typical values for
various user categories. The Engineer should confirm that these rates are appropriate for
specific Dubai properties prior to use.

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Table 1.2.1. Typical Non-Residential User Sewage Flow Rates


Source

Unit

Commercial Sources
Airport
Automobile service station
Bar
Department store
Hotel
Industrial building
(sanitary waste only)
Laundry (self-service)
Office
Restaurant
Shopping center
Institutional Sources
Hospital, medical
Hospital, mental
Prison
Rest home
School, day
With cafeteria, gym, and showers
With cafeteria only
Without cafeteria and gym
School, boarding

Flow (liters/unit-day)
Range
Typical

Passenger
Vehicle served
Employee
Customer
Employee
Toilet room
Employee
Guest
Employee

7-15
26-50
34-56
4-19
38-60
1500-2300
30-45
150-230
26-50

11
38
45
11
49.50
1900
38
180
38

Employee
Machine
Wash
Employee
Meal
Employee
Parking space

26 60
1500-2500
170-210
26-60
8-15
26-49
4-8

50
2100
190
49
11
38
8

Bed
Employee
Bed
Employee
Inmate
Employee
Resident

500-900
19-56
280-530
19-56
280-570
19-56
190-450

600
38
380
38
450
38
320

Student
Student
Student
Student

56-115
38-75
19-65
190-380

95
56
42
280

Source: Adapted from Metcalf & Eddy, 1995

1.3

Community Population Projections


Sewage flow calculations are to be based on the best available planning information with
respect to population within a given community. This information is available from the
Dubai Municipality Planning and Survey Department. Table 1.3.1 presents current
projections for ultimate holding capacities for each community. Projections for both the
year 2015 data and community holding capacities are based on a Planning Department
memorandum issued in August 1999. This represents some change to that data first
presented in the year 1995 Structure Plan (amended). The Engineer should confirm all
data prior to design of any system.

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Table 1.3.1. Community Population for the Year 2015 and Holding Capacity

Community
Number
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
131
132
133
134
213
214
215
216
221-224
225
226
227
228
231
232

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Year 2015
Population
10,693
7,988
5,412
2,706
10,305
15,457
36,988
11,836
5,320
9,038
23,462
69,846
8,165
20,000
25,000
9,576
12,065
0
9,460
8,683
19,690
3,096
13,316
8,288
28,945
164
105
13,382
3,249
8,648
11,301
15,638

Holding Capacity
Population
10,693
7,988
5,412
2,706
10,305
15,457
36,988
11,836
13,300
9,038
23,462
73,522
8,165
20,000
25,000
9,576
12,700
0
9,460
9,140
24,612
3,870
16,645
8,288
28,945
164
105
15,743
3,822
11,531
15,068
19,548

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Table 1.3.1. Community Population for the Year 2015 and Holding Capacity (Contd.)

Community
Number
233
234
241
242
243
244
245
246
247
248
251
252
261
262
263
264
265
266
267
268
269
311
312
313
314
315
316
317
318
319
321
322
323
324

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Year 2015
Population
12,850
10,232
18,400
3,582
4,592
4,871
22,400
0
0
6,400
16,194
0
14,957
17,931
13,155
114,791
14,063
956
0
0
0
0
54,576
34,192
7,638
26,020
29,742
42,812
46,495
11,949
4,766
15,698
18,032
0

Holding Capacity
Population
12,850
11,369
23,000
4,478
5,740
6,089
28,000
0
0
8,000
16,194
0
18,696
27,586
16,444
114,791
17,579
3,822
68
0
0
50
54,576
34,192
8,487
28,911
33,047
42,812
46,495
11,949
5,957
19,622
18,032
0

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Table 1.3.1. Community Population for the Year 2015 and Holding Capacity (Contd.)

Community
Number
325
326-329
332
333
334
335
336
337
342
343
345-346
347-349
352
353
354
355
356
357
358
359
362
363
364
365
366
367
368
369
372
373
375
376
382

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Year 2015
Population
2,734
27,200
21,421
20,000
26,500
57,060
59,584
2,766
9,646
15,794
348
155
15,251
10,289
18,330
3,885
8,940
6,015
15,876
0
13,587
9,244
131,832
0
12,956
5,040
0
0
10,731
12,965
10,749
11,976
16,800

Holding Capacity
Population
2,734
34,000
21,421
20,000
26,500
67,129
62,720
3,951
10,154
15,794
348
155
16,945
13,718
19,295
4,856
9,933
8,020
17,640
0
15,097
11,555
131,832
0
14,395
6,300
0
0
13,414
17,287
16,537
18,424
21,000

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Table 1.3.1. Community Population for the Year 2015 and Holding Capacity (Contd.)

Community
Number
383-389
392
393-399
411-415
416-417
421-425
597
598-599
611
612
613
614
615
616-617
621
622
S64
S65
671-673
S67
S68
624-625
Jebel Ali Village

Year 2015
Population
0
150,000
40,000
38,454
19,304
79,117
49,815
57,000
155
0
0
30,000
4,500
11,400
80,000
0
2,700
14,274
27,256
3,754
0
0
36,140

Holding Capacity
Population
0
150,000
40,000
49,300
22,711
87,908
62,269
57,000
155
0
0
30,000
6,000
19,000
80,000
0
2,700
57,096
45,426
15,015
0
0
36,140

Populations are based on a Dubai Planning Department August 1999 memorandum

1.4.1 Peaking Factor


A peaking factor is to be applied to all sewage flows to identify required pipe and pump
station sizes. The Dubai Peaking Factor (DPF) is a variation of the Babbit Formula. The
formulation for Dubai is :
DPF (Dubai Peaking Factor) = 4.25 x (Population/1000) -1/6
The DPF is to be used to project maximum sewage flows from a tributary area. The tributary area
should include a contributing population equal to or greater than 500 persons. For tributary
populations with fewer than 500 persons an alternate method of estimating peak flows should be

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used. The Engineer should use methods described in British Standard BS 8301 or, alternatively,
ensure that minimum gradients are observed for all pipes as detailed in Section 1.8.

1.5

Hydraulic Calculations
Sanitary sewer design in Dubai is based on the Colebrooke-White formula. This formula is to be
used to determine the actual hydraulic flow characteristics resulting from the design flows. The
Manning Equation may also be used under certain circumstances.

1.5.1 Colebrooke-White Equation


V = - (2gDS)log[ks/3.7D + 2.51/D(2gDS)]
Where :

1.5.2

velocity (m/s)

gravitational acceleration (m/s2)

pipe diameter (m)

hydraulic gradient;(invert slope for full


pipes, water surface slopes for open channels (m/m)

ks

a linear measure of effective roughness (m)


(Refer to Section 1.10)

kinematic viscosity of fluid (m2/s)

Manning Equation

Manning Equation may also be used when verification of results is required. All sewer
designs are to be modeled using the MOdel of Urban SEwers (MOUSE) as developed by
the Danish Hydraulic Institute. MOUSE calculations are based on the Manning Equation.
Therefore, the Manning Equation may be used until MOUSE is revised to incorporate the
Colebrooke-White formulation.

