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Chapter 3 Immunology

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) a condition caused by human
immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in which the body's T-helper cells are reduced, leaving the victim
subject to opportunistic diseases.
Adaptive immunity In animals, one of two general types of defenses against
pathogens. Involves antibody proteins and other proteins that recognize, bind to, and aid in the
destruction of specific viruses and bacteria. Present only in vertebrate animals.
Allergic An overreaction of the immune system to amounts of an antigen that do
not affect most people; often involves IgE antibodies.
Antibodies One of the myriad proteins produced by the immune system that
specifically binds to a foreign substance in blood or other tissue fluids and initiates its removal
from the body.
Antigen-presenting cell In cellular immunity, a cell that ingests and digests an antigen,
and then exposes fragments of that antigen to the outside of the cell, bound to proteins in the
cell's plasma membrane.
Antigenic determinants The specific region of an antigen that is recognized and bound
by a specific antibody. Also called an epitope.
Antigens Any substance that stimulates the production of an antibody or antibodies in
the body of a vertebrate.
Autoimmune diseases Diseases (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis) that result from failure of the
immune system to distinguish between self and nonself, causing it to attack tissues in the
organism's own body.
Autoimmunity An immune response by an organism to its own molecules or cells.
Cellular immune response Immune system response mediated by T cells and directed
against parasites, fungi, intracellular viruses, and foreign tissues (grafts).
Class I MHC Cell surface proteins that participate in the cellular immune response
directed against virus-infected cells.
Class II MHC Cell surface proteins that participate in the cellcell interactions (of Thelper cells, macrophages, and B cells) of the humoral immune response.
Clonal deletion Inactivation or destruction of lymphocyte clones that would produce
immune reactions against the animal's own body.
Clonal selection Mechanism by which exposure to antigen results in the activation of
selected T- or B-cell clones, resulting in an immune response.
Complement system A group of eleven proteins that play a role in some reactions of
the immune system. The complement proteins are not immunoglobulins.

Constant region The portion of an immunoglobulin molecule whose amino acid

composition determines its class and does not vary among immunoglobulins in that class.
Cytotoxic T (Tc) cells Cells of the cellular immune system that recognize and directly
eliminate virus-infected cells.
Defensins A type of protein made by phagocytes that kills bacteria and enveloped
viruses by insertion into their plasma membranes.
Effector cells In cellular immunity, B cells and T cells that attack an antigen, either by
secreting antibodies that bind to the antigen or by releasing molecules that destroy any cell
bearing the antigen.
Histamine A substance released by damaged tissue, or by mast cells in response to
allergens. Histamine increases vascular permeability, leading to edema (swelling).
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) he retrovirus that causes acquired immune
deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Humoral immune response The response of the immune system mediated by B cells
that produces circulating antibodies active against extracellular bacterial and viral infections.
Immunity In animals, the ability to avoid disease when invaded by a pathogen by
deploying various defense mechanisms.
Immunoglobulins A class of proteins containing a tetramer consisting of four
polypeptide chainstwo identical light chains and two identical heavy chainsheld together by
disulfide bonds; active as receptors and effectors in the immune system.
Immunological memory The capacity to more rapidly and massively respond to a
second exposure to an antigen than occurred on first exposure.
Inflammation A nonspecific defense against pathogens; characterized by redness,
swelling, pain, and increased temperature.
Innate immunity In animals, one of two general types of defenses against pathogens.
Nonspecific and present in most animals.
Interferons A glycoprotein produced by virus-infected animal cells; increases the
resistance of neighboring cells to the virus.
Lymphocytes One of the two major classes of white blood cells; includes T cells, B
cells, and other cell types important in the immune system.
Lysozyme An enzyme in saliva, tears, and nasal secretions that hydrolyzes bacterial cell
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) A complex of linked genes, with multiple
alleles, that control a number of cell surface antigens that identify self and can lead to graft
Mast cells Cells, typically found in connective tissue, that release histamine in response
to tissue damage.
Memory cells long-lived lymphocytes produced after exposure to antigen. They persist
in the body and are able to mount a rapid response to subsequent exposures to the antigen.

Mucus A slippery substance secreted by mucous membranes (e.g., mucosal epithelium).

