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Approved:

ADAM FEE / IAN MCGINLEY / ANNA SKOTKO

A s s i s t a n t United States Attorneys


HEATHER SCHMIDT
T r i a l A t t o r n e y , Counterespionage S e c t i o n
N a t i o n a l S e c u r i t y D i v i s i o n , Department o f J u s t i c e

Before:

HONORABLE FRANK MAAS


U n i t e d States M a g i s t r a t e Judge
Southern D i s t r i c t o f New York

SEALED COMPLAINT

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA


Violations of 18
-v. -

371,

EVGENY BURYAKOV,
a/k/a "Zhenya,"
IGOR SPORYSHEV, and
VICTOR PODOBNYY,

951,

U.S.C.

& 2

COUNTY OF OFFENSE: NEW

YORK

Defendants.

SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK, ss.:


GREGORY MONAGHAN, b e i n g d u l y sworn, deposes and says t h a t
he i s a S p e c i a l Agent w i t h t h e Federal Bureau o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n ("FBI")
and charges as f o l l o w s :
COUNT ONE
Conspiracy to Act as an Unregistered Agent of a Foreign Government
1.
From i n o r about 2012, up t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e
p r e s e n t , i n t h e Southern D i s t r i c t o f New York and elsewhere, EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," IGOR SPORYSHEV, and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e
d e f e n d a n t s , and o t h e r s known and unknown, w i l l f u l l y and knowingly,
d i d combine, c o n s p i r e , c o n f e d e r a t e , and agree t o g e t h e r and w i t h each
o t h e r t o commit an o f f e n s e a g a i n s t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t o w i t , T i t l e
18, U n i t e d S t a t e s Code, S e c t i o n 951.
2.

I t was a p a r t and an o b j e c t o f t h e c o n s p i r a c y

that

EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e d e f e n d a n t , w i l l f u l l y and


knowingly, would and d i d a c t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as an agent o f a
f o r e i g n government, s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n , and as an
agent o f f o r e i g n o f f i c i a l s , s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e l l i g e n c e agents w o r k i n g
i n New York C i t y f o r t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n ' s F o r e i g n I n t e l l i g e n c e
S e r v i c e ( t h e "SVR"), w i t h o u t p r i o r n o t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e A t t o r n e y
General, as r e q u i r e d by law, i n v i o l a t i o n o f T i t l e 18, U n i t e d S t a t e s
Code, S e c t i o n 951.
Overt Acts
3.
I n f u r t h e r a n c e o f t h i s c o n s p i r a c y , and t o e f f e c t t h e
i l l e g a l o b j e c t t h e r e o f , t h e f o l l o w i n g o v e r t a c t s , among o t h e r s , were
committed i n t h e Southern D i s t r i c t o f New York:
a.
From a t l e a s t i n o r about March 2012, up t o and
i n c l u d i n g i n o r about September 2014, EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a
"Zhenya," and IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e d e f e n d a n t s , met on dozens o f
occasions a t l o c a t i o n s i n and around Manhattan and t h e Bronx, f o r
the purpose o f exchanging i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a t e d t o t h e i r work as
i n t e l l i g e n c e o f f i c e r s operating w i t h i n the United States a t the
d i r e c t i o n o f t h e Russian SVR.
b.
On o r about May 23, 2013, IGOR SPORYSHEV and
VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, d u r i n g a r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n t h a t
o c c u r r e d w i t h i n a secure o f f i c e i n Manhattan used by SVR agents t o
send and r e c e i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e r e p o r t s and assignments f r o m Moscow,
d i s c u s s e d t r a n s m i t t i n g t o SVR h e a d q u a r t e r s i n Moscow i n t e l l i g e n c e
g a t h e r e d by BURYAKOV f r o m " c o n f i d e n t i a l t a l k s " i n which he
p a r t i c i p a t e d under t h e cover o f h i s p o s i t i o n as a banker.
( T i t l e 18, U n i t e d S t a t e s Code, S e c t i o n

371.)

COUNT TWO
A c t i n g as an Unregistered Agent of a Foreign Government
4.
From i n o r about 2012, up t o and i n c l u d i n g t h e
p r e s e n t , i n t h e Southern D i s t r i c t o f New York and elsewhere, EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, d i d k n o w i n g l y a c t i n t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s as an agent o f a f o r e i g n government, s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e
Russian F e d e r a t i o n , and as an agent o f f o r e i g n o f f i c i a l s ,
s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e l l i g e n c e agents w o r k i n g i n New York C i t y f o r t h e
SVR, w i t h o u t p r i o r n o t i f i c a t i o n t o t h e A t t o r n e y General, as r e q u i r e d
by law, and IGOR SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e d e f e n d a n t s , d i d
a i d and abet t h e same, i n v i o l a t i o n o f T i t l e 18, U n i t e d S t a t e s Code,
S e c t i o n s 951 and 2.

( T i t l e 18, U n i t e d States Code, Sections 951 and 2.)


The bases f o r my knowledge and t h e f o r e g o i n g charges a r e ,
i n p a r t , as f o l l o w s :
5.
I have been a S p e c i a l Agent w i t h t h e FBI f o r
a p p r o x i m a t e l y seven years.
C u r r e n t l y , I am assigned t o t h e
C o u n t e r i n t e l l i g e n c e D i v i s i o n w i t h i n t h e New York F i e l d O f f i c e o f t h e
FBI. The focus o f my c o u n t e r i n t e l l i g e n c e e f f o r t s has been on
i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e f o r e i g n i n t e l l i g e n c e a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e Russian
Federation.
I have l e a r n e d t h e f a c t s c o n t a i n e d i n t h i s Complaint
from, among o t h e r sources, my p e r s o n a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n , my d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h o t h e r law enforcement agents,
searches t h a t I have conducted, s u r v e i l l a n c e t h a t I have conducted,
and my r e v i e w o f documents, e l e c t r o n i c r e c o r d i n g s , and o t h e r
evidentiary materials.
Because t h i s Complaint i s b e i n g s u b m i t t e d
f o r t h e l i m i t e d purpose o f e s t a b l i s h i n g p r o b a b l e cause, i t does n o t
i n c l u d e every f a c t t h a t I have l e a r n e d d u r i n g t h e course o f t h i s
investigation.
F u r t h e r , .any statements r e l a t e d h e r e i n are r e l a t e d
i n substance and i n p a r t o n l y .
I.

BACKGROUND

6.
The Foreign Agents R e g i s t r a t i o n Act ("FARA"), T i t l e
22, U n i t e d S t a t e s Code, S e c t i o n 611, e t seq., r e q u i r e s i n d i v i d u a l s
r e s i d i n g i n t h e U n i t e d States who are a c t i n g as agents f o r f o r e i g n
governments o r f o r e i g n o f f i c i a l s t o n o t i f y t h e A t t o r n e y General o f
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . FARA was enacted t o ensure t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
government i s aware o f those a c t i n g w i t h i n i t s b o r d e r s on b e h a l f o f
f o r e i g n governments. This i n f o r m a t i o n p e r m i t s t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
government t o remain i n f o r m e d o f t h e f o r e i g n agents' a c t i v i t i e s i n
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and t o p r o t e c t t h e n a t i o n a l s e c u r i t y and f o r e i g n
p o l i c y i n t e r e s t s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . For- t h i s purpose, t h e
Department o f J u s t i c e ("DOJ") m a i n t a i n s r e c o r d s o f a l l i n d i v i d u a l s
who have r e g i s t e r e d as agents o f f o r e i g n governments.
7.
The SVR i s t h e f o r e i g n i n t e l l i g e n c e agency f o r t h e
Russian F e d e r a t i o n . The SVR headquarters i s l o c a t e d i n Moscow and
i s known as "Moscow Center" o r "Center." The SVR deploys i t s agents
t o f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s u s i n g s e v e r a l d i f f e r e n t methods t o conceal t h e
agents' work as i n t e l l i g e n c e agents.
C e r t a i n agents a r e sent on
"deep cover" assignments, meaning t h e y are d i r e c t e d t o assume f a l s e
i d e n t i t i e s , work seemingly normal j o b s , and attempt t o conceal a l l
3

o f t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s t o Russia. C e r t a i n o t h e r SVR agents o p e r a t i n g


abroad do n o t conceal t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s t o Russia. I n s t e a d , t h e y
o f t e n pose as o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n ,
i n c l u d i n g i n p o s i t i o n s as d i p l o m a t s o r t r a d e o f f i c i a l s .
I n these
p o s i t i o n s , SVR agents are t y p i c a l l y e n t i t l e d t o d i p l o m a t i c immunity
from p r o s e c u t i o n . A t h i r d group o f SVR agents s t a t i o n e d abroad pose
as employees o f p r i v a t e businesses. SVR agents o p e r a t i n g under such
n o n - o f f i c i a l cover - sometimes r e f e r r e d t o as "NOCs" - t y p i c a l l y are
s u b j e c t t o l e s s s c r u t i n y by t h e host government, and, i n many cases,
are never i d e n t i f i e d as i n t e l l i g e n c e agents by t h e h o s t government.
As a r e s u l t , a NOC can be an e x t r e m e l y v a l u a b l e i n t e l l i g e n c e a s s e t
f o r t h e SVR. Because NOCs work f o r p r i v a t e businesses and n o t t h e
Russian government, t y p i c a l l y t h e y a r e n o t e n t i t l e d t o d i p l o m a t i c
immunity f r o m p r o s e c u t i o n . A t t h e d i r e c t i o n and under t h e c o n t r o l
o f t h e SVR, t h e p r i m a r y m i s s i o n o f each o f these groups o f SVR agents
i s t o g a t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n f o r Russia about t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y , and
t o r e c r u i t i n t e l l i g e n c e sources t h a t c o u l d a s s i s t i n i n f l u e n c i n g t h e
p o l i c i e s o f p u b l i c and p r i v a t e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n t h e f o r e i g n c o u n t r y .
8.
I n June 2010, a f t e r a m u l t i - y e a r i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e
FBI a r r e s t e d t e n c o v e r t SVR agents - r e f e r r e d t o as t h e " I l l e g a l s "
by t h e SVR - who were l i v i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s on charges o f
c o n s p i r i n g t o v i o l a t e S e c t i o n 951 and c o n s p i r i n g t o l a u n d e r money.
These t e n agents were on "deep c o v e r " assignments under t h e
s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e SVR. I n J u l y 2010, each o f t h e t e n SVR agents
i n t h e I l l e g a l s group p l e d g u i l t y t o c o n s p i r a c y t o v i o l a t e S e c t i o n
951.
9.
W i t h i n a few months o f those g u i l t y p l e a s , t h e FBI
opened an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f a new group o f SVR agents w o r k i n g i n New
York C i t y , which e v e n t u a l l y i n c l u d e d EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a
"Zhenya," IGOR SPORYSHEV, and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e d e f e n d a n t s .
10. The FBI's i n v e s t i g a t i o n has r e v e a l e d t h a t EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e d e f e n d a n t , i s w o r k i n g w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s as an SVR agent under " n o n - o f f i c i a l c o v e r , " meaning he e n t e r e d
and has remained i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as a p r i v a t e c i t i z e n .
S p e c i f i c a l l y , BURYAKOV i s p o s i n g as an employee i n t h e Manhattan
o f f i c e o f a Russian bank ("Bank-1").
I n f a c t , BURYAKOV i s an
employee o f t h e SVR w o r k i n g t o g a t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e on b e h a l f o f
Russia. A r e c e n t l y conducted r e v i e w o f DOJ r e c o r d s i n d i c a t e s t h a t
BURYAKOV has never n o t i f i e d DOJ t h a t he i s an agent o f t h e Russian
F e d e r a t i o n , o r o f any o t h e r c o u n t r y .

