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The Unification of Germany, 1815-1919

1. Germany 1815-48

2. Reform and Repression 1815-40

Absolute rule restored 1815

Developments in Austria and Prussia


no/little liberal development
Prussia no constitution until 1848
Developments in the other German states
following Austrian/Prussian lead
absolute monarchy
stronger/more efficient bureaucracies
Student movements
Political motivations after Napoleon's defeat
Conversion of Wartburg Festival to celebration of 4th anniversary of victory of Leipzig
Originally: Martin Luther's stand against Pope
Carlsbad Decrees
Actions against Student Movements
Inspectors for Universities
Disband of Student Societies
Press censorship
Commission for investigation of revolutionary movements
Reactionaries triumphed
Liberalism
Aims:
Freedom of speech
Freedom of press
Freedom of worship
Freedom of politics
Vote only for men
Almost all well-educated middle class members
no radicalism
opposed to violence
Nationalism
Seeds: Philosopher Johann Herder 18th century
Aims
Independet state
fixed national boundaries
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