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C1. A Manual of Theological Curriculum Development Complete WEB V

C1. A Manual of Theological Curriculum Development Complete WEB V

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Published by PaulCJBurgess
Full version of a guide to how to develop from scratch a curriculum for basic theological education at Bible School or Seminary up to M.Div. (Available also in parts for downloading where load weight is critical) This manual was developed from scratch at Gujranwala Theological Seminary at faculty workshops over a period of several years. We started by asking: "Why are we here? (Purpose) What are the needs we are here to address? (Goals) How can we best meet these needs with the resources we have? (Objectives) To see the resulting three year syllabus (with basic "text-books" to match) see Bib2 An Essential Syllabus Bibliography. A group of educators / teachers working through this manual in a continuous workshop should expect to take 3 to 6 days of intensive interactive study and reflection.
Full version of a guide to how to develop from scratch a curriculum for basic theological education at Bible School or Seminary up to M.Div. (Available also in parts for downloading where load weight is critical) This manual was developed from scratch at Gujranwala Theological Seminary at faculty workshops over a period of several years. We started by asking: "Why are we here? (Purpose) What are the needs we are here to address? (Goals) How can we best meet these needs with the resources we have? (Objectives) To see the resulting three year syllabus (with basic "text-books" to match) see Bib2 An Essential Syllabus Bibliography. A group of educators / teachers working through this manual in a continuous workshop should expect to take 3 to 6 days of intensive interactive study and reflection.

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“The Race Marked Out For Us”

“Let us throw off everything that hinders and the sin that so easily entangles and let us run with perseverance the race marked out for us. Let us fix our eyes on Jesus, the author and perfecter of our faith.”
Hebrews 12:1-2

Towards a Theology of Training Methods
Material originally prepared for the Theological Education Forum, January, 1995 by Faculty Members of Gujranwala Theological Seminary Pakistan and subsequently developed Originally compiled & subsequently revised by: Paul Burgess, M.A. (Cantab) 2003 EDITION


I feel honoured to write a few words to commend this important contribution to the discussion of an appropriate curriculum for theological education. I also appreciate the hard work put into this booklet, which though small, like precious things which are kept in small packets, contains a great deal of solid and useful information for those involved in theological education. What is meant by “Curriculum” has been clearly defined and what might be contained in a theological curriculum has been fully described. The discussion is divided into three sections. The first is concerned with the situation in which we find ourselves at present, as reflected by certain educational models. These are followed by a brief but comprehensive Curriculum of Theological Education expertly outlined by the compiler. The second section presents an honest and intelligent evaluation of different models that might be adopted, together with a Biblical perspective of Christian learning and instruction.* This leads to the third section describing ways to construct a curriculum using principles reached in the previous sections. This booklet without doubt gives a sense of direction to our theological training and should help us to ensure a good balance in our teaching. Indeed I feel proud of the effort of the compiler and acknowledge his ability and commitment to theological education. With these comments I commend this booklet to all who are engaged in theological education with the hope that it may bring about a revolution in our approach to this whole area of training people for ministry. Rev. Prof. Arthur James, Principal, Gujranwala Theological Seminary March 1995

* Placed as an Appendix in the Revised Edition of February 1997 and printed separately from 1999 onward.



Since the publication of the second edition, Gujranwala Theology Seminary has experienced two significant changes. First its Library has been refurbished to provide a modern environment for study. More importantly its volumes have been re-organised under the Progressive Classification system advocated in this manual, thus allowing what is “said” in the classroom to be easily accessed and “read” in the Library reading room. The shelf arrangements thus follow the classification of curriculum subjects exemplified in the following pages. Secondly the Faculty have worked through a programme of re-appraisal of what is needed to be taught to those coming in today’s world for theological education and ministerial training. There has also been an Evaluation conducted by an accredited outside agency followed by a three day Strategic Planning exercise. These various workshops have resulted in the authorisation of a new Seminary Curriculum drawn up from the first principles worked out in this manual. Indeed much of the content of the manual itself is the fruit of Faculty deliberation, though latterly refined and added to by the present compiler. Notable additions include an article on Writing a Mission Statement, examples of Seminary Profiles, and Exercises for an Introductory Workshop. Further Appendices have been created. These include the current Gujranwala curriculum set out at the stage when individual courses were being apportioned their relevant “weight” within the total curriculum.(There was considerable “horse-trading” at this point!) This is followed by a Schedule showing the final stage in creating a Three Year Syllabus. Another addition is the concept of a small personal library constituting a “home” Bible School, the authors being the “faculty”. Thus The Reading List offers a core self-study programme equivalent to a three year study period at the Seminary. (It does not, of-course, claim to provide the practical training and communal experience that a residential programme offers.) Appendix I shows how a course on a particular subject can be quickly outlined from a scanning of the Progressive Classification menu. Finally a Check-List is offered for preliminary self-evaluation of any institution involved in basic Theological Education. It is hoped that this edition, improved by practical testing in Seminary life and enlarged by additional material, will prove a help and stimulation to those engaged in the crucial work of preparing God’s people for ministry in His Church and the world around us. Paul Burgess June 2003


