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1

11

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kg
PSLV-C6

ISRO
km

(ISRO)

(ISRO)
http://www.isro.org

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ISBN 81-7450-515-6

qr s s

rs

s s

III

80.00

PD 9T NSY

!
t

I,


t s P

t s t P
P


t t
s q r
s
s

q q

t t
t s P
s

q q



s



P t P
t q t q
s


s



P s

P
s










2005

P 2005



















(i)

(iii)
(ii) r
(iv)

r

A1

A9

SI

SI

xi

1988


















P











P

P





(N ) (CO )

P





2


1

1.1

1.2

1.3


1.4
1.5

2
P
2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

2.10
3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4
rq
3.5
r
3.6
r s
3.7
q

v
vii
xii

xiv

41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
4 10

4 11

5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12

P P

P P

xv

7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6

7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14

8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12

t Pt

Pt


P
P

q rs
rs t


PP

P


P P

P P



P P
P

1.1

1.1

qrs t

1.2

qrs r q

1.3

qrs
rs q

1.4

1.5

qr rs q

(Scientia)

(Science)


P




P

P qr s

Physics

t t

rs



r t

t t

1.2

P t
r P t t t P

q

P
r

P t P

P q t

P P

1.1

10-14 m

tt t

t t

q rs t

s
s

26

10 m
10

40

: 10

22

18

s 10 s

10 kg

s
t
t

55

s
r

1030 kg

s s

s
s


t
t t
r r t

s
r

t t

s t t s

t t s

1.3

rs


P Pt

P t

1.1

P t

qst

q t

tq

ts

s t

tt

ts

t t

ts

t
t

q
q

q
t

s
s

qs

q t

s s

q t

ts

q
q

st

ss

st

1.2

(GMRT)

1.4

qst qs


(1879-1955)

qs t
s s qq q q qsq q
q q q qq qq qq qq q q q
qq qs t qq qq qqqq qq q q
q qq q
qq qq qq
qqq q q q qq qqq q
q qq

qq qq qq q qq

qq

qq

q qq qq q

qq
qq

qs q

q
q

qq q

qqq

q q q q qq q q q q
q q
qq qqq q qq q q qqqq qqs q

q q

E = mc

qq qq q q q
q qq q qq qqq q q

q q q q qqsq q q q q q q qs qqq
q s qqq q qq q q q q q
q q qs q qq qq q
qq q q qq q
qq qq q qqq qq qs q qq qs qs qqq q q qq qqqqq
q q qq qs t qq qq q q qq q qq q q q
q q

q qq

s q

1.4.1

1.4.2

r r

(1894-1974)

q rs q q

r qr rq
q sq
q q q
s r
q q s

qq q q
q

r s
s rq sq q
q q q q
q s q
q q s q s

q q
q s

q q
s

sr

rs q

s s

10

1.3

t r

q rst t

10 39

13

10

10

1.4.4

1.4.5

(10 m)

15

10 -16 m

(~1015 m)

1.4.3

(~1016m)

1687

1.4

1873

1979

1984

q tq qq q rq

1820
1830

11

r r r r

r
r

r r

r r
r

r r

r r

r r
r r

r r
r

rr r

r
r

rr

rr r rr

r r

1.5

r r

r r

r r
r

r r r

r r

r r

r r

(1888-1970)

qst t t t t t t t tt t
sttt t t t q t q t t t q t sttt
t st t tt t t tt t tt ttt
t tt t t t t q t t tt tt t st
t s t t t

(Indian Association for Cultivation of Science)

t t t t t t t t t t tt t t

t t
t t tt st tt q t
t t t t
t tt t tt t t t tt t t
tq tt

t t t t t
t tt

t t tt

t t t

t t

tt

tt q tst q t tt

tt t t t tt t

t
t t tt t tt t st t t tt
t t ttt t q t
t t

12

q s s s

s s

s s

t t

s s

s s
s
s s

q s
s

s q

s s q

s s

s s

q s

s s

E= mc2,

13

qr

st

tr

tr

r t ss s
tr st

t q rs

r s s


tr

t s

t t r s r q

s
s

tr

s s s r s

s t ss t q s
t

s tr tr t

r s

t s

rs

r
s


sr

r t

t t s

tr r t

s tr t s t t

t s r s

t s t s

s t tr s

t t

r t s r s t

t
q t

sr

st

t r

r
r

tt

s
s

t s

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

P P P




q st

1.

14

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5


P P

1.6

(i)

(ii)

1.7

1.8

1.9

1.10

P P

15

1.11

(i)

1.12

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(v)

(vi )

(vii)

(viii)

(ix)

(x )

1.13



t

t

1.14

1.15

t
t


t
t t

1.16

P t

2.1

2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10





t t

t




P
2.2

t
t
CGS FPS t MKS

t

CGS q

FPS q q

MKS q

r s
s r
SI SI

r

17

SI

SI

SI

(i)
d 2.1(a)
ds r

(ii) ! 2.1(b) O

dA r

rad
sr

(a)

(b)

2.1 (a) d (b)


! P

2.1 SI *

SI

kg

mol

cd

299, 792, 458


1983


1889
133

1967
1


2 107 1948
1/273.16
1967

0.012 kg 12
1971
540 1012 Hz
1683
1979

P
P P P P
Pq P Pr P s P t
P P

18

2.2

SI

q s t s

SI

min
h
d
y

60 s
60 min = 3600 s
24 h = 86400 s
365.25 d = 3.156 107 s

L
t
c
bar

1o = (/180) rad
1 dm3 = 10 3 m3
103 kg
200 mg
0.1 MPa = 105 Pa

Ci
R
q
b
a

3.7 1010 s 1
2.58 104 C kg1
100 kg
100 fm2 = 1028 m2
1 dam2 = 102 m2

ha
atm

1 hm2 = 104 m2
101 325 Pa = 1.013 105 Pa

SI

A 6 SI

SI

A 6.1

A 6.2

A 6.3

(A 6.2)

104 m

s s

10 5 m

s s

(A 6.3)

2.3.1

P P

SI

(A2)

(A7)

2.3

(A8)

SI

10 m

PP

A B

A B

102 m

19

AB = b

3600 = 2 rad
1 = ( /180) rad = 1.745102 rad
0
(b) 1 = 60 = 1.745102 rad
1 = 2.908104 rad " 2.91104 rad
(c) 1 = 60 = 2.908104 rad
1 = 4.847104 rad " 4.85106 rad !

(a)

ASB

""

AS = BS,

AB

AC

2.2

PP

AB = b = D

AC

100 m
O
t
C
O BO

(2.1)

AO

= 40 0

(2.2)

!
PP

1 = 60

(b) 1

3600 = 2 rad, 10 =60

2.3 AB = AC tan
AC = AB/tan = 100 m/tan 400
= 100 m/0.8391 = 119 m
PP

2.3

1o 54

2.1 (a) 1

(c) 1

2.3
0
=40

= d/D

2.2

7
1.276 10 m,

= 154 = 114
&
$ ' q r % '
s

' r

rad

20

'

XII

D = b/

'

'

2.4

'

1920
D, 1.496 x 10
m

'

20 cm

1010 m)

4000 7000

XII

(1 = 10

-10

m)

1 cm3

cm3

(V cm3 )

= nV cm3

A cm2

20 cm3

1 cm3

109 m

(10 8 m

* +

( $ ' % ' $ ' %

st

2.3.2

( P ' )

( P ' ' )

( P

0.6

11

21

(2.3)

10 m
26

't'

10 m

2.5
10

15

10

14

10 m

2.3.3

10

= 1 = 10

1m

16

2.4

= 1.496 1011 m
= 1 ly = 9.46 1015 m
3 108 m s1

= 1 AU

1015 m 1014 m
5
m 104 m
10
10

10
10
m
10

1m

= 1 f = 10

15

10 m

= 3.08 10 m

SI

(kg)

qr

10 8

10 7

10 5

10 4

104
107
108

10 11

10 13

10 21

(NPL)

10 10

10 14

14

10 15

10

2.3

10 22

10 26

(m)

22

(u)

2.5

1 = 1u
=

(1/12)

t q

rss
P

= 1.66 1027 kg

9,192,631,770


t t



P
t P

2.4.1
t

1055 kg

10

-30

kg

2.4

(IST),

747

kg

10 30
10 27
10 25
10 13
10 9
10 6
10 5
10 3
102
103
108
10 23
10 25
10 30
10 41
10 55

NPL

1 1013, 1013

SI

(1/299, 792, 458)

s t t

t t

1041

1041 ,

1041

(10 )

41 2

t t

23

2.5

X-

10
10 22
10 19
10 15
10 15
10 8
10 6
10 3
10 1
100
100
102
104
105
106
107
108
109
10 11
10 15
10 17

2.6

24

(a)

(b)

(a)

s t

0.1 cm

0.1 cm
3.5 cm

0.01 cm
3.38 cm

STP 100 C
104 C

3.678 cm

(b)

t s

24

(c)

2.6.1

(a)
a3...., an

a1, a2 ,

(2.5)

(2.4)

a = (a1 +a2 +a3+...+a n ) / n

a1 = a1 a,
a
= a2 a ,
2

....
....

....
....

....
....

a n = an a

0.001 cm

0.01 cm s

1 mm

a = (|a1 |+|a2 |+|a3 |+...+ |an |)/n


(2.6)

,
(

(b)

| a|

| ai |/n

(2.7)

25

a = a

a a a

a + a

(2.8)

(a+ a)

(a a)

2.7

2.63 s, 2.56 s, 2.42 s, 2.71s

2.80 s

(c)

(a)

aP

aP
/a
= a

(2.9)

= 2.624 s
= 2.62 s

a = (a /a ) 100%

$ - - - - %

(2.10)

0.01 s

2.6

t t
t

12:00:00

rs

rs

2.63 s 2.62 s = 0.01 s


2.56 s 2.62 s = 0.06 s
2.42 s 2.62 s = 0.20 s
2.71 s 2.62 s = 0.09 s
2.80 s 2.62 s = 0.18 s

12:00:05

10:15:06

12:01:15

10:14:59

t t t

11:59:08

10:15:18

12:01:50

10:15:07

11:59:15

10:14:53

12:01:30

10:15:24

12:01:19

10:15:11

= [(0.01+ 0.06+0.20+0.09+0.18)s]/5
= 0.54 s/5
= 0.11 s

(2.62 0.11) s

(2.62 + 0.11) s

(2.62 0.11) s, 2.73 s 2.51 s


0.11 s

T = 2.6 0.1 s

26

. (

' (

""""""!

2.6.2

(a)

(Fractals)

Z =A + B

Z A + B
Z = A B

Z Z = (A A) (B B)
= (A B) A B
Z = A B

Z =

A B

Z Z = (A A) + (B B)

A A, B B

t qs P P

(Fractals)

(Chaos)

2.8

t 1 = 20 0 C 0.5 0 C t2 = 50 0C

0.5 0C

t = t2 t 1 = (50 0C0.5 0 C) (200C0.5 0 C)


t = 30 0 C 1 0 C

27

(b)

Z = AB
A A B B

AB

- q

Z Z = (A A) (B B)
= AB B A A B A B.

&(

&

/ & / / q
(
q
q
&q

= 66.7 ohm

1( Z/Z) = 1 ( A/A) (B/B) ( A/A)(B/B)

/ & (

$ & %/

$ & %/

q
q

1
( 02
3
4 5
= 1.8

Z/ Z = ( A/A) + ( B/B)

&(

1
- 02
3
4 5

t P

(c)

2.9 R = V/I, V =
(100 5)V I = (10 0.2)A R

5%

2%

= 5% + 2% = 7%.

A2

(b)

(a)

(a)

R2 =

(a)

R = R1 + R2 = (100 3) ohm + (200 4) ohm


= 300 7 ohm.
(b)

t P

2.11

Z = A4B 1/3/CD3/2

Z Z/Z = 4(A/A) +(1/3)

(B/B) + (C/C) + (3/2) (D/D)


!
!

A
Z = Ap Bq/Cr

Z/Z = p (A/A) + q (B/B) + r (C/C).

(b)
(a)

R = R 1 + R2 (b)

2.10 R1 = 100 3

200 4

Z = A 2,

Z/Z = ( A/A) + (A/A) = 2 ( A/A)

cm

1s

2.12

1 mm

20.0

100

90 s

28

g = 42 L/T2

T=

/ (

/t

/t

0.00 2308

2, 3, 0, 8

100 ( g/g) = 100(L/L) + 2 100 (T/T)


= 3%
!
2.7

0 1
-2
3 (

4 5

(g/g) = ( L/L) + 2(T/T )

123 m = 12300 cm = 123000 mm

3.500

0.06900

cm

4.700 m

(2)

4.7 m

4.700 m = 470.0 cm = 0.004700 km = 4700 mm

(1)

q r rs

(1)

2.308 cm

23.08 mm 23080 m

0.02308

(3)

29

a 10

b, 10

(5<a 7 10)
10b

a, 1 10

(a 7 5)

s = 2 r

10

2.0, 2.00 2.0000,

10

2.7.1

, n

(1.28107 m), 107 m

10b

(1.061010m), 1010m

10
17

(a) P
4.700 m = 4.700 102 cm
= 4.700 103 mm = 4.700 103 km

10

3
1.68804780876 g/cm

4.237 g
2.51 cm3

(1)

0.1250

(6)

qr

s-1 t

3.1557 107 s

15

9.47 10

3.00 108 m
(1 y = 365.25 d)

(2)

qr

qr

(5) 1

q q q

(4)

30

436.32 g, 227.2 g 0.301 g

663.821 g
(227.2 g)

3 10 m/s

108 m/s

= 3.1415926....

663.8 g

2.99792458

0.307 m 0.304 m = 0.003 m = 3 103 m


(1)

664 g
3.00 103 m

2.7.2

2.743

2.74

2.746
2.75

2.74

3.142 3.14

= 6(7.203)2 m2
= 311.299254 m2
= 311.3 m2
= (7.203)3 m3

2.14

5.74 g

= 4.8 g cm--3
2.7.3

2.745,

1.2 cm

2.735
2.74

= 373.714754 m3
= 373.7 m3

2.745

2.13 t
7.203 m

""!

31

(1)

16.2 cm

10.1 cm

9.62

l b = 164 + 3 cm

12.9 g 7.06 g
5.84 g

5.8 g

(3)

2.8

9.58

9.58

0.104

1/9.58 = 0.1044

[A],

[cd],

[L],

[K],

[mol]

[ ]

1.02 g 0.01 g
9.89 g 0.01 g

1.02

(2)

= 163.62 + 2.6 cm2

3 cm2

0.104

lb = 163.62 cm2 + 1.6%

qst

= 10.1 cm 1 %
r

b = 10.1 0.1 cm

s s s s s
sq s

= 16.2 cm 0.6 %.

