This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
https://www.scribd.com/doc/25370440/PowerSystem3PowerTransformerEEE3233
05/25/2013
text
original
: CHAPTER 2
POWER TRANSFORMER
POWER TRANSFORMER
Nur Diyana Kamarudin
Nur Diyana Kamarudin
EEE3233
POWER SYSTEM
Introduction
Introduction
§
A transformer is a static machines static machines.
§
The word ‘transformer’ comes form the word ‘transform’. The word ‘transformer’ comes form the word ‘transform’.
§
Transformer is not an energy conversion device not an energy conversion device
§
But is a device that changes AC electrical power at one device that changes AC electrical power at one
voltage level into AC electrical power at another voltage level into AC electrical power at another
voltage level through the action of magnetic field, voltage level through the action of magnetic field,
without a change in frequency. without a change in frequency.
§
Can raise or lower the voltage/current in ac circuit Can raise or lower the voltage/current in ac circuit
Generation Generation
Station Station
T X 1 T X 1
Distributions Distributions
T X 1
T X 1
Transmission System Transmission System
33/13.5kV 33/13.5kV 13.5/6.6kV 13.5/6.6kV
6.6kV/415V 6.6kV/415V
Consumer Consumer
Transformer
Construction
§
There are 3 basic parts of transformer:
A primary coil/winding
receives energy from the ac source
A secondary coil/winding
receives energy from primary winding &
delivers it to the load
A core that supports the coils/windings.
provide a path for magnetic lines of flux
§
Transformer
Construction
§
The operation of transformer is based on the principal of
mutual inductance
§
A transformer usually consists of two coils of wire wound on
the same core
§
The primary coil is the input coil while the secondary coil is
the output coil
§
A changing in the primary circuit creates a changing
magnetic field
§
This changing magnetic field induces a changing voltage in
the secondary circuit
§
This effect is called mutual induction
§
Transformer
Construction
§
Transformer can be either stepup or stepdown
transformer
§
If the output voltage of transformer is greater than the
input voltage stepup transformer
§
If the output voltage of a transformer is less than the
input voltage stepdown transformer
§
By selecting appropriate numbers of turns, a transformer
allows an alternating voltage to be stepped up – by
making Ns more than Np
§
Or stepped down by making Ns less than Np
§
Vs Ns
Vp Np
·
Example 1
§
There are 400 turns of wire in an ironcore
coil. If this coil is to be used as the
primary of a transformer, how many
turns must be wound on the coil to
form the secondary winding of the
transformer to have a secondary
voltage of one volt if the primary
voltage is 5 volts?
Example 1 (solution)
Transformer
Construction
Core characteristic:
§
The composition of a transformer core depends on:
§
voltage, current, frequency, size limitations and
construction costs
§
Commonly used core materials are air, soft iron, and steel
§
Aircore transformers are used when the voltage source has
a high frequency (above 20 kHz)
§
Ironcore transformers are usually used when the source
frequency is low (below 20 kHz)
§
A softironcore transformer is very useful where the
transformer must be physically small, yet efficient
§
The ironcore transformer provides better power transfer
than does the aircore transformer
Transformer
Construction
§
A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of
steel dissipates heat readily; thus it provides for the efficient
transfer of power.
§
The purpose of the laminations is to reduce certain losses which
will be discussed later in this part
§
Hollowcore construction
Transformer
Construction
§
The most efficient transformer core is one that offers the best
path for the most lines of flux with the least loss in magnetic and
electrical energy
§
There are two main shapes of cores used in laminatedsteel
core transformers:
§
Coretype transformers
§
Shellcore transformers
Transformer
Construction
Shellcore transformers:
§
The most popular and efficient transformer core
§
Each layer of the core consists of E and Ishaped sections of
metal
§
These sections are butted together to form the laminations
§
The laminations are insulated from each other and then pressed
together to form the core.
Advantages of Shell types Transformer
Better cooling facility
Less leakage reactance
Greater mechanical strength
Less magnetising current
Less magnetic loss
D isdvantages of Shelltypes
Transform er
M ore difficult for m anufacturing
G reater difficulty in carrying out repairs
Transformer
Construction
Core  type construction:
§
so named because the core is shaped with a hollow square
through the center
§
the core is made up of many laminations of steel
The basic difference between these two transformers
are:
1)The core type has two limbs & shell type has three limbs.
2)Core type has longer mean length of iron core & shorter
mean length of coil turn.
Shell type has shorter mean length of iron core &
longer mean length of coil turn.
3)In core type transformers the LV(low voltage) coil is wound
next to the core & HV(high voltage) coil is wound on
the LV coil after the insulation layer. In Shell type
transformers the LV & HV windings are sandwiched
between each other.
Transformer
Construction