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The Manning Equation is as follows:

Where :

2/3 1/2

(1/n) R S

velocity (m/s)

coefficient of roughness (refer to Section 1.10)

hydraulic radius (m)

slope of the energy grade line (m/m)

1.6 Minimum and Maximum Sewage Flow Velocities


Design flow velocities should be within the limits presented in Table 1.6.1. Minimum velocities
are based on providing self-cleansing velocities and preventing solids sedimentation in the sewer
pipes. Maximum velocities are set to prevent manhole corrosion and minimize sewer gases in
the sewer system.

Table 1.6.1. Maximum and Minimum Velocities in Sewers


Pipe Description

Minimum (m/s)

Maximum (m/s)

Design (m/s)

Gravity line

0.6

2.5

0.75

Pressure line

1.0

3.0

1.5

1.7 Depth of Flow

Table 1.7.1. Maximum pipe percentage full in sewer pipes.


Description

Maximum d/D

Minimum d/D

Trunk sewer lines

0.75

0.50

Main and lateral sewer lines

0.85

0.50

d/D is the ratio of flow depth to (d) to nominal pipe diameter (D).

The design criteria for depth of flow in sewer lines are presented in Table 1.7.1. Sanitary sewers
should be checked for percentage full at all times.

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1.8

Pipe Gradients

Pipe gradients, often the same as the hydraulic gradient, directly influence sewer pipe capacity.
In order to achieve the required minimum velocity in sewer lines, pipes should be designed by
observing the minimum gradients listed in Table 1.8.1.

Table 1.8.1. Minimum Sewer line Gradients


Sewer Diameter

Minimum Gradient (mm/m)


Velocity 0.75 m/s
5.00
3.70
2.70
2.00
1.50
1.20
1.00
0.85
0.70
0.60
0.55
0.50

200 mm
250 mm
315 mm
400 mm
500 mm
600 mm
700 mm
800 mm
900 mm
1000 mm
1100 mm
1200 mm and larger

Velocity 0.6 m/s


3.20
2.40
1.75
1.30
1.00
0.80
0.65
0.55
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.35

Minimum gradients based on the Colebrooke-White formulation

1.9

Pipe Materials
The pipe material for sanitary sewer pipes should be selected based on local
environmental conditions such as the characteristics of wastes, possibility of septicity,
corrosion, soil characteristics, exceptionally heavy external loadings, abrasion and
similar problems.
Recommended pipe materials to be used in Dubai for sewer pipes are given in Table 1.9.1.
Standard specifications and details reflect the use of these materials. Specification of alternate
materials must be justified and approved.

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Table 1.9.1. Recommended Sewage Pipe Materials


Category of Use

Size Range

Service
Connections
Sewer Mains

Construction
Method
Up to 160mm O.D. Open Trench
Moling or HDD
200mm to 300mm
Open Trench
Non-Disruptive
(Trenchless)

Sewer Mains

350mm & Greater

Open Trench
Non-Disruptive
(Trenchless)

Preferred Material
PVC, MDPE or HDPE
PVC, HDPE or PET
UPVC or HDPE
UPVC, HDPE or GRP
Either encased in
Concrete or slip lined
Through carried pipe and
Grouted, VCP.
GRP
GRP encased in concrete
or suitably stiff GRP
alone, VCP

1.10 Roughness Coefficient


The roughness coefficient is a measure of the variation and magnitude of protuberances on the
interior surface of the pipe. The roughness, therefore, is a function of the pipe material, age and
condition. Typical coefficients for the various pipe materials are given in Table 1.10.1. Note that
poor pipe conditions are to be assumed for Dubai system designs (n=0.013; ks = 1.5).

Table 1.10.1. Typical Roughness Coefficients


Pipe Material
Mannings Coefficient,
N
Good
Normal
UPVC
0.009
0.010
GRP
0.009
0.010
Coated Cast Iron
0.012
0.013
Uncoated Cast Iron
0.013
0.014
Ductile Iron
0.015
0.016
Asbestos cement
0.013
0.015
Vitrified Clay
0.013
0.015
Concrete
0.012
0.014

Poor
0.013
0.013
0.014
0.015
0.017
0.016
0.017
0.017

Colebrooke-White,
ks (mm)
Good
Normal Poor
0.3
0.6
1.5
0.3
0.6
1.5
0.09
0.15
0.30
0.15
0.3
0.6
0.15
0.3
0.6
0.15
0.3
0.6
0.3
0.6
1.5
0.15
0.3
0.6

1.11 Pipe Depths


The minimum depth for sewer pipes in Dubai is 1.2 m to the crown of the sewer pipe. This is to
provide pipe protection from external loads. If circumstances require installation of a pipe with
depth less than 1.2 m above the crown, then concrete protection is required.
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The maximum depth to invert is based on maintaining a cost-effective and safe design. The
recommended maximum cover for Dubai sewer pipes is approximately 10 m. Depths with
cover greater than this should be investigated with pipe manufacturers to identify any special
requirements that may be necessary.
1.12 Pipe Sizes
The current standard for the minimum size of sewer mains is 200 mm. The minimum
pipe size recommended for house connections is 150 mm or 160 mm outside diameter.

1.13 Utility Crossings


The basic design criteria to be used when a sewer line crosses or runs near to another utility are
presented in Table 1.13.1.
Table 1.13.1 Utility Crossing Guidelines
Parameter

Minimum Criteria

Vertical Clearance

30 cm Minimum.
If less than 30 cm, use concrete saddle.
Carry encasement to first joint on each side of crossing

Horizontal Clearance

3 m Minimum.
If in same trench, place other utility on separate bench on
undisturbed soil above sewer line

Potable Water Lines

Always placed above sewer lines to protect public health

1.14 Sewer Manholes


Manholes are required on sewer lines to permit access to the system and to ensure controlled
transitions in hydraulic flow. Designs shall include a manhole at the following points throughout
the collection system:

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Change in pipe diameter

Change in pipe alignment

Junction of two or more pipes

Distance greater than 100m (120m for D 1200 mm)

End of each lateral sewer

Manholes should be of sufficient size to permit access for maintenance activities. In


addition, their design and material selections should be such to guarantee maximum
performance for an extended service life.
The sanitary sewer manhole design criteria are presented in Table 1.14.1. Manholes are
classified based on the information in Table 1.14.2.
It should be noted that drops are sometimes required at manholes when a branch sewer
adjoins a truck sewer. Connections under these conditions require the use of a backdrop
when the difference in invert elevations exceeds 600 mm. Backdrops should be
constructed external to the manhole. Internal backdrops, while permissible, should only
be used for new connections to existing manholes where external connections are not
practicable. Internal backdrops are not permitted on manholes that are less than 1.5 m in
diameter since this would restrict access to an unacceptable degree.
Benching and channels in manholes shall be formed to permit safe access and to
maximize hydraulic efficiency through the manhole. Smooth transitions between inlet
and outlet pipe diameters and inverts are required.
Note that Table 1.14.2 included a Special designation. Specials are relatively small
and shallow; only used for small diameter pipes and more commonly referred to as
chambers. The use of chambers is restricted to unusual circumstances where a more
typical manhole cannot be constructed. Special manholes normally result from
construction issues discovered in the field and are not typically included in a project
design. Special manholes (chambers) must meet the criteria presented in Table 1.14.1
except where specifically stated otherwise.

