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centrifuge. The main principle of seperation depends on density differences between fat and liquid phases. Fat is found as emulsion in the milk. The diameter of the fat globules is significant. By increasing diameter of globules, seperation of fat becomes easier. As well we introduced the homogenization that primarily causes distruption of fat globules into much smaller ones. Consequently it diminishes creaming and may also diminish the tendency of globules to clump or coalesce. THEORY Centrifugal seperators make use of the common principle that an object whirled about an axis or center point at a constant radial distance from the distance is acted on by a force. The object being whirled about an axis is constantly changing direction and is thus accelareting, even though the rotational speed is constant. Milk enters the the seperator in one type of machine by gravity; in other type, the seperator is sealed in an air-tight casing and the milk is pumped to it by a feed pump. Milk enters the machine through holes placed near the centers of the discs. As the bowl revolves, the cream being lighter than the milk or skim milk portion, is driven by centrifugal force towards the center of bowl, while the skim milk is driected outwards. As the space between the discs is small in relation to the length over which the cream must pass, there is ample time for the cream to rise or separate before it reaches the center of the bowl from which it flows out. An efficient seperator will remove all but about 1 to 1.5% of the fat in milk so that the skim milk will contain as little as 0.02 to 0.05% fat. By means of special type of cream seperator it is possible to prepare cream of 65 to 85% fat content. This product known as ‘’plastic cream’’ has a heavy body and when the fat content is 80% or more, its composition is about that of unsalted butter. It’s sometimes uesd in the manufacture of ice-cream. Factors are affecting seperation of cream form milk; • flow rate of milk • speed of machine • plate number of machine • daimeter of fat globules in milk • density of milk On the other hand, Homogenization has become a standard industrial process, universaly practised as a means of stabilizing the fat emulsion against gravity seperation. Essentially all homogenized milk is produced by mechanical means. Milk is forced through a small passage at high velocity. The disintegration of the original fat globules is achieved by a combination of contributing factors such as turbulence and cavitation. The net result reduces the fat globules to approximately 1µm in diameter which is accompanied by a four-to-six-fold increase in the fat/plasma interfacial surface area. The newly created fat globules are no longer completely covered with
the original membrane material. Instead they are surfaced with a mixture of proteins absorbed from the plasma phase. Homogenizetion tempratures normally applied are 55-80°C and pressure is between 10 and 25 Mpa (100-250 bar) depending on the product. MATERIAL • • • • • • 3 L raw milk Disc-Bowl seperator Churn Heater Behers Thermometer
PROCEDURE Firstly, the milk was heated to 45°C and filled into the Disc-Bowl seperator with the tap in the closed position. The machine was switched on then cream and skim milk started to separate by respective canals. Then the obtained cream was placed to the churn to separate the fat of cream. After that the fat was freezed at refrigerator. For cream separation Firstly,3lt raw milk was heated until 45ºC.After heated milk was put ınto cream separator.After that,cream and skim milk was taken into different beaker.Cream was put ınto the churn and ice was added into churn to cool and were mixed for 30 min.Finally,cream was obtained. Milk analyses Firstly,whole milk was heated until 30ºC.after,sample holder of analyzer was filled with milk.Finally,the value of the fat,SNF(solid non fat) and density was read from screen.
RESULTS & CALCULATION Amount of raw milk Fat content of raw milk Fat content of skim milk Density of raw milk Density of skim milk SNF of raw milk SNF of skim milk Weight of cream Weight of baker Weight of butter Weight of fat : 3100 ml : 3.66 % : 0.21 % : 1.030 g/ml : 1.033 g/ml : 8.87 % : 8.94 % : 144.8 gr. : 118.3 gr. : 140.7 gr. : ……. gr.
Fat content of skim milk Efficiency ;
= 1Fat content of whole milk
∈ = (1-(0.21/3.66)) x 100
Amount of separated cream= 263.1g (cream+beaker) – 118.3g(empty beaker) = 144.8g Amount of fat in cream = Amount of fat in raw milk - Amount of fat in skim milk
(%) fat =
107.37 ×100 = 74.15 % 144.8
3.66 0,21 − 2900 = 113.46 − 6.09 = 107.37 g 100 100
The fat content of milk : Weight of fat Fat content = x 100 Weight of whole milk (ρ x V ) = ( 55 g/ 1.030 g/ml x 3100 ml x 100 = 1.78 %
For a rigid particle moving in a fluid there are three forces acting on the body; gravity acting downward, buoyant force acting upward and resistant or drag force acting in opposite direction to the particle motion.