Over the past two years since these papers were first presented, the value of the whole exercise of re-thinking curriculum from first principles has been recognised. In particular the Progressive Classification listing has been well received as a helpful reference document providing a “menu” from which to make selections for working curricula. Indeed, it developed a life of its own, being continuously revised (with copies distributed to enquirers) up till the publication of this second edition of “Curriculum for Theological Education” where it now appears as a separate document in the Appendices. The original material of the total workshop, by the nature of the conference at which it was first presented, was somewhat of a rag-bag of ideas and charts. It has now all be carefully sifted and re-organised, much of the material being re-located as appendices to give the core material a clearer sense of direction. Many theological institutes are engaged in, or seriously considering, the task of integrating their fields of study to ensure a more holistic approach to theological learning. The exercise encouraged in the pages of this booklet pre-supposes this intention, but represents only the preparatory steps necessary before full integration can be attempted. For the whole must be surveyed before any attempts at integrating our students’ learning can be truly holistic. It is important to clarify goals and priorities before weaving a complex texture of learning materials taken from different departments and disciplines. Publication of this second edition happily coincides with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the Open Theological Seminary (formerly the Pakistan Committee for Theological Education by Extension, an organisation born at this Seminary). Theological training has developed in many ways in recent years in this country, not least in the recognition given to the role of laity in the ministry of the church and the acceptance of women students to study theology alongside men training for the ministry. We live in a technically stimulating age, as evidenced by the fact that this booklet was prepared and made ready for reproduction on two small machines together smaller than a single Library reference book! The entire contents of the Seminary Library (approaching 20,000 volumes) could today, in theory, be recorded on a few discs and carried in the pocket. Such is the pace of advance. We do well to come to terms with it and plan for the future if we are to be good stewards of the heritage God has entrusted to us, alert to the Spirit moving in Christ’s church and keen to spread the news of Christ’s kingdom in our land. It is hoped this booklet will, under God, forward that process. Paul Burgess February 1997



The Theological Education Forum is an informal gathering of those engaged in some form of Theological Education in Pakistan. Initiated jointly by Mr Mike Raiter of the Zarephath Bible Institute, Attock (Pakistan’s newest Bible training institute) and Professor Aslam Ziai, Vice-Principal of Gujranwala Theological Seminary (Pakistan’s oldest Theological institute), its first meeting in January 1994 was an initial attempt at sharing mutual concerns and experiences. It was particularly felt that resources should not be duplicated where a little sharing of information could eliminate the re-invention of various “wheels”. The forum’s first birthday gathering was, as with the original meeting, hosted by the United Bible Training Centre. Gujranwala Theological Seminary, whose students’ wives are regularly taught by the staff of U.B.T.C., had the privilege of presenting three Seminars on Curriculum for Theological Education. The material following presents the revised version of the papers given and ideas arising from the ensuing discussion. Because of the discursive nature of the gathering the presentation was largely interactive. This format has been preserved in the hope that some other institutions may find it helpful not only to read the papers but also to carry out some of the exercises contained the text. In particular we commend for reflection the Classification list in the Appendix together with the discussion of the four Learning Domains presented in Part 2. (The diagram for the latter “came” to the compiler of this document overnight between sessions and stimulated much discussion. The list, on the other hand, was the product of much research and refinement arising out of initial class discussion with students.) Thanks are due to those who have read these papers and offered suggestions for improvement. In particular Professor Neil Foster offered a searching critique and his helpful insights on modelling appear as an Appendix. To my son, Graham Burgess, is also due thanks for the many hours of his school holidays spent computerising the material and patiently entering in many revisions. Mr Marcus Fauchiger, Mrs Sally Davis and Mr Tom McCulloch all contributed printing facilities at critical moments in the production. The compiler, however, must take responsibility for any errors, or obscurities, as well as for the general content of these papers. Paul Burgess, February 1995