Typical schematic symbols for transformers:
§
The bars between the coils are used to indicate an iron core
§
Frequently, additional connections are made to the transformer windings at
points other than the ends of the windings
§
These additional connections are called TAPS
§
When a tap is connected to the center of the winding, it is called a
CENTER TAP
Transformer
Construction
§
An ideal transformer is a transformer which has no loses which has no loses,
i.e. it’s winding has no ohmic resistance, no magnetic
leakage, and therefore no I
2
R and core loses.
§
However, it is impossible impossible to realize such a transformer in
practice.
§
Yet, the approximate characteristic of ideal transformer will approximate characteristic of ideal transformer will
be used in characterized the practical transformer. be used in characterized the practical transformer.
V V
1 1
V V
2 2
N N
1 1
: N : N
2 2
E E
1 1
E E
2 2
I I
1 1
I I
2 2
V V
1 1
– Primary Voltage – Primary Voltage
V V
2 2
– Secondary Voltage – Secondary Voltage
E E
1 1
– Primary induced Voltage – Primary induced Voltage
E E
2 2
– secondary induced Voltage – secondary induced Voltage
N N
1 1
:N :N
2 2
– Transformer ratio – Transformer ratio
Transformer
Construction
Noload condition:
§
is said to exist when a voltage is applied to the primary,
but no load is connected to the secondary
§
Because of the open switch, there is no current flowing in
the secondary winding.
§
With the switch open and an ac voltage applied to the
primary, there is, however, a very small amount of
current called EXCITING CURRENT flowing in the primary
Transformer
Construction
Withload condition:
§
When a load device is connected across the secondary
winding of a transformer, current flows through the
secondary and the load
§
The magnetic field produced by the current in the
secondary interacts with the magnetic field produced by
the current in the primary
§
This interaction results from the mutual inductance
between the primary and secondary windings.
Transformer Equation
§
Faraday’s Law states that,
If the flux passes through a coil of wire, a voltage will be
induced in the turns of wire. This voltage is directly
proportional to the rate of change in the flux with
respect of time.
§
If we have N N turns of wire,
dt
t d
Emf V
ind ind
) ( Φ
− · ·
dt
t d
N Emf V
ind ind
) ( Φ
− · ·
Lenz’s Law
Transformer Equation
§
For an ac sources,
§
Let V(t) = V
m
sin t
i(t) = i
m
sin t
§
Since the flux is a sinusoidal function;
§
Then:
§
Therefore:
§
Thus:
t t
m
ω sin ) ( Φ · Φ
t N
dt
t d
N Emf V
m
m
ind ind
ω ω
ω
cos
sin
Φ − ·
Φ
− · ·
max m ind ind
fN N Emf V
Φ · Φ · · π ω
2
(max)
max
m m
rms ind
fN
fN N
Emf
Φ ·
Φ
·
Φ
·
44 . 4
2
2
2
) (
π ω
m m
B x A Φ ·
Transformer Equation
§
For an ideal transformer,
§
§
§
In the equilibrium condition, both the input power will be
equaled to the output power, and this condition is said to
ideal condition of a transformer.
§
§
§
§
§
§
From the ideal transformer circuit, note that,
§
§
§
Hence, substitute in (i)
1 1 2 2
V I V I ·
1 2
2 1
V I
V I
·
………………… (i)
2 2 1 1
V E and V E · ·
max
max
fN E
fN E
Φ · ·
Φ · ·
2 2
1 1
44 . 4
44 . 4
Input power = output power
Transformer Equation
n
a
I
I
N
N
E
E
Therefore · · ·
1
2
2
1
2
1
,
‘a a’ = Voltage Transformation Ratio Voltage Transformation Ratio;
which will determine whether the transformer is going
to be stepup or stepdown
E E
2 2
> E > E
1 1
For a >1 For a >1
For a <1 For a <1 E E
2 2
< E < E
1 1
Stepup
Stepdown
Transformer Equation
§
Transformer rating is normally written written in terms of
Apparent Power Apparent Power.
§
Apparent power is actually the product of its rated its rated
current and rated voltage current and rated voltage.
2 2 1 1
I V I V VA · ·
§
Where,
§
I
1
and I
2
= rated current on primary and secondary
winding.
§
V
1
and V
2
= rated voltage on primary and secondary
winding.
** ** Rated currents are actually the full load currents in Rated currents are actually the full load currents in
transformer transformer
Example 1
§
1.5kVA single phase transformer has rated
voltage of 144/240 V. Finds its full load
current.
Solution: Solution:
A I
A I
FL
FL
6
240
1500
42 . 10
144
1500
2
1
· ·
· ·
Example 2
§
A single phase transformer has 400 primary and
1000 secondary turns. The net crosssectional
area of the core is 60m2. If the primary winding
is connected to a 50Hz supply at 520V,
calculate:
The induced voltage in the secondary winding
The peak value of flux density in the core
Example 2 (solution)
N1=400 V1=520V A=60m2 N2=1000
V2=?
a) We know that,
n
n
n
b) Emf,
n
n
n
n
2
520
1000
400
V
·
2
1
2
1
V
V
N
N
a · ·
V V 1300
2
·
[ ]
[ ]
2
2 1
/ 0976 . 0
) 60 )( )( 400 )( 50 ( 44 . 4 520
44 . 4
1300 , 520 ,
44 . 4
44 . 4
m mWb B
B
A B fN E
V E V E known
A B fN
fN E
m
m
m
m
m
·
·
× ·
· ·
× ·
Φ ·
Example 3
§
A 25kVA transformer has 500 turns on the
primary and 50 turns on the secondary
winding. The primary is connected to
3000V, 50Hz supply. Find:
a) Full load primary current
b) The induced voltage in the secondary
winding
c) The maximum flux in the core
Example 3 (solution)
VA = 25kVA N1=500 V1=3000V N2=50
V2=?
a) We know that,
a)
b)
b) Induced voltage,
a)
b)
c)
d)
c) Max flux,
A
V
VA
I
I V VA
FL
33 . 8
3000
10 25
3
1
1
·
×
· ·
× ·
V
I
I
E E
A I
I
I
N
N
a
300
3 . 83
33 . 8
3000
3 . 83
50
33 . 8
500
2
1
1 2
2
1
2
2
1
·
,
`
.