mρg = Vp ρg ρp
where; Fb=Buoyant force (N) m= mass of particle (kg) ν= folling velocity (m/s) ρ= density of solid particle (kg/m3) ρ= density of liquid (kg/m3) Vp=Volume of particle (m3) g= gravitational acceleration (m/s2)
Fg = mg
where; Fg= Gravitation force (N)
FD = C D
ν2 ρA 2
FD= Drag force CD= Proportionality constant A = Significant area
Fg − Fb − FD
The resultant force on the body is then ;
m dν = Fg − Fb − FD dt
dν mρg C D ν 2ρA = mg − − dt ρp 2
2g (ρ p − ρ)m Aρ p C Dρ
3 2 For spherical particles; m= π D p ρp/6 and A= π D p /4
4( ρ p − ρ ) gD p 3CD ρ
In laminar flow region called the stoke’s law region for NRe<1, the drag coefficient is
24µ 24 = D p νρ N Re
NRe= Reynolds Number µ=Viscosity (kg/ms) Dp= diameter (m)
In circular motion the acceleration from the centrifugal force is ae g=ae=rω2 Where; ω=Tangential velocity (m/s2) r= radial distance from centre of rotation(m) ω2 rD 2 (ρ p − ρ) p 18µ
ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS 1. What is the normal range of diameter of fat globules in milk and which diameter is enough for prevention of creaming or targeted for homogenization? Normal range fo diameter of fat globules in milk : Average diameter : 3.3 µm , maximum diameter : 10 µm Surface area : 0.08 m2/ml of milk Number of globules : 0.02 µm/m3 Two microns (in diameter) is enough for prevention of creaming or targeted for homogenization. 2. What are the pressures applied for milk, cream and ice-cream? The pressures applied For milk : 2000 lb/in2 For cream : between 500 lb/in2 and 2000 lb/in2 For ice-cream : 2500 lb/in2 (for a single stage homogenizer) Firstly 2500 lb/in2 Secondly 500 lb/in2 for a two stage homogenizer 3. Write the main physical events that cause the size reduction of fat during homogenization ? These are shearing effect, explosion and cavitation. 4. Write the advantages and disadvantages of homogenization? Advantages of homogenization: i. Smaller fat globules leading to no cream-line formation ii. Whiter and more appelizing color iii. Reduced sensitivity to fat oxidation iv. More full-bodied flavor, better mouthfeel v. Better stability of cultured milk products Disadvantages of homogenization: i. Homogenized milk can not be efficiently seperated ii. Somewhat increased sensitivity to light-sunlight and fluorescent tubes can result in ‘’Sunlight flavor’’ iii. Reduced heat stability especially in case of single stage homogenization, high fat content and other factors contributing to fat clumping iv. The milk will not be suitable for production of semi-hard or hard cheeses because the coagulum will be too soft 5. How many types of homogenization are used (not homogenizer) Three types of homogenization are used : i. two stage homogenization ii. partial homogenization iii. totally homogenization 6. Find the approximate sizing (number,thickness,length,slope etc.) of disc used in cream seperator? Number : 20-80 Thickness : 1-3 mm Length : 10-20 cm
Slope : 40-60° 7. write factors affecting cream separation (instrumental and from milk)? The efficiency of seperation is mainly affected by : - Flow rate of milk - Speed of separator - Number of discs in seperator - Length of discs - Diameter of fat globules in milk - Temperature of milk - Density of milk - Viscosity of milk 8. Which types of milk could not be seperated to give cream and skim milk? Homogenized milk can not be seperated to the skim milk and cream. Because by the homogenization the diameter of fat globules are decreased to 1-10 µm which makes difficult or nearly impossible separation. 9. Drive the equation of sedimentation velocity of fat globule in a centrifugal force field. In circular motion the acceleration form the centrifugal force is : ae = rω2 where ae is acceleration in m/s2 , r is radial distance from the center of rotation in m, and ω is the angular velocity in rad/s. The centrifugal force Fc in N acting on the particle is Fc = m x ae =m x rω2 The sedimentation velocity of fat globules in the centrifugal force field is : d2 x (ρf - ρl) V= 18 µ where d is diameter of fat globules, ρf - ρl is the density difference between fat and milk, and µ is the viscosity of milk. 10. Drive an equation used for calculation of loading rate for the centrifugation of milk. ω2. r. Dg2.(ρp - ρ) Vt = 18 µ dr Vt = dt dt = ω . (ρp - ρ).D
2 2 g
18 µ x r
Integrating between the limits b =length of bowl 18 µ tt = ω2. (ρp - ρ).Dg2 V q= tt =
r = r1 at t = 0 r = r2 at t = t r2
x ln r1
ω2. (ρp - ρ).Dg2 r2 18 µ.ln r1 ω2. (ρp - ρ).Dg2 r2 18 µ.ln r1
V = π.b.( r22 – r12)
V q= tt =
x (π.b.( r22 – r12))
loading rate for the centrifugation of milk
