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OD;0if;jrifonf "EkjzLòrŒd e,frqENe,f trSwf (1)wGif trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyftm; h J kd ud,pm;ðyI 0ifa&muf,Oòf ydic&m ckivrJ (20˜388) rJ/ pkpaygi;f rJ&mckiEKS ef; (55²57)jzifh k f S f hJ d f Hk k df a&G;cs,wifajr‡mufjcif; cHc&onf? f hJ "EkjzLòrdŒe,f/ anmifausmif;aus;&GmZmwdjzpfonf? tz OD;xGe;f usi/f trd a':oef; wk@d rS 1951 ckEp/f Ek0ifbmv (8) &ufae@wif arG;zGm;cJonf? OD;0if;jrifonf anmifausmif;aus;&Gm S d G h h tpk;d & rlvwef;ausmif;/ "EkjzLòrdŒ tpk;d &txufwef;ausmif;/ ykoròf rdŒwGif tpk;d &txufwef; d ausmif; trSw(6) wGif tajccHynmoif=um;cJ+h y;D 1974 ckEpwif &efue0ZmESioywuUovrS f Sf G k f d … hf d H` dk f odyH` (blraA')bJ@G &&Sconf? 1981 ckEpwif txufwef;a&SŒaepmar;yJuvnf;aumif;/ 1985 d d hJ Sf G G dk ckEpwif rSwywifa&SŒae oifwef;udvnf;aumif; ajzqkatmifjrifconf? S f G f Hk k d hJ 1350 jynfh (1988 ckEp)/ jynfo@l 'rua&pDta&;awmfy}Hk uD;wGif yg0ifconf? "EkjzLòrdŒ Sf D dk hJ e,f trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyfwif jyef=um;a&;r–;tjzpf aqmif&uconf? 1993 ckEpwif dk G G f hJ S f G "EkjzLrS &efueausmufajrmif;od@k ajymif;a&G@aexdic+Jh yD; trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzG@J csKyf A[d¶;kH wGif k f kf kd k ygwwm0efrsm;udtcsejf ynfxrf;aqmifae+yD; {&m0wDwi;f twGi;f a&;rSL;wm0efuvnf; xrf; D k d h kd kd aqmifv#u&ygonf? A[dtvkytr_aqmiftaxmuftulðytzG@J wiyg0ifaqmif&uc+hJ y;D 2010 f dS k f Gf G f ckEp/f ZEM0g&v(14) &ufae@wif A[dtvkytr_aqmifwm0efukd ay;tyfjcif;cHc&ygonf? S D G k f hJ
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trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) A[dkowif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;ÏmerS jzef@csdonf

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trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzJŒG csKyf kd trSw(97§c)/ taemufa&$*wivrf; f kH kd f A[ef;òrdŒe,f/ &efueòf rdŒ k 2010 ckEp/f Zefe0g&v (14)&uf S D 1371 ckEp/f jymodvjynf@ausmf (15)&uf S k a-unmcsuftrSwf= 2 § 01 § 10 trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzGŒJ csKyf A[dtvkytrSKaqmiftzGŒJ udk atmufygy*Kd~ vfwŒkd jzifh kd k f k wd;k csŒJ wm0efay;vduygonf? k f a'guwmoef;_idr;f f OD;tke;f óudif OD;0if;jrifh OD;xGe;f xGe;f [def a'guwm0if;Edif f k OD;Om%f0if; OD;[Homjrifh OD;ode;f !$eŒf a'guwmar0if;jrifh f odŒk ygojzifh trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzGŒJ csKyf. A[dtvkytrSKaqmiftzGŒJ 0ifrsm;tjzpf kd k f atmufygy*Kd~ vfwŒkd uwm0ef,om;-urnf jzpfygonf? k l G OD;atmifa&$ OD;wifO;D a':atmifqef;pk-unf OD;vGif OD;0if;wif OD;cifarmifaqG OD;oef;xGe;f OuUÏ 'kw, OuUÏ d taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; twGi;f a&;rSL; tzGŒJ 0if tzGJŒ0if tzGŒJ 0if