9.89 g r
= ( 0.01/9.89) 100 %
= 0.1 %

l = 16.2 0.1 cm

= ( 0.01/1.02) 100 %
= 1%

[T]

[L], [M]

= [L ]
3

= [L] [L] [L] = [L]3

[M],
[L3 ]

[T]

32

=
=

-1

[v], [F]

[P]

[V],

qr

[L T 1]

2.10.1

[] = [M L T ]
3

[V] = [M0 L3 T0 ]
[v] = [M 0 L T1]
[F] = [M L T2]

[M L T] [M L T ]
[M L T2], [M L3 T]

[L]/[T]

[L T ]

2.9

[M] [L]/[T] = [M L T ]
1, 1 2

()/()2

2.10

33

v0

t
t = 0 x0
a

(k)

(m

(a) [M2 L3 T3]; (b) (d)


[M L2 T2]; (c) [M L T2]

(e)

[M L2 T2]

(b)

(d)

(a), (c) (e)

r s r
r

t q

2.15

a m s2

m s 1

(e) K = (1/2)mv2 + ma

SI J = kg m 2 s2;

)
(a) K = m2 v3
(b) K = (1/2)mv2
(c) K = ma
(d) K = (3/16)mv2

2.16

[x] = [L]
[x0 ] = [L]
[v 0 t ] = [L T1] [T]
= [L]
[1/2 a t2 ] = [L T2] [T2 ]
= [L]

[M][L T2] [L] = [M][L2 T2]


= [M L 2 T2]

2.10.2

(b)

""!

[M] [L T ] = [M] [ L T ]
= [M L2 T 2]

1 2

34

2.17

(l),

l, g

x, y , z

k = 2P

T = 8

""!

= Lx+y T 2y Mz

(g)

T=kl g m
k

(m)

T=

x + y = 0; 2y = 1; z = 0

T = k l g

1.

qrs t s qrt
s

qrs t

2.

st

rs

rs q s s s
t s r s s t s
s s t s s r t s s q
ss

3.

qrs t

s t

qrst s r r qrst s tst

s trs s s t r s

t s t r s t r ss t st s r s
s

4.

s t

5.

qrs t

qrs t

r st s

6. SI

s t

SI

t r

s t r

SI

r s

s t

s t

SI

s t

t r

s s t

s t

rs

s t s t qs st s r s r r

st s t tr t s s

kg

s
t

s r

m,

35

7.

8.

SI

10

9.

10.

precision

11.

accuracy

12.

P P P

2.1

(a)
(b)

2.3

l s
g cm3 kg m3

4.2

(mm) 2

2.4

m3

1 kg m2 s2 =............ g cm 2 s 2
1 m =................. ly
3.0 m s2 =................. km h2
G = 6.67 1011 N m 2 (kg)2 =................. (cm)3 s 2 g1
t 4.2 J

11.3

10 cm

18 km/h

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

1 cm t
2 cm

(c)
(d)
2.2

1 J = 1 kg m2 s2

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

36

(f)
2.5

8 min
2.6

(b)
(c)

20

1 mm

100

2.8

(a)

20
3.5 mm

100

20 s

(a)

(b)

1.0 mm

(c)

200

35 mm

100

1.75 cm2

2.10

2.9

1.55 m2

(a) 0.007 m (b) 2.64 10 24 kg (c) 0.2370 g cm-3


(d) 6.320 J (e) 6.032 N m2 (f) 0.0006032 m2
2

2.11

2.12

2.13

20.15 g

a,b, c

P,

a =

2.15

a, b, c

1%, 3%, 4%, 2%, P


P 3.763

(b) y = a sin vt
(d) y = (a 2 )(sin 2 t/T + cos 2 t/T)

v=

v,

T =

mass) m 0

2.300 kg
(a) (b)

(a) y = a sin 2 t/T


(c) y = (a/T) sin t/a

20.17 g

2.14

4.234 m, 1.005 m 2.01 cm

(moving mass) m,

(rest

37

2.16

m 3

:1 = 1010 m

0.5

2.18

2.17

22.4 L

2.19

2.3.1

AB

1"

11

9 3 10 m

1"

2.21

2.20

4.29

2.22

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
2.23

P
t

2.24

6000 K

t t

107 K

8247

= 2.0 1030 kg;

= 7.0 108 m

35.72"

38

2.25

tan v;

v 0

2.26

0.02 s

2.27

100

1s

2.5

970 kg m3

2.28

1 f =1015 m)

r = r 0A 1/3
r

r0

1.2 f

2.29

(LASER),

2.30

2.56 s

2.31

1450 m s

(SONAR)

2.32

2.33

Quasar

2.3

300

km

77.0 s

2.27

2.4

~1500

3.1 qrs
3.2 qq q
3.3
3.4 qs
3.5
3.6 sr qr s

qs
rs
3.7 qs

q q

qq
qq 3.1

3.1






t 24







P

t







P



3.2 P

40

x-, y- r z-
(O) r
(x, y, z)

(frame of

reference)

OP = +360

P Q

m) = +480 m

= OP + PQ = 360 m + (+120


r
r

x1

x2 > x1

t1

t 2
t ( = t2 t 1 )

x2

r
r

stP

x = x 2x 1

x2 < x1

r r

3.1 O
O

r r

3.1 P Q
360 m 240 m
r
120 m

3.1

P, Q r R

x = x 2 x1 = (+360 m) 0 m = +360 m

q
q

t =0

x=0

3.1 x

360 m = 120 m

360 m

240 m

41

sr r

r P r P

360

360

=
m
O

r 360

P 360

Q
= (+360 m) + (+120 m) = +480 m
r = (+240 m) (0 m) = +240 m
r 240 m q P P
480 m r

r s P
r P

3.1

r P

x r r P
xr
x - t

3.2(a)

r P r
P

OP + PO = +360 m + 360 m = +720 m

t = 18 s

t=0s

t = 10 s

r P P

x = 296 m

t = 20 s

(b)

x
(m)

3.3

(b)
(a)

Pr

(a)

3.2

3.2(b)

P P P

x = 40 m

s P

P x- t

t(s)!

42

3.3

3.3

q q

rr
r

t=0s

3.3

-v

$ t

&t

x1

t1

x2

t2

SI

(v)

x-t

3.4

P2

3.5(b)

P 1 P2

P1

xt

3.5(c)

3.5(a)

m/s r m s1
km/h

(3.1)

&

3 4
t = 5 s r t =7 s

r r r

t =8 s

x-t

(a)

3.5

(b)

(c)

P P

(c)

(b)

(a)

P P

r

r

(m s 1)

3.2

3.4

P1 P2

43

3 1

O P
O
20 m s1

3.1

3.4

3.1

31

OP

18 s

6.0 s

(b)

O P

(a)

t)

t + t)

(a)

v= lim
qrs

(3.3a)

t0

lim
&t' 0

&x

(3.3b)

&t

t0

3.1

(3.3a)


3.3

= 20 m s

3.6

t = 4 s

3s

5s

P t

"

t = 4 s

= +10 m s1

(b)

- dx *

+ dt (
, )

(3.3a)

P1 P2 Q1Q2

4.5 s

P1 P2

2s

3.6

2 s

1 s

3.5 s

44

3.84 ms-1

3.3

3.6

3.7

t=4 s

P
P

rs

t = 4s

t=4 s dx/dt

P1 P2

t= 4 s

3.7

3.6

3.1

t =4 s

x/t

x(t 1) = 0.08 t

3
1

t1 (=t t/2)

x(t2 ) = 0.03 t

x = x( t 2)x(t1 )

2.0 s

3.1

P P

3
2

0.01 s

qrst s

ts

(v)

3.1 t = 4 s

x/ t

t
(s)

t1
(s)

t2
(s)

x(t1)
(m)

x(t2)
(m)

x
(m)

x/ t
(m s1)

2.0
1.0

3.0
3.5

5.0
4.5

2.16
3.43

10.0
7.29

7.84
3.86

3.92
3.86

0.5
0.1
0.01

3.75
3.95
3.995

4.25
4.05
4.005

4.21875
4.93039
5.100824

6.14125
5.31441
5.139224

1.9225
0.38402
0.0384

3.845
3.8402
3.8400

P P

P P

t = 2.0 s, 1.0 s ,

0.5 s, 0.1 s 0.01 s


t2 ( = tt/2)

x = 0.8 t3

3.3

3 1

x/t

45


x/t

32

dx/dt

3.2 x-

x=a+bt2 a = 8.5 m, b = 2.5 m s2


t t=0 s
t=2.0 s t=2.0 s
t=4.0 s

t =0 s
v =10 m s1

1
t m s

t =2.0 s

3.7

v = 0 m/s,

6.0 2.5 =

t1 , t2

SI m s2
(v-t)

"

15 m s1
t=10 s 18 s

t=18 s t=20 s
t=0 s t=10 s P

rt

(v 1, t1 )

+ 24.0 m s1
24.0 m s1

(v 2 , t 2 )

37

0 s - 10 s

18 s - 20 s

P P

10 s - 18 s

q q r sr q

24.0 m s

v 1 v 2

(3.4)

( a 16b ) ( a 4b )
= 6.0b
2.0

3.5

a (m s2)




P
P

3.8

3.3

46

vt

(3.5)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

3.7

3.8

vt

18 s 20 s
12 m s2

at
0 s 10 s
10 s18 s

3.10

3.9 (c)

xt

3.3

xt

(a)

(c)

+a, a

t= 0

v t

a = =

(a)

(b)

(b)

(c)

(a)
(c) s

(b)

(c)

(3.6)

3 3

t = 0 s t = 10 s

3.3

(d)

3.10
v t

t = 18 s t = 20 s

(a)

v = v+at

3.9

qs

(b)

qs

qs

(d)
t1 qs q 0 t1
x qs t
1
t2 qs

3.9 (a), 3.9 (b)

3.1

t 1

47

3.1

t1

(x), (t), t = 0
(vo) t (v), r
(a) vo v

t 2

vt

3.6

r
r
r

3.11 v- t

3.11

a r

(3.6)

v = vo + at

3.12

q s t

v-t
t= T

t= 0

= u T = uT,

3.12

xt, vt

at

3.6

OACD

ABC

1
(v v0 ) t + v0 t
2

x =

v-t

1
(v v0 ) t + v0 t
2

v v0 = at
1
x = at2 + v0 t

2
1 2
r x = v0 t +
at
2
3.7

(3.7)

x=

v-t

v+ v0
2

= v.t

(3.8)

t
(3.9a)

48

qrs

(3.9b)

(3.6) t = (v v0)/a

# . t

(a

# t

(3.9a)

(3.9a) (3.9b)
x v

dx = v dt

(3.10)

(3.6)

(3.8)

(3.11a)

t = 0

(3.11b)

# .

"

"

(3.11c)

0 x = 0)
t = 0
x0 (3.11a)

x xx
0

v dv = a dx

(3.11a)

x =

v0, v, a, t x

3.3

3.4

20 m s1

dv = a dt

25.0 m

(b)
g = 10 m s2

(a)

49

(a) y

3.13

vo = + 20 m s1,

v2 =

+ 2a(y y0 )

0 = (20) + 2(10) (y y0)


2

y0 = 45 m
10 m s2

y = 0, v0 = 0, a = g =

0 = 45 +(1/2) (10) t 22
t2 = 3 s

y y0 = 20 m

(b)

a = g = 10 m s2,
v = 0 m s 1

t2

t1 + t2 = 2 s + 3 s = 5 s

y = 0 m, y0 = 25 m,v0 = 20 m s1, a = 10 m s2,


t=?
0 = 25 + 20 t + (1/2) (10)t 2
5t2 20t 25 = 0

t=5s

"

3.5

3.13

qr r


s s

(B C)

(A

B)

t1 t2

A B

t t

P P
P P

v =v0 + at
0 =20 10 t1
t1 =2 s


qr


P P

9.8 m s 2

50

v= 0gt

v0 =0

v2 = 0 2 g y

= 19.6 y m2 s2

y = 0

ms

= 4.9 t 2

= 9.8 t

a = g = 9.8 m s 2

y= 0 gt

(3.11a)

3.14(a), (b) (c)

"

3.6

P
q

rr

s
t

7,.......]

[ 1 3 5

(a)

(b)

tt

0, , , , ......

32

= (1/2)g
y0

y0

(y0

1:3:5:7:9:11......

(c)

3.14

(a)

(b)

(c)

1564-1642

51

3.7

y 0
y o [=(1/2)g 2]

0
(1/2)g2
4(1/2)g2

0
yo
4yo

yo
3yo

1
3

9(1/2)g2
16(1/2)g2
25(1/2)g2

9yo
16y o

5yo
7yo

5
7

25y o
36y o

9yo
11y o

9
11

36(1/2)g

3.2

(v o)

vo

3.8

"

v = 0

ds

v 2 = v02 + 2ax

cm

25 m s1

10 m, 20 m, 34 m

11,

50 m

9.8 ms

"

tr r

d = 21.0

15, 20

3.15

tr

v0 = 0, a = g =
(d)

52

= [xB (0) xA(0)] + ( vB vA)t


vB vA
vB vA

vBv A
vBA = v Bv A

A
vAB = v AvB

3.15

d = 21.0 cm g = 9.8 ms2

3.7

(3.14a)

(3.14b)

vBA = vAB

(3.13)

(3.13)

(3.14c)

"

v A v B

t=0

xB (0)

x A(0)

xA(t) = xA(0) + v At

(3.12a)

xB (t) = xB(0) + v Bt

(3.12b)

3.16
v
BA

xBA (t) = x B(t) xA(t)

vAB

vA > v B, vB v A

vA = 20 m s1 xA(0) = 10 m; vB =
10 m s xB(0) = 40 m
t = 3 s P 3 17

-1

xA(t) = xB(t) = 70 m

A B
= 10 m s1 20 m s1 = 10 m s1 = vAB

(a) v B = v A, v B vA= 0, (3.13)


xB (t)x A(t) = x B(0) xA(0)
(x (0) x (0))
B
A

3.16

vBA

53

vBA = [10(20)] m s1 = 30 m s1= v AB


vBA vAB (=30 m s1) A
B


3.14

vA v B
3.9

90 km/h

3.17

(a) A
(b) B

vA

vB

(c)

xA(0)=10 m 20 m s 1 B x B(0)
= 40 m 10 m s1 t=1 s
3.18 A B

54 km/h

18 km/h1

(a) x -

vA = +54 km/h1 = 15 m s1
vB = 90 km/h1 = 25 m s1
A

vBv A = 40 m s-1

B A
40 m s1

(b) B
25 m s1

(c)

3.18

A
= 5 m s1

= 0 vB =

vM

vMA = v MvA = 18km h1


v M = (155) m s1 = 10m s1 "

1.

P
P P

2.

3.

q rx
rx t x 2

x1

54

x1 x2

4.

xt

6.

5.

&

&

7.

