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You are on page 1of 34

of ECE

KL University, Vaddeswaram,

Dept. of ECE,

Signal Processing (B. Tech all branches) 13-ES205

Lesson-17: IIR-Digital Filters

A digital filter is a Linear Time Invariant System. The input

sequence is modified according to the characteristics of the

system and gives some output. Hence the system is acting

some kind of filtering operation. In time domain the input and

outputs are related by y[n] h[n] x[n] , where x[n] , y[n] and

sequence and impulse response of the system respectively. In frequency domain, they are related as

Y [ z] H [ z] X [ z] , where H [ z ]

Y [ z]

is referred to as System Function or Transfer Function or

X [ z]

Frequency Response of the system. Hence any filter can be characterized by either impulse response

1. Conditions on Digital Filter:

a) Realizable filter condition: The impulse response of the system must be causal sequence.

h[n] 0, for n 0 .

n0

2. Classification of Digital Filters: Digital filters are categorized into two types.

(a) IIR Filter: Infinite duration Impulse Response. Recursive type. The present output sample

depends on the present input sample, past input samples and output samples.

(b) FIR Filter: Finite duration Impulse Response. Non-recursive type. The present output sample

depends on the present input sample and past input samples.

Frequency Selective Filters: A filter is one which rejects un-wanted frequencies from the input signal

and allow the desired frequencies to obtain the required shape of the output signal. The filters are

categorized into four types as described below:

Ideal Filters: The ideal digital filter transfer functions are illustrated below

1, for 0 || c

0, for c ||

0, for 0 || c

1, for c ||

0, for 0 || c

1

1

2

0, for c2 ||

1, for 0 || c

1

1

2

1, for c2 ||

Practical Filters

3. IIR Digital Filters: The input output relation of a IIR digital filter is described by a difference

equation:

N

k 1

k 0

where ak and bk are filter coefficients, N is the order of the filter, N > M. The transfer function of the

digital filter is represented by

M

H [ z]

k

bk z

k 0

N

1 ak z k

k 10

The design of an IIR filter for the given specifications is determining filter co-efficients ak and bk of the

filter.

2

3(a) Design of Digital Filters from Analog Filters:

The most common technique used for designing IIR digital filters involves first designing an analog

prototype filter and then transforming the prototype to digital filter. For a given specifications of a digital

filter, the derivation of digital filter transfer function requires the following steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specifications into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog filter transfer function for analog prototype.

3. Transform the transfer function of the analog prototype into an equivalent digital filter transfer

function.

4 Analog Lowpass Filter Design: The most general form of analog filter transfer function is described

M

bk s k

N (s)

by H [ s ]

, where H [ s] is L.T. of h(t ) , ak and bk are filter coefficients, N is the

k 0

D( s) 1 N a s k

k

k 1

order of the filter, N > M. For stable filter, the poles of H [ s] must lie in the left half of s-plane.

3

5. Analog Lowpass Butterworth Filter: All pole filter. The magnitude function of the Butterworth

LPF

| H ( j) |

2N

, N = 1, 2, . .

Properties:

(a) Monotonically decreasing function

(b) Smoothing at both passband and stopband.

(c) Max response at 0 .

(d) For c , | H ( j) | 1

(e) For c , | H ( j) | 1 or 3-dB

(f) For c , | H ( j) | decreases rapidly.

The normalized Butterworth Lowpass Filter (i.e., c 1 rad/sec) is given by

| H ( j) |2

1

, N = 1, 2, . . .

1 () 2 N

1

1

.

s

2

N

1 ( j )

1 ( s 2 ) N

Then the roots of the denominator is 1 (s 2 ) N 0 .

Case1: For N-odd: s 2 N 1 e j 2 k , k 1, 2,... , 2 N . sk e j k / N , k 1, 2,. . . , 2N .

Case2: For N-even:

For stable filter the poles must lie on the left half of s-plane. Therefore the stable files are derived from

the following equation:

sk e jk ,

where k

2

(2k 1)

,

2N

k 1, 2,. . . , N .

List of Butterworth polynomial

Denominator of H ( s)

(s 1)

(s 2 2s 1)

(s 1)(s 2 s 1)

From the given specifications determine the order of the filter

using the following formulas:

p : Pass band frequency (Analog) in radians.

s : Stopband frequency (Analog) in radians.

Case1: If p and s are given

100.1 s 1

log

100.1 p 1

N

log s

p

log 2

1

2 1

1

N

log s

p

log

N

log s

p

Ex1: Determine the order of LPF if it has pass band attenuation of - 3dB at 500 Hz and stop

band attenuation of - 40dB at 1000 Hz.