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OD;xGef;atmif (c) OD;xGef;xGef;[defonf aemifcsKdòrdŒe,frJqENe,fwGif trsKd;om; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyftm; ud,pm;ðyI 0ifa&muf,Oòf ydic&m ckivrJ (18˜886)rJ/ pkpaygi;f rJ&mckif kd k f S f hJ d f Hk k d E_e;f ( 56²99)jzifh a&G;cs,wifajr‡mufjcif; cHc&onf? f hJ tz OD;=um[de;f / trd a': jrcifw@dk rS 1949 ckEp/f {+yDv (30)&ufae@wif arG;zGm;cJh S G onf? jyifO;D vGiòf rdŒe,f/ ZD;yif}uD;aus;&GmZmwd jzpfonf? OD;xGe;f xGe;f [deonf 1954 ckEpwif f S f G ausmufròJ rdŒ trsK;d om;txufausmif;wGif ynmoif=um;cJ+h yD; 1966 ckEpwif ausmif;xGuf S f G vufrw&pmar;yJEihf 1968 ckEpwif ausmufròJ rdŒtpk;d &txufwef;ausmif;rS wuUov0if S f G S S f G dk f wef;atmifjrifc+hJ yD;/ 1972 ckEpwif rE av;0dZmESihf odywuUovrS odyb@GJ (owWaA')&&SchJ S f G W … H` kd f H` d onf? 1973 ckEpwif a':pdepeor;f ESihf vufxyfconf? 1973-74 ckEpwif e,fpyfa'o S f G f d f d hJ S f G uGrf;vkHòrdŒY rdbq&mcef@ txufwef;jyq&m/ 1975 ckESpfwGif txufwef;a&SŒaepmar;yJG atmifjrifconf? 1350 jynfEpf (1988 ckEp)/ jynfo@l ta&;awmfy}Hk uD;wGif aemifcsKòd rdŒe,f hJ h S S f taxGaxGoydwuyuraumfrwD OuUÏ / 1988ckEp/f pufwifbmvwGif zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f jcif; f Gf J_ S cHc&onf? aemifcsKòd rdŒe,f trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf wm0efctjzpfaqmif&uconf? hJ dk H G f hJ ,cktcg &efuewi;f urm&Gwòf rdŒe,fwiaexdivsuf trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzG@J csKyf k f kd Gf kf kd A[d¶;kH ESihf &Sr;f jynfe,fpnf; twGi;f a&;rSL;wm0efuvnf;yl;wGxrf;aqmifv#u&ygonf? A[dk k kd J f dS tvkytr_aqmiftaxmuftulðytzG@J wiyg0ifaqmif&uc+Jh yD; 2010 ckEp/f ZEM0g&v (14)&uf f Gf G f S D ae@wif A[dtvkytr_aqmifwm0efukd ay;tyfjcif;cHc&ygonf? G k f hJ