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Table 1.14.1. Dubai Sanitary Sewer Manhole Design Criteria


Description
Standard
Maximum Spacing
Between Manholes
Benching
Manhole Rungs of Ladder
Manhole Cover and Frame

Access Shaft
Barrel
Safety Chains
Materials of Construction
Manhole Cover and Frame
Access Shaft
Top Slab
Barrel
Bottom Slab
Benching
Lining
Exterior Corrosion
Protection
Testing

100 meters for most sewers. 120 meters for large trunk sewers
(D> 1200mm). Limited by reach of sewer cleaning equipment.
Minimum 0.50 m width on at least one side of flow channel.
Ladder stops to be incorporated into surface.
Access by permanent steps or electric winch and tripod. Ladder
stops to be incorporated in benching for emergency access.
Rectangular Opening 0.60m by 0.60m minimum.
Double triangular leaves loosely bolted with 316 SS bolts and
nuts. Cover and frame to be machined and tagged to prevent
rocking. All covers and frames in roadways to be rated for
maximum vehicle loads.
Diameter 1.0m minimum
Length 2.5m maximum
Diameter 1.5m except as otherwise noted. Based on pipe
diameter plus minimum benching of 0.5 m one side.
Provide on all manholes with pipe diameter of 600 mm or
larger.
Ductile Iron with epoxy coating; plus GRP sealing plate
Mass concrete (No Reinforcement)
Reinforced Concrete
Mass Concrete (No Reinforcement)
Reinforced Concrete
Granolithic concrete base
GRP either hand lay-up or factory fabricated
Bituminous impregnated membrane with flexible fabric
Hydrostatic and Infiltration (as required)

Connection of branch sewers to trunk sewers should be made such that the soffit of the
smaller diameter branch pipe is at the same level as the trunk sewer pipe soffit. This rule
applies for all connections.

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Table 1.14.2. Sewer Manhole Classifications


Manhole
Lower
Upper
Pipe dia.
Depth Range
Type
Shaft dia.
Shaft
Range
dia.
Min. Max.

Lower Min. Upper Shaft


Shaft Depth Depth Range
Min.

Max.

Base Slab
Thickness

Lower Wall
Shaft

Upper Wall Reducer


Shaft
Slab

Thickness

Thickness

Top Slab
Thickness

Thickness

Special

1000

N/A

<200

>1000

<1400

N/A

N/A

N/A

225

200

N/A

N/A

225

1200

N/A

200

>1400

<2600

N/A

N/A

N/A

250

225

N/A

N/A

250

1500

N/A

200 to 600

>2600

<3500

N/A

N/A

N/A

250

250

N/A

N/A

250

1500

1000

200 to 600

>3500

<5400

2100

600

2500

300

300

200

300

250

1800

1000

700 to 900

>3800

7700

2400

600

2500

350

350

200

300

250

2100

1000

1000 to1100

>4000

9000

2600

600

2500

400

350

200

300

250

2400

1000

>1200

>4000

9000

2600

600

2500

400

350

200

300

250

Notes: 1. Special manholes only acceptable under unusual circumstances discovered during construction and as advised by the Engineer.
2. Depth measured from Top of Manhole cover to outlet pipe Soffit.
3. Manholes Details outside these parameters shall be detailed separately or advised by the Engineer.

2.0 Sewage Pump Stations


The design philosophy for Dubai includes the minimization of the total number of sewage
pump stations in the collection system. Where pumping is required, the number of times
a given flow is pumped should also be minimized. This philosophy has been adopted to
reduce operation and maintenance associated with pump stations. This philosophy also
works to minimize the time between discharge into the collection system and delivery to
the treatment facility.

There are two types of sewage pump stations in the existing Dubai system. They are
submersible stations (for small to medium size facilities) and wet well-dry well for large
facilities. Both have advantages and disadvantages and the Engineer should determine
the appropriate configuration for each new pump station on a case-by-case basis.
The following sections present design guidelines for sewage pump stations. In general,
the same criteria apply to both types of pump stations unless specifically noted otherwise.
2.1 Pump Station Sizing
Sewage pump stations must be sized to handle a range of flows over the service life of the
station. Variable flow considerations are important in sizing the structure and selecting
pumps.

All sewage pump stations in Dubai should be designed to handle the projected peak
influent flow rate. The peak flow rate is determined by applying peaking factors to the
average flow by one of the following methods:
a)
b)
c)

Dubai Peaking Factor as described in Section 1.4.1.


Average Peaking Factor
MOUSE Peaking Factor.

The Dubai Peaking Factor (DPF) is most commonly used since it is readily available from
design calculations for the collection system. Alternatively, the Engineer may use an
average peaking factor based on either a flow monitoring program or an evaluation of
data of existing stations in similar catchments. All calculations should be validated with

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the third method using MOUSE Model of Urban Sewers. MOUSE provides a more
accurate calculation of projected flows with time since it models the travel characteristics
throughout the catchment.
Table 2.1.1 is a summary of peaking factors for the main sewage pump stations in Dubai.
This information is provided only as an indication of how the different methods may vary.
Actual design peaking factors should be determined by the Engineer based on a complete
understanding of the catchment. This may vary significantly depending on the type of
development and size of catchment.
Table 2.1.1. Summary of Peaking Factors for Existing Main Pump Stations
Measured PF (1)

DPF (2)

1.49

1.87

1.43

1.54

1.92

1.40

1.52

1.99

1.53

1.57

1.88

1.30

1.42

1.50

1.42

Pump Station

Note

1.
2.
3.

MOUSE PF (3)

Measured Peaking Factor based on average of maximum flows


Dubai Peaking Factor is based on Structure Plan Population projections.
MOUSE Peaking Factor is based on assumed per capita flows and diurnal curves.