A barrier defense against pathogens in innate immunity in animals.
Natural killer cells A type of lymphocyte that attacks virus-infected cells and some
tumor cells as well as antibody-labeled target cells.
Pathogen An organism that causes disease.
Phagocytes One of two major classes of white blood cells; one of the nonspecific
defenses of animals; ingests invading microorganisms by phagocytosis.
Plasma cells An antibody-secreting cell that develops from a B cell; the effector cell of
the humoral immune system.
Primary immune response The first response of the immune system to an antigen,
involving recognition by lymphocytes and the production of effector cells and memory cells.
Prostaglandins Any one of a group of specialized lipids with hormone-like functions. It
is not clear that they act at any considerable distance from the site of their production.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) The class of T cells that mediates tolerance to
self antigens.
Secondary immune response A rapid and intense response to a second or subsequent
exposure to an antigen, initiated by memory cells.
Sepsis Generalized inflammation caused by bacterial infection. Can cause a dangerous
drop in blood pressure.
T cell receptors A protein on the surface of a T cell that recognizes the antigenic
determinant for which the cell is specific.
T-helper cell (Th) cell Type of T cell that stimulates events in both the cellular and
humoral immune responses by binding to the antigen on an antigen-presenting cell; target of the
HIV-I virus, the agent of AIDS.
Tumor necrosis factor A family of cytokines (growth factors) that causes cell death and
is involved in inflammation.
Vaccines Injection of virus or bacteria or their proteins into the body, to induce
immunity. The injected material is usually attenuated (weakened) before injection and is called a
Variable region The portion of an immunoglobulin molecule or T cell receptor that
includes the antigen-binding site and is responsible for its specificity.
White blood cells Cells in the blood plasma that play defensive roles in the immune
system. Also called leukocytes.

1. A person can survive an infection and resist further infection using their immune system
as a defense system against the pathogen. The immunological memory allows organisms
to be better prepared if it is ever exposed to the same pathogen.
2. Self cells are cells made by the organism, and nonself are substances not made by the
3. A person using anti bacterial soap leaves their body more open to pathogens because they
arent as exposed to the bacteria. If these people are not exposed to the bacteria, they
wont have a chance to build any resistance to it, and the pathogen would more harmful if
the person has not had the chance to build any immunity to it.
4. In this picture you see a phagocytes ingesting a yeast cell and killing it. This is called
phagocytosis, and it is a part of the innate defense system. To reach this part of the
immune system the outer barriers of the immune system, like skin, mucus, lysozymes, or
defensins, must have failed, and let the pathogen invade the organism.
5. Lysozymes works by cleaving the bonds in the bacterias cell wall and which causes the
to burst open. Defensins work by inserting themselves into the plasma membrane. Once
they enter the membrane the pathogen becomes freely permeable to water and solutes,
and it dies.
6. Natural killer cells role is to distinguish between healthy body cells and infected or
cancerous cells. If they find an infected or cancerous cell, they initiate apoptosis.
7. When a person accidentally stabs himself or herself with a knife, they penetrate their first
line of innate defense, the physical barriers. The damaged tissues will attract mast cells,
which will cause histamine and tumor necrosis factors to be released. The histamine will
cause the blood vessels to leak complement proteins and activate phagocytes. The tumor
necrosis factor will stimulate phagocytosis. Then phagocytes move to the infected tissue
and engulf bacteria and dead cells. Finally, a growth factor from platelets will stimulate
endothelial cell to heal the wound.
8. The statement means that in order for the immune system to work the body must
recognized the antigen.
9. It is an effective evolutionary tool to sustain immunity because it means the organism is
less likely to died of an infection and more likely to pass down their genetic information.
Immunity can be passed down from generation to generation in DNA.

10. The antibodies are made up of four polypeptide chains. Disulfide bonds hold the
polypeptides together. The constant region determines the general structure and class.

11. Antibody selection is like natural selection because favorable antibodies, like traits, are
more likely to be maintained.
12. Cancer cells occur more frequently in individuals that immunosuppressed people because
their immune system is efficacious and active.
13. Memory cells sustain immunity by remembering the antigen, and if the person ever come
into contact with that antigen again, the memory cells will active a secondary response to
14. Vaccines work by subjecting a person to a part the antigen so the body can develop
memory cells for that antigen. This will cause the body to have a secondary response,
which is more intense, to the antigen if they come in contact again.
15. If you get the flu shot you can still get the flu because the flu mutates quickly. With these
new mutation the shot can become ineffective.

16. A cell-mediated response differs from a non-specific response because it takes longer
than the nonspecific response. Also, it is specific, so it only uses specific B cells and T
cells. There are three steps for this response, recognition, activation, and effector phases.
17. More doctors are not using antibiotics because they are causing the diseases to evolve and
become more harmful at a faster rate than before.
18. AIDS is a condition caused by HIV in which the bodys T-helper cells are reduced,
leaving the victim subject to opportunistic diseases. Over time the infected persons
number of Th cells will be killed and the person will become susceptible to infections that
would normally be eliminated by Th cells.