· ·
·
,
`
.

·
· ·
mWb
fN E
27
) 50 )( 50 ( 44 . 4 300
44 . 4
· Φ
Φ ·
Φ ·
Equivalent Circuit of
Practical Transformer
Equivalent circuit:
§
Often given to explain the operation of a complicated or
unfamiliar device
§
If a circuit is truly an equivalent circuit, the original device
can be removed from a system & replaced with its
equivalent circuit without changing the behavior or
performance of the system
§
For purposes of analysis the transformer may be represented
by a 1:1 turns ratio equivalent circuit
§
This circuit is based on the following assumptions:
•
Primary and secondary turns are equal in number. One
winding is chosen as the reference winding; the
other is the referred winding.
Equivalent Circuit of
Practical Transformer
•
Core loss may be represented by a resistance across the
terminals of the reference winding.
•
Core flux reactance may be represented by a reactance
across the terminals of the reference winding.
•
Primary and secondary IR and IX voltage drops may be
lumped together; the voltage drops in the referred
winding are multiplied by a factor derived at the end of
this section, to give them the correct equivalent value.
•
Equivalent reactance and resistances are linear.
Equivalent Circuit of Practical
Transformer
V
1
= primary supply voltage
V
2
= 2
nd
terminal (load) voltage
E
1
= primary winding voltage
E
2
= 2
nd
winding voltage
I
1
= primary supply current
I
2
= 2
nd
winding current
I
1
’
= primary winding current
I
o
= no load current
I
c
= core current
I
m
= magnetism current
R
1
= primary winding resistance
R
2
= 2
nd
winding resistance
X
1
= primary winding leakage reactance
X
2
= 2
nd
winding leakage reactance
R
c
= core resistance
X
m
= magnetism reactance
V V
1 1
I I
1 1 R R
1 1
X X
1 1
R R
C C
I I
c c
X X
m m
I I
m m
I I
o o
E E
1 1 E E
2 2
V V
2 2
I I
1 1
’ ’
N N
1 1
: N : N
2 2
R R
2 2
X X
2 2
Load Load
I I
2 2
Equivalent Circuit of
Practical Transformer
Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary) Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary)
§
Actual Method Actual Method
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' R a R OR R
N
N
R ·
,
`
.