The capacity of the pump station should be greater than or equal to the estimated peak
sewage flow. Actual sizing of wetwells is left to the Engineer. Wet well sizing is a
function of the incoming flow, the control strategy for the station, the selected pumps and
the number of starts per hour permissible for the pumps. Since the latter is determined by
the pump manufacturer this can only be determined after pump selections are made.
Once this information is known, then the wetwell can be sized using the following
relationship:

Where

V
V

=
=
=
=

(q)/4
required capacity (m3)
minimum time in minutes of one pumping cycle
pump capacity, m3/min

Note the above equation is for a single pump or a single-speed control step for multiplespeed operation. It does not apply to variable-speed pumping.

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2.2 Pump Selection


Pump selection should be made to optimize conditions over the projected range of flowsminimum, average, maximum. Selection is made to minimize holding times in the wet
well before pumping and maximizing pumping efficiency.

Actual pump selection can only be made after a system head-capacity curve is developed
by the Engineer for the proposed installation. The following are to be considered.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

Required range of head and flows


Number of pumps
Operating and control strategy
Efficiency
Potential for upgrading capacity

The final item is important since initial flows may be significantly lower than design year
flows. When this is the case, the selected pump should be in the mid-range of available
impeller sizes so that simple changes can be made to improve pump station capacity.

Note that all sewage pump stations should have a minimum of two (2 nos.) pumps. The
second pump is redundant in the event of a single pump failure.
2.3 Pump Station Structures
Structures should be designed to ensure a safe working environment for operation and
maintenance staff as well as maximizing performance and minimizing costs. The
following should be observed:
a)

Isolation Wet wells should be isolated from dry wells and/or superstructures
by impermeable walls. Ventilation systems should be independent.

b)

Equipment Removal Provisions should be made to facilitate removing


pumps, motors, and other mechanical and electrical equipment.

c)

Access Suitable and safe means of access must be provided to dry wells and
to wet wells.

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d)

Construction Materials Due consideration should be given to the selection of


materials because of the presence of hydrogen sulfide and other corrosive
gases, greases, oils and other constituents frequently present in the sewage.

e)

Wet wells should be configured to minimize turbulence, especially near the


intake of the pumps.

f)

Wet well controls are typically of the encapsulated float-type; although more
sophisticated control may be considered. In all cases, control sensors should
be located away from the turbulence of incoming flow and pump suction.

2.4 Electrical and Instrumentation Systems

New sewage pump stations should be designed and constructed based on the applicable
standards for Dubai. International principles should also be practiced. To enhance the
operability of the pump station the following provisions should be included:

a)

Supply and control circuits should allow for disconnection from outside the wet
well. Terminals and connectors should be protected from corrosion through
proper location and/or the use of water-tight seals. Separate strain relief is
required.

b)

Motor control panels should be properly sealed.

c)

Power cords should be designed for flexibility and serviceability under


conditions of extra hard usage. They should also be such that field connections
are facilitated.

d)

Ground fault interruption protection should be used.

Instrumentation systems should be consistent with Dubai Municipality monitoring and


control strategies. Refer to literature on the Dubai Municipality system for requirements.

2.5 Odor Control

Odor control systems should be provided for to ensure that noxious gases and odors are
in concentrations lower than the detection level. Control systems are typically included
for each sewage pump station.

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Various types of odor control systems are available for sewage applications. These
include carbon filters, caustic scrubbers, ozonation and biofilters. Most existing facilities
in Dubai incorporate the use of carbon filters for small stations and caustic scrubbers for
main pump stations. The Engineer should review the requirements and technology
available at the time of design to provide an appropriate, cost-effective odor control
solution.

Note that most emphasis is placed on hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Present in sewage gas,
public complaints are quickly registered after detection. Current Dubai practice is to
control H2S concentrations at the discharge point to less than 1.0 ppm. In addition, no
H2S or other sewage related odors are permitted to be detectable at a distance of 1.0
meter from the discharge point.

3.0 Rising Mains

Sewage rising mains are an important part of the overall collection and pumping system.
Proper design of the rising main can result in efficient, cost-effective operation.
Improper design can result in poor performance, frequent blockages and increased
operating and maintenance costs. The following sections details the design principles to
be adopted for Dubai systems.

3.1 Sizing and Velocity Criteria

Rising mains should be sized to maintain velocities within an acceptable range for a
variety of flow conditions. Selection of a size requires an understanding of projected
flows for the service life of the system.
Section 1.6 included information regarding acceptable rising main velocities. The
minimum velocity permitted is 1.0 m/s; required to ensure the line is self-cleansing. The
maximum velocity acceptable for Dubai is 3.0 m/s. The preferred target velocity is
approximately 1.5 m/s.

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Selection of a rising main size should be based on the velocity range above. For cases
where initial flows are significantly lower than future flows two or more rising mains
may be warranted. This is usually the case with regional pumping facilities. The
additional rising main also provides redundancy in the event of a line problem.
Note that the velocity range must be met on a daily basis, not necessarily each time the
pump station operates. Velocities should be checked for each pumping scenario;
especially when multiple pumps are in operation simultaneously. Minimum, average
and peak flow conditions should be considered before a final selection is made. No
rising main should be smaller than 200 mm diameter.
3.2 Head Losses
Once a rising main has been selected, the head loss resulting from the main can be
calculated. This will permit appropriate pump selections to be made, the HazenWilliams Equation is used in Dubai for this calculation as follow:

Where:

= 0.278 CD2.63 S 0.54

= flowrate (m3/s)

= Hazen-Williams Coefficient (dimensionless)

= internal pipe diameter (m)

= slope of energy grade line (m/m)

Note that the Engineer should check the design for a range of C values (100 to 140) to assess
how the effects of pipe wear will effect overall system performance.

3.3 Material Selection

Sewage rising mains in Dubai must be resistant to the corrosive effects of the local sewage
characteristics. Currently, uPVC is used for pipes less than or equal to 315mm diameter. Pipes
larger than 315mm diameter are GRP. The Engineer should review the specifications for pipe
and ensure that any special requirements are provided for. This includes chemical resistance,
depth of cover and pressure requirements.

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3.4 Air Valves and Washouts

The Engineer should include air valves and washouts on all rising mains as necessary to
improve performance and increase access for maintenance. In general, devices should be
installed at the following locations:

Air valves : high points and as necessary based on surge analysis


Washouts : low points and as necessary for access and dewatering

In addition, access chambers should also be considered when the length of rising main is
greater than 500 m between air valves and/or washouts. This practice provides access for
maintenance purposes.

Each device should be constructed within a special chamber to ensure easy access.
Connections to the pipes are to be included for flushing the lines and/or for dewatering.
Valves should also be provided to either side for isolation purposes.

3.5 Surge Analysis

The Engineer is required to conduct an analysis of transients in his designed system. This is
also referred to as surge analysis. Dubai Municipality has adapted the SURGE 5 program as
its preferred software analysis tool. SURGE 5 was developed and is maintained by the
University of Kentucky, USA.

SURGE 5 results should be used to optimize the system such that the potential effects of
transients (water hammer) are mitigated. Recommended devices should be included in the
design. During construction, a separate analysis will be required of the Contractor based on
actual materials and equipment supplied. Modifications may be required at that time.