Ans: The pass band attenuation is -3 dB.

The stop band attenuation is 40 dB.

The pass band cut off frequency in radian is p = 500 2 1000 rad / sec

5

The stop band cut off frequency in radian is s 1000 2 2000 rad / sec

100.1 s 1

99.995

log

100.1 p 1 log

2

0.9976

6.64

s

2000 0.3

log

log

p

1000

% IIR1.m

clear all; close all; clc;

Op = 2*pi*500; Os = 2*pi*1000; rp = 3; rs = 40; T = 1;

N = ceil((log10((10.^(0.1*abs(rs))-1)./(10.^(0.1*abs(rp))-1)))/(2*log10(Os/Op)));

% N = 7

Ex2: Determine the order of LPF if it has pass band attenuation of - 1dB at 4 KHz and stop

Ans: The pass band attenuation is -1 dB.

The stop band attenuation is 40 dB.

The pass band cut off frequency in radian is p 4000 2 8000 rad / sec

The stop band cut off frequency in radian is s 6000 2 12000 rad / sec

100.1 s 1

log

100.1 p 1

13.0239

N

s

log

p

% IIR2.m

clear all; close all; clc;

% N = ((log10((10.^(0.1*abs(rs))-1)./(10.^(0.1*abs(rp))-1)))/(2*log10(Os/Op)))

N = ceil((log10((10.^(0.1*abs(rs))-1)./(10.^(0.1*abs(rp))-1)))/(2*log10(Os/Op)));

N

7.1 Impulse Invariance Technique:

Mapping from s-plane poles to z-plane poles:

Let us consider the mapping of points from the s-plane to z-plane implied by the relation

z e sT e( j)T e T e jT

And also we know that z re

. Therefore re

jT

.

e T e

Therefore the analog pole is mapped to a place in the z-plane of magnitude e T and angle T .

The real part of analog pole determines the radius of the z-plane pole and the imaginary part of analog

pole dictates the angle of the digital pole. The mapping of various positions s-plane poles into z-plane

are illustrated in the following figures.

Fig(a): Poles on j axis mapping onto the unit circle. (Marginally stable system).

Fig(b): Poles on left half of s-plane are mapping into inside the unit circle. (Stable system).

Fig(c): Poles on right half of s-plane are mapping into outside the unit circle. (Unstable system).

Design Procedure:

In impulse invariance method, the IIR filter is designed such that the Unit Impulse Response

h[n] of

digital filter is the sampled version of the Unit Impulse Response of analog filter ha (t ) .

The Analog Filter transfer function is described by

H a ( s)

Ai

i 1 s pi

A1

s p1

A2

s p2

..

Then the impulse response ha (t ) = Inverse L.T. of H a ( s) . That is ha (t )

The Impulse Response

Ai e

pit

i 1

Ai e

i 1

pi nT

H [ z]

n0

n0 i 1

h[n] z n Ai e

pi nT n

z

n

N p nT

N

piT 1

n

i

H [ z ] Ai

e

z Ai

e

z

i 1 n0

i 1 n0

N

Ai

pT

i 1 1 e i z 1

Limitations:

(a) Analog filters are band limited, so there will be aliasing due to sampling process. Because of

this aliasing, the frequency response of resulting digital filter will not be identical to the original

frequency response of analog filter.

(b) The change in the value of sampling time has no effect on the amount of aliasing.

(c) The analog frequency is in the range to , which maps into digital frequency

range of

in the

8

termed as many to one. This mapping is not one to one.

Design Steps:

Step1: For the given specifications, determine the analog filter transfer function H a ( s) .

Step2: Select the sampling rate of the digital filter T sec/sample.

Step3: Express the analog filter transfer function as the sum of single pole filters.

N

H a ( s)

Ai

i 1 s pi

A1

s p1

A2

s p2

..

Step4: To convert analog low pass filter to digital low pass filter using impulse-invariant

transformation, substitute,

1

1

pk T 1 .

s pk

1 e z

Ex3: Consider the analog filter transfer function H a ( s)

Ai

pT

i 1 1 e i z 1

2

s2

Design digital filter using Impulse Invariance Method. Assume suitable data.

Ans: The sampling period is assumed to be T = 1 sec.

For the given analog filter transfer function the pole is p = -2.

