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ADDRESSING THE PROBLEM OF

NEGLIGENT PERPETUATION OF
NEOCOLONIALISM THROUGH
INTERNATIONAL SERVICE-BASED
EDUCATION PROGRAMS

An
Instrument
al Case
Study of
Partnershi
ps of Haiti
Compact

NEGLIGENT NEOCOLONIALISM
C O N C E PT U A L T H E O RY O N PA RT N E R S H I P

PARTNERSHIPS & NEOCOLONIALISM


AN APPROACH TO ASSESSING FOR NEOCOLONIALISM

take
aways

TERMS
Globalization
the phenomenon of intensifying pressure and fl ow between in
countries in capital, people, informa tion and culture (King, n.d.)
resulting in unique globa l pressures that cultivate new and
distinctive institutions a nd groups of people with mutua lly patent
interests and agendas (Dodds, 2008)

Internationalization
the aggregate of all of international initiatives (NAFS A, 2003)
including study abroad by US students, international
development projects, corporate and university pa rtnerships, a nd
campus community interactions (Childress, 20 10, p. 9)

TERMS
Colonialism
The act and/or process of direct politica l, economic and educational
control of one nation over the other (Altbach, 197 1)

Postcolonialism
Refers to the historical ending of colonia lism tha t can be thought of
as gradual process of disengagement with the colonial
experience (Crossley & Tikly, 2004, p. 148). The na tion a fter is no
longer under direct politica l, economic, a nd educa tional control by
another country. Dur ing the period of time tha t follow colonia lism,
the liberated state enters a period of re- orga nization and rema ins
aff ected by negative eff ects of the colonial experience.

TERMS
Hegemony
Preponderant infl uence or authority over others; the social,
cultural, ideological, or economic infl uence exerted by a domina nt
group (Merriam-Webster)

Cultural Hegemony
Rooted in Marxist theory a nd essential to Ita lian communism,
proposed by Antonio Gra msci; theorizes culture a s a repository of
collective consciousness domina ted directly/indirectly by
hegemonic group; posits hegemony to be achieved through
ideological/cultural means.

TERMS
Neocolonialism
A new and indirect iteration of colonia lism in which a na tion is
indirectly controlled by a nother through political, economic, or
educational means.
ISL scholar Kahn (2011) wa rns of neocolonia lism being present in
educational and development programs ca rried out in interna tional
contexts suggesting, ISL brings together various frameworks
where colonialistic ideologies still lingerit is vital that a ll
participants acknowledge a nd work through and a gainst these
imperialistic ideas and actions (p. 115).

LITERATURE REVIEW THEMES


Re c i p ro c i t y , m u t u a l b e n e fi t , s o c i a l j u s t i c e
( B e r r y & C h i s h o l m , 1 9 9 9 ; B ro w n , 2 0 1 1 ; E r a s m u s , 2 0 1 1 ; Fi t t s , 2 0 0 9 ; H a r t m a n , K i e l y , Fr i e d r i c h s , &
B o e t t c h e r , i n p re s s ; G ru s ky , 20 0 0; J a c o b y , 19 96 , 20 0 9; Ke e n & H a l l , 20 09 ; K i e l y & N i e l s e n ,
2003;
Kr a ft , 20 0 2; Kret z m an n, M cKn ig ht , Do b ro w o l sk i , & Pu n te nn ey , 2 00 5 ; Lo n g o , 20 0 7; Lo n g o &
Saltmarsh, 2011; McCarthy, 1996; McElhaney, 1998; Niehaus, 2012; Piacitelli et al., 2013; Sandy
&
H o l l a n d , 2 0 0 6 ; S c h e u e r m a n n , 1 9 9 6 ; S i g m o n , 1 9 7 9 , To n k i n , 2 0 1 1 )

I n c l u s i o n o f c o m m u n i t y k n o w l e d g e
(Bringle, Hatcher, & Jones, 2011; Brown, 2011; Camacho, 2004; Erasmus, 2011;
Ha r t ma n et a l . , i n p re s s ; Ka h n, 2 0 1 1 ; Ki el y & Ni el s o n , 20 0 3 ; Ni e h a u s , 2 0 1 2 ; Po r t e r & Mo n a rd ,
2001;
Simonelli, Earle & Story, 2004; Whitney & Clayton 2011)

L a c k i n g c o m m u n i t y v o i c e
(Bringle & Hatcher, 2002; Bushouse, 2005; Crabtree, 2008; Cruz & Giles, 2000; Hartman et al.,
in p res s;
J o n es & S t e i n b e rg , 2 0 1 1 ; Ka h n , 2 0 1 1 ; Kr a ft , 2 0 0 2 ; L a t t a n zi & Pe c h a k, 2 0 1 1 ; M i ro n & Mo e l y,
2006;
To n k i n , 2 0 1 1 ; W a r d & W o l f - W e n d e l , 2 0 0 0 ; W h i t n e y & C l a y t o n , 2 0 1 1 )

N e o c o l o n i a l i s m
( B a ke r- B o o s a m r a , G u e v a r a , & B a l f o u r , 2 0 0 6 ; C a m a c h o , 2 0 0 4 ; C r a b t r e e , 1 9 9 8 , 2 0 0 8 ; C r u z , 1 9 9 0 ;
Dharamsi et al., 2010; Erasmus, 2011; Hartman et al., in press; Hautzinger, 2008; Jones,
2002;
Ka h n , 2 0 1 1 ; Ki n g , 2 0 0 4 ; M a r u l l o & E d w a rd s , 2 0 0 0 , P l u i m & J o rg e n s o n , 2 0 1 2 ; Po mp a , 2 0 0 2 ;
Stiglitz &
S q u i re , 1 9 9 8 , Wo o l f , 2 0 0 8 )

PROBLEM STATEMENT
The lack of community voice in current literature
presents a problem of representation.
Under representation leads to hegemonic structures
that entrench cultural hegemony.
Negligently creating cultural hegemony equates to
neocolonialism.