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DRAINAGE SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA


The following sections present design criteria to be used for designing Dubai Municipality
drainage systems. Details for stormwater and groundwater are discussed.

4.0 Collection Network

Dubais drainage collection network is to be designed to remove runoff from catchments


within the Dubai Urban Area. Runoff volumes for removal are based on two standard design
storms. System performance is to be measured by clear time evaluations. Individual design
criteria relating to the collection system are described hereinafter.

4.1 Design Storms


Two design storms are to be used in the design of the drainage system. The design storms
were defined on Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) curves developed for Dubai Urban
Areas. The IDF curves for return periods from 5 to 100 years are included as Figure 4.1.1.
A summary of precipitation data is appended to this document.

The Dubai IDF curves have been based on the frequency analysis for extreme values
relationship:

i=

1
cTde

where: i = rainfall intensity (mm/hr)


Td = duration of rainfall (hr)
c and e are constants for Dubai as presented in Table 4.1.1
This relationship yields individual rainfall intensities for different duration and return period storms.
The intensities are presented in Table 4.1.2.

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Table 4.1.1. Constants for Rainfall Equation For Various Return Periods
Return
c
e
Correlation
Period
Coefficient
(Year)
R2
5
0.0395
0.7100
0.996
10
0.0320
0.7011
0.997
15
0.0289
0.6976
0.997
25
0.0258
0.6941
0.998
50
0.0226
0.6904
0.998
100
0.0201
0.6876
0.998
Note: Constants correspond to i in mm/hr, Td in Hours.

Table 4.1.2. Rainfall Intensity Duration Frequency Analysis


Return Period
Intensity (mm/hr.)
by Duration (hr.)
0.50 1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
6.00
1000 Year
103.44 70.99
52.40
43.63 34.90 20.51
200 Year
83.78 57.81
42.73
35.50 28.40 16.43
150 Year
80.26 55.45
41.00
34.05 27.24 15.70
100 Year
75.30 52.12
38.56
31.99 25.59 14.66
75 Year
71.77 49.75
36.82
30.53 24.43 13.93
50 Year
66.78 46.40
34.37
28.47 22.78 12.89
40 Year
64.03 44.56
33.01
27.33 21.87 12.32
30 Year
60.46 42.17
31.26
25.86 20.69 11.58
25 Year
58.20 40.65
30.15
24.92 19.94 11.11
20 Year
55.41 38.78
28.78
23.77 19.02 10.53
15 Year
51.80 36.35
27.00
22.27 17.82
9.78
10 Year
46.63 32.89
24.46
20.14 16.11
8.71
5 Year
37.48 26.75
19.96
16.35 13.08
6.81
4 Year
34.38 24.67
18.44
15.07 12.06
6.17
3 Year
30.19 21.86
16.38
13.34 10.67
5.30
2 Year
23.65 17.48
13.16
10.64
8.51
3.94

24.00
7.62
6.12
5.86
5.48
5.21
4.83
4.62
4.35
4.18
3.97
3.70
3.30
2.61
2.37
2.06
1.56

The first design storm is 30 mm in 90 minutes and represents a return period of 5 years.
The 5-year storm is to be used for all local drainage facilities including local collectors,
inlets, pump stations, rising mains and outfalls.
The second storm is 116 mm in 24 hours and represents a return period of 50 years.
The 50-year storm is to be used for all regional drainage facilities including trunk
lines, detention ponds, regional pump stations, rising mains and outfalls.

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Designs must account for the dynamics of the system by observing the variation in
rainfall intensity over the storm duration. This is to be accomplished by using the
MOUSE model for Dubai. Tables 4.1.3 and 4.1.4 present the intensities for the 5-year
and 50-year storms, respectively. Hyetographs for both storms are illustrated in Figure
4.1.2.
Table 4.1.3. Local Drainage System Design Storm (5-Year Return Period)
Time (min)

0-30 min

Intensity (mm/hr)

16.2

Depth (mm)

8.1

18.7

Cumulative Depth (mm)

8.1

26.8

30 min-60 min
37.5

60 min-90 min
6.2
3.1
29.9

Table 4.1.4 Regional Drainage System Design Storm (50-Year Return Period)
Time (hr)
0-.5 0.5-1.0 1.0-1.5 1.5 2.0 2.0 6.0 6.0 24.0
Intensity (mm/hr)
14
66
24
10
5
2.17
Depth (mm)
7
33
12
5
20
39
Cumulative Depth(mm) 7
40
52
57
77
116
4.2

Runoff Coefficients
The runoff coefficients that are currently used during planning to evaluate runoff for
Dubai are 0.4 for urban areas and 0.1 for undeveloped areas. In Table 4.2.1, the runoff
coefficients for areas of various characteristics are given.

Runoff coefficients are to be used with the design storms to estimate


stormwater runoff volumes. These coefficients are to be established on a
site-specific basis to reflect actual catchment characteristics.
Composite coefficients used in the planning of regional catchments were 0.6
for highly developed areas, 0.4 for developed areas and 0.1 for undeveloped
areas. The Engineer should determine the appropriate runoff coefficient for
each catchment and subcatchment during design.

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Table 4.2.1 Typical Runoff Coefficients


Area Description
Categorized by surface
Asphalt
Brick
Concrete
Sandy soil
Clay soil
Categorized by use
Agricultural
Unimproved
Parks and Playgrounds
Cemeteries
Playground (non-asphalt or concrete)
Business districts
Residential
Small Villas ( 2500 m2 )
Large Villas ( > 2500 m2 )
Apartments
Industrial
Light
Heavy

Coefficient
0.7 0.95
0.7 0.85
0.8 0.95
0.05 - 0.2
0.13 - 0.85
0.05 - 0.3
0.1 - 0.3
0.1 0.25
0.1 0.25
0.2 0.35
0.7 0.95
0.3 - 0.5
0.25 - 0.40
0.50 - 0.70
0.50 - 0.80
0.60 - 0.90

Source: Adpated from Viessman and Knapp, 1977.

Note that for preliminary calculation of runoff, these coefficients are consistent with
those used with the Rational Method for estimating runoff.
The formula is

240 CIA

Where:

the peak runoff rate (m3/day)

the runoff coefficient (dimensionless)

the average rainfall intensity (mm/hr)

the size of the drainage area (ha)

The Engineer may wish to use the Rational Method for preliminary sizing of
collection system components. However, design submittals must use the Dubai
MOUSE model to demonstrate the performance of the system. This is especially
important with respect to clear times as discussed in Section 4.3.

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4.3

Clear Times
System clear time refers to the amount of time after a storm event ends which is required
to remove flood volumes from service areas. These times have been set to minimize
commercial impacts and to protect the public. Table 4.3.1 is a summary of
recommended clear times for different area classifications within Dubai.