To convert analog low pass filter to digital low pass filter using impulse-invariant transformation,

substitute,

1

1

pk T 1 .

s pk

1 e z

Therefore

H [ z]

1

p T

1 e k z 1

2

1 0.1353z 1

% IIR3.m.

clear all; close all; clc;

% Analog poles and zeros

b = [2]; a = [1 2];

T = 1; fs = 1/T;

[bz,az] = impinvar(b,a,fs);

bz

az

% Normalized TF coefficients H[e^jw] = H[e^jw]/(H[e^j0]);

H0 = 2/(1-0.1353) ;

bz = bz/H0;

freqz(bz,az,512,fs);

Magnitude (dB)

1

0

-1

-2

-3

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Frequency (Hz)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Frequency (Hz)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Phase (degrees)

0

-2

-4

-6

-8

The limitations observed in Impulse Invariance method are overcome by using Bilinear Transformation.

The Bilinear Transformation is one to one mapping.

Let us consider an analog linear filter with system function

H a ( s)

b

sa

where s

b

2 1 z 1

T 1 z 1 a

2 1 z 1

1 sT / 2

.

or z

1

1 sT / 2

T 1 z

are given as

T

.

tan or 2 tan 1

T

2

2

Warping Effect:

(a) At low frequencies

2

or = T , i.e., the digital

.

T 2 T

(b) At high frequencies, the transformation is non-linear and distortion is introduced in the frequency

scale of the digital filter to that of analog filter as shown in the figure. This distortion is known as

warping effect . The warping effect on magnitude response and phase responses are shown

below.

10

Pre-warping: This warping effect can be eliminated by pre-warping the analog frequencies as below:

p

2

2

and s tan s .

tan . Therefore p tan

T

2

T

2

T

2

Design Steps:

Step1: From the given specifications, find the prewarping analog frequencies using the formulas:

p

2

2

and s tan s .

tan

T

2

T

2

Step2: Using the analog frequencies determine the analog filter transfer function H a ( s) .

Step3: Select the sampling rate of the digital filter T sec/sample.

Step4: Determine the digital filter transfer function by substituting s

2 1 z 1

T 1 z 1

transfer function.

11

Ex4: Design a digital low pass filter using bi-linear transformation for the following analog filter transfer

function.

H a ( s)

0.4225

s 2 0.9192s 0.4225

By assuming T = 1 sec and by substituting s

H [ z ] H a ( s) |

s 2 1 z 1

T 1 z

2 1 z 1

T 1 z 1

0.4225

2

2 1 z 1

2 1 z 1

0.9192

0.4225

1

1

T

T

1

z

1

On simplification, we get

H [ z ] 0.0675

1 2 z 1 z 2

1 1.1428z 1 0.4127z 2

% IIR3.m.

clear all; close all; clc;

b = [0.4225]; a = [1 0.9192 0.4225]; fs =1;

[bz,az] = bilinear(b,a,fs);

%bz = 0.0675

%az = 1.0000

0.1350

-1.1428

0.0675

0.4127

freqz(bz,az,512,fs);

Magnitude (dB)

50

0

-50

-100

-150

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Frequency (Hz)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Frequency (Hz)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Phase (degrees)

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

12

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The most common technique used for designing IIR digital filters involves first designing an analog

prototype filter and then transforming the prototype to digital filter. For a given specifications of a digital

filter, the derivation of digital filter transfer function requires the following steps.

1. Map the desired digital filter specifications into those for an equivalent analog filter.

2. Derive the analog filter transfer function for analog prototype.

3. Transform the transfer function of the analog prototype into an equivalent digital filter transfer

function.

Obtain the following digital filter parameters for the given problem.

Convert these digital filter parameters into corresponding analog filter parameters according to the filter

type.

(a) Impulse Invariance Method:

Substitute for analog frequency

. That is p

and s s , where T is sampling

T

T

T

(b) Bilinear Transformation Method:

Pre-warping the analog frequencies:

Therefore p

tan .

T

2

p

2

2

and s tan s .

tan

T

2

T

2

From the given specifications determine the order of the filter using the following formulas:

13

100.1 s 1

log

100.1 p 1

N

log s

p

22

log

1

2 1

1

N

s

log

log

N

log s

p

Step3: Formulate the normalized analog low pass Butterworth filter transfer function as

1

H ( s)

Polynomial

where polynomial for various values of N is given below

List of Butterworth polynomial

Denominator of H ( s)

(s 1)

(s 2 2s 1)

(s 1)(s 2 s 1)

Transfer Function

H ( s)

H ( s)

H ( s)

H ( s)

(s 1)

1

(s 2s 1)

1

(s 1)(s 2 s 1)

1

14

Note: If

10

p

0.1 p

1

2N

p 3dB , c p

s s

c

(b)

Step6: Apply transformation technique to convert analog filter into respective digital filter.