8.

t t r

9.

t 0

v-t
10.

v - t

x - t

t1

t2

11.

x - t

t,

v o,

v = v 0 + at

t =0

x xo

#
#

x= 0

x = xo

55

[L]

[L]

= x2 - x1

[LT-1 ]

(a)

(b)

m s1

# &&xt

[LT1]

(a)

(b)

m s1


r

dx

[LT2]

(a)

(b)

dt

m s2

1.

PP P

P P

2.

P P

3.

P P P
P

56

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

3.11

3.11 ]

[ 3.3

3.5 ]

3.1

3.2

x-t

a B/A

3.19

b B/A

A/B

c B/A

e A/B

A/B

B/A

d A

A/B

3.19

57

3.3

9.00 2.5 km 5 km h1
5.00 25 km h1
x - t

3.4

x-t

13 m

3.6

1s

500 km h1

3.5

1m

1500 km h1

126 km h1

200 m

3.7

A B km h1

400 m A B B A
1m s2 50 s B A

A 36 km h1
B C 54 km h1 A AB AC
1km B C A
A B

3.8

3.9

20 km h1

T
3.10

B
6

18

29 m s1

i
ii
iii

x=0

t=0

x-



iv

[g = 9.8 m s 2
3.11


a
b
c
d

3.12

90 m

3.13

t=0

12 s

1/10


a

b

58

3.14

5 km h1

0 - 30 ii 0 - 50
b

2.5 km
7.5 km h1

iii 0 - 40

3.15

3.16

3.13

3.14

3.20

3.21
t <0

3.18

x -t

3.20

t>0

30 km/h
192 km/h

3.17

150 m s-1

3.21

59

3.19

3.22

3.20

3.23

14

t = 0.3 s, 1.2 s, 1.2 s

3.24

3.22

3.21

x -t

3.23

x-t

3.22

3.25

3.24

A, B, C,

3.25

60

3.23

10 s

3........

3.24

ms

-1

9 km/h
50 m

49 m s1

n = 1, 2,

3.26 4 km/h

3.26

15 m s 1 30 m s1
3.27

200 m

3.26

1m s -2

3.25

3.27

g = 10 m s2

61

3.27

(a) t = 0 s

t = 10 s, (b) t = 2 s

6s

3.28

3.28

a b

3.28

t1

t2

3.29

3.29

(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

x (t2 ) = x (t1) + v (t1)(t2 t1) + (1/2) a(t2 t1) 2


v(t2) = v(t1 ) + a(t2 t1 )
vaverage = [x(t2) x (t 1)]/(t2 t1 )
a average = [v(t2) v (t1)]/(t2 t1)
x(t2) = x(t1) + vaverage (t2 t1) + (1/2) a average (t2 t1) 2

(vi) x (t2 ) x (t1) = t-

62

3.1

y = f (x)

y = f(x)
(Cartesian coordinates)

(1)

3.30 (a)

(a)
y = f(x)

/ #

PQ

&
#
&

(x, y )

(x + x, y + y)

(2)

!y
!x

. & " $
&

tan

3.30 (b)

y0, x 0

qrs

(b)

y/ x

dy/dx

y = f(x)

y = f(x)

y+

f x

& '

y = f (x + x)

(3)

&
#
&

(x, y)

ss

& '

5
3
4

srs

. &
&

2
0
1

ss

63

u (x)

v (x) x

d (a u)
du
#a
dx
dx

d(uv)
dv
du
#u
.v
dx
dx
dx

du du dx
=
.
dt
dx dt

du du dx
#
dv dv dx
d
!sin x " # cos x
dx

d
(sec x) # tan x sec x
dx

;
;

q r

& '

&
#
&

D
=
=
D

q q
q
q
q

q

(W)

f (x)

x-q

x= a

x=

64

(i)

3.31

f (x)

f (b-a)

3.31 (ii)

x-

x0 (=a)

x1

x1

x2

3.31 (ii)

x2

(N)

x N-1

3.31

x N (=b)

F(x)

F(xi-1) F(xi) F(xi-1) N


(N) F(xi) F(x i-1)

6&

# &

& #

x3

&P

F(x)

g (x)

g (x)

f (x)

f (x)

qrs

65

f (x) = x 2
x2

f (x)

x = 1 x = 2
x 3/3

s P

s P

4 1

41





4 5
4 6

4 7
4 8

4 9
4 10
4 11
42
43
44


P


P P
P

P q
r st P
r P
r P

P



P
q

4 2





P P
P
st st
q st
P q

67

*
P 10 m 0 5 m P

r P
P O

1.0 m + 0.5 m + 1.0 m + 0.5 m =


P P'

3.0 m P
P

P P P
35 6 C 24 2 C 114 C

PP' P P'
P P t P' P t'
qq q

PP P
10 cm P 2.7 kg
10 3 m3

2.7103 kg/m3
q P P
rqst q qq s r
qq q s rqst q r
P


P P P


v
P
P P

v v v
P P P P
|v| = v

4.1 (a) (b)


PQ
P
P


P
4.1b P
P P Q P
PQ
PABCQ, PDQ PBEFQ

P P A a, p, q, r, ..... x,
y P P P A

a, p, q, r, .... x, y

P
P

4 2 1 q qq q
P P P
P O P P
P t t'
P P P' 4.1a P P
O OP P
t

4 2 2 qqs q
A B
P P **
4.2(a) P P A B
P P

P
r OP = r P'

B P Q
A O
S P

OP' r'

P P A = B P

*
**

68

4.2 (a) A r B, (b)


B' qs

A'

4.2(b)

B'

A'

4 3

b A r
15 s

B'
Q', A'
O' B' S', A'
P'

43

|A|

1 5

4 4

43 b

4 2

a
d

B, b

A B

4.4 (a)
B

r s

A + B
B

4 4 b

44

| ! A |" ! | A | ! # 0
A 2
2A 4.3a A

| A |
A


B OQ
R A r B




r

B+A
R 4.4c


A+B=B+A
(4.1)
P
4.4 (d) A B
t C
B t C

A tr
(A + B) + C = A + ( B + C)
(4.2)
t
A t A 4.3(b)
A + (A)

t 0

AA=0
|0| = 0
(4.3)
0

t A

O

69

A + 0=A
0=0
0A=0

tr 4.1(a)
r r
t
P P' P t
r r
t r
r

A B t
A B

A B = A + (B)
(4.5)
45 B A
R2 = ( A B)
R1 = A + B
s
q

A B

O 4.6(a)
A B t
B A

OQSP
O
R
O
S t OS t
[ 4.6 (b) ] 4.6 (c) A B


4.5 (a) A B, B (b) A B R2


A B R1

70

4.6 (a)

qs

, (b)

A+B

(c)

s s

41

35 m s1

45

12 m s1

a
b

A = OP = OQ + QP
OQ, a

(4.6)

Q P, b

O Q " !a

4 7

4.7

vr

QP " 'b

(4.7)

vw

vr

vw

"

$ "

&"

"

"

"

= tan1 (0.343) = 19

19

48 (a)

b, (b)

A " !a $' b

(4.8)


a r b r

r r r
r
r
r

r
r
r r
r r 4.9a
r r x, y r z
i, j r k
r r
(4.9)
| i |"| j |"| k |" 1
r
r
i, j, k ^
r
r r
n
r n r
A r r
A " | A | n
(4.10)
A n
A i r j
r r (4.9b)
A r x-y r 4.9(b)
A r
A1 A 2 r
A1 + A2 = A A1 i r
r A 2 j r r

71

A1 = Ax i , A2 = Ay j
Ax Ay r

(4.11)

A = Ax i + Ay j

(4.12)

(4.9c) Ax Ay
A x- y- r r
Ax Ax i
Ay j
r Ax A y A
r x P
r r
Ax = A cos P

Ay = A sin P
(4.13)
(4 13)
P r r
r
r A r

i A r x
P
ii Ax r Ay
A r P r r Ax Ay
4 13 r r Ax
Ay r r A r P r
r


$ " s & $ s & = A2
"
t & "

%
& " t

4 14
4 15

r x-yr
r r

4.9 (a) q i, j , k x, y, z q b q A x y q A 1
A 2 (c) A1 A 2 i j q

72

x, y

"

! $ !

A x-, y-, z- r
* 4.9d
Ax= A cos Ay = A cos Az = A cos
4.16(a)

(4.18)

R = A+B

"

) (

! $ ! $

! $ !

(4.19)

4 19

" ( $

"

!$

)! $

(4.19a)

(4.20)

Rx = Ax + Bx, Ry = Ay + By
R

4.9(d) A

z -

4 6

(4.17)

x, y

! $ ! $ !

"

x-, y-, z-

"

Bx, By

! $

! $ ! $

! $ ! $
!

Rx, Ry

"

! $ ! $ !

Rz

A r B

" ! $ ! $ !

" ! $ ! $ !

"

(4.23a)

Ty = a y + by cy
Tz = az + bz cz

4 2

! $ ! $ !

a, b r c

T= a+bc
Tx = ax + bx cx

(4.22)

Ax, Ay

"

"

Rz = Az + Bz

(4.16c)

Ry = Ay + By

Rx = Ax + Bx

(4.16b)

"

x, y

(d)

(4.21)
A

4 10

(4.23b)


r r

73

"

4 3

25 km/h r
10 km/h
60
411 vb r v c
r r
r r

q 4.10
410 OP r OQ
A r B r r
r r r
R r OS

R=A+B
SN, OP r r PM, OS r
OS2 = ON2 + SN2
r
ON = OP + PN = A + B cos
SN = B sin
OS 2 = (A+B cos (B sin 2

r R

R2 = A2 + B2 + 2AB cos

$ $ s &

"

(4.24a)

OSN

SN = OS sin = R sin
PSN

SN = PS sin = B sin
r

R sin = B sin

"
& *

(4.24b)

PM = A sin = B sin

"
+ *

q 4.11

(4.24c)

&

"

"

(4.24d)

(4.24d) r r r

* "

&

(4.24e)

&
"

(4.24f)

(4.24a) R r
(4.24e) r
(4.24a) r (4.24d)
r

R r
r

"

&
, , "
,

"

R (4.24a)

" $ $ "

(4.24b) r (4.24c) r r

R
r

, .

"

"

47
r
r

74

4 7 1

" ! / $ !/

x-y

r [ (4.12)]

x = x x, y = y y

x y x y

(4.12b)

t'

r = r' r
P P'

P'

"

(4.25)

/0r / $ / / /
"
"
$
/t
/t
/t
/t

"

(4.26)

r =xi +yj

#P

/
/

(4.27)

(4.12)

r
r

t
t

4.13(a)

(4.28)

4.13(d)

(a)

P1 , P2 , P3 ,

(a), (b) (c)

t 2, t3 , (t1 > t 2> t3 )

qs

qs
q

t1 , t2 , t3 ,

r 1, r 2, r 3,

t1 ,

4.13d)

q s

(b)

4.12 (a)

_
v

r, (b)

"

"

(4.25)

1 /
! /
$
3
/ 72 /
/

) (

" ! $ P! %

!
$

!P

" !

/ 7

$ !

4
6
5

(4.29)
/

/ 7

75

4 14 v v x, vy r

4 14 v v x, vy x-

P vx = v cos vy = v sin

x-y (a)
r t

"
413 t
v v
v

!
$
" ! $ ! .
" !
t
t

"
(4.30a)
"
t
t


v
"

r

1
y
%
, & " 3
& "
3
x
2x

4
6
6
5

(4.30c)

/ ! $ !
/

) " / ! $ / ! (4.31a)
/

(4.31b)

/
"
/ 7 /

(4.32a)

v = !iv x + jv y ,

/
/
" !
$ !
/ 7 /
/ 7 /
r

a = i a x +
j ay

(4.32b)

(4.32c) *
t
t
r

(4.30b)

"

r q " s! $ ! .

x y
vx v y

"

"


4 15a 4 15d
t r
P t 1, t 2, t3 , (t1 >t2 >t3 )
r P1 , P2, P3

* x y ax r ay
d 1 dx 4 d2 x
d 1 d y 4 d2 y
,
ay " 3 6 "
ax " 3 6 "
dt 2 dt 5 dt 2
dt 2 dt 5 d t 2

76

4 15

P1 , P2, P3

4 15 a, b

t1, (b) t2, (c) t3, (t1> t2>t3)

t 0

415d

180

4 4
r = 3.0 t !i + 2.0 t 2 !j + 5.0 k

(a)

v(t)

v(t)

a(t)

v(t) =

x-y

"

%
"
%

v = v0 + a t

(4.33a)

a
t = 0 t v0

1 4
% 1 4
8
3 6 " 3 6 .
25
2 5

a = a

a (d) t0

&

48

P,
t
v

(a)

vy = v0y + ay t

dr
d
=
(3.0 t
i + 2.0 t 2j + 5.0
k)
dt
dt

= 3.0 !i + 4.0 t !j
!
a(t) = dv
dt = 4.0 j
a = 4.0 m s2 y-
t = 1.0 s v = 3.0!i + 4.0j

vx = v0x+ax t

(b) t = 1.0 s

(4.33b)

t = 0 t = t r
r r r
0

v0

v t 0 = t
(vo + v)/2 t r r0

77

= v0 +

y(t) = 1.0 t2

1 2
at
2

x(t) = 84 m t = ?
s 84 = 5.0 t + 1.5 t2

r " r $ t $ t

t = 6.0 s y = 1.0(6)2 = 36.0 m


(4.34a)

t = 0 r = r0
4.34a

1
x = x0 + v ox t +
a t2
2 x
(4.34b)

(4.34b) x y

P





4 10
45 t = 0
5 0i m/s x - y

i + 2.0
j) ms2 (a)
(3.0
x 84 m
y q b
q

49
3 7


A B vA vB

A B

t = 6 s v = 23.0!i + 12.0 !j

dr

4 34a dt (4.33a)

1
a t2
y = y0 + v oy t +
2 y

= (5.0t + 1.5t 2)i + 1.0t 2


j
x(t) = 5.0 t + 1.5 t2

vAB= vA vB

(4.35a)

B A

vBA= vB vA

vAB= vBA
|vAB| = |vBA|

(4.35b)
(4.35c)

46 35 m s1

12 m s1
q
4 16 vr vb



vrb = vr - vb

416

r(t) = v0 t +

1
a t2
2

1
2
= 5.0!i t +
(3.0!i + 2.0j)t
2


"
"
& "

190

78

4 16

19 0

41

417 v0

4 1 s

s s

s s

v0

417

PP

4 17

v0

x-

a x = 0,

ay = g

4 34b

1
g t2
2

(4.38)

(4.36)