DISCUSSION In the experiment we have introduced the basic and useful methods os cream seperation and homogenization that we could not worked on experimentaly but we have learned that the process of homogenization causes a decrease in the diameter of the droplets in tha dispersed phase, which slows down the settling of fat globules. Meanwhile, we applied a cream seperation procedure in order to separate cream and milk. The process is based on the differences in the specific gravity of cream and skim milk. For that purpose, we used centrifugal cream separator. After that we produced butter by using the churn that is widely used basic machine but most preferrable. There is a significant point about solidification of milkfat is using ice water due to easily achieving. As well the other points are really important for efficient separation these are ; speed of centrifuge, 8
feed rate of milk, temperature of milk, properties of centrifuge( i.e.number,thickness,length,slope etc.) and the density of milk. At result part we have obtained 110 gr. cream containing 55 gr. fat as well the efficiency was found about 88.8 % Our results are convenient to each other,in the other words it is satisfied since the fat content is about 1.78. While the efficiency is 88.8 % the result can not show ideal fat level in milk ( ideal level of fat : 2 – 4 % ) According to our research by means of cream separator it is possible to obtain cream of 65 to 85 % fat content while the ‘’gravity separated cream’’ has an average fat content of 20 to 22 %. Finally we have made the butter by means of churning that is the process involving the agitation of cream until fat globules coalesce, yielding butter granules. As well it gives a big cahance to get water-in-oil emulsion form oilin-water. Ideally butter has 80 % fat content that we want ot reach. In this experiment we obtained information about the cream seperetion of milk and homogenization.Seperation based on the density differences. The main principle of separation by centrifugation is depending on specific gravity differences.The most widely used for separation is the centrifugal cream separator.The disk bowl centrifuge is often used in milk separation. There are some parameters effecting the seperation. If the high or low speed is applied, separation will not be desirable so, there must be optimum speed for good separation.Temperature is also other factor, temperature should be neither too high nor too low.If the temperature is higher than the optimum, separation efficiency low decreases because separation of size of the fat globules of decreases.At temperature, rate decreases because
decreasing density differences.Lower flowrate cause more viscous cream and this is time consuming process.Applying high cream. The cream obtaining from whole milk have 51,44% fat.This result is not between the standart cream fat content. Standart values are 20-40% fat in cream. Obtained 180 g cream is not available for butter. Adultaration might be done with our sample. Fat globules in milk is reduced under one or more staged homogenization process under high pressure.During homogenization,increasing pressure also increses the temperature of milk.Therefore, size of fat globules decreases and homogenization process will be high flowrate reduces quality of
efficient.Homogenized milk are not used in some dairy product industry such as cheese,ice cream and butter due to unavailable separation of curd and cream.
We separated cream from raw milk and obtained milk fat by aplication of churning process. We separated the cream and skim milk by using density differences.The cream was given out from upper section by the separator.Because it is a heavy phase.But skim milk is ligth phase.We don’t want to that amount of fat greater than 40%.If the amount of fat greater than 40%,cloggage can be occur.We added ice in the our separated cream.Because we want to stiffen all of the fat. We learned that Iodine value determine the hardness of the fat.According to our result,we observed that density of our skim milk is greater than density of whole milk.It is a wanted result.Because we separated the fat of the whole milk so density of milk increase. Fat and protein gives the color of milk.Also, Riboflavin and β-carotene gives whiteness to milk.If pressure is increase, η(viscosity) increase.This action don’t wanted for driking milk.so we make two stage homogenization to driking milk.For yogurt and ice cream,increase of viscosity is a advantages.We make one stage omogenization.If our cream has fat lower than 20%,we must be make homogenization again.When fat content of milk increase,the flow rate of milk decrease.The milk temperature that gıven off regeneration must be 45-55ºC. Finally,we observed perfect fat.our amount of fat is greater than other groups.Our machine efficiency is good.we migth be work perfectly
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