Table 4.3.1. Recommended Drainage System Clear Times


Area Classification
Maximum Clear Time, hrs.
Residential
Commercial
Industrial
Roadways
Local (single lane)
Collector (two lane)
Arterial (two lane)
Arterial (three or more lanes)
Underpasses
4.4

6
4
4
6
6
4
2
0 (No surcharge)

Groundwater Flow
Drainage systems are to be designed to control groundwater in areas where water
levels are within 2 meters of the ground surface. However, the stormwater drainage
system is not sized on the basis of groundwater flows. Groundwater contributions in
Dubai vary from catchment to catchment since they are a function of the local
groundwater table elevation and ground permeability.

Groundwater flow rates can be predicted based on guidelines presented in


Construction Industry Research and Information Association (CIRIA) Report No.113.
Groundwater flows can be calculated using the following relationships for
dewatering:
Ro = Ch K0.5
Q = [ ( 0.73 + 0.27 ( H-ho/H ] ( K x /Ro ) (H2 - ho2)]
Where
Q = total discharge from drain ( m3/s)

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H = height of static water table ( m )


ho = height of water level at drain inlet ( m )
h = H - ho (m)
K = permeability of soil (m/s)
X = length of drain ( m )
Ro= distance to drain, ( radius of influence, m )
C = Constant factor (range of 1,500 to 2,000 for line flow to
collection points or 3,000 for radial flow to pumped wells)
Table 4.4.1 presents typical soil permeability values. A value of 10-5 is used for most
areas of Dubai to obtain preliminary estimates of flow. The actual value to be used in
design should be based on actual field investigation results.
Table 4.4.1. Typical Soil Permeabilities
Permeability
Soil
(m/s)
Type
1.0
Clean Gravel
10-1
-2
10
Clean Sands,
10-3
-4
Clean sand and gravel
10
-5
mixtures
10
Very fine sands, organic
10-6
-7
and inorganic silts, clay,
10
subkha, stratified clay
10-8
-9
deposits.
10
Homogeneous clays
10-10
below zone of
weathering

Drainage
Characteristics

Good Drainage

Poor
Drainage
Practically
Impervious

Adapted from Holtz and Kovacs, 1981.

Groundwater flows are collected using slotted pipes. The opening size ranges
from 3mm to 4mm. Total percentage of opening should be identified by
individual pipe manufacturers to allow infiltration of volumes as specified in
British Standard BS 5911 : Part 114. These volumes are summarized in Table
4.4.2.

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Table 4.4.2. Slotted Pipe Minimum Infiltration Rates


Diameter
Infiltration Rate
mm
l/min/m
150

100

225

150

300

200

Greater than 300

250

Source: BS 5911: Part 114, 1992

Should the Engineer decide to use deep well points to lower groundwater elevations
in lieu of land drains then a separate relationship applies.
Ro = Chk0.5
Q = k (H2-hw2) / (loge (Ro/rw))
Where : Ro =
C =
k =
Q =
H =
hw =
rw =
4.5

radius of influence, m
constant (as before, 3,000 assumed for
radial flow to pumped well)
permeability of soil (m/s)
total discharge from well (m3/s)
height of static water table (m)
height of water in well (m)
radius of the well (m)

Hydraulic Design
Hydraulic design of the Dubai Drainage System, like the sewerage system, is to be based
on the Colebrooke-White formula. The Manning Equation may also be used during
MOUSE modeling exercises. Refer to Section 1.5 for details of the two formulas. Note
that the drainage system is to be designed to operate under surcharge conditions in
accordance with the clear time philosophy.

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Table 4.6.1. Maximum and Minimum velocities in Drainage Pipes


Pipe Description

4.6

Minimum (m/s)

Maximum (m/s)

Design (m/s)

Gravity line

0.75

2.5

0.75

Pressure line

1.0

3.0

1.0

Minimum and Maximum Drainage Flow Velocities


Design flow velocities should be within the limits which are set in Table 4.6.1.
Minimum velocities are based on providing self-cleansing velocities and prevent
solids sedimentation in the drainage pipes. Maximum velocities are set to
minimize the negative effects of abrasion on the pipes and manholes.

4.7

Roughness Coefficient
The roughness coefficient is a measure of the variation and magnitude of
protuberances on the interior surface of the pipe. The roughness, therefore, is a
function of the pipe material, age and condition. Typical coefficients for the
various pipe materials are given in the Table 4.7.1. Dubai drainage designs should
be based on a ks = 0.6 (n=0.016) assuming asbestos-cement pipe.
Table 4.7.1. Typical Roughness Coefficients
Pipe Material
Mannings Coefficient,
Colebrooke-White,
n
ks (mm)
Good
Normal Poor
Good
Normal Poor
UPVC
0.009
0.010
0.012 0.3
0.6
1.5
GRP
0.009
0.010
0.012 0.3
0.6
1.5
Coated Cast Iron
0.012
0.013
0.014 0.09
0.15
0.30
Uncoated Cast Iron
0.013
0.014
0.015 0.15
0.3
0.6
Ductile Iron
0.015
0.016
0.017 0.15
0.3
0.6
Asbestos cement
0.013
0.015
0.016 0.15
0.3
0.6
Vitrified Clay
0.013
0.015
0.017 0.3
0.6
1.5
Concrete
0.012
0.014
0.017 0.15
0.3
0.6

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4.8

Pipe Depths
Dubai Municipality drainage projects are designed on the basis of maintaining a
minimum cover depth of 1.2 m above the crown of the drainage pipe. This is to
provide protection from external loads. Pipes with a depth less than 1.2m above
the crown should be protected with concrete.
Maximum depths to invert during design should be on the basis of maintaining a
cost-effective and safe design. The recommended maximum cover for Dubai
drainage pipes is approximately 10m. Depths greater than this should be avoided
where practicable. If required, then the Engineer should determine whether or not
any additional provisions are required to protect the pipe from soil loads.

4.9

Pipe Materials and Sizes


Drainage pipes in Dubai are often exposed to aggressive groundwater, therefore
material selection is important. This will play an important role in determining the life
of the system. Similarly, selection of appropriate sizes is important to the overall
system performance.

Drainage pipes should be of either asbestos-cement or, in specific cases, of uPVC.


Table 4.9.1 is a summary of pipe materials and sizes. Note that AC pipe should be
manufactured using mild sulphate resistent cement to resist degradation due to
aggressive groundwater characteristics.
Table 4.9.1 Drainage Pipe Materials
Pipe Diameter (mm)
315
> 315

Material
uPVC
Asbestos-Cement

Comment
Mild sulphate resisting

The minimum pipe size permissible on drainage projects is 250 mm. One exception
is pipe used for land drains. The land drain minimum size is 160 mm. However,
slotted carrier pipes, serving as both land drain and carrier drain, must meet the
250mm minimum. Openings in land drains and slotted carrier pipes must meet the
requirements outlined in Section 4.4.