RATIONALES
Emphasis on internationalization of campuses in
response to globalization (Altbach & Knight, 2007;
Green & Schoenberg, 2006; Siaya & Hayward, 2003)
Growing popularity of GSL/ISL (curricular & co curricular)
Understanding the implications of service & learningbased partnerships situated within a context of larger
economic, political, and socio -cultural inequities
Learning from NGO/INGOs and universities working in
partnerships that require border-crossing (Kiely, 2005)

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
C y cl es & r a t ion a l es of inte rna t io na li z a ti on ( Knigh t, 1 9 9 4 )

Awarenes
s
Reinforcem
ent

Commitme
nt

Revie
w

Planning
Operational
ize

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
C y cl es & r a t ion a l es of inte rna t io na li z a ti on ( Knigh t, 1 9 9 4 )

Awarenes
s

Rationales

Academic
Economic
Political
Socio-cultural

Reinforceme
nt

Commitment

Review

Planning
Operationali
ze

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
Theory of Panarchy in human and natural systems
(Gunderson & Holling, 2003)

METHODOLOGY

METHODOLOGY- CASE STUDY


Social constructivism- ontology,
epistemology, axiological beliefs, &
methodology
(Creswell, 2013)
in depth understanding of the situation
and meaning for those involved. The
interest is in the process rather than
outcomes, in context rather than a specifi c
variable, in discovery rather than
confi rmation (Merriam, 1998, p. 19).

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
What are the perceived benefi ts and
challenges of partnerships between
NGOs/INGOs working in Haiti and American
members of the Haiti Compact?
W hat a re t h e b e ne fi ts a nd c ha lleng es o f e stab lishing
p ar t ner ship s?
W hat a re t h e b e ne fi ts a nd c ha lleng es o f d e ve lop in g
p ar t ner ship s?
W hat a re t h e b e ne fi ts a nd c ha lleng es o f p a rtne rs hip s?

RESEARCH QUESTIONS
To what extent do NGO/INGOs working in Haiti
and American members of the Haiti Compact
perceive their partnerships to be reciprocal,
mutually benefi cial, and social justice-oriented?
Is the perception of partnership infl uenced by
histor ical and political rela tionships between Ha iti,
America, and the West?
To what extent ha ve par tnerships of the Ha iti Compa ct
reinforced or opposed pa tterns of coloniz ation in Haiti?

Authenticity
Credibility
Transferability
Dependability
Confirmability

DATA COLLECTION

MULTIPLE SOURCES
NGO/INGOs
Amurtel
Fonkoze
Intl Child Care
Peasants of Fondwa
Mennonite Central
Comm.
Na Sonje
Sonje Ayiti
Quintessential
Individuals

Universities
American University
College of William & Mary
University of Maryland
Loyola Marymount
University
University of Connecticut
Eastern Michigan
University
Middlebury College
Indiana University
Break Away Organization*

MULTIPLE METHODS
Observations
Weekly conference calls of American universities
Community visits where partner projects occur

Interviews
Primary: Current I/NGO and university administrators
Secondary: Former I/NGO and university administrators,
current and former student leaders

Document analysis
Project documents, correspondence, organizational guiding
documents, training materials, recruitment materials

Digital and Audiovisual materials


Documentaries, pictures, websites

Researcher narratives
Personal journaling of experience in Haiti

METHODS
Authenticity
Credibility
Transferability
Dependability
Confi rmability
(Guba & Lincoln, 1981; Lincoln &
Guba, 1985; Merriam 2009)

1.
2.
3.
4.

Researcher transparency
Triangulation
Data trail
Prolonged engagement in
the fi eld
( C re s w e l l , 2 0 1 3 )

ANALYSIS &
INTERPRETATION

ORGANIZATION OF FINDINGS
Internationalization
Rationales

Academic
Economic
Political
Socio-cultural

Panarchy system
(adaptive cycle)

Exploitation
Conservation
Release
Reorganization

RELATIONAL

EMERGING THEMES

Relationship

36

Personal

32

Human Exchange/Connection

27

Bonding

13

Partnership

11

119

EMERGING THEMES

NATURE

Sharing w/in Haiti Compact

31

Appreciation of Ayiti

31

Attitude of Learning

28

22

23

Humility

EL

Persistence/Commitment
Dignity

EL

Helping

EL

Ethics

EL

155

CHARACTERISTICS

EMERGING THEMES

I/NGO Structure

81

Institutional Structure

47

10

Context

31

Shared Mindset

23

Local Knowledge

EL

23

I/NGO Contributions

19

17

Shared Capacity

241

GSL/ISL Vernacular

EMERGING THEMES

Advocacy

80

11

Reciprocity

EL

32

Social Justice

EL

28

11

Colonialism/Neocolonialis
m

EL

27

Mutual Benefit

EL

21

Solidarity

EL

18

Sustainability/Long-term

14

220

Challenges

EMERGING THEMES

Organizational

81

Institutional

39

10

Environmental/Logistical

29

11

Outsider

23

22

Negative History

22

Stigma

18

Power Differentials

EL

234

AYITI
KNOWLEDGE

EMERGING THEMES

Advocacy

58

Social/Cultural

36

Assets/Resources

31

Appreciation of Ayiti

31

History

25

181

EMERGING THEMES

Characteristics
Challenges
GSL/ISL
Vernacular
Ayiti Knowledge
Nature
Relational

241
234
220
181
155
119

JESSICA MURPHY
DOCTORAL CANDIDATE
LOYOLA UNIVERSITY
CHICAGO
jdmurphy94@gmail.com