(a) Impulse Invariance Technique: Substitute

1

s Pk

1

PT

1 e k z 1

2 1 z 1

T 1 z 1

Step7: The final digital filter transfer function must be presented in the following format.

b b z 1 b2 z 2 ....

H [ z ] 0 1 1

1 a1z a2 z 2 ....

15

Ex5: Design a digital low pass filter Butterworth filter using bilinear transformation with pass

band and stop band cut-off frequencies 800 rad/sec and 1800 rad/sec respectively. The pass

band attenuation is -3 dB and stop band attenuation is -10dB.

Ans: The given filter specification are:

Apply the bilinear transformation technique for prewarping , i.e.

2

tan .

T

2

16

The value of T is not explicitly given in the problem; hence we assume T=1sec.

800

3.23 rad / sec

2

Therefore, p 2 tan

1800

s 2 tan

30.12 rad / sec

2

% IIR4.m.

clear all; close all; clc;

% Bilinear transformation

wp = 800; ws = 1800; rp = 3; rs = 10; T = 1;

% Prewarping analog frequencies

Op = (2/T)*tan(wp/2);

Os = (2/T)*tan(ws/2);

Op

Os

100.1 s 1

3

log

100.1 p 1 log

0.997

0.4913 1

s

30.12

log

log

3.23

N = ceil((log10((10.^(0.1*abs(rs))-1)./(10.^(0.1*abs(rp))-1)))/(2*log10(Os/Op)));

N

The transfer function for 1 order normalized low pass filter is given by, H ( s)

The cut-off frequency, c

10

p

0.1 p

1

2N

1

s 1

3.23

3.24 rad / sec

(0.997)

Oc = Op / ((10^(0.1*abs(rp))-1)^(1/(2*N)));

Oc

H a ( s)

b = [1]; a = [1

1

s

1

3.24

s

,

3.24

3.24

s 3.24

[B A]=lp2lp(b,a, Oc); % Desired Analog filter transfer function with cut off

% frequency Oc

17

B

A

2 1 Z 1

To convert low pass filter to digital low pass filter using bilinear transformation, s

T 1 Z 1

in the magnitude response H ( s) .

Then the required digital filter transfer function H ( Z )

3.24

0.62(1 Z 1)

1 0.24Z 1

1 Z 1

2

3.24

1

1 Z

fs = 1/T;

[b1 a1] = bilinear(B,A, fs);

b1

a1

freqz(b1,a1,512,fs);

axis([0 fs/2 -20 1])

% --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Magnitude (dB)

0

-5

-10

-15

-20

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Frequency (Hz)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Frequency (Hz)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Phase (degrees)

-50

-100

Ex6: Design a digital low pass Butterworth filter using impulse-invariant transformation with pass band

and stop band cut off frequencies 200 Hz and 500 Hz respectively. The pass band and stop band cut

off frequencies 200 Hz and 500 Hz respectively. The pass band and stop band attenuation are -5 dB

and -12 dB respectively. The sampling frequency is 5000 Hz.

Ans: The given specifications of digital filter are:

18

The corresponding digital frequencies are:

2 Fstop 2 500

2 Fpass 2 200

Fs

5000

Fs

5000

% IIR6.m:

clear all; close all; clc;

% wp = 2*pi*(200/5000); ws = 2*pi*(500/5000); rp = 5; rs = 12; T = 1;

wp = 0.08*pi; ws = 0.2*pi; rp = 5; rs = 12; T = 1; fs=1/T;

so

.

T

T

T

Op = 0.08*pi ; Os = 0.2*pi;

100.1 s 1

log

100.1 p 1

1.05 2

The order of low pass filter is, N

log s

p

N = ceil((log10((10.^(0.1*abs(rs))-1)./(10.^(0.1*abs(rp))-1)))/(2*log10(Os/Op)));

N

The order of low pass filter for the given magnitude response is 2. The transfer function for II order

normalized low pass filter is given by,

H ( s)

The cut off frequency is given by c

1

s 2s 1

2

p

10

0.1 p

1

2N

Oc = Op / ((10^(.1*abs(rp))-1)^(1/(2*N)));

Oc

The desired analog filter transfer function of low pass filter can be obtained by replacing, s

That is s

s

.

c

s

s

.

c 0.2073

19

H a ( s)

1

2

s

s

2

1

0.2073

0.2073

0.0430

s 2 0.2932s 0.0430

b = [1]; a = [1 sqrt(2) 1];

[B A]=lp2lp(b,a, Oc);

B

A

Impulse-Invariant Transformation:

By converting single pole filters as

0.1466j

0.1466j

H a ( s)