P P

vx = v ox = v0 cos 0
vy = v0 sin

4 38

y-

gt

4 18

x-

v0

x y

x- P
y-
P

(4.39)

a = gj

4 33b

P P

y = (v0 sin 0) t

(4.37)

x = vox t = (v 0cos 0 )t

P P

1632 P

P s

P P

x0 = 0, y0 = 0

voy = v 0 sin 0

ss

4 10

vox = v 0 cos 0

s s
s

& " %

"

vy = 0

79

4 38 t = tm
hm

4 38
x y t

" ( t & ) %

( s& )

1 s& 4 1 s&

3
6% 3

2
5 2

" " ( s& ) 33

(4.40)

4 18
g, 0 v 0 4 40

y = ax + bx 2
a b

"

( & )
g

4
6
6
5

(4.42)


x = y = 0 q

y = 0 R,
rr Tf
R
R = (v0 cos 0 )(Tf)
=(vo cos o) (2 vo sin o)/g
"

s &

(4.43)

4 43

v0 R q q 0 = 450
sin 900 = 1 sin 20

"

(4.43a)

47
418 P


tm q v y

= 0 4 39 tm

vy = v0 sin 0 gtm = 0
tm = vo sino /g

(4.41a)

r Tf
4 38 y = 0

Tf = 2 (v o sin o )/g

(4.41b)

Tf
q Tf = 2t m


45 qq
qq

0 v0

q 450 450 2
90 0 900 sin(900

+ 2) sin(90 0 2) cos
2 450
qq qq

80

48

490 m
15 m s1

g = 9.8 m s2

x- y-
x-

t = 0
y-

qr

st

x- y-

x(t) = x 0 + vox t
y(t) = y0 + voy t + (1/2) ay t 2

$ "

$ " %

30

28 m s1

x-

(4.43)

4 9 :

voy = 0 9.8 10 = 98 m s1

y(t) = 490 m

vox = 15 m s1

t = 10 s
vx = vox vy = voy g t

490 m = (1/2) (9.8)t 2

vox = 15 m s-1.

x o = yo = 0, voy = 0, ay = g = 9.8 m s-2

(4.42)

y-

hm =

(v0 sin 0)
2g

0 2

(28 sin 30 )

= 10.0 m

2(9.8)

Tf = (2 vo sin o )/g = (2 28 sin 30 )/9.8


= 28/9.8 s 2.9 s

81

4 11

v, a

4 19c t0

P P P t
*

419 v R

P P

r r' v v'

| a | lim

| v |

t P P'
4 19a

t 0 t
t r r'

v v'

4 19 a1 v v'

4 19 a2 t

t CPP' v, v' v

v
v, r v', r'

t GHI 4 19a

v, r P


a r


v t r r'

t t
t

/q
v

t
4.19 b

"

/s "

/r
R
/

4 19 a c t c

t 0 r, r v 0 v

82

"

/
/
"
"
lim
lim
/ t 7 /
/ 7 /

PP'

|r|

/
lim
/ 7 /

v = R

|r|

/r
.
/

v t
lim
/ 7

"

ac

"

"

(4.44)

1673
16291695

s = 2 R

ac

4 48

= 2

ac = 42 2R

4 49

4 10
12cm

v = 2 R

v = 2 R/T = 2 R

v /R

"9

ac " 9 2 R

1 4
3 6 v = v2 /R
2 5

ac =

4 46

/&
"R9
/

"

s = R

100

4 19
t (=t't) P
CP

P'

R = 12 cm

4 45

/s
"
/

= 2/T = 2 7/100 = 0.44 rad/s

PP'=s

v = R = 0.44 12 cm = 5.3 cm s1

/&

9 "

a = 2 R = (0.44 s1)2 (12 cm) = 2.3 cm s2

83

1

2

3 A B
A A

4 A B P

5 PP
A+B=B+A
P (A + B) + C = A + (B + C)
6


A+0=A
0 = 0
0A = 0
7 B A A B
A B = A + (B)
8 A a b

A = a + b

9 A A
A
n " | A |
i , j , k x-, y z-
10 A
A = A i + A j
x

Ax Ay x-, y- A A, x-
Ax = A cos , Ay = A sin

qr s

11 P x-y A B
R
R = Rx i + Ry j
Rx = Ax + Bx Ry = Ay + By
12 r
r = x i^ + yj^
r r'
r = r' r
= (x' x) i^ + (y' y) ^j
^
^
=x i +y j

84

13

v"

/r
/t

/ r dr
v " lim
"
/ t 70 /t
dt

v = vxi + v y j+v z k
t

14

"

v'

v' %v / v
"

/t
/t
/ v dv
a " lim
"

/t 7 0 /t
dt
a"

a = ax i + ay j + az k

15

"

ro

"

a " |a | "

"

a 2x $ a 2y

1
r " r0 $ v 0 t$ at 2
2

t=0

v = v 0+ at

v0 t = 0

vx = v0x + ax t
vy = v0y + ay t

16

rs

v0

x = (v0 cos ) t
y = (v0 sin ) t (1/2) g t2
vx = v0x= v0 cos
vy = v 0 sin gt

85

( q )
,
=

sin &
"

y = 0
R

17 P P
v R a c= v 2/R
! v = !R
ac = !2 R
T ! , v ac
! = 2,

v = 2R,

ac = 2R

qqr qq

qq

[L]

[L]

[LT1]

m s1


(a)

r/t

(b)

dv/dt

[LT2]

m s2

(a)

v/t

(b)

dv/dt


(a)

tm

[T]

(b)

hm

[L]

(c)

[L]

[T1]


(a)
(b)

ac

[LT ]

rad/s
2

ms

= t = v/R
= v2 /R

86

(4.34a)

(4.3a)

v1

v = v1+ v2

v1 v2

v2
v
= v1- v2
12

4 1

4 2
4 3

(a)

(b)

(d)

4 5

4 4

(e)

(f)

(c)

(a)
(c)

(b)

(d)

4 6

(e)

(a) |a+b| |a| + |b|


(b) |a+b| ||a| |b||

87

(c) |ab| |a| + |b|


(d) |ab| ||a| |b||

47 a + b + c + d = 0,
(a) a, b, c d

(b) (a + c) (b + d)
(c) a b, c d

(d) a d b + c a d
a d
48 r 200 m
P P
Q 420
r r

420

49 O P
QO 4.21
1 km 10 (a)
(b) (c)

4 21

410 500 m 60
r r r
r

411 r 10 km
23 km 28

(a) (b)

412 30 m s1 10 m s1

88

4 13

4.0 km/h
3.0 km/h

4 14
N-E

72 km/h

4 16

4 17 80 cm

51 km/h

40 m s 1

100 m

25 m

4 15

1.0 km

25 s

14

4 18

4 19

900 km h1

(a)

(b)

(c)

4 20

1.00 km

2
r " ( 3.0 t i % 2.0 t j $ 4. 0 k )m

v a
(b) t = 2.0 s
(a)

4 21

t=0

10 j m s

(8.0 i + 2.0 j) m s

-2

(a)
(b)

x- 16 m

4 23

%1

x-y

y-

y-

A " 2 i $ 3j

i $ j i % j

i$ j i% j

(b) v

= [r(t2 ) - r(t1) ] /(t2 t1 )

(c) v (t) = v (0) + a t


(d) r (t) = r (0) + v (0) t + (1/2) a t 2
(e) a

=[ v (t2) - v (t1 )] /( t2 t1)

t2

t1

(a) v = (1/2) ( v (t1) + v (t2))

4 22 i j x-

89

4 24



(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
4 25 3400 m
10.0 s 30

4 26
a b

4 27


4 28 (a) (b)
(c)
4 29 30 3.0 km
5.0 km

4 30 1 5 km 720 km/h
600 m s1

(g = 10 m s2)
4 31 27 km/h 80 m

0 5 m/s

4 32 (a) x-

t P

(b)

5.1

5.1
5.2
5.3 t
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10

5.11

P
P P P P P
P
P P P
P P P

P P P
PP q r P P
P s P
P P
P
P P P P
P r P
P P
P P
P P

P P
P P P


P


P P P
P P P
P P
P
q P
P

91

5.2

384

53

322

t
q

iii

ii

51

(iii)

5.1 (b)

(ii)

(i)

5.1 (a)

92

54

5 1

1150

rs

P
P P

93

1564

15641642

1609

W = R,

5.2 (a)

(b)

(a)


r qs

(b)

qs

94

m v
p

(5.1)

5 1
100 m s-2

p = mv

59

5.5

95

r
r

r r


q r

q r

t r

qr r

r r

r r

r r

rr r

r r r r

r r q r

r r

r
r

53

54


q
r

r
q
r q s r

r
q q
q r


r

r r rtt r
r

(mv)

F
v + v

mv
r

r r

r s r
r

r
r

r q

k q

"t ! 0 ,

"
" ,

96

p
dp
dt

dp
dt
m

(5.2)

5 5

F=k

5 5

(5.3)

F=km a

(5.4)

F, m

4)

(5

k=1

F#
SI

(5.5)

qs

r r

1m s-2

# ma

dt

dp

1kg

5.5 qq

1N = 1kg m s-2

a = 0

F=0

55

"

(5.6)

52 90 m s-1

60 cm

0 04 kg

97

q r

= 0.04 kg 6750 m s2 = 270 N



"

5.3

y=

sP t

"

5 4

-1

12 m s

015 kg

# $

0.1512(0.1512) = 3.6 N s
3.6 N s

5.6

F = ma = mg

s P t

B
A

5 7

r
s P

98

q s r qq

FAB = F

A B

5 8

BA

sq

FAB

FBA

A + B

B r A r

q q rs
q
r r

1642

1642 1727

1662

1669

1684

1704

"

99

5 5

(i)

(ii)

x-

x-

(b)

(a)

(b)

30

(i)

x-

qt

py

px

x-P = 2 mu cos 30

y-P = 0

x-

(a)

qt

(i)

y-

x-

(a)

(b)

5.7

56

(a)

F t

pb

pg p g = pb pg + pb = 0

x-P = 2 mu

y-P = 0

100

F1 ,F2

F3

t t

r r

F1 + F2 + F3 = 0

(5.11)

r r

pA

p B

t
r t

P'A

P'B

FAB t = p'A p A

FAB =

FBA

F1 r F2

(5.9)

(A + B)

5 7

F3

p'A + p'B = (pA + pB )

s qs

qs

p'A pA = (p'B p B )
r

5 7

FBA t = p'B pB

Fn

F1 F2 F3 ....

(5.11)

r r r
r

5.8

F1x + F2x + F3x = 0

F1y + F 2y + F3y = 0

F1z + F2z + F3z = 0

r r
t

F2

"

2m

(5.10)

56 6 kg

x, y r z t

t t

50 N

F1 = F2

r
r

F1x, F1y r F1z t F1

r r

F1

(5.12)

g = 10 m s-2

101

(a)

(b)

5.8(b)

5.8(b) W

58

5.8(c)

(c)

5.8(c)

W


T = 610 = 60N
2

T1 T2 , 50 N
P

F = kx
k

T1 sin = 50 N
5
'1 - 5 *
&
% tan ! # ! # tan + ( # 40
6
,6 )

T1 cos = T2 = 60 N

5.9

5 9

q rst s r s s s q rst

r s

102

(N)

(5.13)

(5.14)

fs s N

5 9 1

m
(m g)

(N)

510

qt

(a)

qt

q q

F/m

q t qt

(b)

qt t t

fs,

5.10(a)

fk

5.10(b)

f k

fs

(5.15)

fk = kN

, s

103

(Ffk )/m
F = f
k
f /m
k

t t

5 11

(i) mg
(ii) N,
(iii)
fs
mg


t
t

mg sin = f s mg cos = N


t
t

t t t
t

= s N,

f s

tan =

fs

= tan-1 s

t

s

5 7

= 15
= tan 15
= 0.27

015

P t t

"

5 9

5.12(a)

ma = fs s N =
a g
s

5.11

-2

004

mg

5.8 4 kg

=15

g = 0.15 10 m s-2 = 1.5 m s-2

a =

g = 10 m s

"

(a)

104

(b)

(c)

5 12

3 kg 20 kg

5.12(b)

f k = k N, t k t

= 0.04,

N = 20 10 = 200 N

T 0.04 200 = 20a T 8 = 20a

T fk = 20 a

5.12(c)

30 T = 3a

T = 27.1 N

t t

P t

t t

t t

5.13(a)

5 13

q r

(a)

(b)

105

(iii)

t
t

5.13(b)

N mg = 0
N = mg

t t

(5.17)


r t

r t

t P r

r r t

5 10

4
v

v 2/R

tP

/ .s #

(5.16)

# .

[" N = mg ]

v =

(5.18)

(i)
(ii)

[ 5.14(a)]

mg

N cos = mg + f sin

N r f

(a)

(5.19a)

(b)

5 14

5 14b

106

N sin 0 + f cos 0 =

(5.19b)

# .s

(5.19a) r (5.19b)

(5.20a)

N sin 0 + .s cos 0 = mv 2/R

(5.20b)

(5.20a)

0.1

.s 0

"

Rg

v 2 = 25 m2 s-2

v2 /

Rg

5P11 300 m

15

0 2

(5.21)

s t

5 18

R = 3 m, g = 9.8 m s-2 r s =
2 2
Rg = 2.94 m s ; r v = 18 km/h =
s

5 m s-1;

0 $ .s 0 2
#
0 ' . s 0

(5.20b) N

v2 /

N cos 0 = mg + .s sin 0

5 18

521

=0

v 0 = ( Rg tan )1/2

(5.22)

5 22

v < v0

tan

3m

5P10 18 km/h

(521)

01

5.11

v0 = (Rg tan )1/2


R = 300 m, = 150 ,
g = 9.8 m s-2;

v0 = 28.1 m s-1

v0

r r r

"

t
s t

= 38.1 m s-1 !

rr
r
r

107

"

PP

5 12

2 kg

25 kg

0.1 m s2
a b
2
r g = 10 m s

ii

iii

5 15

iv

R = 20 N

= 2 10 = 20 N;
R

20 N

0.1 m s2

A
B A F
B A B

270 N R'

270 R' = 27 0.1


267.3 N
r R' =

267 3 N

PqP st

108

20 N

20

ii

ii

R' = 267.3 N

270 N

p=mv
4

k =1

SI

(a)
(b)

270 N

(a) (b)

270 N

S.I.