·
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' X a X OR X
N
N
X ·
,
`
.

·
a
I
I
aV V OR V
N
N
V E
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
'
2 1
'
'
·
·
,
`
.

· ·
V V
1 1
I I
1 1
R R
1 1
X X
1 1
R R
C C
I I
c c
X X
m m
I I
m m
I I
o o
E E
1 1 E E
2 2 V V
2 2
I I
2 2
’ ’ N N
1 1
: N : N
2 2
R R
2 2
’ ’
X X
2 2
’ ’
Load
I I
2 2
Equivalent Circuit of
Practical Transformer
Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary) Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary)
Approximate Method Approximate Method
V V
1 1
I I
1 1
R R
1 1
X X
1 1
R R
C C
I I
c c
X X
m m
I I
m m
I I
o o
E E
1 1 E E
2 2 V V
2 2
I I
2 2
’ ’
N N
1 1
: N : N
2 2
R R
2 2
’ ’
X X
2 2
’ ’
Load
I I
2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' R a R OR R
N
N
R ·
,
`
.

·
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' X a X OR X
N
N
X ·
,
`
.

·
a
I
I
aV V OR V
N
N
V E
2
2
2 2 2
2
1
'
2 1
'
'
·
·
,
`
.

· ·
Equivalent Circuit of
Practical Transformer
Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary) Single Phase transformer (referred to Primary)
§ Approximate Method Approximate Method
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' R a R OR R
N
N
R ·
,
`
.

·
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
' ' X a X OR X
N
N
X ·
,
`
.

·
'
'
2 1 01
2 1 01
X X X
R R R
+ ·
+ ·
2 2 2
2
1
'
2
' aV V OR V
N
N
V ·
,
`
.

·
§
In some application, the excitation
branch has a small current compared
to load current, thus it may be
neglected without causing serious
error.
V V
1 1
I I
1 1
R R
01 01
X X
01 01
aV aV
2 2
Equivalent Circuit of Practical
Transformer
Single Phase transformer (referred to Secondary) Single Phase transformer (referred to Secondary)
§ Actual Method Actual Method
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
' '
a
R
R OR R
N
N
R ·
,
`
.

·
a
V
V OR V
N
N
V
1
1 1
1
2
1
' ' ·
,
`
.

·
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
' '
a
X
X OR X
N
N
X ·
,
`
.

·
I
1
’
R
1
’
X
1
’
R
C
’
I
c
X
m
’
I
m
I
o
I
2
R
2
X
2
V V
2 2
a
V
1
Equivalent Circuit of
Practical Transformer)
Single Phase transformer (referred to Secondary) Single Phase transformer (referred to Secondary)
§ Approximate Method Approximate Method
§
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
' '
a
X
X OR X
N
N
X ·
,
`
.

·
2 1 02
2 1 02
'
'
X X X
R R R
+ ·
+ ·
I I
1 1
’ ’
R R
02 02
X X
02 02
a
V
1
2
1
1 1
2
1
2
1
' '
a
R
R OR R
N
N
R ·
,
`
.

·
a
V
V OR V
N
N
V
1
1 1
1
2
1
' ' ·
,
`
.