Present Concerns . . .
. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

10 11

A Curriculum Check-List . Western Influences on Curriculum

Contrasting Curriculum Models . . . . . RELEVANCE – 5 dimensions: . . . . . Theological – Spiritual – Practical – Evangelistic – Educational COURSE BENEFITS for the STUDENT - Why Study this course?. Defining “Curriculum” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 15 15 16 18 19 19 20 21 22 22 23 24 25 26 27

TYPES of LEARNING – Learning About Learning Domains: . Knowing and Doing . . . . . Ministerial Formation: Being Apollos: the Need for Understanding.. . . . Combining all 4 Domains: The Pyramid Model of Learning . Clarifying our Educational Objectives. . . . What are our GOALS? What are we trying to achieve? . MODES of LEARNING: Formal, non-formal, informal . . LEVELS of LEARNING – Spiral Learning . . . . COMPETENCIES PROFILE – What end results do we hope for?. CONSTRAINTS . . . . . . .

COMMON PRACTICES in CURRICULUM PLANNING (Short Term) . CONSTRUCTING CURRICULUM – Western Models in Vogue. . . Oxbridge . . . . . . . . Contemporary British . . . . . . . North American . . . . . . . WRITING A MISSION STATEMENT – What is our Purpose? . . SEMINARY PROFILES – What is the Ethos? . . . . CONSTRUCTING LEARNING OBJECTIVES – Balancing the Range . CONSOLIDATION – Exercises for a WORKSHOP. . . . THE PROCESS of CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION . . . Stage 1: Needs, Requirements & Constraints . . . Stage 2: Subjects (relevant to Needs) . . . . . Stage 3: Credit Hours (Weighting) and Timetable. . . . REFORM, not REVOLUTION. . . . . . . 29 31 31 32 33 35 37 39 40 41 41 42 43 44


Construction Tools



D. E. F. G. H. A SEMINARY CURRICULUM: RELATIVE WEIGHTING of COURSES. A CURRICULUM SCHEDULE: . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YEAR TRAINING PLAN ( Indian example) . The “PROGRAMME” . . . . . . . . . 52 54 55 56 57 58

A BEGINNER’S SCHOOL (Starting from Core TEXT BOOKS) . THE READING LIST: A Core Self-Study Programme

Constructing a Course (Examples)
I. J. USING THE MENU FRAMEWORK for INTEGRATIVE COURSE Worship example 61 CONSTRUCTING A COURSE from the MENU: Discipleship example . 62

More on Learning Domains
K. RANGES OF LEARNING outlined (4 Domains) . . . . . . . . 65 66 69 70 71 Categories of DOINGs, KNOWINGs & UNDERSTANDINGs. . LEARNING DOMAINS Summary Chart of Theory and Practice .. L. LEARNING DOMAINS: As Personal Growth. . In Proverbs . . . . . . .

M. N. O. P. Q. PASTORAL OBJECTIVES Bible Study WESTERN MODELS Critique . . Essay on MODELLING – Neil Foster . TAIL- PIECE - A Fable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 78 79




Part 1: “UNPACKING OUR LUGGAGE” - our current concerns. What is in our curriculum at this present moment and why? PRESENT CONCERNS
At the Gujranwala conference of theological educators, where this paper had its origins, we took the idea of unpacking, weighing and re-packing luggage as a picture to present what we need to do when developing curriculum for any kind of theological education, including a long-term programme of adult Christian education. We noted first that the heavy luggage we carry with us on a long journey reflects our priorities: a lap-top computer for a businessman; a cookery book for his wife; theological books for a Seminary professor. But when we open our baggage in front of the suspicious customs official, we may well be asked: “Why are you carrying this and that article into this country?” That is a good question to keep in mind as we consider what is already packed in our curriculum “baggage”. Part 1, then, is about our present concerns as reflected in our teaching schedules. Our focus is on where we sense we are now, rather than where we might like to be tomorrow! If we are to be honest with ourselves about this, we need to recognise three things: • the nature of the content of what we have been teaching our students over the past three, or whatever, years (i.e. the kind of learning we have been providing); • the emphasis of our training (i.e. where the focus has been); • the perimeters of our vision (i.e. where our thinking tends to stop). The “journey” analogy suggests also that, before we start on our way, we should first check our “destination”, the dictionary definition of which is: “the pre-determined end of a journey; the end or purpose for which something is created.” What is the ultimate purpose of Theological Education? To what pre-determined end do we plan our curricula? Note: You might find it helpful to write short notes answering the questions in the discussion boxes that occur throughout the manual. These reflections could then be shared with a colleague for discussion.

DISCUSSION What do you consider is the ultimate purpose of Theological Education?
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note on the derivation of the word “Curriculum”: “Curriculum” literally means “a racecourse”, - from the Latin word currere (to run).