1 N = 1 kg m s-2
F = 0 q

a = 0

109

b
c

F
a




s
k


q



s
k

, s

kg m s

[MLT ]

F= ma

kg m s-1 N s

[MLT -1]

fs

[MLT2]

fs

fk

[MLT ]

fk = k N

-1

Ns

[MLT ]
-1

-2

-2

v =0

F, v

110

v = 0
g

mg

t t

ma

F = m a F
F

t
t

= s N

mg = R

mg

N ( s s N)

mg

10

t t

11

t t

51

g = 10 m s2

(a)
(b) t 10 g
(c)
(d) 30 km h-1

(e)
52 0.05 kg

(a)
(b)
(c)

53 0.1 kg

45

111

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

1
36 km h

2
1 m s

1 m s 2

54 l

(i) T, (ii)
T

'

, (iii)

, (iv) 0

55 15 m s1

20 kg

50 N

56 3.0 kg

25 s

2.0 m s1

3.5 m s1

57 5.0 kg

8N

6N

58 36 km h-1

4.0 s

59 20,000 kg

510

t = 0
511

8 0 N

512

2m

(a)

(a) 10 m s1

6m

x=0

2.0 m s2

1 m s 1

0.1 kg

t = 11 s

t = 10 s

(a)

(b)

70 kg

(c) 5 m s

(d)

040 kg

t = 5 s, 25 s, 100 s

(b) 5 m s2

514

30 s

513

65 kg

(b)

10 m s1

5 m s2

400 kg

5 16

4 kg

(a) t < 0; t > 4 s; 0 < t < 4 s


(b) t = 0

t=4s

112

5 16

515

517
518

12 kg

5 21

(a)

(b)

(c)

(b)

(c)

(d)

0 05 kg

6 m s1

80 m s1

0.25 kg

0.15 kg

1.5 m

200 N

40 rev/

(a)

0.020 kg

45

54 km/h
min

600N

523

522

519 100 kg

521

10 kg 20 kg
(ii) B

520

516 8 kg

(i) A

524

517

0 04 kg

113

5 17

525

5 18

1ms

02
65 kg

s
s

5 18

526 m

(i) mg T1

mg + T 2

(ii) mg + T 1

mg T2

(iii) mg + T 1 (mv12)/R

mg T2 + (mv22)/R

(iv) mg T 1 (mv12)/R

mg + T2 + (mv22 )/R

T1

v1

T2

527 1000 kg 15 m s2
300 kg
(a)
(b)
(c)

5.28 15 m s1

v2

10 -2 m2

529

P
s

(a)
(b)
(c)

114

530

531

15

106 kg

720 km h-1

30 m

54 k m h-1

532

519

50 kg

25 kg

700 N

533 40 kg

600 N

(a)
(b)
( c)
(d)

6 m s2
4 m s2

5 m s1

520

5 19

534

B,

5 kg

10 kg

520

521
200 N A
(a)

015

(b)A B

(b)

5.35 15 kg

5 21

20 s

2
0.5 m s

(b)

0 18
(a)

115

536

5.22

40 kg

5m

0.15

2 m s2

537 15 cm

4 cm

14 cm

1
rev/min
3

5 22

538

33

0.15

25 m

539 70 kg

200 rev/min

3m

0 15

5 40 R

3 /

3 #

6.1

6.1
6.2


6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6

6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10

6.11
6.12


6.1

P P
P P
q r s P t P
P t P
t P
P P
P q r
P P
t P P P t
P
P t
P q
q P q
PP q P
P P
q P P tP
q tq
6.1.1

PP P q P q s
P
s q t
q PP t P
q tq tq
tq q tq r
tq tq q
PP s PP tq

117

[A.B (A B) ]

A.B = AB cos
A B

6 1a

"

"

(6.1a)

, B cos

A B

!#

! # ! #

!#

=AxBx +Ay By +AzBz

(6.1b)
6.1b

(6.1a)
A. B = A (B cos )
= B (A cos )
B cos B A
6.1b) A cos A B
6.1c) A. B A
B A
B A
B

(6.1a)

qs

A. B)

! !
! "
! !
! "

6.1

(a)

d.d

= d2 =

! ! ! " ! ! ! "
! ! ! "
! ! ! "

A B

cos =

= cos 1 0.32

(c) A cos

= 25 + 16 + 9
= 50 unit

= 9 + 16 + 25
= 50 unit

!P P
! !

F.F = F2 =

F = (3i 4j 5k )

F. d = Fxdx + Fy dy + Fzd z
= 3(5) + 4(4) + ( 5) (3)
= 16 unit
.
F d = Fd cos = 16 unit

6.1

d = (5 i 4j 3k )

(6.1c)

A.A = A Acos 0 =A
A.B = 0 A B

(ii)

A.( B) =

A.(B + C) =A. B +A. C

A.A =Ax Ax+AyAy +AzAz


A2 =A2 x +A2y +A2z

A.B = B.A

(i)

A.B = AB cos , (b) B cos

118

6.2

v2 u2 = 2as
u v

m /2

(6.2)
s

1.00 g

(a)

(b)

6 2

(a)

$ $ $

(6.2b)

t t

(6 2 b)

g = 10 m s2

6 2 b

= 103 10

K i Kf

6 3

(b)

6 3

t t

6.3

qq

r r

! 6.2

6 6

t
q

K = Wg + W r

F,
t

103

Wr
Wr = K Wg
= 1.25 10
= 8.75 J

Wg = m g h

= 10 J

Kf Ki = W

Wg = m g h

"

= 1.25 J

v2 u2 = 2 a.d

m /2

(6.2a)

1.00 km
50.00 m s1

6 2

x-

6 2

119

6.1

10 7 J

W = ( F cos ) d = F . d

(i)

150 kg

30 s

P
q

rad ( = 90), cos (s/2) = 0

180

rad

m g

Wr = Fd cos
= 200 10
= 2000 J

cos

200 N

= s/2

= s /2

(iii)

200 N

(ii)

10 m

6.3

3.6 10 6 J

(kWh)

(cal)

1.6 1019 J
4.186 J

(eV)

(6.4)

""!

90

cos

(6.4) cos
180

90

180

(cos 180 = 1)

[M L

64
2 2
T ]
(1818 1869) SI

6.4

6 1

6 5

120

62

10

s q

(m s1)

2000
70

(kg)

25
10

102

3.5

105
103

103

14
9

102
1.4 10 3

500

~ 1021
*

10 5

~ 1026
*

6.3
3.5

200

K (J)

6 2

64
50 g 2cm
1

200 m s

10

'

% &(

6 6

'x i'

'xf'

63 b

= A = F(x) x

mv2 /2 = 1000 J

"

"

= 0.1 1000 = 100 J

v
f

63.2 m s1

68
6.5

90

6 3

F x

63 a

6 3

F x x
W
= F(x) x

W = F(x) x

6 3

F x

121

6 7

'lim'

6.6
x

3.1

100 N

64

10 m

6 4

50 N

= Fv

50 N

20 m

=F )

dx
"F
dt

dK = Fdx
x
i

xf

x i xf

Ki

Kf

t t

f=

6 4

(6.8 a)

qr s

6 7

q q

x = 20 m F = 50 N( 0)

t t

20 m

W f = (50) 20
= 1000 J

W F AGHI

(6.8 b)

Kf Ki = W

| f | = 50 N

CEID

WF ABCD +

" $ #

% # & $

1000 + 750
1750 J



t t

122

(Fr )

mg

(h << RE ),

k= 0.5J
v
f

h, q

q t

x > 2.01m

= 0 x < 0. 1m

0.1< x < 2.01m

x = 2.01m

vi = 2 m s1

x = 0.10 m

6.6 m (=1kg)

RE

68 a

2 1.5

6.7
t

F, h

V(h)

ln

" s

*P

q
q

v2 = 2 g h

0.5 J

10
[ln X = loge X = 2.303 log10 X]

2 0.5 ln (20.1)

"

h t

V(h) = m g h

mgh

1
m v2 = m g h
2

t q q

t q

V (x)

123

F(x)

xi

K + V(x),

(6.11)

Ki + V (x i) = Kf + V (xf)

xf

K+V

V(x)

[ML T ]

SI

(J)

(6.9)

6.8

(6.11)

t P rs rs
s

rs

6q 5 H

K = F(x) x

V(x)

xi = xf

V = F(x) x

6 q9

W = K f Ki = V(x i ) V(x f)

F(x)

mgh

V(x)

V = F(x)x

K + V = 0
K + V) = 0

(6.10)

65 H

124

h H

Eo, Eh

EH

EH = m g H

" #

(6.11a)

(6.11c)

F(x)

mg

(6.11b)

E0 = (1/2)

EH = E0

mg

6.7

(a)

66

( T )

EH = Eh

t t
t

"

(6.11d)

t t t

6.7

"

vo

TA,

TC = 0

rr

(a) v0 , (b) B

(c) B

(KB/KC) C

(6.12)

"

rr

# qs

(6.13)

"

(6.14)

6.6

t t


P P

* "

t t t

t t t

t t

vc

(6.14)

(6.13)

125

(b)

614

"

(a)

F s
x

Fs
x

= 5g L

- "

(c)

"

"

67

(a)

Fs

(b) x > 0 Fs < 0


(c) x < 0 F s > 0
(d) Fs x


t P

6.9

67

Fsr

6 7b

6 7c

" *

N m1

Fs = k x

Fs

6.7(b)

xm

126

6.7

(6.15)

6 7(d)

"#

(6.16)

xf

" *

xi

x m

x
+ xm

vm

"

"

k/m

[T2]

6 8

"

x c (< 0)

x = 0

xm

"*

(6.17)

xi

xi

(6.18)

(i)

Fs = k x); (ii)

(6.17)

6 8

E=K+V


t q

V(x) =

V(x)

1000kg
18 km/h

(6.19)

dV/dx = k x

6.8

6.25 10 3 N m1

127

m v2

2
1

103 5 5

18 km h1

SI

5 m s1

xm

(V)

"

(K)

36 km h1 = 10 m s 1

6 9 6 8

0.5

K = 1.25 104 J

K=

= 1.25 104 J

xm = 2.00 m

69

qrs qt tt

(i)

(ii)

K W

6 9

V = 0

xm

V = 0

xm

mg

mg = 0.5 103 10 = 5 103 N g = 10 m s2

x = 0

(iii)

K = Kf K i " *

xm = 1.35 m
68

"!

128

Fc

Fnc

(Fc + F nc ) x = K

W nc i

6.10.1

f x0

x0

v 0

6.10.3

3 107 J

P
P

1 kg

x0

6 10

W nc

Ef Ei = Wnc
t

(K + V) = Fnc x
E = F
x
nc

Fc x = V

6.10.2

200 J/s

6.10.4

P P P

1 kg 10 C

42000 J

18791955

E=mc

(6.20)

129

c,

3 10 8 m s 1


t
t

6.10.5

(3000 MW)

(m) c2

6 .3

1000 kg

6 3

6 1

6 3

(a)

(10 21J)

qrs r s

15

(c)

6.10

m = E/c2

t t

(235
U),
92

m,

t t

620

t t

E = 1 (3 108)2 J = 9 1016 J

(J)

1068
1055
1052
1044
1034
1029
5 1024
1022
3 1020
1020
1017
1016
1015
3 1010
109
3 107
107
0.5
103
107
1010
1013
1018
1020

(b)

130

(a)

(c)

611

0.1eV = 100 meV 100


(b)

(kcal)

2400
! 1 1

SI

1J s

(6.22)

(W)

[ML2 T3]

1W

(W)

(hp) = 746 W

= F.v

dW = F.dr

(6.21)

dr

6.10.6

"

2400

6.2 meV

100

10

131

100 10
=1000
= 1 (k Wh)
= 10 3 (W) 3600 (s)
= 3.6 106 J

m2

t
t
t

6.12.1

kW h

m1

t t

t

t t

kWh

t t

611

2 m s1

1800 kg

4000 N

p 1 = F12 t

p 2 = F21 t

F12

F21

t t

F12 = F21 t

P = F.v = 22000 2 = 44000 W = 59 hp

6.12

""!

p1 + p 2 = 0

t t t


t t

t t
t

t t

F = mg + Ff = (1800 10) + 4000 = 22000 N




t t


P t t t

t t

t
t t

t t t

t
t t

t t




q
t t t
t

m2 t
m1 vli t t i
t
t m
2

m1

m1 ,

6 10

m2

t t t t
t

rs t
t

t

t t

t t

6.10 m1 m2

6.12.2

= 2 = 0

6 10

132

qrrq

(bounce)

1 m

q r

v2 = 2gh

t t


t
t t
t

3m

t t

t
t

mlv li = (m1 +m2)v f

(6.23)

(6.24)

= 2 = 0

(6.26)

(6.27)

(6.28)

{v1f, v2f} {m1 , m2, v 1i}


t t

m1v 1i = m1v 1f + m2v 2 f

(6.25)

t t t

(6.25)

(6.24) t

(6.23)

(6.24)


tP

v1f = 0, v 2f = v 1i

m1 " m2

133

f1 = 71.6%

II

m2 >> m1,
v1i
v2f ~ 0

v 1f ~

f 2 = 28.4%

6.12

103 m s1

235
92 U

107 m s1

6.12.3

6.10 m2

m1

(D2 O)
P

{x, y, z}

y-P

(6.29)

(6.30)

{m1 , m2 , v1i}

= 2 = 0,
1

6 24

K2 f / K1i

x-P

{v1f , v2f , 1

z- P

x-y

0 = m1v 1f sin 1 m2 v2f sin 2

m2

m1v 1i = m1v 1f cos 1 + m2 v2f cos 2

(6.27)

x-y

m1

P t

6 29

6 30

6 31

f2 = 1 f 1

f1 = 1/9,

6 28

m2 = 2 m1

f 2 = 8/9

90

{v1f, v2f,

x- y-
{m1, m2 , v1i, 1}

6 29631

134

613

610

qrst r r

(m1 = m2 )

rr q

cos (1+ 37) = 0

rr
q

rs
q

rq

= 37
2

rq

= 53

1f

2f

rr

2f

631

sq

m1 = m2

r q rq r s
q

rs s

q q r

6 32 6 33 q

K f - Ki = Wnet

{x , x }
i

ii

V(x)

r r

6 33

q q
rs r

q rq

(6.32)

t r r qrst r

1f

r r q r

r q s t

r r

v1i = v1f + v2f

+ 37 = 90

r r s r rs

qrst

q q r

qrst

135

5 m

6 k

V(x) = m g x

AB cos

A .B A B PA.B
A B A .B

"

[M L T ]

W = F.d

[M L T ]

K=

V(x)

[M L2 T 2]

F(x) =

E=K+V

N m1

F = k x

[M L T ]
[M T ]
2

1
mv 2
2

dV(x)
dx

V(x) = 2 k x2

[M L T ]
2

P = F.v

P"

rst

1.

dW
dt

rs

2.

136

3.

F12 + F21 = 0

W 12 + W 21

4.

5.

62

6.

7.

kx

mgh

8.

9.