To convert analog low pass filter to digital low pass filter using impulse-invariant transformation,

1

1

s pk

1 e z

substitute,

Then the digital filter transfer function is

H [ z]

0.0370z 1

1.0000 -1.7088z 1 0.7459z 2

[bz,az] = impinvar(B,A,fs);

bz

az

freqz(bz,az,512,fs);

Magnitude (dB)

0

-10

-20

-30

-40

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Frequency (Hz)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.05

0.1

0.15

0.2

0.25

0.3

Frequency (Hz)

0.35

0.4

0.45

0.5

Phase (degrees)

0

-50

-100

-150

-200

20

Ex7: Design a Butterworth digital high pass filter with the following specifications

H (e j ) 0.2

0 0.2

0.8 H (e j ) 1

0.6

Ans:

To design high pass filter, it is desired first to design LPF and transform into HPF. This is

illustrated as below.

The given specifications for high pass filter are:

1

1

0.2; 1

1

1

The corresponding LPF specifications are

(i) Impulseinvariant

transformation:

Apply impulse-invariant transformation, T

Since sampling period T is not given, assume T=1 second.

Therefore, p pT 0.2 rad / sec, and s sT 0.6 rad / sec

100.1 s 1

log

log

100.1 p 1

1.706

The order of the low pass filter is, N

log s

log s

p

p

The transfer function for second order normalized low pass filter is given by, H ( s)

The cut off frequency is c

10

p

0.1 p

1

2N

1

s 2 2s 1

21

s sc

The denormalized high pass filter transfer function can be obtained by replacing s by

H a ( s)

1

2

0.7504

0.7504

2

1

s

s

s2

s 2 1.602s 0.5631

0.5129

0.5129

H a ( s) 1 2

2

Then the poles are p1 0.5131 j 0.5131, and p2 0.5131 j 0.5131

To convert analog high pass filter to digital high pass filter using impulse invariant transformation

1

1

pk T 1

s pk

1 e Z

Therefore, H ( z ) 1

0.5129

1 e

0.5129

(0.5131 j 0.5131)T 1

z

1 e

( 0.5131 j 0.5131)T 1

On simplification we get

H ( z)

1 1.043z 1 0.3583z 2

Pre-warping in bilinear transformation

2

tan

T

2

0.2

0.6

p 2 tan

0.6498 rad / sec , and s 2 tan

2.7528 rad / sec

2

2

The order of low pass filter is

4.89

log

log

0.75 1.2986 2

N

2.7529

log s log

00.6498

p

The transfer function for second order normalized low pass filter is given by, H ( s)

10

p

0.1 p

1

2N

s 2 2s 1

0.6498

0.7503 rad / sec

(0.75)1/2

22

The denormalized high pass filter transfer function can be obtained by

transformation s

c .

H a ( s)

1

2

0.7503

0.7503

2

1

s

s

s2

s 2 1.061s 0.562

To convert analog high pass filter to digital high pass filter using bilinear transformation

2 1 z 1

, we get the digital HPF transfer function as

T 1 z 1

H [ z]

1 z 1

4

1 z 1

1 z 1

1 z 1

4

1.061z 1 24

0.562

1 z 1

1 z 1

1 1.028 z 1 0.365 z 2

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Formulate the BPF specifications into LPF specifications as shown in figure.

12 l u

1(u l )

and B

22 l u

2 (u l )

log

.

Calculate the order of the filter. N

log r

Find the normalized LPF transfer function

The denormalized band pass filter transfer function H a ( s) can be obtained by replacing

s 2 l u

s(u l )

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------23

Ex6: Design a Butterworth band pass filter with the following specifications:

1 0.1 rad / sec; 2 0.7 rad / sec; l 0.25 rad / sec , u 0.35 rad / sec; p 3 dB and

The specifications for band pass filter are p 3 dB and s 30 dB

2 0.7 rad / sec; l 0.25 rad / sec u 0.35 rad / sec; T 1 sample / sec

Apply bilinear transformation,

2

tan

T

2

0.1

0.7

1 2 tan

0.31676 rad / sec; 2 2 tan

3.925 rad / sec

2

2

0.25

0.35

l 2 tan

0.8284 rad / sec; u 2 tan

1.225 rad / sec

2

2

12 l u

7.279

1 (u l )

0.3167(1.225 0.8284)

22 l u (3.925)2 1.225 0.8284

B

9.244

2 (u l )

3.925(1.225 0.8284)

r min A , B 7.28 rad / sec

A

5.5338

log log

0.9976 0.863 1

N

log r

log 7.28

The transfer function for first order normalized low pass filter is given by, H ( s ) 1

s 1

s 2 l u

s(u l )