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4.10

Utility Crossings
The basic design criteria to be used when a drainage line crosses or runs near to
another utility are the same as in the sewerage design criteria section. This
information is presented in Table 4.10.1
Table 4.10.1 Utility Crossing Guidelines
Parameter

4.11

Minimum Criteria

Vertical Clearance

30 cm minimum.
If less than 30 cm, use concrete saddle.
Carry encasement to first joint on each side of crossing

Horizontal Clearance

3 m minimum.
If in same trench, place other utility on separate bench
on undisturbed soil above sewer line

Potable Water Lines

Always placed above drainage lines to protect public


health

Drainage System Manholes


The recommended design criteria for manholes to be installed for the stormwater
drainage system are summarized in Table 4.11.1. Drainage manhole classifications
are given in Table 4.11.2.

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Table 4.11.1. Recommended Drainage Manhole Design Criteria


Description
Standard
Maximum Spacing
Between Manholes

100 meters for most sewers. 120 meters for


large trunk sewers (D> 1200mm). Limited
by reach of sewer cleaning equipment.

Benching

Minimum 0.50 m width on at least one side


of flow channel. Ladder stops to be
incorporated into surface.

Manhole Rungs or Ladder

Access by permanent steps or electric


winch and tripod. Ladder stops to be
incorporated in benching for emergency
access.

Manhole Cover and Frame

Circular Opening 600mm minimum.


Cover and frame to be machined and
tagged to prevent rocking. All covers and
frames in roadways to be rated for
maximum vehicle loads.

Access Shaft

Diameter 1.0m minimum


Length 2.5m maximum

Barrel

Diameter 1.5m except as otherwise noted.


Based on pipe diameter plus minimum
benching of 0.5 m one side.

Safety Chains

Provide on all manholes with pipe diameter


of 600 mm or larger.

Materials of Construction
Manhole Cover and Frame
Access Shaft
Top Slab
Barrel
Bottom Slab
Benching
Lining
Exterior Corrosion
Protection
Testing

DS96

Ductile Iron with epoxy coating


Mass concrete (No Reinforcement)
Reinforced Concrete
Mass Concrete (No Reinforcement)
Reinforced Concrete
Granolithic concrete base
Epoxy paint protection
Coal tar epoxy or impervious membrane
coupled with protection board.
Hydrostatic and infiltration

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Table 4.11.2. Drainage Manhole Classifications


Manhole
Lower
Upper
Pipe dia.
Depth Range
Type

Shaft

Shaft
dia.

Range

Diameter

Lower Min.

Upper Shaft

Shaft Depth Depth Range


Min.

Max.

Min.

Max.

Base Slab Lower


Wall
Thicknes Shaft
s
Thickness

Upper
Wall
Shaft

Reducer

Top Slab

Slab

Thickness

Thickness

Thickness

1200

N/A

250

>1100

<2600

N/A

N/A

N/A

250

225

N/A

N/A

250

1500

N/A

250 to 600

>2600

<3500

N/A

N/A

N/A

250

250

N/A

N/A

250

1500

1000

250 to 600

>3500

<5400

2100

600

2500

300

300

200

300

250

1800

1000

700 to 900

>3800

7700

2400

600

2500

350

350

200

300

250

2100

1000

1000 to1100

4000

9000

2600

600

2500

400

350

200

300

250

2400

1000

>1200

4000

9000

2600

600

2500

400

350

200

300

250

Notes: 1. Manhole details outside these parameters to be detailed separately or advised by the Engineer.
2. Depth measured from Top of Manhole cover to outlet pipe soffit.

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4.12

Inlet Gullies
Stormwater runoff is to be collected using one of two gully types. There are
curb inlet gullies and gutter gullies. Gully locations should be in accordance
with the following:

4.13

Inlet gullies are to be located to minimize the impact of flooding of


roadways and side walk.

Inlets should be located at all low points and at aspalting interval


which will avoid overflowing of gutters.

Maximum spacing between gullies is 25 meters.

Soakaways
Soakaways may be used for disposal of collected stormwater runoff.
Typically, these should be used for roadways through undeveloped areas
where centralized drainage systems have not yet been installed. The
Engineer should design the soakaways based on site specific investigation.
Provisions for connection to future main drainage collectors should be
included in the design.

4.14

Outfalls
The design of outfalls is specialized and can not be generalized to address
every project. Outfalls may be located in either the Dubai Creek, the Arabian
Gulf or a detention pond. Outfall locations near public beaches or private
hotels should be avoided where possible. Outfalls should not be located in
area where the resident biological life will be disrupted to the point where its
survival is threatened.

4.15

Detention Ponds
Detention Ponds are regional facilities and should be based on a 50-year
return period. The following sizing criteria should be used.

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Detention pond sizing criteria


Pond volume design storm

116 mm

Storm return period

50 year

Number of pond levels

2 (two)

Pond lower level design runoff

30 mm

Pond upper level design runoff

70 mm

Pond (lower level) empty time

5 days

Pond (upper level) empty time

2-3 weeks

Note that the emptying time for the upper level is approximate. Actual
emptying time may vary depending on outlet sizing based on the lower level
emptying time. All ponds must meet this criteria for a given storm event.
Therefore, upstream ponds must be cleared more quickly.

Total pond storage volume is based on 116 mm of runoff. It is assumed that


the additional 16 mm runoff for the design storm is routed through the system
during filling and thus maximum storage requirements are for 100 mm. The
Engineer should confirm all clear times using the MOUSE model.

5.0 Drainage Pump Stations


The design philosophy for Dubai includes the minimization of the total number
of drainage pump stations in the collection system. Where pumping is required
the number of times a given flow is pumped should also be minimized. This
philosophy has been adopted to reduce operation and maintenance associated
with pump stations.
Existing drainage pump stations in the Dubai system are typically submersible
stations. The following sections present design guidelines for drainage pump
stations.

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5.1

Pump Station Sizing


Drainage pump stations must be sized to handle runoff flows based on the
appropriate design storms.

All drainage pump stations in Dubai should be designed to handle the projected
runoff for its catchment; both local and regional where appropriate. In many
cases, a pump station may be larger in order to ensure that clear times for
upstream detention ponds are met. The Engineer should ensure appropriate
sizing for such pump stations; even when the upstream ponds are not within the
immediate project area.

All calculations should be validated with MOUSE Model of Urban Sewers.