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OD;ode;f !Ge@f onf oCFe;f u|e;f òrdŒe,frqENe,f trSwf (1)wGif trsK;d om;'Drua&pD J dk tzJ@G csKyftm; uk,pm;ðyI 0ifa&muf,Oòf ydic&m ckivrJ ( 34˜232) rJ/ pkpaygi;f rJ&mckiEe;f d f S f hJ d f Hk k df _ (71²83)jzifh a&G;cs,wifajr‡mufjcif; cHc&onf? f hJ 1944 ckEp/f 'DZifbmv (26) &ufae@zm;jzpfonf? OD;^m%f&if. om;jzpfonf? OD;ode;f S G !Ge@f (aumhu&dw)onf bDattm&ft,fv/f tdwcs*sy/D 'Da*sb@GJ & w&m;±k;H csKyfa&SŒaejzpfonf? f f f D 1959 ckEprS 1961 ckEptxd u&ifjynfe,fEihf weoFm&Dwi;f ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmif/ aumhu Sf Sf S dk &dwf ausmif;om;or*~jzpfajrmufa&;aumfrwD twGi;f a&;r–;/ ausmif;om;nDnwa&;wyfO;D G f acgi;f aqmif/ o[m,ESihf pmzwftoif;csKyf OuUÏ/ ausmif;om;v_y&m;r_ukd OD;aqmifcojzifh f S hJ 1963 ckEp/f 'DZifbmv (2) &ufae@rS 1967 ckEp/f atmufwbmv (14) &ufae@txd armfvòrif S S dk d axmifwif zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f xm;jcif; cHc&onf? 1969 ckEprS 1971 ckEptxd tif;pdeyvu G hJ S f S f f pma&;0efxrf;/ 1972 ckEprS 1978 ckEptxd vrf;pOfvi,fEihf ygwXmecsKyfw@dk wif Xmer–;/ 1978 Sf Sf l S D G ckESpf/ =o*kwfv (22) &ufae@wGif vli,fESifh ywfoufaom owif;aqmif;yg;ESpfyk'fudpP/ Ekiia&;orm;ESpO;D wk@d Eihf ywfoufaomudpw@dk a=umifh wm0efEitzJ@G 0iftjzpfrS &yfpxwy,f dfH f S P S hf J k f jcif;cHc&onf? 1968 ckEprS 1978 ckEptxd armifoe;f !Ge@f (aumhu&dw) trnfjzifh aqmif;yg; hJ Sf Sf d f rsm;a&;om;cJonf? 1350 jynfh (1988 ckEp) jynfo@l 'rua&pD ta&;awmfy}Hk u;D wGif wufºupm h Sf D dk GG yg0ifconf? 1998 ckEp/f pufwifbmv (6) &ufae@wif ppfaxmufvr;f a&;rS &JrewyfòrdŒ&Sd hJ S G S G f xde;f odr;f a&;pcef; ({nfa*[m)wGif ac:,lzrf;qD;xde;f odr;f xm;jcif;cHc&+yD;/ 2001 ckEp/f Zlviv h hJ S dk f (6) &ufae@wif jyefvwonf? G G f 2004 ckEp/f ZGev (7)&ufae@wif ESpaygi;f (30) =umaexdivmcJonfh oCFe;f u|e;f S f G f kf h òrdŒe,f/ av;axmifuefvrf;&Sd {u0ufe;D yg;us,f +cHtrSwf (72)&Sd aetdrtm; &efueta&SŒyki;f h f kf d c±kif w&m;±k;H rS 1978 ckEpu csKyfqxm;onfh pmcsKyfpmwrf;udy,fzsu+f yD; aetdrudk tarGqif d Sf dk k f dk tdrtjzpf ajymif;vJowfrwI avvHwifa&mif;cs&efjyifqifI zdtm;ay;jcif;cHc&onf? 2005 f S f hJ

4

13

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trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) A[dkowif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;ÏmerS jzef@csdonf