11. The FBI's i n v e s t i g a t i o n has f u r t h e r r e v e a l e d t h a t


IGOR SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, a r e a l s o SVR
agents who worked i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o gather i n t e l l i g e n c e on
b e h a l f o f Russia. From on o r about November 22, 2010, t o on o r about
November 21, 2014, SPORYSHEV served as a Trade R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e
Russian F e d e r a t i o n i n New York. From on o r about December 13, 2012,
t o on o r about September 12, 2013, PODOBNYY served as an A t t a c h e t o
t h e Permanent M i s s i o n o f t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d
Nations.
Based on t h e i r o f f i c i a l government p o s t i n g s on b e h a l f o f
t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n , SPORYSHEV and PODOBNYY appear t o be exempt
from t h e r e g i s t r a t i o n requirement under FARA. However, t h a t
exemption does n o t p e r m i t them t o c o n s p i r e w i t h , o r a i d and abet,
EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, i n h i s work as an
u n r e g i s t e r e d agent o f t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n o p e r a t i n g w i t h i n t h e
United States.
12.
The i n t e l l i g e n c e - g a t h e r i n g e f f o r t s o f IGOR SPORYSHEV
and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, i n c l u d e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s ,
( i ) a t t e m p t i n g t o r e c r u i t New York C i t y r e s i d e n t s as i n t e l l i g e n c e
sources f o r t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n ; ( i i ) t a s k i n g EVGENY BURYAKOV,
a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, t o g a t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e ; and ( i i i )
t r a n s m i t t i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e r e p o r t s prepared by BURYAKOV back t o SVR
headquarters i n Moscow. S p e c i f i c a l l y , d u r i n g t h e course o f t h e
charged o f f e n s e s , SPORYSHEV was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e l a y i n g assignments
from Moscow Center t o BURYAKOV, and SPORYSHEV and PODOBNYY were
r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a n a l y z i n g and r e p o r t i n g back t o Moscow Center about
t h e f r u i t s o f BURYAKOVs i n t e l l i g e n c e - g a t h e r i n g e f f o r t s .
13.
The d i r e c t i v e s from Moscow Center t o EVGENY BURYAKOV,
a/k/a "Zhenya," IGOR SPORYSHEV, and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants,
as w e l l as t o o t h e r c o v e r t SVR agents a c t i n g w i t h i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ,
i n c l u d e d r e q u e s t s t o gather i n t e l l i g e n c e on, among o t h e r s u b j e c t s ,
p o t e n t i a l U n i t e d States s a n c t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n and
t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s ' e f f o r t s t o develop a l t e r n a t i v e energy r e s o u r c e s .
Many o f t h e d i r e c t i v e s t o t h e defendants from Moscow Center focused,
i n p a r t i c u l a r , on economic i s s u e s . I have l e a r n e d d u r i n g t h e course
o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n t h a t a l l t h r e e o f t h e defendants work f o r a
p a r t i c u l a r d i v i s i o n o f t h e SVR known' as " D i r e c t o r a t e ER," which
focuses on economic i s s u e s .
14.
I n t h e course o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , t h e FBI has
employed a v a r i e t y o f l a w f u l i n v e s t i g a t i v e methods. For example,
t h e FBI has conducted e x t e n s i v e p h y s i c a l and e l e c t r o n i c s u r v e i l l a n c e
5

o f t h e defendants i n c l u d i n g t h e c o v e r t placement o f microphone-type


l i s t e n i n g devices i n c e r t a i n l o c a t i o n s ; t h e c o v e r t placement o f v i d e o
cameras i n p u b l i c l o c a t i o n s ; t h e m o n i t o r i n g and r e c o r d i n g o f t h e
phone c a l l s o f c e r t a i n o f t h e defendants; and t h e use o f a
c o n f i d e n t i a l source.
I n a d d i t i o n , and among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e FBI
has l a w f u l l y o b t a i n e d m u l t i p l e audio r e c o r d i n g s o f d i s c u s s i o n s
i n v o l v i n g c e r t a i n o f t h e defendants t h a t o c c u r r e d a t v a r i o u s
l o c a t i o n s w i t h i n a secure o f f i c e i n Manhattan used by SVR agents t o
send and r e c e i v e i n t e l l i g e n c e r e p o r t s and assignments from Moscow
Center ( t h e "SVR NY O f f i c e " ) .
II.

THE SVR'S ILLEGAL INTELLIGENCE-GATHERING EFFORTS IN NEW YORK


CITY
A.

Clandestine

Meetings and Communications

15.
During t h e course o f t h e i r work as c o v e r t SVR agents
i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , t h e defendants r e g u l a r l y met and communicated
u s i n g c l a n d e s t i n e methods and coded messages. Based on my t r a i n i n g
and e x p e r i e n c e , and my knowledge o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e
t h a t t h e y d i d so i n o r d e r t o exchange i n t e l l i g e n c e - r e l a t e d
i n f o r m a t i o n w h i l e s h i e l d i n g t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h one another as
SVR agents.
These e f f o r t s were designed, among o t h e r t h i n g s , t o
p r e s e r v e t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e covers as an employee o f a bank i n Manhattan
(EVGENY BURYAKOV, a / k / a "Zhenya," t h e d e f e n d a n t ) , a Trade
R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n i n New York (IGOR SPORYSHEV,
t h e defendant) , and an A t t a c h e t o t h e Permanent M i s s i o n o f t h e Russian
F e d e r a t i o n t o t h e U n i t e d Nations (VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e d e f e n d a n t ) .
I n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e defendants worked t o safeguard BURYAKOVs work
as a "NOC" - a c o v e r t SVR i n t e l l i g e n c e agent a c t i n g under n o n - o f f i c i a l
cover i n New York.
16.
S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n has r e v e a l e d t h a t
IGOR SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, a c t e d as c o v e r t
i n t e r m e d i a r i e s f o r EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant,
t o communicate w i t h Moscow Center on i n t e l l i g e n c e - r e l a t e d m a t t e r s .
As an agent p o s i n g as someone w i t h o u t any o f f i c i a l t i e s t o t h e Russian
government or t h e SVR, BURYAKOV i s unable t o access t h e SVR NY O f f i c e
- which i s l o c a t e d w i t h i n an o f f i c e m a i n t a i n e d by t h e Russian
F e d e r a t i o n i n New York, New York - w i t h o u t p o t e n t i a l l y a l e r t i n g
o t h e r s t o h i s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e SVR. As such, BURYAKOV r e q u i r e s
t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f o t h e r SVR agents, l i k e SPORYSHEV and PODOBNYY, t o
exchange communications and i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h Moscow Center t h r o u g h
t h e communications systems l o c a t e d i n t h e SVR NY O f f i c e .
6

17. I n a d d i t i o n , i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e h i s cover as a
p r i v a t e c i t i z e n , EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant,
avoided speaking about i n t e l l i g e n c e - r e l a t e d m a t t e r s w i t h IGOR
SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant, over t h e t e l e p h o n e , by e m a i l , o r v i a any
o t h e r means o f communication o t h e r t h a n f a c e - t o - f a c e meetings, save
f o r one n o t a b l e e x c e p t i o n d i s c u s s e d below i n paragraph 42.
18. From as e a r l y as March 2012 t h r o u g h as r e c e n t l y as
mid-September 2014, t h e FBI has conducted p h y s i c a l o r e l e c t r o n i c
s u r v e i l l a n c e o f EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," and IGOR SPORYSHEV,
t h e defendants, engaging i n over f o u r dozen b r i e f meetings, s e v e r a l
o f which i n v o l v e d BURYAKOV p a s s i n g a bag, magazine, o r s l i p o f paper
t o SPORYSHEV. These meetings t y p i c a l l y t o o k p l a c e o u t d o o r s , where
t h e r i s k o f e f f e c t i v e s u r v e i l l a n c e was reduced r e l a t i v e t o an i n d o o r
location.
19. These meetings were n e a r l y always preceded by a s h o r t
t e l e p h o n e c a l l between EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," and IGOR
SPORYSHEV, t h e defendants, d u r i n g which one o f t h e men t y p i c a l l y t o l d
t h e o t h e r t h a t he had an i t e m t o g i v e t o him. T y p i c a l l y , d u r i n g these
t e l e p h o n e c a l l s , which were i n t e r c e p t e d by t h e FBI, t h e i t e m i n
q u e s t i o n was r e f e r r e d t o as some n o n - s p e c i f i c " t i c k e t , " "book,"
" l i s t , " o r o t h e r o r d i n a r y i t e m (e.g., " u m b r e l l a " o r " h a t " ) .
20. Subsequently, a t each meeting s u r v e i l l e d by t h e FBI,
t h e two men met and sometimes exchanged documents o r o t h e r s m a l l
i t e m s . N o t a b l y , d e s p i t e d i s c u s s i n g on a p p r o x i m a t e l y one dozen
occasions t h e need t o meet t o t r a n s f e r " t i c k e t s , " EVGENY BURYAKOV,
a/k/a "Zhenya," and IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendants, have - o t h e r t h a n
one occasion where t h e y d i s c u s s e d going t o a movie - never been
observed a t t e n d i n g , o r d i s c u s s i n g i n any d e t a i l , events t h a t would
t y p i c a l l y r e q u i r e t i c k e t s , such as a s p o r t i n g event o r c o n c e r t .
21. Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and f a m i l i a r i t y
w i t h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t i n these c o n v e r s a t i o n s and
meetings, EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," and IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e
defendants, used coded language t o s i g n a l t h a t t h e y needed t o meet,
and t h e n met t o exchange i n t e l l i g e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n , whether v e r b a l l y ,
i n w r i t t e n form, o r b o t h . These types o f f a c e - t o - f a c e meetings and
t h e exchange o f h a n d - w r i t t e n notes a r e t h e p r e f e r r e d methods f o r
exchanging i n t e l l i g e n c e assignments and r e p o r t s because t h e y c a r r y
minimal r i s k o f e l e c t r o n i c i n t e r c e p t i o n .

