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Study Guide

What is a heterozygous gene combination? Give an example.

A heterozygous gene combination has two different types of alleles from the
parents, one dominant and one recessive. Ex. Tt


What is a homozygous gene combination? Give an example.

A homozygous gene combination has two of the same type of alleles from the
parents, either both dominant or both recessive. Ex. TT or tt


What is a genotype? Give an example.

A genotype is the gene combination you receive for each trait. Ex. Tt


What is a phenotype? Give an example.

A phenotype is the observable trait for an organism. Ex. Tall


What is an allele? What two forms are used?

An allele is the different form of a gene your can get for a trait. The forms are
either dominant or allele.


What is the function of a Punnett Square diagram?

A punnett square diagram predicts the probability of offspring genotype.

7. What do the alleles at the top represent? On the side?

The alleles on the top of the diagram represent parent 1 and the alleles on the side
represent parent 2.

What is a trait?
A trait is a characteristic that offspring can inherit from their parent.


What is a dominant trait? What letter represents it? Give an example.

A dominant trait is one that tends to overpower another trait in a genotype. It
usually shows in the phenotype. A dominant trait is represented by a capital letter
in a genotype. Ex. T = tall.

10. What is a recessive trait? What letter represents it? Give an example.

A recessive trait is one that tends to get hidden in a genotype. It can only show in
phenotype if a trait has two recessive traits. A recessive trait is represented by a
lowercase letter in a genotype. Ex. t = short
11. What is the study of heredity?

The study of heredity is the passing of traits from a parent to its offspring.
12. What is DNA? What is its function?

DNA (dioxyribonucleic acid) is the combination of base pairs that make up genes
and chromosomes on nucleus of the cells. It determines the traits an offspring
receives from the parents.
13. Where is it found?

It is found on the nucleus of every cell in the body, except sperm, egg and red
blood cells.
14. What is the structure of DNA?

It looks like a twisted ladder.

15. Name the four nitrogen bases in pairs. What bases pair together?

The four nitrogen bases are guanine (G), adenine (A), thymine (T), and cytosine
A pairs with T

C pairs with G

16. What is a gene?

A gene is a segment of DNA that determines a trait.

17. How many chromosomes in a human? How many from each parent?

There are a total of 46 chromosomes in a human. An offspring gets 23

chromosomes from the mother and 23 chromosomes from the father. That makes
23 pairs.
18. How many genes (alleles) for each trait does an offspring get from each parent?

An offspring gets one allele for each trait from each parent.

19. What is the difference in sexual and asexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction is when two parents are involved. Sperm fertilizes the egg to
make diverse (different from one another) offspring. The offspring are a
combination of genes.
Asexual reproduction is when one parent is involved. The offspring are identical to
the parents. The genes are exactly the same.

20. What is a genetic disorder?

It is a bad genetic mutation that is passed from parents to offspring. The code on
the DNA is messed up, therefore causing a disorder to appear in the offspring.
21. What is an IVCDV chart? What do the three columns represent?

An IVCDV chart shows the independent variable, constants and dependent

variables in an experiment. It allows the experimenter to keep their data organized
to get valid results.

22. Punnett Square

Cross a heterozygous black cat with a homozygous white cat. Black is dominant.

Key: Black is dominant, so
we use
b a B for the letters.
Black = B


White = b
Genotype Parent:
Hetero = different
Homo = Same
Genotype and Phenotype
Bb = Black
bb = white