·
1 1
' aI I ·
Neglect the excitation branch,
V V
2 2
Example 4
§
For the parameters obtained from the test of
20kVA 2600/245 V single phase transformer,
refer all the parameters to the high voltage
side if all the parameters are obtained at
lower voltage side.
R
c
= 3.3 , X
m
=j1.5 , R
2
= 7.5 , X
2
=
j12.4
§
Example 4 (solution)
Given : R
c
= 3.3 , X
m
=j1.5 , R
2
= 7.5 , X
2
=
j12.4
i) Refer to H.V side (primary)
R
2
’=(10.61)
2
(7.5) = 844.65,
X
2
’=j(10.61)
2
(12.4) = j1.396k
R
c
’=(10.61)
2
(3.3) = 371.6,
X
m
’=j(10.61)
2
(1.5) = j168.9
Example 5
§
A 10 kVA single phase transformer 2000/440V
has primary resistance and reactance of 5.5
and 12 respectively, while the resistance
and reactance of secondary winding is 0.2
and 0.45 respectively. Calculate:
i) The parameter referred to high voltage
side and draw the equivalent circuit
ii) The approximate value of secondary
voltage at full load of 0.8 lagging power
factor, when primary supply is 2000V.
Example 5 (solution)
R
1
=5.5 X
1
=j12 R
2
=0.2 X
2
=j0.45
i) Refer to H.V side (primary)
R
2
’=(4.55)
2
(0.2) = 4.14,
X
2
’=j(4.55)
2
(0.45) = j9.32
Therefore,
R
01
=R
1
+R
2
’=5.5 + 4.13 = 9.64
X
01
=X
1
+X
2
’=j12 + j9. 32 = j21.32
55 . 4
440
2000
2
1
2
1
· · · ·
V
V
E
E
a
V
1
aV
2
R
01
X
01
21.32 9.64
I
1
Example 5 (solution)
ii) Secondary voltage
p.f = 0.8
cos = 0.8
=36.87
o
Full load,
From cct eqn.,
o
o o
o o
V
V j
aV I jX R V
8 . 0 6 . 422
) 55 . 4 ( ) 87 . 36 5 )( 32 . 21 64 . 9 ( 0 2000
) )( ( 0
2
2
2 1 01 01 1
∠ ·
+ − ∠ + · ∠
+ − ∠ + · ∠ θ
A
V
VA
I
FL
5
2000
10 10
3
1
·
×
·
Transformer Losses
§
An ideal transformer would have no energy losses, and
would be 100% efficient
§
In practical, transformer energy is dissipated in the
windings, core, and surrounding structures
§
Iron Losses Iron Losses
 occur in core parameters  occur in core parameters
§
§
Copper Losses Copper Losses
 occur in winding resistance  occur in winding resistance
§
circuit open c c c iron
P R I P P · · ·
2
) (
02
2
2 01
2
1
2
2
2 1
2
1
) ( ) ( ,
) ( ) (
R I R I P referred if or
P R I R I P P
cu
circuit short cu copper
· ·
· + · ·
**P
oc
and P
sc
will be discusses later in transformer test
Transformer Efficiency
§
To check the performance of the device, by comparing the
output with respect to the input
§
The higher the efficiency, the better the system
% 100
cos
cos
% 100
% 100 ,
2 2
2 2
×
+ +
·
×
+
·
× ·
cu c
losses out
out
P P I V
I V
P P
P
Power Input
Power Output
Efficiency
θ
θ
η
% 100
cos
cos
% 100
cos
cos
2
) (
) (
×
+ +
·
×
+ +
·
cu c
n load
cu c
load full
P n P nVA
nVA
P P VA
VA
θ
θ
η
θ
θ
η
Where, if ½ load, hence n = ½ , ½ load, hence n = ½ ,
¼ load, n= ¼ , ¼ load, n= ¼ ,
90% of full load, n =0.9 90% of full load, n =0.9
Where P
cu
= P
sc
P
c
= P
oc
Voltage Regulation
§
The voltage regulation of the transformer is the
percentage change in the output voltage from
noload to fullload
§
Voltage Regulation can be determined based on 3
methods:
§
Basic Definition
§
Short – circuit Test
§
Equivalent Circuit
Voltage Regulation
Basic Definition
§
In this method, all parameters are being referred
either to primary or secondary side.
§
It can be represented in either
Down – voltage Regulation
§
Up – Voltage Regulation
% 100 . ×
−
·
NL
FL NL
V
V V
R V
% 100 . ×
−
·
FL
FL NL
V
V V
R V
Voltage Regulation
Shortcircuit test
§
In this method, direct formula can be used.
( )
% 100
cos
.
1
.
× ·
V
V
R V
f p sc sc
θ θ
If referred to primary
side
( )
% 100
cos
.
2
.
× ·
V
V
R V
f p sc sc
θ θ
If referred to secondary
side
Note that: Note that:
‘–’ is for Lagging power factor
‘+’ is for Leading power factor
I
sc
must equal to I
FL
P
sc
= V
sc
I
sc
cos θ
sc
Voltage Regulation
(Equivalent Circuit )
Equivalent circuit
§
In this method, the parameters must be referred to
primary or secondary
[ ]
% 100
sin cos
.
1
. 01 . 01 1
×
t
·
V
X R I
R V
f p f p
θ θ
If referred to
primary side
If referred to
secondary side
Note that: Note that:
‘+’ is for Lagging power factor
‘–’ is for Leading power factor
j terms ~0
[ ]
% 100
sin cos
.
2
. 02 . 02 2
×
t
·
V
X R I
R V
f p f p
θ θ
Example 6
§
Determine the Voltage regulation by using
down – voltage regulation and equivalent
circuit in example 5.
§
Example 6 (solution)
§
By using down – voltage regulation,
We know that, V
2FL
=422.6V , V
2NL
=440V
Therefore,
% 95 . 3
% 100
440
6 . 422 440
% 100 .
·
×
−
·
×
−
·
NL
FL NL
V
V V
R V
Example 6 (solution)
§
By using equivalent circuit,
I
1
=5A R
01
=9.64 X
01
= 21.32 V
1
=2000V, 0.8 lagging p.f
[ ]
[ ]
% 12 . 5
% 100
2000
) 6 . 0 ( 32 . 21 ) 8 . 0 ( 64 . 9 5
% 100
sin cos
.
1
. 01 . 01 1
·
×
+
·
×
t
·
V
X R I
R V
f p f p
θ θ
Example 7
§
A short circuit test was performed at the
secondary side of 10kVA, 240/100V
transformer. Determine the voltage
regulation at 0.8 lagging power factor if :
§
Vsc =18V
§
Isc =100
§
Psc=240W
Example 7 (solution)
,
100
100
10000
2
2
sc FL
FL
I I
A
V
VA
I
·
· · ·
( )
% 100
cos
.
2
.
× ·
V
V
R V
f p sc sc
θ θ
Check,
Hence, we can use shortcircuit method,
Example 7 (solution)
( )
o
sc sc
sc
sc
sc sc sc sc
o
f p
f p sc sc
I V
P
I V P
that Know
Hence
f p Given
V
V
R V
34 . 82
) 100 )( 18 (
240
cos
cos
cos
,
87 . 36 8 . 0 cos ,
8 . 0 .
% 100
cos
.
1
1
1
.
2
.
·
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