a'guwm ar0if;jrifh f &efuewi;f / r&rf;uke;f òrŒd e,f k f dk rJqENe,f trSwf (2)/ trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJŒG csKyf dk
a'gufwmar0if;jrifhonf r&rf;ukef;òrdŒe,frJqENe,ftrSwf (2)wGif trsKd;om; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKytm; ud,pm;ðyI 0ifa&muf,Oòf yic&m ckivrJ (20˜513) rJ/ pkpaygi;f rJ&mckiEe;f dk f k f S d f hJ d f Hk k df_ (74²18)jzifh a&G;cs,wifajr‡mufjcif; cHc&onf? f hJ armfvòrdiòf rdŒZmwd jzpfonf? 1950 jynfEp/f rwfv (8) &ufae@wif arG;zGm;onf? h S G OD;aomif;!Ge@f .orD; jzpfonf? a'guwmar0if;jrifonf 1967 ckEpwif aq;wuUovf (1)rS f h S f G kd q&m0efbJG@&&SdcJhonf? 1978 ckESpfrS 1981 ckESpftxd ajrmufOuUvmyESifh ausmufwHwm; or0g,r tcseyi;f q&m0ef/ 1981 ckEprS 1983 ckEptxd vufaxmufq&m0ef (&efuejf ynf d f dk Sf Sf k ol@aq;±k}H uD;)/ 1983 ckEprS 1988 ckEptxd q&m0ef (orki;f roefrpGr;f txl;ukaq;±k)/ 1988 Sf Sf d H ckEp/f atmufwbmv (31) &ufae@wif 0efxrf;tjzpfrS E_wxuonf? r&rf;uke;f òrdŒe,f S dk G f G f trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyfwif twGi;f a&; r–;wm0ef,conf? 1997 ckEp/f atmufwbmv dk G l hJ S dk (28) &ufae@wif r&rf;uke;f òrdŒe,f tzJ@G csKyf±;Hk wGif tzJ@G csKyfvi,frsm;wm0efay;tyfjcif; tpnf; G l ta0;ðyvky&efppOfc&m tpk;d &qef@usia&;qlyvy&m;r_ ðyvky&ef pDpOfconf[qum 1997 f D hJ f l _ f S f hJ k dk ckEp/f Ek0ifbmv (26) &ufae@wif &efuef taemufyi;f c±kiw&m;±k;H Y 1950 jynfEp/f ta&;ay: S d G k dk d f hS pDrcsuf tufOya' yk'r 5 (n)jzifh tr_ziw&m;pJqc+hJ y;D / 1997 ckEp/f 'DZifbmv (9) &ufae@wif H f G hf G dk S G tvkyEiaxmif'%f (7)ESpf csrwconf? f S hf S f hJ 2004 ckEp/f Zlviv (23)&uf ae@wif yk'r 10(u) jzifh aemufxyf&ufaygi;f (60) S dk f G f csrwconf? 2005 ckEp/f azazmf0g&v (2)&ufae@wif yk'r 10(u)jzifh xyfw;dk jypf'%f (1)ESpf S f hJ S D G f csrwcc&onf? 2006 ckEp/f azazmf0g&v (3)&ufae@wif wzefaemufxyf jypf'%f (1) ESpf S f H hJ S D G csrwjf cif; cH&onf? rw&m;ojzifEp&nf axmif'%fuscc&onf? S hSfS H hJ vuf&dS A[dtrsKd ;orD;tzGacgi;f aqmifwm0efuxrf;aqmifv#u&onf? A[dtvkyf k J kd f dS k tr_aqmiftaxmuftulðytzG@J wiyg0ifaqmif&uc+J yD; 2010 ckEp/f ZEM0g&v (14)&ufae@wif Gf G f S D G A[dtvkytr_aqmifwm0efukd ay;tyfjcif;cHc&ygonf? k f hJ
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OD;tke;f óuif (c) atmif0ifh d rEWav;ta&SŒawmifòrŒd e,f rJqENe,ftrSw(2) f trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJŒG csKyf dk