It is not easy to get a balanced view of what is being taught in a particular programme of education unless some thought is also given to what is not being taught. This can be quite illuminating as we all tend to assume the sufficiency of our own efforts. A comprehensive list of topics is needed against which we can measure the range of our own educational work. The “PROGRESSIVE CLASSIFICATION”, printed separately, provides an extensive list of possible topics for inclusion in a total curriculum. This can be used in two ways: • As a check-list to identify what is currently already covered by the curriculum of your particular institution or programme; • As a resource for providing ideas for additional subjects that might be considered for future inclusion in your curriculum.
Note: This classification, which is not exhaustive, is not meant to represent the actual curriculum of any institution, least of all to provide a blue-print for some imaginary ideal syllabus. Rather it offers the opportunity to select from a classified “menu” of subjects. Thus a new course or programme can be constructed or a current curriculum revised. It thus represents not the course itself, but suggested ingredients for a course.

If you are involved in an established institute of theological education or organisation providing adult Christian education, you may wish to check your current curriculum against the “Progressive Classification” now (before you go on to discuss the questions in the next Discussion Box). If you are doing this with colleagues, you will probably find it best to allocate different sections of the list to different people according to where particular responsibilities or interests lie. Make sure, though, that every section gets covered!

DISCUSSION (after checking against the “Progressive Classification” menu) What positive discoveries have you made through doing this check? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What significant areas, in your view, have been shown up as being covered inadequately?

Are there any particular fields that could be dropped altogether? Which? Why?

How balanced do you consider your present curriculum to be for your purposes?  Very  Quite  Not very  Not at all


Western ways of doing things has greatly influenced Theological Education as it is experienced in many parts of the world where such training is relatively new. Generally speaking such education has been developed with a view to training church leaders rather than for the purpose of pursuing theological study for its own sake. Since Church leaders come in different “sizes”, each kind of leader requires a different kind of training. However the influence of the Western emphasis on academic attainment is easily seen in every training pattern adopted. These patterns might be diagrammed as follows:

Type / Level Leader of Leader of Leader of Theologians of Church a small a large a Church and Leader: Worker Congregation Congregation Denomination Scholars* --------------------- | -------------- | ------------------- | ------------------- | ---------------------- | ------Status: Voluntary Voluntary Paid Paid Paid --------------------- | -------------- | ------------------- | ------------------- | ---------------------- | ------Christian Education | | | | Means of by local | Bible School | Training: Church | or | or | Residential Seminary | Theological Education or | by Extension T r a i n i n g O v e r s e a s
* “A visit to seminary libraries in many two-thirds world countries reveals a sad lack in this category.” (- Dr Lois McKinney, TEE Workshop, Gujranwala, Pakistan)

We see here two trends: • (locally) a dependency upon residential forms of training for full-time church leaders; • (for senior positions of influence in the Churches) a preference for training abroad. When we look more closely at many local residential institutions of theological education, we soon notice also: • a Western style in the academic structure of these training programmes. This style includes such distinctive ingredients as: • content-orientated curriculum, • a hierarchy of awards (certificates, diplomas and degrees), • the requirement of academic (rather than educational) qualifications for theological teachers, • and the whole gamut of institutional accreditation. (For a fuller critique of the Western educational model see Appendix K.) This leads us into Part 2 where we evaluate different ways of constructing a curriculum for theological education. But before we do that, let us reflect on how much this relates to our own situation. (See the next Discussion box on the page following.)


Discuss the following with your colleagues (or simply note down your own reactions to these questions):

DISCUSSION What are the three most crucial training problems met in your own institution?

i) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ii) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------iii) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Do they relate to any of the problems outlined above? Or do they arise from more local difficulties (culture, attitudes, structures, etc)? --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------








Part 2:

“WEIGHING OUR LUGGAGE” - Models to evaluate. What is really needed (rather than is thought necessary)?

In the English language there is a subtle difference of emphasis between “necessary” and “needed”. While “necessary” has the idea of some thing being indispensable or unavoidable, “needed” refers to a lack that is felt or experienced by some person(s). Thus Jesus had “need” of a donkey, but it was “necessary” for the Scriptures to be fulfilled. We should keep this distinction in mind as we ask ourselves: “What do our students really need to prepare them for their future ministries?”

As we turn now to “weighing our luggage” - to evaluate all the subjects our curriculum has been “carrying” to date - it will help to look first at two very different models of theological education that demonstrate a divergent range of concerns and priorities. The first presents a minimal approach that seeks only to introduce basic information to a general clientele within a short time. The second, a specialist approach, is geared to fulfilling the aspirations of a particular student. As we shall see, both models have their strengths, but, equally, each has its own particular limitations.