B.

Sporyshev and Podobnyy's D i s c u s s i o n s of T h e i r Work as SVR Agents

22.
I n numerous r e c o r d e d communications, IGOR SPORYSHEV
and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, d i s c u s s e d t h e i r work as SVR
agents c o v e r t l y o p e r a t i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .
i.

January 31, 2013: Sporyshev's Employment with the SVR

23. On o r about January 31, 2013, IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e


defendant, and another SVR agent n o t i d e n t i f i e d h e r e i n ("CC-1") had
a d i s c u s s i o n i n s i d e t h e SVR NY O f f i c e about t h e i r c o n t r a c t s w i t h t h e
SVR. SPORYSHEV s t a t e d t h a t , "Everyone has a f i v e - y e a r c o n t r a c t , "
and e x p l a i n e d , i n response t o CC-l's q u e s t i o n about reimbursement
f o r t h e t r a v e l o f SVR agents' f a m i l y members, t h a t " t r a v e l f o r
m i l i t a r y p e r s o n n e l and t h e i r f a m i l i e s on a u t h o r i z e d home l e a v e i s
p a i d , and i n our, i n our SVR, t h i s , t h e payment f o r g e t t i n g t o and
from t h e d u t y s t a t i o n . "
1

ii.

A p r i l 10, 2013: Sporyshev's and Podobnyy's Cover i n the


United S t a t e s

24. On o r about A p r i l 10, 2013, VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e


defendant, and another SVR agent not i d e n t i f i e d h e r e i n ("CC-2") had
a d i s c u s s i o n i n s i d e t h e SVR NY O f f i c e about t h e " c o v e r " j o b o f IGOR
SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant, i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . R e f e r r i n g t o
SPORYSHEV, whom CC-2 d e s c r i b e d as PODOBNYY's "boss," CC-2 asked
PODOBNYY: "What i s h i s cover? The Chamber o f Commerce?" PODOBNYY
responded: "No, no. New York O f f i c e o f t h e Trade M i s s i o n o f t h e
Russian F e d e r a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . " D u r i n g t h e course o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I have l e a r n e d t h a t SPORYSHEV p u b l i c l y i d e n t i f i e d
h i m s e l f as a Trade R e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n i n New
York, which i s a p o s i t i o n w i t h i n t h e Trade M i s s i o n o f t h e Russian
Federation i n the United States.
25. A l s o on o r about A p r i l 10, 2013, IGOR SPORYSHEV and
VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, had t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n i n s i d e
t h e SVR NY O f f i c e about c e r t a i n problems w i t h t h e covers t h e y were
u s i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s as w e l l as t h e i r day-to-day work as c o v e r t
SVR agents:
V i c t o r Podobnyy ("VP"): [Y]ou don't know how many t i m e s I f e l t
1

A l l o f t h e r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s d e s c r i b e d and quoted h e r e i n were


conducted i n Russian, u n l e s s o t h e r w i s e noted. Those d e s c r i p t i o n s
and q u o t a t i o n s a r e based on p r e l i m i n a r y t r a n s l a t i o n s o f t h e
c o n v e r s a t i o n s and a r e s u b j e c t t o r e v i s i o n .
8

when I was s i t t i n g on [ U / I ] f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e and s t a r t e d


p r o c e s s i n g f o r t h e SVR o f t h e RF [Russian F e d e r a t i o n ] . The f a c t
t h a t I'm s i t t i n g w i t h a c o o k i e r i g h t now a t t h e [. . .] c h i e f
enemy s p o t . Fuck! Not one p o i n t o f what I t h o u g h t t h e n , [ U / I ]
not even c l o s e . [ U / I ] movies about James Bond. Of course, I
wouldn't f l y h e l i c o p t e r s , b u t p r e t e n d t o be someone e l s e a t a
minimum.
I g o r Sporyshev ("IS") : I a l s o t h o u g h t t h a t a t l e a s t I would go
abroad w i t h a d i f f e r e n t p a s s p o r t . . . I'm d o i n g tomorrow u n t i l
l u n c h . I'm s i t t i n g w o r k i n g t h e c l e a n l i n e i n t h e morning and
t h e n I w i l l come here and work on o p e r a t i o n a l .
26. Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and f a m i l i a r i t y
w i t h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , VICTOR
PODOBNYY, t h e defendant, c o n t r a s t e d t h e mundane aspects o f h i s work
as an i n t e l l i g e n c e agent abroad w i t h f i c t i o n a l concepts o f an
i n t e l l i g e n c e agent's work, and expressed s u r p r i s e t h a t he was n o t
g i v e n a new i d e n t i t y by t h e SVR w h i l e o p e r a t i n g as an i n t e l l i g e n c e
agent ("not even c l o s e [ U / I ] movies about James Bond. Of course,
I wouldn't f l y h e l i c o p t e r s , b u t p r e t e n d t o be someone e l s e a t a
minimum."). IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant, agreed, s t a t i n g t h a t he
t h o u g h t he would a t l e a s t g e t a d i f f e r e n t p a s s p o r t t o h i d e h i s t r u e
identity.
SPORYSHEV concluded by s t a t i n g t h a t , t h e n e x t day, he
would be w o r k i n g a t h i s cover p o s i t i o n a t t h e Russian Trade O f f i c e
(the " c l e a n l i n e " ) i n t h e morning and would t h e n t r a v e l t o t h e SVR
NY O f f i c e t o work on h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e - r e l a t e d t a s k s ("then I w i l l
come here and work on o p e r a t i o n a l " ) .
i i i . A p r i l 25, 2013: The I l l e g a l s Program
27. On o r about A p r i l 25, 2013, IGOR SPORYSHEV and VICTOR
PODOBNYY, t h e d e f e n d a n t s , d i s c u s s e d t h e use o f n o n t r a d i t i o n a l cover
f o r Russian i n t e l l i g e n c e o f f i c e r s and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , t h e I l l e g a l s
program t h a t ended w i t h t h e a r r e s t o f 10 SVR agents i n J u l y 2010,
as d i s c u s s e d above:
VP: F i r s t o f a l l , D i r e c t o r a t e S i s t h e o n l y i n t e l l i g e n c e t h a t
i s r e a l i n t e l l i g e n c e , D i r e c t o r a t e S.
IS:

I t was.

VP: I don't know about now. No some t h i n g s remain, l i k e M i d d l e


East, A s i a , n o t e v e r y t h i n g has f a l l e n .

VP:

Look, i n t h e S t a t e s even t h e S c o u l d n ' t do a n y t h i n g .


9

They

caught t e n o f them. And you remember what t h e y were charged


w i t h : i l l e g a l cashing [ o f t h e money] t h e Center s e n t , t h a t ' s
all!
And t h e n P u t i n even t r i e d t o j u s t i f y t h a t t h e y weren't
even t a s k e d t o work, t h e y were s l e e p e r c e l l s i n case o f m a r t i a l
law. They weren't d o i n g s h i t here, you understand.
Maybe t h e y
had a d i r e c t i v e n o t t o do a n y t h i n g , i f t h e y were here 10 years
or whatever . . . t h e y were i n t h e States i n t h e s l e e p e r mode
only.
W e l l , t h e y s t u d i e d some people, worked out some e x i t s , b u t t h e y
d i d n ' t get any m a t e r i a l s . . . . I t would've been a l o t p r e t t i e r
t h a n j u s t wrongly f i l l e d o u t i m m i g r a t i o n , f a l s e i d e n t i t y , and
money l a u n d e r i n g . W e l l , t h e y got slapped w i t h money l a u n d e r i n g
o n l y because t h e y were sending cash by m a i l . That i s i t . So,
when we d i s c u s s e d t h a t we need t o work from d i f f e r e n t p o s i t i o n s ,
I agree t h a t u n t r a d i t i o n a l i s more e f f e c t i v e b u t even t h e S
cannot do a n y t h i n g here.
28.
Based on my t r a i n i n g , experience, and f a m i l i a r i t y
w i t h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , IGOR
SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, e x p l i c i t l y d i s c u s s e d
the use o f " u n t r a d i t i o n a l " i n t e l l i g e n c e agents, such as t h e 10
Russian i n t e l l i g e n c e o f f i c e r s a r r e s t e d i n June 2010 ( i . e . , t h e
I l l e g a l s ) . PODOBNYY f i r s t noted t h a t " D i r e c t o r a t e S" i s t h e o n l y
d i v i s i o n o f t h e SVR c o n d u c t i n g " r e a l i n t e l l i g e n c e . " From my
t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , I know t h a t D i r e c t o r a t e S i s t h e d i v i s i o n
w i t h i n t h e SVR r e s p o n s i b l e f o r n o n t r a d i t i o n a l espionage, i n c l u d i n g
programs l i k e t h e I l l e g a l s program and SVR agents o p e r a t i n g under
n o n - o f f i c i a l cover, l i k e EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e
defendant.
PODOBNYY t h e n d i s c u s s e d h i s views on t h e v a l u e o f t h e
i n t e l l i g e n c e - g a t h e r i n g e f f o r t s o f the I l l e g a l s i n the United States
("Look, i n t h e S t a t e s even t h e [ D i r e c t o r a t e ] S c o u l d n ' t do a n y t h i n g .
They caught t e n o f them."); h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e statements made
by c e r t a i n Russian l e a d e r s a f t e r t h e I l l e g a l s ' a r r e s t s ("And t h e n
P u t i n even t r i e d t o j u s t i f y t h a t t h e y weren't even t a s k e d t o work,
t h e y were s l e e p e r c e l l s i n case o f m a r t i a l l a w . " ) ; and t h e crimes
w i t h which t h e y were charged i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n J u l y 2010
("remember what t h e y were charged w i t h : i l l e g a l c a s h i n g [ o f t h e
money] t h e Center s e n t " ) , among o t h e r t h i n g s .
PODOBNYY concluded
by s t a t i n g t h a t , w h i l e he agreed t h a t " u n t r a d i t i o n a l " i n t e l l i g e n c e
agents were "more e f f e c t i v e , " t h e SVR's I l l e g a l s program was
u l t i m a t e l y a f a i l u r e ("even t h e S cannot do a n y t h i n g h e r e " ) .