·
·
· ·
·
× ·
−
−
−
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
( )
% 62 . 12
% 100
100
87 . 36 34 . 82 cos 18
.
·
×
−
·
o o
R V
Example 8
§
The following data were obtained in test on 20kVA
2400/240V, 60Hz transformer:
Vsc =72V Isc =8.33A
Psc=268W Poc=170W
The measuring instrument are connected in
the primary side for short circuit test. Determine
the voltage regulation for 0.8 lagging p.f. (use all
3 methods), full load efficiency and half load
efficiency.
Example 8 (solution)
( )
. 72 . 7 86 . 3 4 . 63 64 . 8
64 . 8
33 . 8
72
4 . 63
) 33 . 8 )( 72 (
268
cos
cos
cos
,
87 . 36 8 . 0 cos ,
8 . 0 .
% 100
cos
.
01 01
1
1
1
.
2
.
side primary to connected because jX R j Z
I
V
Z
I V
P
I V P
that Know
Hence
f p Given
V
V
R V
o
sc
sc
sc
sc
o
sc sc
sc
sc
sc sc sc sc
o
f p
f p sc sc
+ · + · ∠ · ∴
Ω · · ·
·
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

·
·
· ·
·
× ·
−
−
−
θ
θ
θ
θ θ
Example 8 (solution)
( )
( )
[ ]
[ ]
% 68 . 2 % 100
2400
) 6 . 0 ( 72 . 7 ) 8 . 0 ( 86 . 3
2400
20000
% 100
sin cos
. , . 2
% 68 . 2 % 100
2400
87 . 36 4 . 63 cos 72
.
% 100
cos
. , . 1
1
. 01 . 01 1
1
.
· ×
+
×
t
·
· ×
−
·
× ·
V
X R I
R V circuit Equivalent
R V
V
V
R V method Circuit Short
f p f p
o o
f p sc sc
θ θ
θ θ
Example 8 (solution)
( )
% 68 . 2
% 100
240
58 . 233 240
% 100 .
79 . 0 58 . 233
240
2400
4 . 63 64 . 8 87 . 36
2400
20000
0 2400
, . 3
2
2
2 01 1 1
·
×
−
·
×
−
·
∠ ·
,
`
.

+ ∠
,
`
.

