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The Unification of Germany, 1815-1919

1. Germany 1815-48

2. Reform and Repression 1815-40

Absolute rule restored 1815

Developments in Austria and Prussia

no/little liberal development
Prussia no constitution until 1848
Developments in the other German states
following Austrian/Prussian lead
absolute monarchy
stronger/more efficient bureaucracies
Student movements
Political motivations after Napoleon's defeat
Conversion of Wartburg Festival to celebration of 4th anniversary of victory of Leipzig
Originally: Martin Luther's stand against Pope
Carlsbad Decrees
Actions against Student Movements
Inspectors for Universities
Disband of Student Societies
Press censorship
Commission for investigation of revolutionary movements
Reactionaries triumphed
Freedom of speech
Freedom of press
Freedom of worship
Freedom of politics
Vote only for men
Almost all well-educated middle class members
no radicalism
opposed to violence
Seeds: Philosopher Johann Herder 18th century
Independet state
fixed national boundaries