10

C.

Sporyshev and Podobnyy's Attempts to R e c r u i t I n t e l l i g e n c e


Sources i n New York C i t y

29. I n numerous r e c o r d e d communications, IGOR SPORYSHEV


and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, d i s c u s s e d t h e i r a t t e m p t s t o
r e c r u i t United States r e s i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g several i n d i v i d u a l s
employed by major companies, and s e v e r a l young women w i t h t i e s t o
a major u n i v e r s i t y l o c a t e d i n New York, New York ( " U n i v e r s i t y - 1 " ) ,
as i n t e l l i g e n c e sources f o r t h e SVR. On these r e c o r d i n g s , t h e
defendants d i s c u s s e d t h e p o t e n t i a l v a l u e o f t h e s e sources, and
i d e n t i f i e d p a r t i c u l a r sources by use o f a "source name," which
appears t o be a coded name. I n a d d i t i o n , d u r i n g these r e c o r d i n g s ,
SPORYSHEV and PODOBNYY d i s c u s s e d t h e e f f o r t s o f o t h e r SVR agents t o
r e c r u i t a number o f o t h e r R u s s i a n - o r i g i n i n d i v i d u a l s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h
U n i v e r s i t y - 1 as i n t e l l i g e n c e sources. The e x c e r p t s below a r e
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e examples o f PODOBNYY and SPORYSHEV d i s c u s s i n g
a t t e m p t s t o r e c r u i t i n t e l l i g e n c e sources i n New York C i t y .
30. On o r about A p r i l 8, 2013, IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e
defendant, made t h e f o l l o w i n g comments t o VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e
defendant, d u r i n g a r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n i n t h e SVR NY O f f i c e about
p o t e n t i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e sources b e i n g t a r g e t e d by t h e SVR. The
p o t e n t i a l source r e f e r r e d t o as "Female-1" below was a female
employee o f a f i n a n c i a l c o n s u l t i n g f i r m i n New York C i t y . The
p o t e n t i a l source r e f e r r e d t o as "Female-2" below was a n o t h e r female
r e c r u i t m e n t t a r g e t l o c a t e d i n New York C i t y :
IS: W i t h [Female-1], we s t a r t e d t h a t I needed answers t o some
q u e s t i o n s , answers t o which I c o u l d n o t f i n d i n open sources.
Due t o t h a t I am i n t e r e s t e d t o f i n d i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m p a i d
p u b l i c a t i o n s and o p i n i o n s o f independent people who d i s c u s s
these t o p i c s amongst themselves b e h i n d c l o s e d doors . . . .
There was a p o s i t i v e response w i t h o u t any f e e l i n g s o f r e j e c t i o n .
But t h e r e was a problem w i t h [Female-2] . . . . I have l o t s
o f ideas about such g i r l s b u t these ideas a r e n o t a c t i o n a b l e
because t h e y don't a l l o w t o get c l o s e enough. And i n o r d e r t o
be c l o s e you e i t h e r need t o f u c k them o r use o t h e r l e v e r s t o
i n f l u e n c e them t o execute my r e q u e s t s . So when you t e l l me
about g i r l s , i n my e x p e r i e n c e , i t ' s v e r y r a r e t h a t something
workable w i l l come o f i t .
31. I have l e a r n e d from speaking w i t h a n o t h e r FBI agent
("Agent-2"), t h a t , a f t e r l e a r n i n g o f s e v e r a l c o n v e r s a t i o n s between
IGOR SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e d e f e n d a n t s , r e g a r d i n g t h e
t a r g e t i n g o f young female s t u d e n t s and r e c e n t graduates o f
U n i v e r s i t y - 1 , Agent-2 i n t e r v i e w e d two young women - b o t h r e c e n t

11

graduates o f U n i v e r s i t y - 1 . Each woman i n t e r v i e w e d by Agent-2


d i s c u s s e d PODOBNYY by name, and s t a t e d t h a t PODOBNYY t r i e d t o
i n g r a t i a t e h i m s e l f and g a i n i n f o r m a t i o n from each o f them.
32. A l s o on o r about A p r i l 8, 2013, IGOR SPORYSHEV and
VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, d i s c u s s e d PODOBNYY's e f f o r t s t o
r e c r u i t a male w o r k i n g as a c o n s u l t a n t i n New York C i t y ("Male-1")
as an i n t e l l i g e n c e source:
VP:
[Male-1] wrote t h a t he i s s o r r y , he went t o Moscow and
f o r g o t t o check h i s i n b o x , b u t he wants t o meet when he g e t s
back. I t h i n k he i s an i d i o t and f o r g o t who I am. Plus he
w r i t e s t o me i n Russian [ t o ] p r a c t i c e t h e language.
He f l i e s
t o Moscow more o f t e n t h a n I do. He got hooked on Gazprom
t h i n k i n g t h a t i f t h e y have a p r o j e c t , he c o u l d be r i s e up. Maybe
he can. I don't know, b u t i t ' s obvious t h a t he wants t o earn
l o t s o f money . . . .
IS:

W i t h o u t a doubt.

VP:
He s a i d t h a t t h e y have a new p r o j e c t r i g h t now, new energy
boom

VP:
He says t h a t i t i s about t o t a k e o f f .
f o r now.

I don't say a n y t h i n g

IS:
Yeah, f i r s t we w i l l spend a couple o f borrowed m i l l i o n and
then . . . .
VP:
[ U I ] [ l a u g h s ] i t ' s w o r t h i t . I l i k e t h a t he t a k e s on
e v e r y t h i n g . For now h i s enthusiasm works f o r me. I a l s o
promised him a l o t : t h a t I have c o n n e c t i o n s i n t h e Trade
R e p r e s e n t a t i o n , meaning you t h a t you can push c o n t r a c t s
[ l a u g h s ] . I w i l l f e e d him empty promises.
IS:
S h i t , t h e n he w i l l w r i t e me.
one.

Not even me, t o our c l e a n

VP:
I d i d n ' t say t h e Trade R e p r e s e n t a t i o n . . . I d i d n o t even
i n d i c a t e t h a t t h i s i s connected t o a government agency. T h i s
i s i n t e l l i g e n c e method t o cheat, how e l s e t o work w i t h
f o r e i g n e r s ? You promise a f a v o r f o r a f a v o r . You g e t t h e
documents from him and t e l l him t o go f u c k h i m s e l f . But n o t
t o upset you, I w i l l t a k e you t o a r e s t a u r a n t and g i v e you an
expensive g i f t .
You j u s t need t o s i g n f o r i t . T h i s i s i d e a l
w o r k i n g method.

12

33. Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n


i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , IGOR
SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, d i s c u s s e d PODOBNYY's
a t t e m p t e d use o f Male-1 as an i n t e l l i g e n c e source f o r Russia.
PODOBNYY s t a t e d t h a t PODOBNYY had emailed w i t h Male-1 ("[Male-1]
w r o t e t h a t he i s s o r r y " ) , who was i n t e r e s t e d i n b u s i n e s s
o p p o r t u n i t i e s i n Russia ("He got hooked on Gazprom [a Russian energy
company] . . . i t ' s obvious he wants t o earn l o t s o f money").
PODOBNYY s t a t e d t h a t PODOBNYY "promised [Male-1] a l o t " i n terms o f
PODOBNYY's c o n n e c t i o n s i n Russia, i n c l u d i n g t h a t PODOBNYY i s
connected t o SPORYSHEV a t t h e Trade O f f i c e , b u t t h a t t h e s e promises
were "empty promises." A f t e r SPORYSHEV expressed concern t h a t
Male-1 m i g h t a c t u a l l y c o n t a c t SPORYSHEV a t SPORYSHEV s cover
p o s i t i o n , PODOBNYY t o l d SPORYSHEV not t o w o r r y because PODOBNYY d i d
not t e l l Male-1 t h a t SPORYSHEV was connected t o t h e Russian
Government. PODOBNYY t h e n e x p l a i n e d h i s r e c r u i t m e n t method, which
i n c l u d e s c h e a t i n g , p r o m i s i n g f a v o r s , and t h e n d i s c a r d i n g t h e
i n t e l l i g e n c e source once t h e r e l e v a n t i n f o r m a t i o n i s o b t a i n e d by t h e
SVR ("This i s i n t e l l i g e n c e method t o cheat . . . You promise a f a v o r
f o r a f a v o r . You get t h e documents from him and t e l l him t o go f u c k
himself.").
34. On o r about June 13, 2013, Agent-2 and I i n t e r v i e w e d
Male-1. Male-1 s t a t e d t h a t he f i r s t met VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e
defendant, i n January 2013 a t an energy symposium i n New York C i t y .
D u r i n g t h i s i n i t i a l meeting, PODOBNYY gave Male-1 PODOBNYY's
b u s i n e s s c a r d and two e m a i l addresses. Over t h e f o l l o w i n g months,
Male-1 and PODOBNYY exchanged e m a i l s about t h e energy b u s i n e s s and
met i n person on o c c a s i o n , w i t h Male-1 p r o v i d i n g PODOBNYY w i t h
Male-1's o u t l o o k on t h e c u r r e n t and f u t u r e o f t h e energy i n d u s t r y .
Male-1 a l s o p r o v i d e d documents t o PODOBNYY about t h e energy b u s i n e s s .
D.