− ∠ · ∠
+ ·
NL
FL NL
o
o o o
V
V V
R V
V V
V
aV Z I V
Defination Basic
Example 8 (solution)
% 12 . 97 % 100
) 268 ( ) 5 . 0 ( 170 ) 8 . 0 )( 20000 )( 5 . 0 (
) 8 . 0 )( 20000 )( 5 . 0 (
% 34 . 97 % 100
) 268 ( ) 1 ( 170 ) 8 . 0 )( 20000 )( 1 (
) 8 . 0 )( 20000 )( 1 (
2
) (
2
) (
· ×
+ +
·
· ×
+ +
·
load half
load full
η
η
Measurement on
Transformer
§
There are two test conducted on transformer.
§
§
Open Circuit Test (no load test) Open Circuit Test (no load test)
§
Short Circuit test Short Circuit test
§
The test is conducted to determine the parameter to determine the parameter
of the transformer of the transformer .
Open circuit test
q
is conducted to determine magnetism
parameter,
Rc and Xm and core losses
Rc and Xm and core losses.
q
Also known as noload test.
§
With the secondary open, the primary voltage was
increased from zero to rated voltage, where the
rated voltage is the name plate stamp.
§ A digital multimeter was used as an ammeter to
measure the open circuit current. A wattmeter
was used to measure the open circuit power. The
power measured was the power dissipated in R
m
,
the core losses.
§ Pin(W) = core loss+ copper loss
§
Copper loss is neglected because of small no load
current.
§ Wattmeter only shows the reading of core loss.
OpenCircuit Test
( )
2 2
1
,
, ,
sin
cos
,
cos
cos
m c oc
m
oc
m
c
oc
c
m c
oc oc m
oc oc c
oc oc
oc
oc
oc oc oc oc
I I I
I
V
X
I
V
R
X and R Then
I I
I I
Hence
I V
P
I V P
+ ·
· ·
·
·
,
`
.

·
·
−
θ
θ
θ
θ
R
c
X
m
V
oc
I
c
I
m
V
oc
I
oc
cos
oc
I
oc
V
oc
I
c
I
m
I
oc
sin
oc
oc
Note:
If the question asked parameters referred to low question asked parameters referred to low
voltage side voltage side, the parameters (R
c
and X
m
) obtained
need to be referred to low voltage side need to be referred to low voltage side
Short circuit test
is conducted to determine the copper
parameter depending where the test is
performed. If performed at primary, hence
the parameters are
R
R
01 01
and
X
X
01 01
and
vice
vice
versa
versa.
With the secondary terminals shorted, the primary
voltage(applied voltage) was increased from zero
until the rated current was reached in the
primary.
At this point the primary voltage was measured. It
was much less than rated voltage. Again, the
power and current were measured.
During test, applied voltage is very small compared
to rated voltage, the core loss is very small and it
can be neglected.
The wattmeter reading is taken as full load Copper
loss of the transformer.
ShortCircuit Test
§
Normally, measurement at lower voltage side at lower voltage side
§
If the given test parameters are taken on primary side, taken on primary side,
R R
01 01
and X and X
01 01
will be obtained & will be obtained & v viceversa.
X
01
R
01
For a case referred to
Primary side 2
01
2
01 01
01
1
01
2
,
cos
cos
X R Z
I
V
Z
Hence
I V
P
R I P
I V P
sc
sc
sc
sc sc
sc
sc
sc sc
sc sc sc sc
+ ·
∠ ·
,
`
.

·
·
·
−
θ
θ
θ
Example 9
§
Given the test on 500kVA 2300/208V are as follows:
P
oc
= 3800W P
sc
= 6200W
V
oc
= 208V V
sc
= 95V
I
oc
= 52.5A I
sc
= 217.4A
Determine the transformer parameters and draw
equivalent circuit referred to high voltage side. Also
calculate full load efficiency, half load efficiency and
voltage regulation, when power factor is 0.866 lagging.
[1392 , 517.2 , 0.13 , 0.44 , 97.74%, 97.59%, 3.04%]
EMPS_BEE2133_NJ
Example 9 (solution)
A
I I
A
I I
I V P
o
oc oc m
o
oc oc c
o
oc
oc oc oc oc
2 . 49
6 . 69 sin 5 . 52
sin
26 . 18
6 . 69 cos 5 . 52
cos
6 . 69
) 208 )( 5 . 52 (
3800
cos
cos
1
·
·
·
·
·
·
·
,
`
.