24

s 2 l u s 2 0.8284 1.225

s( u l ) s(1.225 0.8284)

2

s s 1.048

0.3966s

Therefore, H ( s)

1

0.3966s

2

s 0.3966s 1.0148

s 1.0148

1

0.3966s

2

To convert analog low pass filter to digital band pass filter using bilinear transformation, substitute

2 1 Z 1

,

T 1 Z 1

1 Z 1

0.3966 2

1

1 Z

H (s)

2

1 Z 1

1 Z 1

4

0.3966

2

1.0148

1

1

1 Z

1 Z

On simplification, H ( z )

0.316(1 Z 2 )

1 1.027 Z 1 0.726Z 2

(ii)Impulse-invariant transformation:

Apply impulse-invariant transformation, T . Since sampling period T=1 sec

l l 0.7854 rad / sec; u u 1.099 rad / sec

10.8852

1 ( u l )

0.3141(1.009 0.7854)

8.079

2 ( u l )

2.199(1.099 0.7854)

The order of low pass filter is given as,

5.5338

log log

0.9976 0.82 1

N

log r

log 8.079

The transfer function for I order normalized low pass filter is given by H ( s)

1

.

s 1

25

Denormalized band pass filter can be obtained by replacing, s

s 2 lu

s ( u l )

s 2 l u s 2 0.7854 1.099

s( u l ) s(1.099 0.7854)

2

s s 0.863

0.3137 s

H ( s)

1

0.3137 s

2

s 0.3137 s 0.863

s 0.863

1

0.3137 s

2

H a ( s)

0.1568 j 0.02686

0.1568 j 0.02686

To convert analog band pass filter to digital band pass filter in impulse-invariant transformation.

1

1

pk T 1

s pk

1 e Z

The poles of equation (1) are p1 0.1568 j 0.9156; p2 0.1568 j 0.9156

0.1568 j 0.02686

0.1568 j 0.02686

0.1568

j

0.9156)

1

1 e

z

1 e( 0.1568 j 0.9156) z 1

0.1568 j 0.02686

0.1568 j 0.02686

j

0.9156

1

1 0.8549e

z

1 0.8549e j 0.9156 z 1

0.3136 0.1996 z 1

1 1.0416 z 1 0.7292 z 2

H ( z)

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Formulate the BPF specifications into LPF specifications.

1 (u l )

12 u l

and B

2 (u l )

22 u l

log

. Find the normalized LPF transfer function

Calculate the order of the filter. N

log r

The denormalized band stop filter transfer function H a ( s) can be obtained by replacing

s(u l )

s 2 l u

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------26

Ex7: Design a Butterworth band elimination filter with the following specifications:

p 2dB, s 10dB, and T 1sec .The pass band frequencies are 0.07 and 0.8 and stop band

frequencies are 0.2 and 0.3 .

Use (i) Impulsive-invariant transformation, and (ii) Bilinear transformation

Ans: Given specification for band elimination filter are,

(i) Impulsive-invariant transformation

Apply Impulse-invariant transformation,

T

1 0.2 rad / sec; 2 0.3 rad / sec; l 0.07 rad / sec; u 0.8 rad / sec

A

1 (u l )

0.2 (0.8 0.07 )

9.125

12 u l (0.2 )2 0.8 0.07

2 (u l )

0.3 (0.8 0.07 )

6.441

2 2 u l

(0.3 )2 0.8 0.07

Then the order of the low pass filter is given by,

3

log log

0.7647 0.7338 1

N

log r

log 6.441

The transfer function for I order normalized low pass filter is given by , H ( s ) 1

s 1

s 2 l u

s(u l )

s(0.8 0.07 )

s 2 0.8 0.07

Therefore, H a ( s)

s 2 l u

s(u l )

2.29s

s 0.552

2

1

s 2 0.552

s 2 2.29s 0.552

2.29s

2

1

s 0.552

2.65

0.3598

s 2.0162 s 0.2738

27

To convert analog band elimination filter to digital band pass filter in impulse-invariant

transformation substitute

H ( z) 1

1

1

p

s pk

1 e k T z 1

2.65

1 e2.0162T z 1

0.36

1 e0.2735T z 1

2.65

0.36

1

1 0.1332 z

1 0.7605z 1

H ( z)

2 1.6011z 1 0.1z 2

1 0.8938 z 1 0.1z 2

0.3

0.6495 rad / sec; 2 2 tan

1.018 rad / sec

2

0.07

0.8

l 2 tan

0.2206 rad / sec; u 2 tan

6.142 rad / sec

2

2

(u l )