Buryakov's Work f o r the SVR

35. The FBI's i n v e s t i g a t i o n has a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t ,


t h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e charged o f f e n s e s , EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a
"Zhenya," t h e defendant, worked b o t h t o respond t o i n t e l l i g e n c e
assignments r e l a y e d t o him by IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e d e f e n d a n t , and t o
use h i s cover as a banker t o p r o a c t i v e l y g a t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e about
m a t t e r s o f i n t e r e s t t o t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n .
i.

I n t e l l i g e n c e Taskings Passed Between the Defendants

36.
As d i s c u s s e d below, IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant,
was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e l a y i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e assignments from Moscow
Center t o EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e d e f e n d a n t . Based on
my knowledge o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t n e a r l y a l l o f these

13

assignments were communicated d u r i n g f a c e - t o - f a c e meetings between


SPORYSHEV and BURYAKOV, which were t y p i c a l l y preceded by t e l e p h o n e
c a l l s i n which t h e two men d i s c u s s e d exchanging, f o r example,
" t i c k e t s " o r "a l i s t . " As d i s c u s s e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g paragraphs,
however, t h e FBI o b t a i n e d e l e c t r o n i c r e c o r d i n g s o f s e v e r a l
c o n v e r s a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o such i n t e l l i g e n c e d i r e c t i v e s b e i n g
communicated t o and c a r r i e d o u t by BURYAKOV i n h i s p o s i t i o n as an
SVR agent a c t i n g under n o n - o f f i c i a l cover.
a.

May 21, 2013: S o l i c i t i n g Questions f o r the Russian


Media f o r I n t e l l i g e n c e Purposes

37. On o r about May 2 1 , 2013, IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e


defendant, c a l l e d EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant,
t o ask f o r BURYAKOVs h e l p i n f o r m u l a t i n g q u e s t i o n s t o be used f o r
i n t e l l i g e n c e - g a t h e r i n g purposes by o t h e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l e a d i n g
Russian state-owned news o r g a n i z a t i o n ( t h e "News O r g a n i z a t i o n " ) .
38. From my t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , I know t h a t t h e News
O r g a n i z a t i o n has been p u b l i c l y i d e n t i f i e d by former SVR agents as
an o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t i s sometimes used by Russian i n t e l l i g e n c e t o
g a i n access t o and g a t h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e under t h e cover o f t h e news
media.
39. D u r i n g t h e May 2 1 , 2013 t e l e p h o n e c a l l between EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," and IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e d e f e n d a n t s , which
was i n t e r c e p t e d by t h e FBI, t h e f o l l o w i n g exchange o c c u r r e d :
EVGENY BURYAKOV ("EB"):
IS:

Hello?

H e l l o Evgeny.

EB: Hey.
IS:

Can you t a l k ?

. . . I need h e l p .

EB: Aha.
IS:
[The News O r g a n i z a t i o n ] wants v e r y much, I don't know how
i t came down f r o m t h e t o p , b u t t h e y need t h r e e q u e s t i o n s w i t h
r e g a r d t o t h e New York Exchange. What would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o
us. Can you h e l p w r i t e something?
EB:

I t ' s a d i f f i c u l t question. . . .

IS:

Can you t h i n k o f something i n f i f t e e n minutes?

EB:

F i f t e e n minutes?

14

I need t o t h i n k .

IS:

Yes.

EB:

I ' l l t r y . . . . Should I c a l l you?

IS:

Yes, c a l l me.

EB:

I f you w i l l n o t pass by me?

IS:

No, I w i l l n o t .

40. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 20 minutes l a t e r , IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e


defendant, c a l l e d EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya,"the defendant,
and t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n v e r s a t i o n , which was i n t e r c e p t e d by t h e F B I ,
occurred:
EB: W e l l , I t h o u g h t about i t . I don't know whether i t w i l l
work f o r you but you can ask about ETF. . . . E-T-F. E, exchange.
IS:

Yes, g o t i t .

EB: How t h e y a r e used, t h e mechanisms o f use f o r


d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n o f t h e markets.
IS:
Mechanism - o f - use - f o r - market - s t a b i l i z a t i o n i n
modern c o n d i t i o n s .
EB:
IS:

For d e s t a b i l i z a t i o n .
Aha.

EB: Then you can ask them what t h e y t h i n k about l i m i t i n g t h e


use o f t r a d i n g r o b o t s . . . . You can a l s o ask about t h e
p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t o f t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e exchange t o t h e
p r o d u c t s t i e d t o t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n .
41. Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , IGOR
SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant, asked f o r , and o b t a i n e d from, EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, q u e s t i o n s o f i n t e r e s t t o
t h e Russian economic i n t e l l i g e n c e community t h a t were t o be used by
o t h e r s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e News O r g a n i z a t i o n . SPORYSHEV began t h e
c o n v e r s a t i o n by a s k i n g f o r h e l p ( " I need h e l p " ) . SPORYSHEV s a i d t h a t
a request came down from l e a d e r s h i p , which I b e l i e v e t o be a r e f e r e n c e
t o t h e SVR l e a d e r s h i p , t o pass t h r e e q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g t h e New York
Stock Exchange t o t h e News O r g a n i z a t i o n ("[The News O r g a n i z a t i o n ]
wants v e r y much . . . i t came down from t h e t o p , b u t t h e y need t h r e e
q u e s t i o n s w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e New York Exchange").
42.

I n a n o t a b l e d e p a r t u r e from every o t h e r i n t e r c e p t e d
15

c o n v e r s a t i o n i n v o l v i n g these two men, IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant,


made i t c l e a r i n t h i s c a l l t h a t t h e two men d i d n o t have t i m e t o meet
i n person t o d i s c u s s t h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e assignment.
Rather,
SPORYSHEV asked EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e d e f e n d a n t , t o
get back t o him w i t h i n " f i f t e e n m i n u t e s " ("Can you t h i n k o f something
i n f i f t e e n m i n u t e s ? " ) . BURYAKOV t h e n suggested he would c a l l
SPORYSHEV back b u t o n l y i f SPORYSHEV was unable t o meet i n person
( I S : "Yes, c a l l me."; EB: " I f you w i l l n o t pass by me?") . I b e l i e v e
t h a t t h i s t i m e p r e s s u r e i s t h e reason t h a t t h i s p a r t i c u l a r
i n t e l l i g e n c e assignment was r e l a y e d over a t e l e p h o n e l i n e r a t h e r t h a n
i n person.
43. IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant, t h e n c a l l e d EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, back t o s u p p l y a p a r t i c u l a r
l i n e o f q u e s t i o n i n g f o r use by t h e News O r g a n i z a t i o n .
Specifically,
BURYAKOV s a i d t h e News O r g a n i z a t i o n c o u l d ask about how t h e New York
Stock Exchange ("NYSE") used exchange-traded funds o r "ETF";
p o t e n t i a l l i m i t s on t h e use o f h i g h - f r e q u e n c y , automated t r a d i n g
systems ( " t r a d i n g r o b o t s " ) ; and t h e p o t e n t i a l i n t e r e s t among NYSE
members t o p r o d u c t s t i e d t o Russia ("products t i e d t o t h e Russian
Federation").
44. Based on my t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , and my
f a m i l i a r i t y with t h i s investigation, I believe that neither
defendant's cover p o s i t i o n - banker (EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a
"Zhenya," t h e defendant) and a Trade O f f i c e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e (IGOR
SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant) - i n v o l v e s p r o v i d i n g a s s i s t a n c e t o Russian
j o u r n a l i s t s . Nor do t h e i r covers e x p l a i n why t h e two men would be
engaging i n a d i s c u s s i o n about c r a f t i n g q u e s t i o n s t h a t "would be
i n t e r e s t i n g t o u s " and t h a t t h e News O r g a n i z a t i o n r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s
s h o u l d p u t t o New York Stock Exchange employees.
b.