·
·
−
θ
θ
θ
θ
I
oc
cos
oc
I
oc
V
oc
I
c
I
m
I
oc
sin
oc
oc
From Open Circuit Test,
Ω · · ·
Ω · · ·
23 . 4
21 . 49
208
39 . 11
26 . 18
208
m
oc
m
c
oc
c
I
V
X
I
V
R
Since V
oc
=208V
all reading are taken on the secondary side
Parameters referred to high voltage side,
Ω ·
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

·
Ω ·
,
`
.

·
,
`
.

·
21 . 517
208
2300
23 . 4 '
1392
208
2300
39 . 11 '
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
E
E
X X
E
E
R R
m m
c c
Example 9 (solution)
EMPS_BEE2133_NJ
Example 9 (solution)
A
V
VA
I
FL
4 . 217
2300
10 500
3
1
1
·
×
· ·
o
sc
sc sc sc sc
I V P
53 . 72
) 4 . 217 )( 95 (
6200
cos
cos
1
·
,
`
.

·
·
−
θ
θ
From Short Circuit Test,
First, check the First, check the I I
sc sc
Since I
FL1
=I
sc
, all reading are actually taken on the primary side
Ω + ·
∠ · ∠
,
`
.

·
∠
,
`
.

·
42 . 0 13 . 0
53 . 72 44 . 0 53 . 72
4 . 217
95
01
j
I
V
Z
o o
sc
sc
sc
θ
Example 9 (solution)
Equivalent circuit referred to high voltage side,
V V
2 2
’=aV ’=aV
2 2
V V
1 1
R R
c c
1392 1392
X X
m m
517.21 517.21
R R
01 01
0.13 0.13
X X
01 01
0.42 0.42
Example 9 (solution)
Efficiency,
% 59 . 97
% 100
3800 ) 5 . 0 )( 6200 ( ) 866 . 0 )( 10 500 )( 5 . 0 (
) 866 . 0 )( 10 500 )( 5 . 0 (
% 100
cos
cos
% 74 . 97
% 100
3800 6200 ) 866 . 0 )( 10 500 (
) 866 . 0 )( 10 500 (
% 100
cos
cos
2 3
3
2
2
1
3
3
·
×
]
]
]
+ + ×
×
·
×
]
]
]
+ +
·
·
×
]
]
]
+ + ×
×
·
×
]
]
]
+ +
·
oc sc
L
oc sc
FL
P P n nVA
nVA
P P VA
VA
θ
θ
η
θ
θ
η
Example 9 (solution)
Voltage Regulation,
[ ]
[ ]
% 04 . 3
% 100
2300
30 53 . 72 cos ) 95 (
% 100
cos
.
1
·
×
]
]
]
−
·
×
]
]
]
−
·
E
V
R V
pf sc sc
θ θ
Example 10
§
Data obtained from shortcircuit and opencircuit test of a
75kVA, 4600230V, 60Hz transformer are
§
§
OpenCircuit Test ShortCircuit Test
(LowSide Data) (HighSide Data)
P
oc
= 521W P
sc
= 1200W
V
oc
= 230V V
sc
= 160.8V
I
oc
= 13.04A I
sc
= 16.3A
Determine a) the magnetizing reactance and
equivalent coreloss resistance; b) the resistance,
reactance and impedance of the transformer windings;
c) the voltage regulation when operating at rated load
and 0.75 powerfactor lagging.
Summary
§Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with
little loss of power
§Transformers work only with AC and this is one of the reasons why
mains electricity is AC
§Stepup transformers increase voltage, stepdown transformers
reduce voltage
§Most power supplies use a stepdown transformer to reduce the
dangerously high mains voltage (230V in UK) to a safer low
voltage.
§The input coil is called the primary and the output coil is called the
secondary
§There is no electrical connection between the two coils, instead they
are linked by an alternating magnetic field created in the soft
iron core of the transformer
§The two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core.
Summary
§
§The two lines in the middle of the circuit symbol represent the core
§Transformers waste very little power so the power out is (almost)
equal to the power in
§Note that as voltage is stepped down current is stepped up.
§The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turns
ratio, determines the ratio of the voltages
§A stepdown transformer has a large number of turns on its primary
(input) coil which is connected to the high voltage mains supply,
and a small number of turns on its secondary (output) coil to
give a low output voltage.
Electrical Power Transmission and Distribution Aging and Life Extension Techn...
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?