137

6.1

(a)

(c)

(d)

6.2 2 kg

(e)

(b)

7N

6.3

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

6.11

01

10 s

10 s

10 s
10 s

6.11

138

6.4

V(x) = kx2/2 k
N m1 V(x) x

6.12

6.5

x=

6.12

(c)

(b)

2 m

(a)

1J

k = 0.5

(d)

6.13(i)

2m

15kg
6.13(ii)

6.13

15 kg

6.6

(a)

t t

(b)
(c)

(d)

6.7

(a)
(b)

6.8

(c)

(d)

(a)

(b)

(c)

(a)

(b)

139

(d)

6.9

(i)
6.10

(ii) t

t1 / 2

(iii) t3 / 2

(iv) t 2

(i) t1/2
6.11

(ii) t

(iii) t3 / 2

(iv) t 2
z-

)N
F = ( i + 2 j + 3 k
i , j , k

6.12

10 keV

z-

4m

z-

100 keV
31
kg, = 1.67 1027 kg, l eV
= 9.11 10

x-, y-

= 1.60 10 19J)
6.13 2 mm

6.14

500 m

200 m s

10 m s1

30

6.15

6.16

40 m

30 m 3
30%

15

6P 14

6.14

140

6.17

30

6.18

1.5 m

5%

25 kg

27 km h1
1
0.05 kg s

6.20 05 kg v =a x3/2
x = 2 m
A

(b)

3.8 107 J

8 kW

0.5 m

1000

(a)

x=0

20%

(a)
20%

(a) v
(b)
2
A = 30 m ,

10 kg

8 kW
200 W m 2

a=5

6.15

(c) 25%
v = 36 km h1 1.2 kg m3

623

6.19 300 kg

622

6.21

6.15

(b)

624 0012 kg

70 m s1

0.4 kg

625

616

= 30 ,
1

6.16

= 60
2

h = 10 m

141

626

6 17

1 kg

7 m s 1

= 3 m

36 km h1
(10 m ) 4 m s1

6.17

628 200 kg

627 0.3 kg

10 cm

100 N m1

20 kg

629

6 18

6.30

6.18

np + e *

6.19

142

[ s

6.19

1/2

e, p

n "# p + e +

143

6.1

60 kg

6 4

(i)

(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

6 20

(W)

200
500
1 2

qr s t

qr

620

75

v0

v = v0

6 20

v0
6 20

v0

ml v20 /2

ml v20
ml v20 2

ml

(6.34)

W s = 2ml v20
s

ml = 10 kg

W s = 180

qr

SI

v0 = 3 m s

2m

3 m s 1

1 5

P = 180

1.5

= 270 W

s t

8.1
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12


qs

q
q q
s
q q
q






r
r

r
r




t
P

P
P r


r



r
r
P
t

188

F1

F2

8.1(b)

8.2

F 1 F 2

F1

2. q

8.1(a)

AP

F2

P A

F 1 F 2

F2

8.1 (b)

s t t t

F1

PO = AO

PA

(b)

qr s t

F 1 F 2

1.

189

r
s

r s

r s

t
r

8.2

r s

t
r

r s

r
s

r s

r
s

r s

r
s

t
s

r
s

r s

3.

r s

r s

(r v t)

(8.1)

a
T
Q

1010 m

(y)

y2 m-3
a

-34

(r p)/m, (

5.79
10.8
15.0

0.24
0.615
1

2.95
3.00
2.96

22.8
77.8
143
287
450

1.88
11.9
29.5
84
165

2.98
3.01
2.98
2.98
2.99

590

248

2.99

L / (2 m)

t
s

r
s

r s

r s

r s

r s

r s

r
s

t
s

r s

p )

r s

BAC

vP

{rA, vA}
CPB

t
s

{ rP, vP}

/ t

r
s

8.1
8.1a

SP = rP

r s

(r

(8.2)

r s

v = p/m)

10

/ t

( T2 / a

r s

r s

r s

rp

Lp = mp rp v p,

vp

190

r,

F=F(r)

(1)

(2)

dA/dt =

r v sin .

m2

(1)

(2)

Tr P
s

% " $ #

PQ

t
P

F = F(r),

F = G m1 m2/r2

m1

(2)

Pq

! = (r v sin a) t/2)

Pq

P,

s = v t

OP

Pq

r,

191

LA = mp rA v A.
mp rp vp = mp rA vA

rA > rp, vp > vA .

SB

SBPC

BAC

CPB

(Principia)

m1

(8.5)

m2

(Mathematical Principles
of Natural Philosophy)

8.3

SC
8.1a

Rm

tr

"

"

(8.5)

"

&

'

'

(8.3)

T
T

" m1

m2

r = r2 r1

8.3

27.3
3.84108 m
(8.3)

am

Rm

RE

'

8.3 m2

! 3600

(8.4)

r, (r2 r1)

m1

g ! 9.8 m s-2

(8.3)

am

F, r

m1

m2

m1

m1

m2

m2

192

F12 m2

F21

m1

F12 = F21
(8.5)

8.4

qsts

8.4

m1

m2, m3

m4

m1

m1

"

"

"

(a) x-

8.2

m kg

(a)

(b)

ABC

GC

x-

GB

8.5)

30

2m kg

AG = BG = CG = 1m

(2m)

193

(2)

8.5

ABC

'

")

"

8.4

#'

'

y-

x-

8.6

1798

(b)

2m

FR = FGA + FGB + FGC

'

(8.5)

8.6

S1

S2
A

(1)

q
t

AB

AB

F-

194

8.7

AB

(8.6)

RE

rs t rs r

8.7 ME

r r

r r

(8.7)

G
G = 6.67x10-11 N m2 /kg2

8.5

,r

(8.8)

&

'

&

(8.9)

Mr

P,

RE

(8.10)

195

r = RE

(8.13)

(8.10)

(8.11)

ME

RE

(8.14)

F = mg

//

(8.12)

RE

RE

ME

'

'

"

(8.12)

(8.14)

8.6

P
P

8.8(a)

(8.15)

(8.15)

8.8(b)

q
s

RE

(RE + h )
F (h)

Ms

M s / ME = ( RE d ) 3 / RE 3

(8.5)

( 8.16)

8.8(a)

(R E d )

196

8.8 (b)

(RE d)

Ms

(8.17)

(8.18)

sqt

W 12

W(h)

(8.20)
r

(8.21)

W 12 = W(h2 ) W(h 1)

(8.22)

W o

W ( h = 0 ) = Wo

Wo

h = 0

h=0

8.7

(8.19)

(r W o = ) ;

h2

W(h) = mg h + Wo

h1 r

W 12 =

= mg (h2 h 1) .

g(d) =

F ( d) = G ME m ( RE d ) / RE 3

mg

F ( d ) = G Ms m / ( RE d ) 2

'

mg

(8.23)

M E =

m =

197

r = r1

r = r2

r2 > r1 )

8.3 l

(8.20)

r
t

(8.24)

')

(8.21)

2l

W(r)

(8.25)

r>R

W1

W12 = W(r2) W(r1 )


W(r = ) = W1

r=

(8.24)

(8.22)

5
3
4

')

2
0' )
1

"

'

q
s

')

m1

m2

8.8

r=

V=0

198

W1

(Vi) 11.2 km/s

Vi

* '

(8.27)

(8.26)

'

(8.32)

(8.26)

Vi

(8.29)

RE

2.3 km/s

1/5

8.4

4M

6 R

(8.28)

(8.27)

4M

(8.28)

(RE =

(h + RE)

(8.32)

(8.32) g RE

Vf

Vi

(8.29)

8.10

h = 0

(8.30)

N ( 8.10

(8.31)

'

'

" ) #

(6R r)2 = 4r2


6R r = 2r

ON = r

199

r = 2R

6R

(RE + h)

RE =

F(

N
4 M

'

r = 6R
ON = r = 2R

)=

(8.33)

')

F(

)=

(8.34)

ME

')

(8.33)

(8.34)

'

5
3
4

5
'3
4

2
0
1

h
h=0

(8.35)

2
0
1

4M

&

'

(8.35)
(8.37)

(8.37)

27.3

1957

/ G M E),
(8.38)

h
(8.38)

k=4

T 2 = k ( RE + h )3 (

q
s
t

&

'

(8.36)

2 (RE + h)

8.9

g=

4M

(8.35)

RE

200

' &

To

(8.39)

RE

(g ! 9.8 ms-2 r RE = 6400 km.)

85

M E

7 39

9.4 10 km
(ii)

(i)

1.52

(8.38)

'

'

&

M m

(ii)

'

7 qss 7 " 7 #

7 " 7 # 7

1%

= 27.3

(8.12)

&

( (8.38) )]

&

7 7 7 " # 7
7 q ss 7 " 7 7 7 #

8.7

k = 10 s2
3.84 10 5 km

r t

m3

13

r r

= 684
r

k = 1013 s2 m3

TM = (1.52)3/2 365

'

RMS RES

' 7

7 " # 7 " # 7

"

'

7
= 5.97 1024 kg
(ii)

= 6.48 10 23 kg

'

7 " # 7 " # 7 s

'

'

&

'

'

R = 3.8410 8 m

(i)

:
: g = 9.81 m s2, RE = 6.37106 m,

8.6

b/a = 0.99986

(i)

8.5

)s

;
;8
8

=
:
= :
=< :9 " # =<
:9 " 7 7 #

= 1.33 10 14 d 2 km3

201

(8.38)

8.8 400 kg

st

T 2 = (1.33 10-14)(3.84 105 )3


T = 27.3 d
(RE+h)

(8.38)

4RE

(a)

2RE

')

8.10

(8.35)

')

v2

'

E = Ef Ei

'

(8.40)

5
'3
3
4

'

'

2
0
0
1

>

(R +h)

'

')

(8.41)

K = Kf Ki = 3.13

10 J

K.E

P.E

'

')

V = Vf Vi = 6.25

(8.42)

K.E

P.E

r
r

(R + h)

(R + h)

"!

109 J

8.11

1
K.E =
P.E,
2

2
0
1

&

(8.43)

T = 24

5
'3
4

R + h = 35800
E

km,

R
E

202

qst


q

IRS

INSAT

INSAT

(GSAT-1)

(ISRO)

(SHAR)

100km

(NRSA)

T = 24

(h 500

(PRL)

800 km)

8.11

2MHZ 10MHZ

8.11

203

500-800 km

8.12

'

m1

m2

2.

s
r

M1, M2, .Mn

M1, M2, M3 .Mn

s
r

6.672 1011 N m2 kg2


m

F 1, F 2, .F n.

1.

FR

204

FR = F1 + F 2 + + Fn =

3.

(a)
(b)

(c)

r r

Ms

5 &
'3
3 s
4

2
0
0
1

4.

(a)

'

" * #

g ( h)

5
3 )
4

2
0
1

h << R E
2

g 0 1

(b)

" #'

5.

')

5
3 )
4

2
5
0 ' "#3 )
1
4

2
0
1

r r

6.

'

205

7.

')

M >> m,

'

')

8.

'

9.

11.2 km s1

10.

11.

4.22 10 4 km

206

1.

(a)
(b)

2.

T2 = KS R3

[
4.

3.

KS

5.

6.

7.

8.

mgh

9.

qqstt

8.1

(a)

(b)

(c)

207

8.2

(a)
(b)
(c)

(Io)

(a)

(d)

8.12

(c)

2.5

4.22

108 m

1011

50,000 ly
105 ly

(a)

(c)

(d)

(e)

(a)

. 8.10

(i) d, (ii) e, (iii) f, (iv) g

= 2 1030 kg,
= 1.5 10 11 m)

(f)

(b)

(d)

(c)

8.10] (i) a, (ii) b, (iii) c, (iv) 0

(b)

8.11

(a)

(b)
8.10

8.9

(b)

r1
mg(r 2 r 1)

8.8

8.7

8.6

8.5

8.4

8.3

r2
G Mm(1/r 2 1/r 1)

(d)

= 6 1024 kg

208

8.13

1.5

8.14

8.16

108 km

63 N

= 6.4 10 m G = 6.67
6

1.5

8.18

29.5

8.17

10 8 km

8.15

10

5 km s -1

11

N m kg
2

250 N

= 6.0

10 24 kg;

11.2 km s1

8.19

400 km

kg;
8.20

= 6.4

8.21

G = 6.67 1011 N m2 kg2


(2 10 30 kg)

10 km
10 4 km
9

106 m

= 6.0 1024

100 kg 0.10 m

8.22

= 200 kg;

1.0 m

36,000 km

8.23

2.5

= 6.010 24 kg;
12 km

= 6400 km.
1.2

8.24

= 2 1030kg

6.410

23

kg;

= 1000 kg;
= 3395 km;

= 21030 kg; =
8

= 2.28 10
km

G = 6.67 10 -11 N m 2 kg2


8.25

20%

G = 6.67 10

-11

N m kg
2

2 km s1

= 6.4 1023 kg;

= 3395 km

A 1

P,

A2
SI q r s

18

10

10-9

10-6

109

106

10

10

10

10

10

12

10

10

-18

15

k
h
da

-15

10

-12

-3

10

-2

10

-1

10

210

A3

2.9979 108 m s-1

1.602 10-19 C

6.673 10-11 N m2 kg-2

6.626 10-34 J s

1.381 10-23JK -1

NA

6.022 1023 mol-1

8.314 J mol-1 K-1

me

9.110 10-31 kg

mn

1.675 10-27 kg

mp

1.673 10-27 kg

e/me

1.759 1011 C/kg

9.648104 C/mol

1.097 107 m-1

5.292 10-11m

5.670 10-8 W m-2 K-4

2.898 10-3 mK

8.854 10-12 C2 N-1 m-2

1/4

1u

0C

8.987 109 N m2 C-2


4 10 -7 T m A -1
-6
Wb A-1m-1
1.257 10

4.186 J cal-1

1 atm

1.013 105 Pa

0K

273.15 C

1 eV

1.602 10-19 J

1u

1.661 10-27 kg

0.511 MeV

uc

931.5 MeV

22.4 L mol-1

9.78049 m s-2

mc

1 atm

211

A4

1 km = 0.6215 mi

1mi = 1.609 km

1 rad = 57.30

1m = 1.0936 yd = 3.281 ft = 39.37 in

1 = 1.745 102 rad

1 in = 2.54 cm

1 rev min1 = 0.1047 rad s1

1 ft = 12 in = 30.48 cm

1 rad s1 = 9.549 rev min1

1 yd = 3ft = 91.44 cm
1 (light year)

rad = 180

15

= 1 ly = 9.461 10 m

1 kg = 1000 g

= 0.1nm
1A

1 (tonne) = 1000 kg = 1 Mg

1 u = 1.6606 1027 kg

1 m2 = 104 cm2

1 kg = 6.022 1026 u

1km2 = 0.3861 mi2 = 247.1 (acres)


2

1 (slug) = 14.59 kg

1 in = 6.4516 cm

1 kg = 6.852 102 (slug)

1ft2= 9.29 10-2m2

1 u = 931.50 MeV/c2

1 m2 = 10.76 ft2

1 (acre) = 43,560 ft2

1 g cm3 = 1000 kg m3 = 1 kg L1

1 mi2 = 460 (acres) = 2.590 km 2

1 N = 0.2248 lbf = 105 dyn

1m3= 10 6cm3

1 lbf = 4.4482 N
3

-3

1 L = 1000 cm = 10 m

1 kgf = 2.2046 lbf

1 gal = 3.786 L

1 gal = 4 qt = 8 pt = 128 oz = 231 in


1 in3 = 16.39 cm3
1ft3 = 1728 in3 = 28.32 L = 2.832 104 cm 3

1 h = 60 min = 3.6 ks
1 d = 24 h = 1440 min = 86.4 ks
1y = 365.24 d = 31.56 Ms

1 km h = 0.2778 m s

= 0.6215 mi h

1mi h1 = 0.4470 m s 1 = 1.609 km h1


1

1mi h = 1.467 ft s

1 Pa = 1 N m2
1 bar = 100 kPa
1 atm = 101.325 kPa = 1.01325 bar
1atm = 14.7 lbf/in2 = 760 mm Hg

1 G = 104 T

= 29.9 in Hg = 33.8 ft H2O


2

1 T = 1 Wb m = 10 G

1 lbf in2 = 6.895 kPa

212

1 torr = 1mm Hg = 133.32 Pa

1 kW h = 3.6 MJ

1 (horse power, hp) = 550 ft lbf/s

1 cal = 4.186 J

= 745.7 W

1ft lbf = 1.356 J = 1.286 103 Btu

1 Btu min1 = 17.58 W

1 L atm = 101.325 J

1 W = 1.341 103 hp

1 L atm = 24.217 cal

= 0.7376 ft lbf/s

1 Btu = 778 ft lb = 252 cal = 1054.35 J

19

1 eV = 1.602 10 J

1 W m1 K1 = 6.938 Btu in/hft2 o F

1 u c 2 = 931.50 MeV

1 Btu in/hft2 o F = 0.1441 W/m K

1 erg = 107J

= 2 r

= r

= 4r2

h
= 2 r2 + 2 rh; = r2h

a2 + b 2 = c2
4

!r

ax2 + bx + c = 0

x=

A5

A, B, C

a, b, c

A + B + C = 180

sin A sin B sin C


!
!
a
b
c
2

c = a + b 2ab cos C

D=A+C

A 5.1
s

r
t

A 5.3

A 5.2

213

nx n( n ) 1) x 2
(
( .....( x 2 * 1)
1!
2!