0.6495(6.142 0.2206)

A 1 2

4.1216

1 u l (0.6495)2 6.142 0.2206

2

0.2

tan 1 2 tan

T

2

2

2 (u l )

22

u l

1.018(6.142 0.2206)

18.926

(1.018)2 6.142 0.2206

r min A , B 4.1216

The order of the low pass filter is given by,

3

log log

0.7647 0.965 1

N

log r log 4.1214

The transfer function for I order normalized low pass filter is given by , H ( s ) 1

s 1

s ( l )

Denormalized band pass filter can be obtained by replacing s 2 u

s lu

s(u l )

s(6.142 0.2206)

5.9214s

s

2

2

s 6.142 0.2206

s 1.3549

s l u

1

s 2 1.3549

Therefore, H ( s)

s 2 5.921s 1.3549

5.9214s

2

1

s 1.3549

2

To convert analog low pass filter to digital band pass filter using bilinear transformation, substitute

2 1 z 1

,

T 1 z 1

28

2

H [ z]

On simplification,

1 Z 1

2 1 Z 1 1.3549

1 Z 1

1 Z 1

2

5.9214

1.3549

1 Z 1

1 Z 1

H ( z)

1 0.3076Z 1 0.377 Z 2

6. Chebyshev Filters:

Type1: All pole filters. Equi-ripple in the passband

monotonic in the stopband.

Type2: Both poles and zeros. Monotonic in the

passband and equiripple in the stopband.

The magnitude response of N-th order filter is expressed as

| H ( j ) | 2

1

2

1 2C N

p

where is ripple parameter and C N ( x) is the N-th order Chebyshev polynomial defined as

C N ( x) cosh( N cosh 1 x), | x | 1: Stopband.

Properties:

C N ( x) C N ( x) , N -odd;

C N ( x) C N ( x) , N -even;

C N (0) 0 , N -odd;

N

C N (1) 1 , for all N.

C N (1) 1 , N -even;

C N (1) 1 , N -odd;

C N ( x) oscillates with equal ripple between 1 for | x | 1 .

C N ( x) is monotonically increasing for | x | 1 , for all N.

Comparison with Butterworth Filter:

Chebyshev filter exhibits ripples in the passband or stopband, where as in Butterworth filter

monotonically decreases.

29

The transition band is more in Butterworth filter compared to Chebyshev filter.

The poles in Butterworth filter lies on circle and Chebyshev filter lies on ellipse.

The order of the Chebyshev filter is less than that of Butterworth filter. i.e., the number of poles

is more in Butterworth filter when compared to Chebyshev filter.

Chebyshev filter Design:

Step1: From the given specifications, find the order of the filter N,

0.1

p 1

10

100.1 s 1

cosh 1 s

p

cosh 1

log

22

12

1

1

log s

p

cosh 1

cosh 1

s

p

Step2: Using the following formulas, find the values of a and b which are minor and major areas of

the ellipse respectively.

N1 N1

a p

2

where

N1 N1

b p

2

1 2 1; 100.1 p 1 .

Step3: Calculate the poles of Chebyshev filter which lies on ellipse by using the formula:

(2k 1)

,

2N

k 1, 2,. . . , N

1. Using above poles, find the denominator polynomial.

2. The numerator of transfer function depends on the value of N

(a) For N-odd, substitute s = 0 in the denominator polynomial and find the value. This value is

equal to the numerator of the transfer function.

(b) For N-even, substitute s = 0 in the denominator polynomial and divide the value by

1 2 .

30

Ex8: Design a digital Chebyshev low pass filter with the following specifications:

(a) The Impulse invariance analog prototype low pass filter transfer function

H a ( s)

0.262

s 2 0.512s 0.3277

(b) The Bi-linear transformation analog prototype low pass filter transfer function

H a ( s)

0.2809

s 2 0.53s 0.351

Ans: (a) The single pole filter transfer functions are derived from the given Impulse invariance analog

prototype filter transfer function as below:

H a ( s)

0.256 j

0.256 j

The impulse Invariance transformation for converting an analog low pass filter to a digital low pass filter

is derived by substituting

H ( z)

1

1

p

s pk

1 e k T z 1

0.256 j

1 e(0.256 j 0.512)T z 1

On simplification, we get H ( z )

0.256 j

1 e(0.256 j 0.512)T z 1

0.194 z 1

1 1.3495 z 1 0.6 z 2

(b) The Bi-linear transformation for analog prototype low pass filter transfer function is computed by

substituting s

H ( z)

2 1 z 1

0.2809

in H a ( s)

, we get

1

2

T 1 z

s 0.53s 0.3561

0.2809

2

2 1 z 1

2 1 z 1

0.53

0.3561

1

T 1 z 1

T 1 z

1 2 z 1 z 2

0.052

1 1.349 z 1 0.609 z 2

Ex9: Design a digital Chebyshev high pass filter with the following specifications:

The analog prototype low pass filter transfer function

H a ( s)

0.06175

and the cut-off frequency is c 0.01 .

s 0.06175

Ans: Given that analog prototype low pass filter transfer function H a ( s)

The high pass filter transfer function is computed by substituting s

c

.

s

0.06175

s 0.06175

31

0.06175

s

.

