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The Expanding Universe???

The Expanding Universe???

The Expanding Universe???


Big Bang Theory -- the scientific theory
of the universes earliest moments,
stating that all the matter in our
observable universe came into being at
a single moment in time as an extremely
hot, dense mixture of subatomic
particles and radiation.

The Expanding Universe???


There are 4 evidences that led scientists
to widely accept the Big Bang theory.

The Expanding Universe???


There are 4 evidences that led scientists
to widely accept the Big Bang theory.
1) Hubbles Law
2) Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)
3) Galaxies that are spread apart
4) Chemical Composition of the Universe

The Expanding Universe???

Hubbles Law

Hubbles Law
Redshift Signifies
object moving away

Blueshift Signifies
object moving towards

Hubbles Law

TWrT

Galaxy

Hubbles Law
TWrT
1) Which direction is this galaxy
traveling?

Galaxy

Hubbles Law
TWrT
1) Which direction is this galaxy
traveling?

Galaxy

Hubbles Law
Edwin Hubble
(1889 1953) an
American astronomer
who discovered
galaxies outside of
the Milky Way.

Hubbles Law

Hubbles Law

Hubbles Law

Hubbles Law
luminosity a measurement of the
power output (absolute brightness) of
an object (Watts).

apparent brightness the brightness of


a star as seen from Earth.

Hubbles Law
Cepheid Variable Star -- a pulsing star
that has a known and defined
luminosity that is directly related to the
pulsation period.
(the longer the pulsation period the
more luminous the Cepheid star)

Hubbles Law

TWrT

Hubbles Law
TWrT
1) Cepheid A pulses over a period of
2 days. Cepheid B pulses over 2
weeks. Which has a greater
luminosity?
2) When you look at the sky, Cepheid
A and B have the same apparent
brightness. Are they the same
distance, or is one further than the
other?

Hubbles Law
B
A

Hubbles Law

Challenge

Challenge

Hubbles Law

Find the Cepheid

Challenge

Hubbles Law

Find the Cepheid

Hubbles Law
1.2 million light years away

40,000 light years away

Hubbles Law
Velocity (away) (km/s, thousands)

54.0
48.0
42.0
36.0
30.0
24.0
18.0
12.0
6.0

326

652

978

1305

1631

(ly, millions)

1957

2283

2609

Hubbles Law
Velocity (away) (km/s, thousands)

54.0
48.0
42.0
36.0
30.0
24.0
18.0
12.0
6.0

326

652

978

1305

1631

(ly, millions)

1957

2283

2609

Hubbles Law
Velocity (away) (km/s, thousands)

54.0
48.0
42.0

m = 22 km/s / 1 million ly

36.0
30.0
24.0
18.0
12.0
6.0

326

652

978

1305

1631

(ly, millions)

1957

2283

2609

Hubbles Law
Velocity (away) (km/s, thousands)

54.0
48.0
42.0

Hubbles Law: v = H0d


H0 = 22 km/s / 1 million ly

36.0
30.0
24.0
18.0
12.0
6.0

326

652

978

1305

1631

(ly, millions)

1957

2283

2609

Hubbles Law
Hubbles Law -- the farther away a
galaxy is, the faster it moves away from
the observer.

Hubbles Law

TWrT

Hubbles Law
TWrT
1) Think of a situation where you are
in a pitch black environment and you
see little lights all around you moving
away from you, what could be
happening?

The Expanding Universe???

The Expanding Universe???

Forwards
in Time

The Expanding Universe???


Backwards
in Time

The Expanding Universe???


Backwards
in Time

The Expanding Universe???

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

The mathematics predict that this happened


approximately 378,000 years after the BB.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

Universe gets colder as it expands.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)


Arno Penzias &
Robert Wilson
discovered the CMB
in 1964 at Bell Labs in
Holmdel, NJ. They
were awarded the
Nobel Prize for
Physics in 1978 for
this discovery.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

WMAP satellite

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

The CMB is about 2.73 K and varies by


about .00001 K across the sky.

Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

The mathematics that predicts this


temperature also predicts that the light is
about 13.8 billion years old.

Galaxies that are spread apart

The slight variation of temperature would


lead to galaxies that were separate and
spread apart.

Galaxies that are spread apart

The slight variation of temperature would


lead to galaxies that were separate and
spread apart.

Galaxies that are spread apart

TWrT

Galaxies that are spread apart


TWrT
1) Think of a situation where you are
in a very small forest (the size of a
yard), when you look in any direction,
what do you see?
2) Think of a situation where you are
in an infinite forest, when you look in
any direction, what do you see?

Galaxies that are spread apart

If the Universe were infinite with an infinite number


of stars, anywhere we looked, we would see a wall of
stars. The whole sky would be bright, day or night.

Galaxies that are spread apart


Since we see separate galaxies that are spread
apart, there are 2 things we can conclude.

1) The Universe is changing and not


infinite.
and / or
2) There are a finite number of stars.

Galaxies that are spread apart


Since we see separate galaxies that are spread
apart, there are 2 things we can conclude.

1) The Universe is changing and not


infinite.
and / or
2) There are a finite number of stars.
Scientists have widely accepted both of these
ideas which both point to the Big Bang.

Chemical Composition of the Universe


75% hydrogen
25% helium

Chemical Composition of the Universe


Space is too cold to make helium. Only
the inside of a star is hot enough to
make helium.
The helium from all the stars could only
produce at most 10% of the helium in
the Universe.
Where did the helium come from?

Chemical Composition of the Universe

TWrT

Chemical Composition of the Universe


TWrT
1) What type of environment is
needed to make helium?
2) Come up with a theory that
describes a situation hot enough to
make enough helium to account for
the 25% we see in the Universe today.

Chemical Composition of the Universe

Chemical Composition of the Universe

The mathematics of the Big Bang Theory


predict an environment hot enough to make
helium and predicts a 75% hydrogen 25%
helium ratio.

Chemical Composition of the Universe


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http://scienceblogs.com/startswithabang/files/2013/11/redshift-expansion.jpeg
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http://startswithabang.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/expanded.jpeg
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