OD;tkef;óudif(atmif0ifh)onf rE Wav;ta&SŒawmifòrdŒe,frJqENe,ftrSwf (2)wGif trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyftm; ud,pm;ðyI 0ifa&muf,Oòf ydic&m ckivrJ (32˜718) rJ/ pkpk dk k f S f hJ d f Hk aygi;f rJ&mckiEe;f (76²08)jzifh a&G;cs,wifajr‡mufjcif;cHc&onf? df _ f hJ armfvòrdiu|e;f Zmwdjzpfonf? tz OD;b&Si/f trd a':pdew@dk rS 1944 ckEp/f Zlviv f f S dk f (2) &ufae@wif arG;zGm;cJonf? OD;tke;f óuif (atmif0ih)onf 1967ckEpwif 0dZmbJ@G / 1972 ckEpwif G h d f Sf G … Sf G owif;pmynm'Dyvkdrm/ 1978-79 ckESpfwGif tar&duefjynfaxmifpkokd@ ynmoif qkjzifh oGm;a&mufI owif;pmynm'Dyvkrm&&Sconf? 1964 ckEprS 1988 ckEptxd a=u;rkH owif;pm/ d d hJ Sf Sf [Hom0wDowif;pm (rE av;)/ Akvwaxmif owif;pmwk@d wif vufaxmuf t,f'wmESihf W d f G D t,f'wm/ 1962-63 ckEp/f ausmif;om;ta&;tcif;wGif yg0ifconf? 1974 ckEpf vrf;pOfowif;/ D S hJ S Akvwaxmifowif;pmESihf ±ky&iatmifvw@dk wif armifcspz,/f atmif0if/h atmifwifuavmif d f fSf H G fG h trnfw@dk jzifh Ekiiwuma&;&maqmif;yg;rsm; a&;om;cJonf? 1350 jynfEpf (1988 ckEp)/ jynfo@l dfH h hS Sf 'Drua&pD ta&;awmfy}Hk uD;wGif yg0ifconf? owif;pmt,f'wmtjzpf vkyuiae&if; 1350 dk hJ D f kd f jynfEp/f jynfo@l 'rua&pDta&;awmfy}Hk u;D wGif yg0ifcra=umifh Akvwaxmifowif;pm t,f'wm hS D dk hJ _ d f D tjzpfrS 1988 ckEp/f 'DZifbmvwGif Akvwaxmifowif;pm t,f'wmtjzpfrS t+idr;f pm;ay; S d f D jcif;cHc&onf? hJ trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf A[kO;D pD;tzJ@G 0ifEihf rE av;wki;f pnf;±k;H a&; aumfrwD dk d S W d tzJ@G 0iftjzpf aqmif&uconf? tzJ@G csKyfrS xkwa0onfrwwrf;v$mtzJ@G wif wm0efcH t,f'D G f hJ f hS f G wmwOD;jzpfonf? e0w. trde@f trSwf (1§90) tm;qef@usirj_ zifh oufqi&mrS zrf;qD; f dk f xde;f odr;f jcif; cHc&onf? OD;tke;f óudionf 1950 jynfEp/f ta&;ay:pDrr_ tufOya' yk'r (5) hJ f h S H f (u) (c) (n) t& jypf'%fp&ifjcif;cH&I a&G;aumufyOya' yk'r (10) (n)ESi+hf idpe;f ojzifh D GJ f G

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trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) A[dkowif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;ÏmerS jzef@csdonf

trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) A[dkowif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;ÏmerS jzef@csdonf

OD;^m%f0if;/ rGejf ynfe,f/ aygifòrŒd e,f rJqENe,f trSwf (1)/ trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJŒG csKyf? kd