March 28, 2014: Economic Sanctions I n t e l l i g e n c e

45. Another example o f an i n t e l l i g e n c e t a s k i n g o c c u r r e d


i n l a t e March 2014.
S p e c i f i c a l l y , on o r about March 28, 2014, IGOR
SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant, d u r i n g an a u d i o - r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n ,
t o l d EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e d e f e n d a n t , t h a t SPORYSHEV
needed h e l p r e s e a r c h i n g t h e " e f f e c t s o f economic s a n c t i o n s on o u r
c o u n t r y , " among o t h e r t h i n g s .
46. A few days l a t e r , on A p r i l 2, 2014, IGOR SPORYSHEV,
t h e defendant, c a l l e d EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e
d e f e n d a n t , and s t a t e d , i n an i n t e r c e p t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h a t he had
n o t seen BURYAKOV i n a w h i l e , and asked t o meet BURYAKOV o u t s i d e
Bank-1' s o f f i c e i n Manhattan i n 20 m i n u t e s . A c o v e r t p h y s i c a l search
o f BURYAKOVs computer a t Bank-1 r e v e a l e d t h a t , a t around t h e t i m e

16

o f t h i s telephone c a l l , BURYAKOV conducted t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r n e t


searches: " s a n c t i o n s Russia consiquences" [ s i c ] and " s a n c t i o n s
Russia impact."
47. Two days l a t e r , on A p r i l 4, 2014, EVGENY BURYAKOV,
a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, c a l l e d IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant,
and s a i d , i n an i n t e r c e p t e d c o n v e r s a t i o n , t h a t he (BURYAKOV) "wrote
you an o r d e r l i s t , " and suggested t h a t t h e y meet. A p p r o x i m a t e l y 20
minutes l a t e r , SPORYSHEV met BURYAKOV i n BURYAKOVs driveway.
Their
encounter, which was c a p t u r e d by a v i d e o s u r v e i l l a n c e camera l o c a t e d
near BURYAKOV s r e s i d e n c e , l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y two minutes.
On t h e
v i d e o f o o t a g e , t h e defendants appeared t o exchange a s m a l l o b j e c t .
48. Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and f a m i l i a r i t y
with t h i s investigation, I believe that, i n t h i s series of
i n t e r c e p t e d communications and s u r v e i l l e d meetings, IGOR SPORYSHEV,
t h e defendant, r e l a y e d an i n t e l l i g e n c e - g a t h e r i n g assignment t o
EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant ( t o r e s e a r c h " t h e
e f f e c t o f economic s a n c t i o n s . . . on our c o u n t r y " ) , BURYAKOV e x p l o r e d
t h e s u b j e c t t h r o u g h i n t e r n e t searches and p o t e n t i a l l y o t h e r
i n t e l l i g e n c e - g a t h e r i n g e f f o r t s , and l a t e r gave t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n t o
SPORYSHEV ( t h e " o r d e r l i s t " ) d u r i n g an exchange i n BURYAKOVs
driveway.
e r i n g Work by Buryakov
a.

A p r i l 11, 2013: Buryakov's P r i o r Work a s an


I n t e l l i g e n c e Agent i n Another Country

49.
I have l e a r n e d from r e v i e w i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n
s u b m i t t e d by EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, f o r a
U n i t e d States work v i s a t h a t , b e f o r e coming t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i n
August 2010, BURYAKOV worked f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y f i v e years as an
employee a t a Bank-1 o f f i c e i n a c o u n t r y o u t s i d e o f Russia and t h e
U n i t e d States ("Country-1").
I have a l s o reviewed a r e c o r d e d
c o n v e r s a t i o n between IGOR SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e
defendants, t h a t r e v e a l s t h a t BURYAKOV has worked as an i n t e l l i g e n c e
agent p o s i n g under t h e cover o f h i s j o b as a banker b o t h w i t h i n and
o u t s i d e t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , i n c l u d i n g d u r i n g h i s t i m e as an employee
o f Bank-1 i n C o u n t r y - 1 .
50.
S p e c i f i c a l l y , on o r about A p r i l 11, 2013, IGOR
SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, had a c o n v e r s a t i o n ,
which was r e c o r d e d , i n s i d e t h e SVR NY O f f i c e , d u r i n g which PODOBNYY
stated:
VP:

Zhenya [BURYAKOV] t o l d [me] t h a t [SVR S u p e r i o r - 1 ] came t o

17

[Country-1] t o [ v i s i t ] t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e b u t he was n o t number


one person.
He had a boss i n [Country-1] . Because he t o l d me
t h a t [SVR S u p e r i o r - 1 ] v i s i t e d Zhenya. Even h i s boss d i d n ' t
know t h a t Zhenya was undercover. He d i d n ' t know t h a t Zhenya
i s an employee o f t h e S e r v i c e . And Zhenya's boss goes l i k e ,
t a k e him t o a r e s t a u r a n t t o n i g h t . They s a t , t h e t h r e e o f them
and i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t [SVR S u p e r i o r - 1 ] i n t r o d u c e d Zhenya i n h i s
new c a p a c i t y . Zhenya says he doesn't know t o t h i s day why he
d i d t h a t , i t seems [he wanted] t o exclude [ t h e p o s s i b i l i t y ] o f
interagency f r i c t i o n s .
He t o l d me t h a t h i m s e l f .
51. Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and f a m i l i a r i t y
w i t h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , VICTOR
PODOBNYY, t h e defendant, recounted a s t o r y t o l d t o him by EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant ( r e f e r r e d t o u s i n g t h e
Russian f a m i l i a r form o f t h e name "Evgeny": "Zhenya"). A c c o r d i n g
t o PODOBNYY's account, t h e i n d i v i d u a l r e f e r r e d t o as "SVR S u p e r i o r - 1 "
- whom I know, based on my knowledge o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n and o f
t h e SVR more g e n e r a l l y , t o be t h e former head o f t h e D i r e c t o r a t e ER
d i v i s i o n o f t h e SVR and BURYAKOV s former SVR s u p e r v i s o r - v i s i t e d
Country-1 d u r i n g BURYAKOVs t e n u r e as a Bank-1 employee and
i n t e l l i g e n c e agent i n Country-1.
52. A c c o r d i n g t o t h e account o f VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e
defendant, EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, had a t
l e a s t one s u p e r v i s o r i n h i s cover j o b a t Bank-1 i n C o u n t r y - 1 , and
h i s s u p e r v i s o r was unaware, p r i o r t o SVR S u p e r i o r - 1 ' s v i s i t , o f
BURYAKOV s work as an SVR agent working under n o n - o f f i c i a l cover
( " [ h ] e had a boss i n [Country-1] . . . even h i s boss d i d n ' t know t h a t
Zhenya was u n d e r c o v e r " ) .
A t a d i n n e r i n v o l v i n g BURYAKOV, SVR
S u p e r i o r - 1 , and BURYAKOVs boss a t Bank-1, SVR S u p e r i o r - 1 r e v e a l e d
BURYAKOVs r o l e as an i n t e l l i g e n c e agent ( " i n t h e r e s t a u r a n t [SVR
S u p e r i o r - 1 ] i n t r o d u c e d Zhenya i n h i s new c a p a c i t y " ) .
PODOBNYY a l s o
made c l e a r t h a t t h i s s t o r y was t o l d t o him by BURYAKOV " h i m s e l f . "
53. Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and f a m i l i a r i t y
with t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I believe t h i s conversation r e f l e c t s
c o - c o n s p i r a t o r s o f EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant,
d i s c u s s i n g BURYAKOVs h i s t o r i c a l work as an SVR agent i n t h e c o u n t r y
i n which he l i v e d b e f o r e coming t o t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s .
b.
May 23, 2013: Buryakov Provides I n t e l l i g e n c e Regarding an
A i r p l a n e Manufacturing Deal i n Country-2
54 . I have l e a r n e d from r e v i e w i n g p u b l i s h e d news r e p o r t s
t h a t , i n o r about l a t e 2013, p u b l i s h e d accounts d e t a i l e d t h e f i n a l

18

stages o f n e g o t i a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o a m u l t i - b i l l i o n d o l l a r
t r a n s a c t i o n between a state-owned Russian c o r p o r a t i o n and an
a i r p l a n e m a n u f a c t u r e r ("Company-1") based i n another c o u n t r y o u t s i d e
o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s and Russia ("Country-2"). Under t h e terms o f
t h e proposed agreement, t h e Russian c o r p o r a t i o n agreed t o purchase
dozens o f Company-1's a i r p l a n e s , on t h e c o n d i t i o n t h a t t h e a i r p l a n e s
would be b u i l t a t a new m a n u f a c t u r i n g p l a n t i n Russia.
55. D u r i n g t h e course o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I have
l e a r n e d t h a t , i n t h e months p r e c e d i n g p u b l i c r e p o r t s r e g a r d i n g t h e
a i r p l a n e m a n u f a c t u r i n g d e a l , EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e
defendant, was g a t h e r i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e about t h e p o t e n t i a l d e a l and,
w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f IGOR SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e
defendants, was a n a l y z i n g i t and p r o v i d i n g i t t o t h e i r SVR
s u p e r v i s o r s a t Moscow Center.
56.
I have l e a r n e d from r e v i e w i n g t r a v e l r e c o r d s , among
o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant,
t r a v e l e d t o Country-2 i n November 2012 and March 2013 i n o r d e r t o
a t t e n d conferences h e l d t h e r e by a t r a d e a s s o c i a t i o n based i n
Country-2.
Based on my review o f emails BURYAKOV sent and r e c e i v e d
i n advance o f b o t h t r i p s , I have l e a r n e d t h a t BURYAKOV a t t e n d e d t h e
conferences as a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Bank-1. I n t r u t h , however,
d u r i n g b o t h h i s November 2012 and March 2013 t r i p s t o Country-2,
BURYAKOV was g a t h e r i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e f o r t h e SVR d u r i n g c o n f i d e n t i a l
meetings w i t h r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f Company-1 and o t h e r s .
57.
I have reviewed a r e p o r t r e g a r d i n g t h e November 2012
t r i p t o Country-2 prepared by EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e
defendant, i n h i s c a p a c i t y as a Bank-1 employee (the "Report") . I n
or about August 2013, t h e FBI downloaded t h e Report from BURYAKOVs
work computer d u r i n g a l a w f u l , c o v e r t p h y s i c a l search o f h i s o f f i c e .
The Report r e c o u n t s BURYAKOVs meetings a t t h e November 2012
conference w i t h a s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e o f Company-1 ("Executive-1") , and
noted t h a t Company-1' s management viewed Russia as a p r o m i s i n g market
f o r a i r p l a n e s a l e s . The Report bears a Bank-1 watermark and i s
addressed t o BURYAKOVs s u p e r v i s o r a t Bank-1. The Report makes no
r e f e r e n c e t o BURYAKOV r e l a t i n g any o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n about t h e
p o t e n t i a l d e a l t o i n t e l l i g e n c e agents, o r s u b m i t t i n g a p r o p o s a l t o
Moscow Center - o r any o t h e r component o f t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n for assistance.
58. From r e v i e w i n g t r a v e l r e c o r d s , e m a i l communications
i n v o l v i n g EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, and
p u b l i c l y a v a i l a b l e r e c o r d s r e l a t i n g t o t h e March 2013 conference,
I have l e a r n e d t h a t BURYAKOV a t t e n d e d t h e March 2013 conference a t
t h e same t i m e as E x e c u t i v e - 1 and t h a t he (BURYAKOV) d i d so o s t e n s i b l y