0.01

s

0.5085

0.06175

s

1

1

For Impulse Invariance transformation,

. Here pole pk 1 .

p

s pk

1 e k T z 1

H HPF ( s)

2 1 z 1

T 1 z 1

0.7973(1 z 1 )

H [ z]

1 0.596 z 1

2 1 z 1

0.5085

T 1 z 1

32

Exercise-14

1. Define the ideal digital filters both in mathematical expressions and graphical representations.

Compare the practical filters and with ideal filters.

2. Explain the magnitude response of a digital filter. Illustrate all the filter parameters.

3. Illustrate the steps involved in designing IIR digital high pass filters using Impulse Invariance

transformation.

4. Illustrate the steps involved in designing IIR digital low pass filters using Bi-linear transformation.

5. Design a digital low pass filter Butterworth filter with pass band and stop band cut-off frequencies

200 Hz and 500 Hz respectively. The pass band attenuation is -5 dB and stop band attenuation is 12 dB. The sampling frequency is 5 KHz.

Use (i) Impulse Invariance Method, and (ii) Bilinear transformation.

Hint: First convert analog frequencies into digital frequencies using formula 2

Fp

Fsam

F

Fsam

200

0.08 rad/sec and

5000

Fs

500

2

0.2 rad/sec.

Fsam

5000

6. Design a digital Butterworth low pass filter with the following specifications:

0.7 | H [e j ] | 1,

0 0.2

| H [e j ] | 0.3,

0.2 0.6

7. The pass band and stop band cut-off frequencies are 350 Hz and 1000 Hz respectively. The

attenuation at pass band and stop band are -3 dB is -10 dB respectively. The sampling frequency is

5 KHz. Design a digital low pass filter Butterworth filter using (i) Impulse Invariance Method, and (ii)

Bilinear transformation.

8. Design a digital Butterworth high pass filter with the following specifications:

| H [e j ] | 0.2,

0.8 | H [e j ] | 1,

0 0.2

0.6

33

Use (i) Impulse Invariance Method, and (ii) Bilinear transformation.

9. The pass band and stop band cut-off frequencies are 350 Hz and 1250 Hz respectively. The

corresponding pass band and stop band attenuation are -3 dB is -10 dB respectively. The sampling

frequency is 5 KHz. Design a digital high pass filter Butterworth filter using (i) Impulse Invariance

Method, and (ii) Bilinear transformation.

10. The specifications for digital band pass filter are as follows:

1 0.2 rad / sec; 2 0.7 rad / sec; l 0.35 rad / sec , u 0.35 rad / sec; p 3 dB

and s 10 dB . Design a digital Butterworth band pass filter Using

11. Design a digital Butterworth band pass filter with the following specifications. The pass band cut-off

frequencies 600 Hz and 1000 Hz, and stop band frequencies 300 Hz and 1600 Hz respectively. The

pass band attenuation is -3 dB and stop band attenuation is -10 dB. The sampling frequency is 5

KHz. Use (i) Impulse Invariance Method, and (ii) Bilinear transformation.

12. Design a digital Butterworth band stop filter for the pass band attenuation is -3 dB and stop band

attenuation is -10 dB at sampling rate 1 second. The pass band frequencies are 0 0.03 and

0.7 , and the stop band frequencies range is 0.1 0.25 . Use (i) Impulse Invariance

Method, and (ii) Bilinear transformation.

13. Design a digital Chebyshev low pass filter with the following specifications:

0.457

.

s 2 0.676s 0.571

14. Design a digital Chebyshev high pass filter with the following specifications:

The Impulse invariance analog prototype low pass filter transfer function H a ( s)

0.31416

and

s 0.31416

15. Compare Chebyshev filter approximations with Butterworth filter approximations.

16. Illustrate briefly how a digital filter is designed?

17. What is warping? Illustrate.

18. Illustrate briefly the designing steps for (a) Impulse Invariance (b) Bi-linear transformation.

34

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