a'gufwm oef;_ir;f d &efuewi;f / ausmufwef;òrŒd e,f k f dk rJqENe,ftrSwf (1)/ trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJŒG csKyf dk
a'guwmoef;+idr;f onf ausmufwef;òrdŒe,f rJqENe,ftrSwf (1) wGif trsK;d om; f 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKytm; ud,pm;ðyI 0ifa&muf,Oòf yic&m ckivrJ (17˜018) rJ/ pkpaygi;f rJ &mckiEe;f dk f k f S d f hJ d f Hk k df_ (64 ² 95)jzifh a&G;cs,wifajr‡mufjcif;cHc&onf? f hJ ausmufwef;òrdŒe,f/ caemif&mZmwdjzpfonf? 1937 ckEp/f =o*kwv (5)&ufae@zm; G S f G jzpfonf? OD;armifpe.om; jzpfonf? a'guwmoef;+ir;f onf òrŒd rtxufwef;ausmif; (&efue)rS df f d kf wuUov0ifwef;atmifjrifI &efueaq;wuUovrS 1963 ckEpwif q&m0efb@GJ &&Sconf? dk f k f kd f S f G d hJ 1964 ckEprS 1988 ckEptxd usr;f rma&;OD;pD;Xme vufaxmufq&m0ef/ òrŒd e,f q&m0ef/ 1982 Sf Sf ckEprS 1984 ckEptxd oD&vuFmEkiiwif ukvor*~apwemh0efxrf;q&m0ef/ 1350 jynfh (1988 Sf Sf d dfH G ckEp) jynfo@l 'rua&pDta&;awmfy}Hk u;D wGiygI tvkyrS t+ir;f pm;ay; jcif;cHc&onf? xk@d aemuf Sf D dk f f d hJ ud,yiaq;ukcef; zGivpvyuiconf? 1997 ckEp/f azazmf0g&v (21)&ufae@wif omauw k f kd f hf S f k f kd f hJ S D G &Jpcef;rS zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f cJ+h y;D / 1972 ckEp/f jynfaxmifpjk refrmEkiiH jynfo@l use;f rma&;qki&mOya' S df df yk'r 9 (1) (*)t& tr_zihf ta&;,ljcif;cHc&onf? 1997ckEp/f atmufwbmv (28) &ufae@wif f G hJ S dk G r&rf;uke;f òrdŒe,ftzJ@G csKyf ±k;H wGif tzJ@G csKyfvi,frsm; wm0efay;tyfjcif;tpnf;ta0;ðyvky&ef l f pDpOfc&m tpk;d &qef@usia&;qlyvy&m;r_ðyvky&ef pDpOfconf [kqum 1997 ckEp/f azazmf0g&v hJ f l _fS f hJ dk S D (17) &ufae@wif zrf;qD;xde;f odr;f jcif;cHc&+yD;/ 1997 ckEp/f Ek0ifbmv (26) &ufae@wif &efuef G hJ S d G k taemufyi;f c±kif w&m;±k;H Y 1950 jynfEp/f ta&;ay:pDrr_ tufOya' yk'r 5 (n)jzifh tr_zihf kd d h S H f G w&m;pJqcI/ 1997 ckEp/f 'DZifbmv (9) &ufae@wif tvkyEiaxmif'%f (7)ESpf uscc&onf? G dk hJ S G f S hf H hJ 2004 ckEp/f Zlviv (23) &ufae@wif vGw&ufaphaeaomfvnf; yk'r 10 (u) jzifh S dk f G f f aemufxyfjypf'%f &ufaygi;f (60)pD ok;H }udrcsrwc+hJ yD;aemuf 2004 ckEp/f pufwifbmv (21) f S f S &ufae@wif tif;pdeA[dtusO;f axmifrS om,m0wDtusO;f axmif/ xkrS aygi;f wnfaxmif/ xkrS G f k d d jynftusO;f axmifw@dk o@dk tqifqifajymif;a&$ŒcJonf? 2005 ckEp/f Zefe0g&v (5) &ufae@ h h h S D

OD;^m%f0if;onf aygiòf rdŒe,frqENe,f trSwf (1)wGif trsK;d om;'Drua&pD tzJ@G csKyf J dk tm; ud,pm;ðyI 0ifa&muf,Oòf ydic&m ckivrJ (20˜032) rJ/ pkpaygi;f rJ&mckiEe;f ( 55²2) jzifh k f S f hJ d f Hk k df _ a&G;cs,wifajr‡mufjcif; cHc&onf? f hJ tz OD;cseaz/ trd a':&Dw@dk rS 1942 ckEp/f Ek0ifbmv (20)&ufae@wif arG;zGm;cJonf? d f S d G h usKd uQrZmwdjzpfonf? OD;^m%f0if;onf 1948-49 ckEprS 1959-60 ckEptxd usKurtpk;d & D S f S f d Q D txufwef;ausmif;/ armfvòrdif &Sir[mAk'aCmo txufwef;ausmif;wk@d wif wuUovf f < G dk 0ifwef; atmifjrifonftxd ynmoif=um;cJonf? 1960 jynfEprS 1968ckEptxd armfvòrdif h hSf Sf Oypmaumvdy/f rE av;wuUovEihf &efuef 0dZmESihf odyH` wuUovw@dk rS 0dZm (Oya'bJ@G )ESihf W dk f S k … dk f … Oya'bJ@G rsm;&&Sconf? 1977 ckEpwif a':vSv0if;ESihf vufxyfconf? d hJ S f G S hJ 1970 jynfEprS 1973 ckEptxd txufwef;a&SŒae/ w&m;±k;H csKya&SŒae/ 1973 ckEpwif hSf Sf f Sf G Oya'0efxrf;tqifh (4)/ 14-11-1988 ckEp/f Ed0ifbmv (14)&ufae@wif Oya' 0efxrf;tqifh S k G (1)rS t+id r f ; pm;,l c J h + yD ; / w&m;±k H ; csKyf a &S Œ aetjzpf a qmif & G u f c J h o nf ? A[d k t vk y f tr_aqmiftaxmuftulðytzG@J wiyg0ifaqmif&uc+hJ y;D / 2010 ckEp/f ZEM0g&v (14)&ufae@wif Gf G f S D G A[dtvkytr_aqmifwm0efukd ay;tyfjcif;cHc&ygonf? k f hJ
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trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) A[dkowif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;ÏmerS jzef@csdonf

trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyf (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) A[dkowif;ESifhjyef=um;a&;ÏmerS jzef@csdonf

wGif wzef xyfw;dk jypf'%f (1)ESpf csrwjf cif;cHc&onf? 2006 ckEp/f Zefe0g&v (18) &ufae@wif S hJ S D G yk'r10(u)jzifh aemufxyfaxmif'%f (1)ESpf wk;d jr‡icsrwjf cif; cHc&onf? f hf S hJ rw&m;ojzifEp&naxmif'%fuscc&+y;D 2008 ckEp/f pufwifbmv (23)&ufae@wif hSfS f HJ S G jyefvnfvwajrmufcygonf? trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzG@J csKyf &efuewi;f 'k-OuUÏ wm0efukd G f hJ kd k f kd xrf;aqmifv#u&+dS yD; 2010 ckEp/f ZEM0g&v(14) &ufaewGif A[dtvkytr_aqmifwm0efukd f S D k f ay;tyfjcif;cHc&ygonf? hJ
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OD;[Homjrifh ppfui;f wki;f / bkwvifòrŒd e,f dk d rJqENe,ftrSw(1) f trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJŒG csKyf dk

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OD;[Homjrifonf bkwvifòrdŒe,frqENe,ftrSwf (1)wGif trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G h J dk csKyftm; ud,pm;ðyI 0ifa&muf,Oòf yic&m ckivrJ (16˜645)rJ/ pkpaygi;f rJ&mckiEe;f (80²85)jzifh k f S d f hJ d f Hk k df_ a&G;cs,wifajr‡mufjcif; cHc&onf? f hJ tz OD;odef;azjrifh (pma&;q&m/ uG,fvGef)/ trd a':cif=unf=unf (t+idrf;pm;/ &efuewuUov/f ±lyaA'Xme)wk@d rS 1948 ckEp/f arv (7)&ufae@wif &efueòf rŒd Y arG;zGm;cJonf? kf dk S G k h zcif OD;ode;f azjrifrm bkwvifòrdŒ Zmwdjzpf+yD;/ 1956 ckEprS 1960 jynfEptwGi;f bkwvifòrdŒ h S S f h S f e,f rJqENe,frS jynfo@l n!wa&;trsK;d om;wyfaygi;f pk ( y-r-n-w)uk,pm;ðy jynfo@l D G f d f v$wfawmftrwfjzpfcJhonf? OD;[Homjrihfonf 1953 ckESpfrS 1958 ckESpftxd &efukefòrdŒ/ omoemh&dyfom&yfuGuf/ r[m"rRm±kH ausmif;0if;twGif;&Sd jrLeDpDyg,frlvwef;ausmif;wGif ynmoif=um;cJ+h yD; xkausmif;rS (4)wef; atmifjrifconf? 1958 ckEp/f ZGevrS 1964 ckEp/f d hJ S f S azazmf0g&vtxd &efuewuUovynma&;r[mXme/ avhusia&; ausmif;wGif yOPrwef;rS D k f dk f hf wuUov0ifwef;txd ynmoif=um;cJonf? 1964 ckEp/f Ek0ifbmvrSpI &efuewuUovf dk f h S d k f dk wGif v#yppfqufo,a&;tif*sie,mbmom&yfuoif=um;cJ+h y;D / 1970 jynfEp/f =o*kwvwGif f G f fD dk hS f aemufq;Hk ESppmar;yJatmifjrifI pufrtif*sie,m (v#yppfqufo,a&;)bJ@G &cJonf? tqkyg f G _ fD f G f h d