19

i n h i s c a p a c i t y as an employee o f Bank-1.
59.
From r e v i e w i n g a u d i o - r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n s
i n v o l v i n g IGOR SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNNY, t h e defendants, i n s i d e
of t h e SVR NY O f f i c e , I have l e a r n e d t h a t , w h i l e EVGENY BURYAKOV,
a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, was h o l d i n g h i m s e l f out as an employee
of Bank-1 a t t h e conferences i n Country-2 i n o r about November 2012
and March 2013, he was a l s o g a t h e r i n g and r e p o r t i n g on t h e p r o g r e s s
of t h e proposed a i r p l a n e d e a l t o t h e SVR, and c r a f t i n g a p r o p o s a l
f o r Moscow Center t o a t t e m p t t o i n f l u e n c e t h e course o f t h e
n e g o t i a t i o n s i n Russia's f a v o r .
60.
S p e c i f i c a l l y , on o r about May 23, 2013, IGOR
SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNNY, t h e defendants, had t h e f o l l o w i n g
a u d i o - r e c o r d e d c o n v e r s a t i o n i n s i d e t h e SVR NY O f f i c e r e g a r d i n g ,
among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h e r o l e o f EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e
defendant, i n d e v e l o p i n g i n t e l l i g e n c e about t h e Company-1 d e a l :
IS:
Zhenya [BURYAKOV] d r a f t e d , what do you c a l l i t , a p r o p o s a l
[U/I].
VP: Aha.
IS:

I w i l l have t o process

i t now [ U / I ] .

VP:

What's t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r ?

IS:
. . . He d r a f t e d , as I t o l d you b e f o r e , about [Company-1]
planes.
VP:

So what's h i s idea?

IS:
The i d e a i s t h a t [ i n d i v i d u a l s i n Country-2] want t o s e t
up t h e assembly o f mid-range a i r p l a n e s t h a t f a l l between [two
particular airplane s i z e s ] . . . .
VP:

Where do t h e y want t o s e t up t h e assembly?

IS:

I n Russia.

VP:

That's an i m p o r t a n t p o i n t .

IS:
I t ' s l i k e , t o a t t r a c t t h e t e c h n o l o g i e s , and besides t h e y
are t a l k i n g about t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f assembling a i r p l a n e s w i t h
a p o s s i b i l i t y o f s e l l i n g , t o e x p o r t them from Russia.
VP: Aha.
IS:

But t h e [Country-2] unions a r e r e s i s t i n g . T h e r e f o r e , t h e


20

p r o p o s a l f o r MS i s geared towards p r e s s u r i n g t h e unions and


s e c u r i n g from t h e company a s o l u t i o n t h a t i s b e n e f i c i a l t o us.
~k ~k -k

VP:

I t ' s s t r a n g e t o o f f e r a [Country-2] p r o p o s a l from New York.

IS:

Why?

VP: I t ' s c o n s i d e r e d bad t a s t e . What t h e fuck? Can't


[Country-2] s o r t t h i s out?
[Country-2 o f f i c e ] can [ U / I ] .
IS:
the
VP:

F i r s t o f a l l he had meetings w i t h [a s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e ] o f
company.
W e l l , i f he can c i t e t h a t t h e n .

IS: N a t u r a l l y , we are n o t j u s t dumping t h i s .


I t ' s because he
was t h e r e on b u s i n e s s . He h e l d a number o f meetings t h e r e , and
s t r i c t l y speaking, where's t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n from? I t ' s t h e
result of confidential talks.
VP: I t h i n k our i n d u s t r i a l i s t s , on t h a t s i d e , know t h a t unions
are a problem.
IS:
I don't know. R i g h t now we don't have a person t h e r e who
would be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e economic q u e s t i o n s

IS: N a t u r a l l y . We a r e t a l k i n g about a p r o p o s a l f o r MS, b u t


t h e r e ' s an e n t i r e d i r e c t o r a t e t h a t s h o u l d t h i n k about whether
[we] need i t o r n o t .
61.
Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and f a m i l i a r i t y
w i t h t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , IGOR
SPORYSHEV and VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, d i s c u s s e d
i n t e l l i g e n c e g a t h e r e d by EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e
defendant, w h i l e w o r k i n g i n h i s cover p o s i t i o n as a Bank-1 employee.
SPORYSHEV began t h e d i s c u s s i o n by s t a t i n g t h a t BURYAKOV w r o t e a
r e p o r t about a p o t e n t i a l d e a l i n v o l v i n g Company-1 m a n u f a c t u r i n g
a i r p l a n e s i n Russia ("Zhenya d r a f t e d . . . a p r o p o s a l . . . about
[Company-1] a i r p l a n e s " ) .
SPORYSHEV t h e n n o t e d t h a t l a b o r unions i n
2

Based on my t r a i n i n g and experience i n i n v e s t i g a t i n g t h e SVR, I have


l e a r n e d t h a t t h e acronym "MS" i s commonly used by t h e SVR t o r e f e r
t o t h e " A c t i v e Measures D i r e c t o r a t e " o f t h e SVR, which i s r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r i m p l e m e n t i n g p r o a c t i v e measures designed t o i n f l u e n c e g l o b a l
p o l i t i c a l and economic events i n Russia's f a v o r .
21

Country-2 were opposing t h e d e a l ("the [Country-2] unions a r e


resisting").
Thus, BURYAKOVs p r o p o s a l was f o r t h e SVR's " A c t i v e
Measures" d i r e c t o r a t e - r e f e r r e d t o as "MS" - t o i n f l u e n c e t h e unions
and Country-2 ("the p r o p o s a l f o r MS i s geared towards p r e s s u r i n g t h e
unions").
62. VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendant, r e a c t e d t o t h e
summary o f t h e p r o p o s a l by n o t i n g t h a t i t was odd t o r o u t e a p r o p o s a l
r e l a t i n g t o a m a t t e r i n Country-2 t h r o u g h t h e SVR's New York o f f i c e
( " [ i ] t ' s s t r a n g e t o o f f e r a [Country-2] p r o p o s a l from New York
. . . Can't [Country-2] s o r t t h i s o u t ? " ) . IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e
defendant, responded by s t a t i n g t h a t EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a
"Zhenya," t h e defendant, g a t h e r e d t h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e t h r o u g h
"meetings w i t h " . a s e n i o r e x e c u t i v e o f Company-1, and t h a t t h e SVR
New York O f f i c e was going t o m a i n t a i n c o n t r o l over t h e i n f o r m a t i o n
("we are not j u s t dumping t h i s . . . i t ' s t h e r e s u l t o f c o n f i d e n t i a l
talks").
63.
IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant, a l s o n o t e d t h a t t h e
SVR o f f i c e i n Country-2 d i d n o t have any agents r e s p o n s i b l e f o r
economic i n t e l l i g e n c e ("Right now we don't have a person t h e r e who
i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e economic q u e s t i o n s " ) . SPORYSHEV concluded
by s t a t i n g t h a t t h e m a t t e r b e i n g d i s c u s s e d was a p r o p o s a l f o r a
s t r a t e g y t o be c r e a t e d by t h e A c t i v e Measures D i r e c t o r a t e w i t h i n t h e
SVR, and t h a t another group, o r " d i r e c t o r a t e , " would be r e s p o n s i b l e
f o r d e c i d i n g whether t o implement t h e s t r a t e g y t o i n f l u e n c e t h e
Company-1 d e a l ("We are t a l k i n g about a p r o p o s a l f o r MS, b u t t h e r e ' s
an e n t i r e d i r e c t o r a t e t h a t s h o u l d t h i n k about whether [we] need i t
or n o t . " ) .
64.
I b e l i e v e t h a t t h i s evidence h i g h l i g h t s t h e v a l u e o f
EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, as an SVR agent
o p e r a t i n g i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w i t h o u t an o f f i c i a l cover.
Because
he was o p e r a t i n g as a " p r i v a t e " employee unbeknownst t o any o f t h e
o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s , BURYAKOV was a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a f o r e i g n
conference a t t e n d e d by bankers and r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f p r i v a t e
companies, and t o j o i n i n meetings where conference attendees shared
i n f o r m a t i o n about a p o t e n t i a l m u l t i - b i l l i o n d o l l a r m a n u f a c t u r i n g
agreement between Russia and Company-1, a l l o f which he c o u l d t h e n
use f o r i n t e l l i g e n c e - r e l a t e d purposes as an SVR agent.
65.
I n f a c t , as r e f l e c t e d i n t h e c o n v e r s a t i o n quoted
above, r e l y i n g on t h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e , EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a
"Zhenya," t h e defendant, c r a f t e d a " p r o p o s a l " f o r an SVR d i v i s i o n
t o a t t e m p t t o d e f e a t t h e o p p o s i t i o n o f unions w i t h i n Country-2 t o
the proposed d e a l . BURYAKOV r o u t e d t h i s p r o p o s a l , and t h e
i n t e l l i g e n c e he g a t h e r e d about t h e proposed d e a l , t h r o u g h IGOR

22

SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant, h i s o f f i c i a l cover c o u n t e r p a r t a t t h e SVR


NY O f f i c e .
SPORYSHEV and h i s f e l l o w SVR agent, VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e
defendant, d i s c u s s e d what steps t o t a k e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p r o p o s a l
d r a f t e d by BURYAKOV b e f o r e d e c i d i n g t o t r a n s m i t t h e p r o p o s a l t o t h e
A c t i v e Measures D i r e c t o r a t e i n Moscow.
c.