(1 $ x ) n ! 1$

(1 $ x ) )n ! 1 !

nx n (n ( 1) x
(
( .....(x 2 * 1)
1!
2!

ex ! 1 ( x (

x
x
(
( .......
2! 3!

1
1
ln (1+x) = x ) x 2 ( x 3 ) ..... % x *1&
2
3

< x > x av, x

sin (90 ) = cos

cos (90 ) = sin


tan# $ tan "
sin / cos = tan
1 ! tan # tan "
sin2 + cos2 =1

sec2 tan2 = 1

cosec2 cot2 = 1

i, j

k x -, y-

z-

sin2 = 2 sin cos


cos2 = cos2 sin2 = 2cos2 1
= 1 2 sin2
sin( ) = sin cos cos sin

i + i = j + j = k + k = 1, i + j = j + k = k + i = 0
i , i = j , j = k , k = 0, i , j = k , j , k = i, k , i = j

cos ( ) = cos cos ! sin

sin

tan ( )
sin sin ! 2 sin

ay

az

x-, y-

z-

a = a x i" + a y "j + az k"

1
%# $ " & cos 1 %# ! " &
2
2

cos + cos ! 2 cos

1
%# ('" & cos 1 %# " &
2
2

cos cos ! )2 sin

1
%# ( " & sin 1 %# " &
2
2

a, b

a, b

a (b + c) = (a b) + (a c)
(sa) b = a (sb) = s (a b) s

ax ,

214

a b = b a = ax bx + ay b y + az bz = ab cos
|a b | = ab sin

&

a . (b c) = b. (c a) = c. (a b)

, ! ) , ! a x ay
bx b y

az
bz

a (b c) = (a . c) b - (a . b) c

A6

A 6.1 SI

SI

SI

m2

m3

rad/s2

rad s2

m1

kg/m3 kg m3

A/m2 A m2

A/m A m 1

mol/m3 mol m 3

m3 /kg m 3 kg1

m/s2 m s2

rad/s rad s1

m/s m s1

cd/m2 cd m2

m2 /s

m2 s 1

kg m/s kg m s1
kg m2

K 1

&

! a y bz ) b y az ( %a zbx ) b za x & ( ax by ) bx a y

m3 /s m3 s 1

215

A 6.2

SI
SI

SI

s 1

Hz

kg m/s2
kg m s2

Pa

N/m2 N m2

kg m1s 2
kg/s2m

Nm

kg m2 /s2
kg m2 s2

J/s

J s1

kg m2 /s3
kg m2s 3

As

W/A W A

kg m2 /s3A
kg m2s 3A 1

C/V C V1

A 2s 4/kg m2
kg1 m2 s4 A2

r r

V/A

r r

A/V VA1

Wb

V s (J/A JA1 )

Wb/m2 Wb m 2

Wb /A Wb A1

r r

lm

lx

lm/m2 lm m2

Bq

cd/sr m2
m2 cd sr1
s 1

Gy

J/kg J kg1

m2 /s2

r r
r

VA 1

kg m2/s3 A2
kg m2 s3 A2
s 3A 2/kg m2
kg1m2 s 3 A2
kg m2 /s2A
kg m2 s2A 1
kg/s2 A
kg s2A 1

kg m2/s2 A2
kg m2 s 2 A 2
cd/sr cd sr1

r
r


r
r

m2 s 2

216

A 6.3

SI

SI

SI

SI

m2 A
mAs
kg m1 s1

Nm
N/m N m1
W/m2

kg m2 s1
kg s2
kg s3

J/K
J/kg K
J/kg J kg1
W/sr W sr1
W/m K W m1K1
J/m3 J m3
V/m V m1
C/m3 C m3
C/m2 C m2
F/m F m1
H/m H m1
J/mol J mol1
Js
J/mol K J mol1K 1

kg m2 s 2 K 1
m2 s 2 K 1
m2 s 2
kg m2 s 3 sr1
kg m s3 K1
kg m1 s2
kg m s3A 1
m3 s A
m2 s A
kg1m3 s4 A2
kg m s2 A 2
kg m2 s2 mol1
kg m2 s1
kg m2 s2 K1 mol1

C/kg C kg1
Gy/s Gy s1
Pa 1
N/m2 N m 2
Pa/m N m3
J/kg J kg1 ;
N m/kg N m kg1
Pa m3 N m
Ns
Nm s
m
J/m2 J m2 ;
N/m N m1

kg1 s A
m2 s 3
kg1 m s2
kg m1 s2
kg m2 s2
m2 s 2

J T1
Cm
Pl Pa s
2
N s m

exposure
-

X-

kg m2 s2
kg m s1
kg m2 s1
kg m3 s3 A 2
kg s2

217

A7



P P
P P

potential energy

p.e.

P P
r P

P
P
P P
t

(.)

Ca, C, H, He, U,

U-235 235
U
92
U

235

92

P P

P

P

Ca 2 ( , PO 34)

SI

A8

SI
q

s P

kg, m, s, cd P

s
s
P s

pressure')

('metre')

'm' P ("day")

P ('atmospheric
d, s

atm, s ('hertz') Hz s ('weber') Wb, s ('joule')


J, s ('ampere') A, s ('volt') V, P
P L, s (litre)
1

218

25 cms r
!

25 (centimetres)
25 cm. r 25 cms.,

(solidus) r (/)

m/s

25 cm

ms

m r s

m/s/s

1 Pl = 1 N s m2 = 1 N s/m2 = 1 kg/s m = 1 kg m1s1 1 kg/m/s


J/K mol r J K1 mol 1
!

J/K/mol

(1 MW = 106W);

(1 cm = 10 2m);

(1 ns = 109s);
(1 pF = 10 12F);

(1 km = 10 m);

(1 mV = 103 V);

(1 s = 106s);

(1 GHz = 109 Hz);

(1 kWh) = 103 Wh = 3.6 MJ = 3.6 106 J);

(1 A = 106 A);

(1 = 0.1 nm = 10 m);

1028 m2

(1 m = 10-6 m)

10 m r 1
15
m
('fermi') r 10
(barn)

10

SI

'micrometre'

"micrometer"

"micrometre"

r r

(cm, km, m, s, ns)

r
r

cm
m

c r
(cm)3 = (0.01 m)3 = (10 -2m)3 = 10-6 m3, 0.01 m3 r 10-2m3 r 1 c m3

r r

mA2

1 cm = (10 m) = 10 m
1 s

(mA)2 = (0.001A)2 = (10-3 A)2 = 106A2, 0.001 A2 r mA2


1

1 cm

10 m

-6

(10 s) = 10 s , 1 10 s1

219

1 km3
2

1 mm
!

(mm) = (10 m) = 10 m

103 m2

-3

10 m

(km)2 = (103 m)2 = 106 m2,

103/m3

1000/m3

106/m3

1000 m3 k/m3 k m3

10,00,000/m3 10,00,000 m3 M/m3 M m3

m s1 r m s1 m s m
s

ms

m s

ms

m r

mS1 m S m r
S S (siemens) mS



C m C m

C r

m r

109 m = 1 nm r

12

10 m = 1 m r
10 F = 1 pF r
9

10 W = 1 GW r
!

1 m m r

1 mmm r

1 F r

1 kMW

J/mol K J mol-1 K -1

kelvin J/mole K,

joule/mole K J/mol

J/T JT1

joule/T J per tesla J/tesla,

N m s
newton metre s

newton m second N m second N metre

J/kg K J kg-1 K-1


J/kg kelvin J/kilogram K

joule/kg K

J/kilog K

220

106 N/m2

1 N/mm2

MN/m2

1000

n
!

103n

(W)

(m)

(g)

W = m g
watt (W), metre (m), gram (g)

m g

W = mg W J m
2
kg g r m s

F = m a

kg

"farad" (F), metre (m) "are" (a)

(hecto)

N m

(hour) c

(centi)

m s 2

("carat")

S I

S I

103

(mm)

CGS

(deci) (day) T

(tera) (tesla), a

d
(atto) (are), da

(deca) (deciare)

metre

kilogram kg

10 kg = 1
(1 Mg)
-6

10 kg = 1
-3

10 kg = 1

1 mg

1 g

(1 kkg)

1 (1 kg)

1 (1 mkg)

S I

221

A9

1.

2.

3.

4.

[L2 ]

[M0 L2 T 0]

[L3]

[M0 L 3 T 0]

[M]/[L3 ]

1/

1/[T]

[M0 L0 T -1]

5.

[L]/[T]

[M0 L T -1]

6.

[LT -1]/[T]

[M0 LT-2 ]

7.

[M][L T -2]

[M L T-2 ]

8.

[M LT2] [T]

[M L T-1]

9.

[MLT-2 ][L]

[M L2 T-2]

10.

[ML2 T-2 ]/[T]

[M L 2 T -3]

11.

[M][LT -1]

[M L T -1]

12.

[MLT-2 ]/[L2 ]

[M L -1T -2]

13.

[L]/[L] [L3 ]/[L3]

[M0 L 0 T 0]

14.

[M L1 T 2 ]
[M0 L0 T0 ]

[M L1 T2]

15.

[M L T2]/[L]

[M L0 T-2 ]

16.

[M L2 T -2]/[L2 ]

[M L 0 T-2 ]

17.

[L T-1]/[L]

[M0 L0 T-1 ]

18.

[ML-1 T-2]/[L]

[M L -2 T -2]

19.

[ML-1 T-2][L3 ]

[M L 2T -2]

[M L-3]

[M L -3 T0 ]

20.

21.

22.

(sin , cos , tan

[M L T ]
[L2 ] [LT 1 /L]

[M L 1T-1 ]

[L]/[L]

[M0 L 0T 0 ]

[L]/[L]

[M0 L 0T 0 ]

23.

[L0 ]/[T]

[M0 L0 T -1]

24.

[L0 ]/[T2]

[M0 L0 T -2]

25.

[L]

[M0 L T0 ]

26.

[M][L2 ]

[M L 2 T0 ]

27.

[ML2 ][T-1 ]

[M L 2 T-1 ]

28.

-2

[M L T ][L]

[M L 2 T-2 ]

222

29.

[ML2 T -1]/[T]

30.

31.

32.

33.

34.

35.

36.

[M L T -2][L]

38.

39.

40.

41.

42.

45.

46.

47.

48.

49.

[L]

[M0 L T 0]

[L T-1 ]/[L]

[M0 L0 T -1]

[ML2 T-2/T]/[L 2]

[M L0 T -3]

[MT-3]/[LT -1]

[M L -1T -2]

[M L2 T-2]/[L 3]

[M L -1T -2]

1 1

[M L T ] [ML T ]
[ML 3 ] [L]

[M0 LT-1 ]

[LT-2 ] x [L]

[M0 LT-1 ]

[M L T -2][L]

[M L2 T-2]

[M][LT -1] 2

[M L2 T -2]

[M][LT2 ][L]

[M L2 T 2]

[M0 L0 T0 ][ML2 ] [T-1]2

[M L2 T -2]

[ML2 T 2 ]

[M0 L 0 T 0]

[ML2 T-2 ][T]

53.

[ML2T 2 ]

,
,

52.

44.

51.

[M0 L0 T -1]

[T-1 ]

50.

37.

43.

[M L2 T -2]

[M L 2 T-1]

[MLT ][L ]
[M] [M]

[M1 L 3 T-2]

[ML2T -2]/[T-1 ]

[M L 2 T-1]

[ML2 T-2 ]/[K]

[M L2 T-2 K-1 ]

[ML2T -2]/[M] [K]

[M0 L2 T-2 K-1 ]

[ML2 T -2]/[M]

[M0 L2 T-2]

[L]/[L][K]

[M0 L0 K-1]

[ML2 T-2 ] [L]

[M LT -3K -1]

[L2] [K] [T]


[L3][ML-1T -2]

[M-1 T-2]

[L ]

-1

[LT-1]2 /[L]

[M0 LT-2 ]

[ML2 T -2]
2

[L ][T][K]

[M L0 T-3 K-4 ]
4

223

54.

55.

56.

58.

59.

[M0 LT0 K]

[ML2T -2 ]/[K]

[M L2 T-2 K-1 ]
[M L 2T -2 K-1 mol-1]

[mol][K]

[A][T]

[M0 L 0 TA]

[A]/[L2]

[M0 L -2 T0 A]

[ML2 T 2]/[AT]

[M L 2 T 3 A -1]

[ML2 T-3 A -1]

[M L 2T 3 A 2]

q r

[A]

q r

[L][K]

[ML-1 T2][L3]

57.

60.
61.

62.