vwGiyif pmwkuEia=u;eef;XmewGif vufaxmuftif*sie,m oifwef;q&mtjzpf 0efxrf; f d f S hf fD b0 pwifconf? rGejf ynfe,f/ u&ifjynfe,f/ weoFm&Dwi;f wd@k wif e,fyia=u;eef;0efaxmuf hJ dk G kd f tjzpf vnf;aumif;/ pDrue;f tif*sie,mtjzpfvnf;aumif;/ jynfe,frefae*smtjzpfvnf; H d f D aumif; armfvòrdi/f ykor/f awmif}uD;/ &efueòf rdŒrsm;wGif tajcpkuI jrefrmjynftESŒH tjym; d k d f vSnvnfwm0efxrf;aqmifc+hJ y;D / 1986 ckEprpI 'kw,}u;D =uyfrtif*sie,m (rdu±a0hz) tjzpf hf SfS d _ fD k U dk f wm0efxrf;aqmifcJhonf? EkdifiHhwm0efxrf;aqmifaepOfumvtwGif; qDG'ifEdkifiH/ ukd&D;,m; orRwEkii/H *syefEii/H puFmylorRwEdiiw@dk wif u|r;f usiroifwef;rsm;ESihf vkyief;cGif oifwef;rsm; df dk f kfH G f_ f wufa&mufconf? hJ 1986 ckEp/f ZlvivtwGi;f xki;f Edii/H befaumufòrdŒwGif usi;f yaom tm&SEihf S dk f d kf S ypdzwa'o a=u;eef;qufo,a&;tzJ@G . pufrqi&mtpnf;ta0;ok@d jrefrmEdiiu,pm; d f G f _ dk f k f H kd f vS,tzJ@G . tzJ@G acgi;f aqmiftjzpf wufa&mufconf? 1988 ckEp/f =o*kwvESihf pufwifbmv f hJ S f jynfo@l 'rua&pDvy&m;r_}uD;wGif b0wl0efxrf;rsm;ESitwl yg0ifvy&m;cJonf? 1988 ckEp/f D dk _ f S hf _ f S h S atmufwkdbmvwGif wm0efrSt+idrf;pm;ay;jcif;cHcJh&onf? 1989 ckESpf/ azmazmf0g&DvwGif trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf/ yJc;l wdi;f pnf;±k;H a&;tzJ@G / wki;f pnf;±k;H a&;rSL; (t&ef)tjzpf wm0efay; dk k d tyfjcif;cHc&onf? yJc;l wki;f (28)òrŒd e,ftES@H pnf;±k;H a&;vkyief;rsm; aqmif&uconf? 1989 ckEp/f hJ d f G f hJ S {+yDvwGif trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf A[kueo,p;D yGm;tzJ@G wif tzJ@G 0iftjzpf yg0ifchJ onf? dk d kf G f G 1996 ckEp/f ZGev (7)&ufae@wif jynfo@l vwawmfu,pm;vS,tjzpfrS Ekwxua=umif; ygwpHk S f G $ f dk f f f G f D 'Drua&pDtaxGaxGa&G;aumufyusi;f ya&;aumfr&SirS a=unmcJonf? dk GJ f h ,cktcg &efueòf rdŒ &efuif;òrdŒe,fwiaexdiv#u&+dS yD;trsK;d om;'Drua&pDtzG@J csKyf k Gf kf f kd A[djk yef=um;a&;wGitcsejf ynfwm0efxrf;aqmifaeygonf? A[dtvkytr_aqmif taxmuf f d h k f tulðytzG@J wiyg0ifaqmif&uc+hJ y;D 2010 ckEp/f ZEM0g&v(14) &ufaewGif A[dtvkytr_aqmif Gf G f S D k f wm0efukd ay;tyfjcif;cHc&ygonf? hJ

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