MOUSE provides a more accurate calculation of projected flows with time since
it models the travel characteristics throughout the catchment.
The capacity of the pump station should be greater than or equal to the estimated
runoff flow divided by the storm duration and clear time for the local area or
detention pond served by the station. Actual sizing of wetwells is left to the
Engineer. Wet well sizing is a function of the incoming flows, the control
strategy for the station, the selected pumps and the number of starts per hour
permissible for the pumps. Since the latter is determined by the pump
manufacturer this can only be determined after pump selections are made. Once
this information is known, then the wetwell can be sized using the following
relationship:

Where

V
V

=
=
=
=

q/4
required capacity (m3)
minimum time in minutes of one pumping cycle
pump capacity, m3/min

Note the above equation is for a single pump or a single-speed control step for
multiple-speed operation. It does not apply to variable-speed pumping.

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5.2

Pump Selection
Typically, stormwater drainage pump stations are not considered to go through
the multiple start-stop cycles experienced in sewage pump stations. However,
when the drainage pump station is also used for dewatering, such sizing can
become important.

Pump selection should be made to optimize conditions over the anticipated


range of flows and should consider both runoff and groundwater flows as
appropriate. Selection is made to minimize holding times in the wet well before
pumping, maximize pumping efficiency, and meet clear time requirements on
both local and regional scales.

Actual pump selection can only be made after a system head-capacity curve is
developed by the Engineer for the proposed installation. The following are to be
considered.

f)
g)
h)
i)
j)

Required range of head and flows


Number of pumps
Operating and control strategy
Efficiency
Potential for upgrading capacity

The final item is important to ensure flexibility in the system. The potential to
upgrade capacities means that there will be opportunity to accept runoff from
adjacent catchments on either a long-or short-term basis. Of course, should
design constraints such as design storm or clear time become more restrictive in
the future, flexibility would also make it easier to comply with new
requirements.

When possible, the selected pump should be in the mid-range of available


impeller sizes so that simple changes can be made to improve pump station
capacity. Note that all drainage pump stations should have a minimum of two (2
nos.) pumps. The second pump is redundant in the event of a single pump
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failure. Multiple size pumps may also be appropriate to meet groundwater


pumping requirements.
5.3

Pump Station Structures


Structures should be designed to ensure a safe working environment for
operation and maintenance staff as well as maximizing performance and
minimizing costs. The following should be observed:
a)

Ventilation Wet wells should include provisions for appropriate


ventilation prior to entry by trained personnel.

b)

Equipment Removal Provisions should be made to facilitate


removing pumps, motors, and other mechanical and electrical
equipment.

c)

Access Suitable and safe means of access must be provided to dry


wells and to wet wells.

d)

Construction Materials Due consideration should be given to the


selection of materials because of the presence of aggressive
groundwater flows, greases, oils and other constituents frequently
present in the drainage.

e)

Wet wells should be configured to minimize turbulence, especially


near the intake of the pumps.

f)

Wet well controls are typically of the encapsulated float-type;


although more sophisticated control may be considered. In all cases,
control sensors should be located away from the turbulence of
incoming flow and pump suction.

5.4 Electrical and Instrumentation Systems

New drainage pump stations should be designed and constructed based on the
applicable standards for Dubai. International principles should also be practiced.
To enhance the operability of the pump station the following provisions should
be included:

a)

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Supply and control circuits should allow for disconnection from


outside the wet well. Terminals and connectors should be protected

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from corrosion through proper location and/or the use of water-tight


seals. Separate strain relief is required.
b)

Motor control panels should be properly sealed.

c)

Power cords should be designed for flexibility and serviceability


under conditions of extra hard usage. They should also be such that
field connections are facilitated.

d)

Ground fault interruption protection should be used.

Instrumentation systems should be consistent with Dubai Municipality


monitoring and control strategies. Refer to literature on the Dubai Municipality
system for requirements.

6.0 Drainage Rising Mains

Drainage rising mains are an important part of the overall collection and
pumping system. Proper design of the rising main can result in efficient, costeffective operation. Improper design can result in poor performance, frequent
blockages and increased operating and maintenance costs. The following
sections detail the design principles to be adopted for Dubai systems.

6.1 Sizing and Velocity Criteria

Rising mains should be sized to maintain velocities within an acceptable range


for a variety of flow conditions. Selection of a size requires an understanding
of projected flows for the service life of the system.
Section 4.6 included information regarding acceptable rising main velocities.
The minimum velocity permitted is 1.0 m/s; required to ensure the line is selfcleansing. The maximum velocity acceptable for Dubai is 3.0 m/s. The
preferred target velocity is approximately 1.5 m/s.
Selection of a rising main size should be based on the velocity range above.
For cases where initial flows are significantly lower than future flows two or

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more rising mains may be warranted. This could be the case with regional
pumping facilities where some portion of the catchment will not be developed
for several years. The additional rising main also provides redundancy in the
event of a line problem.
Note that the velocity range must be met on a daily basis, not necessarily each
time the pump station operates. Velocities should be checked for each pumping
scenario; especially in the case of dry weather season groundwater control. No
rising main should be smaller than 200 mm diameter.
6.2 Head Losses
Once a rising main has been selected, the head loss resulting from the main can
be calculated. This will permit appropriate pump selections to be made, the
Hazen-Williams Equation is used in Dubai for this calculation as follow:

Where:

= 0.278 CD2.63 S 0.54

= flowrate (m3/s)

= Hazen-Williams Coefficient (dimensionless)

= internal pipe diameter (m)

= slope of energy grade line (m/m)

Note that the Engineer should check the design for a range of C values (100 to
140) to assess how the effects of pipe wear will effect overall system
performance.

6.3 Material Selection

Drainage rising mains in Dubai must be resistant to the corrosive effects of the
local drainage characteristics. Currently, uPVC is used for pipes less than or
equal to 315mm diameter. Pipes larger than 315mm diameter are asbestoscement. The Engineer should review the specifications for pipe and ensure that

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any special requirements are provided for. This includes chemical resistance,
depth of cover and pressure requirements.

6.4 Air Valves and Washouts

The Engineer should include air valves and washouts on all rising mains as
necessary to improve performance and increase access for maintenance. In
general, devices should be installed at the following locations:

Air valves : high points and as necessary based on surge analysis


Washouts : low points and as necessary for access and dewatering

In addition, access chambers should also be considered when the length of


rising main is greater than 500m between air valve and/or washouts. This
practice provides access for maintenance purposes.

Each device should be constructed within a special chamber to ensure easy


access. Connections to the pipes are to be included for flushing the lines and/or
for dewatering. Valves should also be provided to either side for isolation
purposes.

6.5 Surge Analysis

The Engineer is required to conduct an analysis of transients in his designed


system. This is also referred to as surge analysis. Dubai Municipality has
adopted the SURGE 5 program as its preferred software analysis tool. SURGE
5 was developed and is maintained by the University of Kentucky, USA.

SURGE 5 results should be used to optimize the system such that the potential
effects of transients (water hammer) are mitigated. Recommended devices
should be included in the design. During construction, a separate analysis will

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be required of the Contractor based on actual materials and equipment supplied.


Modifications may be required at that time.

Mf/ma/drainage-Design-Cr19-10.doc

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