[AT]

-1

[ML T A ]

[ML2T -3A -2][L2 ]/[L]

[ML3 T -3 A -2]

[MLT -2]/[AT]

[M LT -3 A-1 ]

[MLT -3A -1][L2 ]

[M L3 T-3 A -1]

63.

64.

65.

[M-1 L-2 T4 A 2]

-3

[ML2T -2]

-3

[M0 LT A]

-1

[MLT A ]
66.

q
q

67.

68.

69.


q q

[MT-2A -1 ][L2]

[M L 2 T-2A -1]

[M L 2 T-2A -2]

[A]
[ML2 T-2 ]/[MT-2A -1]

71.

[M L 0 T-2A -1]

[ML2 T-2 A-1]

[M0 L 2 T 0A]

q r

[MLT -2]/[A][L]


q
q

70.

q r

[M LT-3 A-1 ]

[L]

q

q

[ML2 T-3 A-1]

[A][L2 ]

[L2 A]

[M0 L-1 T 0A]

[L3 ]

72.

73.

74.

r
q

r q

[M0 L 0 T0 ][MLT-2][L]

q r

[M-1 L -3 T4 A2 ]

[MLT-2 ][L]2

75.

q r

[AT][AT]

[M L T-2 A -2]

[A][A][L]
[LT-1 ]/[LT1 ]

[M0 L 0 T 0]

[AT]/[mol]

[M0 L 0 TA mol-1 ]

224

76.

77.

78.

80.

81.

rr

rr

[ML2 T-2 ]/[T]


[M L2 T -3]

[M L2 T -3]

[ML2T -3]/[L 2]

[ML0 T-3]

[ML2 T -3]

[M0 L 0 T 0]

[M L2 T-3]

[ML2 T-3 ]/[ML2 T -3]

[M0 L 0 T 0]

[ML2T -3]/[L 2]

[M L0 T -3]

[M]

[M L 0 T 0]

[M][LT -1] 2

[M L2 T -2]

[T-1 ]

[M0 L0 T -1]

[ML2 T-2 A-2 ]

[M0 L0 A0 T -1]

rr

[M L2 T -3]

[M0 L 0 T 0]

[ML2 T-3]

rr

84.

[ML2T -3]/[M0 L 0 T 0]

(555 n m)
r

[M L2 T -3]

83.

[ML2 T-2 ]/[T]

rr

82.

[M0 L -1 T0 ]

rr

79.

[M0 L 0T 0 ]/[L]

85.

86.

87.

0.693/

88.

[M - 1L - 2T 4 A 2]
89.

90.

91.

Q-

[T-1][ML2T -2A -2]

[M0 L 0 T 0]

[M L2 T-3 A-2]

-1

[L-1 ]

[M0 L -1 T0 ]

[L]/[L]

[M0 L 0 T 0]

92.

/8

[ML-1T -2][L4 ]

93.

r rr

94.

rr

-1

-1

[M0 L3 T -1]

-1

[ML T ][L]
[T-1] -1[M -1L -2T 4 A2 ]-1

[M L 2 T -3A -2]

[T-1][ML2 T-2 A-2 ]

[M L 2 T -3A -2]


2
-6

2.1
2.2
2.5

(a) 10 ; (b) 1.510 ; (c) 5; (d)11.3, 1.13 104


(a) 107 ; (b) 1016 ; (c) 3.9 10 4 ; (d) 6.6710-8
500

2.6
2.7

(c)
0.035 mm

2.9
2.10
2.11

94.1
(a) 1; (b) 3; (c) 4; (d) 4, (e) 4; (f) 4
8.72 m2 ; 0.0855 m 3

2.12
2.13

(a) 2.3 kg ; (b) 0.02 g


13% ; 3.8

2.14
2.15
2.16
2.17
2.18

2.19
2.20
2.23

2.24
2.25
2.26
2.27

(b) r (c) r r r
m = m
3 10 m
10 ; r r r
r r r r r r
r r r r r r
r rr r r r
3 10 m ; 1 3.084 10 m r
r
1.32 2.64"
1.4 10 kgm , r
r r r r r
r
0

16

16

-3

1.429 105 km

r tan P tan P = v/v' v'


10 10 1 r
0.7 10 kg m , r r r r
r
11

12

-3

226

2.28

0.3 1018kg m3
8

2.29

3.84 10

2.30
2.31

55.8 km
2.8 1022 km

2.32

3,581 km

2.33

e4 /(16 mp me2 c3 G)

3.1

(a), (b)

3.2

(a)

3.4

37 s

3.5
3.6

1000 km h-1
3.06 m s2, 11.4 s

3.7

1250 m

A .......... B,

3.9

T = 9 min, = 40 km h-1 [

1m s

3.11

2
(b) 9.8 m s

(c) x> 0
(a)
v<0 v >0
a > 0 (d) 44.1 m, 6s

(a)

(b)

(c)

(i) 5 km h-1, 5 km h- 1 ; (ii) 0; 6 km /h; (iii)

3.15

3.16

x-t

(a)

(d)

15
45
km h -1
km h -1
8
8

3.14

3.17

10 15

(b) A .......... B, (c) B .......... A, (d) (e) B .......... A.........

3.8

3.10

(c)

(b)

(d)

x = 0), t = 0

3.18

105 m s

3.19

(a)

(reduced)
(b)

(c)

3.20

x < 0, v < 0, a > 0; x > 0, v > 0, a < 0; x < 0, v > 0, a > 0

3.21

1 2

v > 0;

v<0

3.22

B, C r D
3.23

227

1, 2 r 3

v>0, 1 r 3

a>0, 2 a<0 ; A,

a=0

3.24

10 s, 10 s

3.25

(a) 13 kmh -1 ; (b) 5 kmh -1 ; (c)


9 km h-1 (c)

3.26

x2 x 1 = 15t

3.27
3.28

(a) 60 m, 6 m s1 ; (b) 36 m, 9 m s 1
(iii), (iv), (vi)

20 s;

x2 x1 = 200+30 t 5t2

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

(a) T, (b) F, (c) F, (d) T, (e) T

4.6

(c)

(d)

4.7

(a)

4.8

4.9

(a) 0; (b) 0; (c) 21.4 km h-1

4.10

1 km

400 m ; B

r r

4.11

= 3 km

(a) 49.3 km h -1; (b) 21.4 km h-1,

60

866 m, 30, 4 km

4.12

4.13

15 min, 750 m

4.14

4.15
4.16

150.5 m
50 m

4.17

9.9 m s2,

4.18

6.4 g

4.19

(a)

(b)

4.20

(c)

(a) v (t) = (3.0 i 4.0 t j )


a(t) = 4.0

(b) 8.54 m s1, x-

70

18

= 1.5 km

228

4.21
4.22

(a) 2 s, 24 m, 21.26 m s 1
2 , x-

4.23

(b) r (e)

4.24

4.25

182.2 m s1

4.27

4.28

4.29

4.30

4.31

0.86 m s2,

(e)

45 ;

2 , x-

45

, 5

"

sin1 (1/3) = 19.5 ; 16 km

(a) (d)

5.2

54.5

5.1

2 #1

(e)

r r

= 0.5 N r

r r r r r r

r

r r

5.3

(a) 1 N

(b)

(a)

(c)

(d) 0.1 N

5.4

(i) T

5.5

a = 2.5 m s2, v = u + at

5.6

a = 1.5/25 = 0.06 m s2, F = 3 0.06 = 0.18 N

5.7

= 10 N, 8 N

= 2 m s2

5.8

a = 2.5 m s 2;

5.9

F 20,000 10 = 20,000 5.0

5.10

(a)

0 = 15 2.5 t
r

tan (3/4) = 37

t = 6.0 s

= 465 2.5 = 1.2 103 N


r

F = 3.0 10 5 N

a = 20 m s2 0 t 30 s
t=5s
x = ut = 10 5 = 50 m
t = 25 s

x = ut +

t = 100 s

30 s

at2 = (10 25 10 62.5)m = 6.0 km


r

x1 = 10 30 10 900 = 8700 m
t = 30 s v = 10 20 30 = 590 m s1
30 s

100 s

x2 = 590 70 = 41300 m
x = x 1 + x2 = 50 km

5.11

(a) t = 10 s

229

= 0 + 2 10 = 20 m s1

t = 11s

t = 11s

(b) 10 m s2
5.12

20 m s1

= 0 + 10 1 = 10 m s 1

= 20 2 $ 10 2 % 500 = 22.4 m s1

tan1 ( )

(a)

(b)

5.13

(a) N = 70 10 = 700 N;

70 kg

(b) 70 10 N = 70 5;

35 kg

(c)

105 kg

N 70 10 = 70 5;

(d) 70 10 N = 70 10;
5.14

(a)

N = 0;

(b) t = 0 3 kg m s1 (c) t = 4 s 3 kg m s1
5.15

20 kg

600 T = 20 a, a = 20 m s2, T = 10 a T = 200 N


10 kg

5.16

a = 20 m s2; T = 400 N

T 8 10 = 8 a; 12 10 T = 12 a

5.17

a = 2 m s 2 ; T = 96 N

5.18

5.19

= 0.05 12 = 0.6 kg m s1

100 v = 0.02 80

v = 0.016 m s1 = 1.6 cm s1
5.20

5.21

5.22

= 0.15 2 15 cos 22.5 = 4.2 kg m s 1

(b)

230

5.23

(a)

(empty space)

(b)

(c)

(lawn mower)

(d)

5.26

x = 0 x = 2 cm

5.25

(N)

5.24

f (f N)

0.04 kg .02 m s

2 s

1 cm s1

= 8 10 kg m s
4

= 65 kg 1 m s 2 = 65 N
= ! sg = 2 m s2
(i)

mg + T2 = mv22/R ;

T1 mg = mv 21 /R

5.27

(a)

v 22 /R

(free body)

=F

v1 2/R

= mg

F mg = ma

F 300 10 = 300 15
F = 7.5 10 3 N

(b)

=R

= 7.5 103 N

= mg

R mg = ma

R 1300 10 = 1300 15
R = 3.25 104 N

(c) 3.25 10 N
5.28

5.29

(a) 3 mg

= 3.25 104 N

= 10 3 kg m3 102 m 2 15 m s 1 = 150 kg s1

= 150 kg s

(b) 3 mg
(c) 4 mg

(b)

mg

3 mg

15 m s = 2.25 10 N

5.30

5.31

231

5.32

& '
& ( '
*
+ % t *
+ ! )

, ( ,
-

(a) 750 N
5.33

(b) 250 N

(b)

(a) T 400 = 240

T = 640 N

(b) 400 T = 160

T = 240 N

(c) T = 400 N
(d) T = 0

5.34

(a)

200 N

200 N

A + B
A

200 (150 0.15)


=
= 11.8 m s 2
15

= 0.15 50 = 7.5 N

200 7.5 FAB = 5 11.8


2
FAB = 1.3 10 N;
2

FBA = 1.3 10 N;
5.35

(a)

= 150
= 15 0.5 = 7.5 N

0.18 = 27 N

(b)

5.36

0.5 m s

2( 5
% 20 s
0 .5

= g = 0.15 10 = 1.5 m s2

1
2

2 20 = 20 m

232

5.37

mv
r

5.38

.! m g

r g / 2

v = r ,

"%

2!
T

4 cm

v =
5.39

5.40

mg

mg = f < N

N = 0

N sin

mg < m R 2

cos = g/R 2

= 5 s1

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

6.2

(a) 882 J ; (b) 247 J ; (c) 635 J ; (d) 635 J

(i) x > a; 0
(ii) - < x <
(a)

(b)
(c)

; V1

= 60

(iv) b/2 < x < a/2, a/2 < x < b/2 ; V1

(b)

(a) F ; (b) F ; (c) F ; (d) F

6.8

(a) (b) (c)

(d)

(c)

6.11

12 J

6.12

6.13

(d)

(d)

v e/vp = 13.5

0.082 J ; 0.163 J

(ii) t
(iii) t 3 2

6.7

6.10

t t t t

m R sin 2 =

(iii) x < a, x > b ; V1

(a)

6.1

mg = N cos

|cos | 1

cos =

6.9

6.6

N = m R 2

6.5

t t
t

6.3

6.14

233



t t

6.15

43.6 kW

6.16

(ii)

6.17


t
t

6.18

5.3 m s1

6.19

27 km h1

6.20
6.21
6.22

50 J
(a) m = A v t (b) K = A v3 t/2 (c) P = 4.5 kWh
(a) 49000 J (b) 6.45 103 kg

6.23

(a) 200 m2 (b) 14 m 14 m

6.24

21.2 cm, 28.5 J

6.25

[mgh = (1/2) mv2 ]


VB = VC = 14.1 m s1, t B = 2

2 s, t c = 2

2 s

6.26

0.125

6.27

6.28

8.82 J

6.29

(v)

10.36 m s1, 25.9 m

7.1

4 m s1

7.2

H Cl

7.3

1.24

v t

7.6
7.8

lz = xpy ypx, lx = yp z zpy , ly = zpx xpz


72 cm

7.9

3675 N,

5145 N

(a) (7/5) MR2 (b) (3/2) MR2

7.10
7.11

7.12

t t

7.13

(a)

100

(b)

t t t t

= 3125 J

= 62.5 J s

2.5

t t P

234

7.14
7.15

25 s2 ; 10 m s2
36 kW

7.16

7.17

66.0 g

7.18

(a) ; (b) , (c)

7.19

4J

7.20

6.751012 rad s1

7.21

(a) 3.8 m (b) 3.0 s

7.22

7.23

(a) 59 rev/min, (b)

7.24

0.625 rad s1

7.25

(a)

R/6

(b)

7.29

= 0R
= 0R/2

v=

sin )

(!a

= (I 1 1 + I 2 2 )/(I1 + I2)

(c)

mg = ma

v = R

mgR = I

I%

1
mR 2
2

= 0.2

I = MR

t = R 0/3 k g

(c) 37

(b)

(a) 16.4 N (b)

R = 10 cm, 0 = 10 rad s1,

(a)

= 0R

gt, = o k mgR t/I

8.1

t = 0 R/2 k g

7.31

7.30

(a) B

(b)

= 98 N, NB = 245 N, NC = 147 N

7.28

8.2

(a)

(b)

8.3

0.63

8.5

3.54 10 8 years

8.6

(a)

8.7

(a)

235

(c)

(d)

(b)

(b)

(c)

(d)

8.8

8.9

(b), (c)

8.10

8.11

(d)

P C

8.12

2.6 10 m

8.13

2.0 1030 kg

8.14

1.43 1012 m

8.15

28 N

8.16

125 N

8.17

8.18

31.7 km s1

8.19

5.9 109 J

8.20

2.6 106 m s1

8.21
8.22

0, 2.7 108 J kg1;


9.4 106 J kg1

8.23

=0

(c)

(e)

GM
R

8.0 106 m

= 2.3 1012 m s2, 2 R = 1.1 106 m s2;

8.24
8.25

3 1011 J
495 km

2000