Buryakov s Receipt o f Purported O f f i c i a l


S t a t e s Government Documents

United

66. As s e t f o r t h below, i n t h e summer o f 2014, EVGENY


BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, met numerous t i m e s w i t h a
c o n f i d e n t i a l source w o r k i n g f o r t h e FBI ("CS-1") . CS-1 posed as t h e
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a w e a l t h y i n v e s t o r l o o k i n g t o work w i t h Bank-1 t o
develop casinos i n Russia.
Based on my review o f audio r e c o r d i n g s
of BURYAKOVs meetings w i t h CS-1, as w e l l as my knowledge o f t h i s
i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , d u r i n g t h e course o f these meetings,
BURYAKOV s statements and conduct r e f l e c t e d h i s s t r o n g d e s i r e t o
o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n about s u b j e c t s f a r o u t s i d e t h e scope o f h i s work
as a bank employee, and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h h i s i n t e r e s t s as a Russian
i n t e l l i g e n c e agent. These meetings e s t a b l i s h e d BURYAKOVs
w i l l i n g n e s s t o s o l i c i t and accept documents t h a t CS-1 c l a i m e d he had
o b t a i n e d f r o m a U.S. government agency and which p u r p o r t e d l y
c o n t a i n e d i n f o r m a t i o n p o t e n t i a l l y u s e f u l t o t h e Russian F e d e r a t i o n .
The f o l l o w i n g i s based on my d i s c u s s i o n s w i t h CS-1, my r e v i e w o f audio
r e c o r d i n g s o f CS-l's meetings w i t h BURYAKOV, s u r v e i l l a n c e conducted
by t h e FBI, and l a w f u l i n t e r c e p t i o n s o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s between
BURYAKOV and IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant.
67. On o r about J u l y 22, 2014, CS-1 c a l l e d EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant. CS-1 arranged t o meet
BURYAKOV a t Bank-1's o f f i c e s i n Manhattan on J u l y 25, 2014.
68. On o r about J u l y 22, 2014, EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a
"Zhenya," and IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e defendants, had a c o n v e r s a t i o n .
BURYAKOV and SPORYSHEV d i s c u s s e d an e m a i l t o BURYAKOV r e g a r d i n g t h e
p o t e n t i a l development o f casinos i n Russia.
BURYAKOV s t a t e d t h a t
the s u b j e c t o f t h e e m a i l was c o n c e r n i n g "some s o r t o f f u c k i n g
nonsense" r e l a t i n g t o c a s i n o s . SPORYSHEV s t a t e d , " I t ' s u n c l e a r .
. . Casino, Russia, l i k e , some s o r t o f a s e t up. Trap o f some s o r t .
I cannot understand what t h e p o i n t i s . " SPORYSHEV added, "You c o u l d
meet [an a s s o c i a t e o f CS-1] i f you want - you w i l l l o o k and decide
for yourself."
69. Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , i n t h i s c o n v e r s a t i o n , EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," and IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e d e f e n d a n t s ,
d i s c u s s e d BURYAKOVs upcoming meeting w i t h CS-1.
BURYAKOV r e f e r r e d

23

t o a meeting as r e l a t i n g t o "some s o r t o f f u c k i n g nonsense."


SPORYSHEV responded t h a t t h e meeting w i t h CS-1 about a " c a s i n o " i n
"Russia" m i g h t be "some s o r t o f s e t up" and a " [ t ] r a p o f some s o r t . "
N e v e r t h e l e s s , SPORYSHEV, a c t i n g as BURYAKOVs SVR h a n d l e r , p e r m i t t e d
BURYAKOV t o meet w i t h CS-1 ("you c o u l d meet him i f you w a n t " ) .
70. On o r about J u l y 25, 2014, CS-1 met EVGENY BURYAKOV,
a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, a t Bank-l's o f f i c e s i n Manhattan.
CS-1 e x p l a i n e d t h a t CS-1 was i n t e r e s t e d i n d e v e l o p i n g c a s i n o s i n
Russia. CS-1 i n v i t e d BURYAKOV t o v i s i t h i s o f f i c e i n A t l a n t i c C i t y ,
New Jersey t o f u r t h e r d i s c u s s t h e c a s i n o p r o j e c t .
BURYAKOV agreed.
71.
On o r about August 7, 2014, EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a
"Zhenya," and IGOR SPORYSHEV, t h e d e f e n d a n t s , spoke about BURYAKOVs
t r i p t o A t l a n t i c C i t y scheduled f o r t h e next day. SPORYSHEV t o l d
BURYAKOV n o t t o d r i v e t o A t l a n t i c C i t y , b u t r a t h e r t o l e t a n o t h e r
man ("Male-2") d r i v e .
72. On o r about August 8, 2014, CS-1 met w i t h EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e d e f e n d a n t , and Male-2 i n A t l a n t i c C i t y .
The m e e t i n g l a s t e d from around noon t o 7:00 p.m. and i n c l u d e d a t o u r
o f c a s i n o s i n A t l a n t i c C i t y . A t t h e end o f t h e day, CS-1 t o o k
BURYAKOV and Male-2 t o CS-l's o f f i c e , where CS-1 gave a PowerPoint
p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e proposed c a s i n o p r o j e c t i n Russia. A t t h e end
of t h e PowerPoint p r e s e n t a t i o n , CS-1 noted t h a t U.S. s a n c t i o n s
a g a i n s t Russia c o u l d have an impact on t h e i r p r o j e c t .
CS-1 a l s o
p r e s e n t e d BURYAKOV w i t h a U n i t e d S t a t e s Government document
("Government Document-1"), l a b e l e d " I n t e r n a l Treasury Use Only,"
which c o n t a i n e d a l i s t o f Russian i n d i v i d u a l s who had been s a n c t i o n e d
by t h e U n i t e d States.. CS-1 s t a t e d t h a t CS-1 had a c o n t a c t i n t h e
U n i t e d S t a t e s Government and c o u l d g e t more i n f o r m a t i o n about
s a n c t i o n s i f BURYAKOV was i n t e r e s t e d .
BURYAKOV r e p l i e d t h a t he was
i n t e r e s t e d i n such i n f o r m a t i o n .
A t t h e end o f t h e m e e t i n g , BURYAKOV
asked i f he c o u l d keep Government Document-1, which CS-1 t h e n handed
t o BURYAKOV. BURYAKOV t o o k t h e document w i t h him and l e f t t h e
meeting.
73. On o r about August 28, 2014, CS-1 met w i t h EVGENY
BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e d e f e n d a n t , a t Bank-1 a g a i n .
During
t h i s m e e t i n g , CS-1 gave BURYAKOV another U n i t e d S t a t e s Government
document, l a b e l e d "UNCLASSIFIED/FOUO," which was a l i s t o f Russian
banks, broken down by s i z e ("Government Document-2"). CS-1 t o l d
BURYAKOV t h a t CS-1 o b t a i n e d t h e l i s t from h i s c o n t a c t i n t h e U n i t e d
S t a t e s Government. CS-1 a l s o s t a t e d t h a t t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s
Government was u s i n g t h i s l i s t t o i d e n t i f y Russian banks on which
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"FOUO" i s an acronym t h a t stands f o r "For O f f i c i a l Use Only.


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t o impose s a n c t i o n s .
BURYAKOV asked CS-1 f o r more i n f o r m a t i o n
r e g a r d i n g s a n c t i o n s , s p e c i f i c a l l y when more s a n c t i o n s w i l l be
imposed, t h e t y p e o f s a n c t i o n s t o be imposed and which e n t i t i e s w i l l
be named i n f u t u r e s a n c t i o n s .
BURYAKOV a l s o s t a t e d t h a t he would
l i k e any i n f o r m a t i o n about s a n c t i o n s t h a t CS-1 c o u l d o b t a i n , not j u s t
information l i m i t e d t o the f i n a n c i a l sector.
BURYAKOV t o o k
Government Document-2 d u r i n g t h e course o f the m e e t i n g and l e f t t h e
m e e t i n g w i t h t h e document.
74.
Immediately a f t e r t h e August 28, 2014 meeting w i t h
CS-1, EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," t h e defendant, c a l l e d IGOR
SPORYSHEV, t h e defendant. BURYAKOV asked SPORYSHEV whether
SPORYSHEV r e c e i v e d "the schoolbooks." BURYAKOV and SPORYSHEV t h e n
made p l a n s t o meet t h a t n i g h t . BURYAKOV l e f t t h e Bank-1 o f f i c e t h a t
n i g h t around 7:15 p.m. h o l d i n g a b r i e f c a s e , and t r a v e l e d d i r e c t l y
t o SPORYSHEVs home i n t h e Bronx, New York. BURYAKOV remained a t
SPORYSHEVs home f o r a p p r o x i m a t e l y 40 minutes, b e f o r e l e a v i n g w i t h
t h e b r i e f c a s e . Based on my t r a i n i n g , e x p e r i e n c e , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n
i n t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I b e l i e v e t h a t , a f t e r BURYAKOV o b t a i n e d
Government Document-2 from CS-1 on August 28, 2014, BURYAKOV c a l l e d
SPORYSHEV t o i n f o r m SPORYSEHV he had i n t e l l i g e n c e i n f o r m a t i o n f o r
SPORYSHEV, r e f e r r i n g t o Government Document-2 by code as " t h e
schoolbooks." Based on my t r a i n i n g and e x p e r i e n c e , and my knowledge
o f t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n , I f u r t h e r b e l i e v e t h a t BURYAKOV t h e n went t o
SPORYSHEV s home and Government Document-2 w i t h SPORYSHEV, which
BURYAKOV had c a r r i e d i n t h e b r i e f c a s e .

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WHEREFORE, deponent prays t h a t w a r r a n t s be i s s u e d f o r t h e


a r r e s t s o f EVGENY BURYAKOV, a/k/a "Zhenya," IGOR SPORYSHEV, and
VICTOR PODOBNYY, t h e defendants, and t h a t t h e y be a r r e s t e d and
i m p r i s o n e d , o r b a i l e d , as t h e case may be.

GREGORY MONAGHAN
S p e c i a l Agent
Federal Bureau o f I n v e s t i g a t i o n

Sworn t o b e f o r e me t h i s
23rd day o f January, 2015

THE HONORABLE FRANK MAAS


UNITED STATES MAGISTRATE JUDGE
SOUTHERN DISTRICT OF NEW YORK

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