1. The Minimal Model: A three-day Briefing.
A small missionary society, operating on a slender budget, wanted to prepare its missionaries for evangelism in Muslim countries. It carefully vetted its candidates. Those selected attended a short training conference, conducted by a former missionary who provided lectures on various subjects deemed appropriate. This “briefing” lasted three days.* When the time eventually came for the missionary lecturer to retire, it was decided to ask him to record all his talks on video so that the “preparation” he offered at each briefing could be carried on after he had gone.

One is left wondering whether such training left any opportunity for asking questions or for the discussion of issues raised by the lecturer’s talks.
* By way of contrast, the four terms of missionary training given to the present writer amounted to over 46 weeks. Both training experiences were offered in the same city in Britain to people going to work in the same institution in the same foreign country in the same period! Approach varies, it seems, not according to the job to be done, but rather according to the ethos of the sending agency.

DISCUSSION What are the advantages of the “minimal” approach to training?

What are some of the disadvantages?

Observation: Theological Curriculum is not about CONTENT only. It is about ENQUIRY and INTER-ACTION also.


2. The Specialist Consumer Model: Studying for a Doctorate.
The following advertisement appeared in an American theological journal: DOCTOR OF MINISTRY: World Christianity Track for Missionaries at -------------- SEMINARY Provides Flexibility in Scheduling. We also offer a separate track for pastors. M. Div. or equivalent required. What does this suggest about the model of theological curriculum on offer here? First, it suggests that we have entered the world of the racecourse. There is a stiff course (called a “track”) to be followed by those taking part; Perhaps there is also an element of competition hinted at - which participants will complete their “track” first? Certainly there are entrance hurdles to be passed before the course can even be attempted (e.g. that essential M. Div.!). And no doubt some form of academic training for the big event is probably advisable before attempting to write the doctorate. But are there not also some serious limitations? Consider first the implied priorities of the advertisement. It appears to be concerned foremost with the needs of those expected to take part. What this model provides is “Flexibility in Scheduling”. Might we not have first expected some indication of the field of studies to be covered by the course? Instead we can only deduce the course subject from the labels attached: “Ministry…World Christianity”. And which is the aspect most important to the prospective candidate? Undoubtedly it is the doctorate! (“DOCTOR OF MINISTRY” - printed as the heading in bold capitals!) We note also that the composers of the advertisement also seem interested in certain internal caste distinctions (“missionaries” versus “pastors”, and the hierarchy of Doctor of Ministry over Master of Divinity). No indication is given, however, of the relevance of the “track” to the contribution that their graduates might be expected to make to the world outside! Let’s reflect again on the implications of this approach:

DISCUSSION Degrees are offered as evidence of a person having undertaken satisfactorily a particular course of study. What are the advantages of such a system?

What are the disadvantages? (There are other ways of learning!)

So do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?

Observation: Theological Curriculum is not only about COURSES of STUDY. It is also about PURPOSE and RELEVANCE.


One way of looking at the relevancy of a course is to view it in terms of its Theological, Spiritual, Practical, Evangelistic and Educational relevance. Theologically we ask how a course informs the mind, not just to think about God, but also to encourage such an understanding of God’s nature, actions, character, person and “ways” generally that the student experiences and so truly knows God for him or herself. This leads to the second category, the spiritual dimension of what is being learned through the course. Here the heart must be warmed to increase a personal love for God, a devotion that can only be nurtured through the ministry of the Holy Spirit simply because this involves a spiritual dimension. The third category involves the will and concerns practical obedience to Jesus as Lord. This practical level of curriculum relevancy is about training students as disciples of Jesus and is not to be confused with meeting the expectations congregations may have concerning their ministers’ abilities to perform this or that function in the life of the congregation – the skills of performance. A course may also be evaluated according to how relevant it is to the evangelistic mission of the church. Does it equip people to witness to the gospel and ultimately make disciples of the nations? This evangelistic dimension asks: will you be able as a result of this course to share the Gospel with others more effectively (as distinct from serving the Church better)? Finally there is an educational relevance that needs to be considered. Will this course equip students to teach their congregations? Will they be able to expound God’s Word, bringing their hearers so in contact with God that they are compelled to respond to His call and will for their daily living rather than preach moral homilies, offer pious platitudes, deliver philosophical lectures, or simply provide word and background studies of a text? It is interesting to find a similar range of “categories of relevancy” in the Great Commission given by Jesus to his disciples: All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations [evangelistic], baptising them [spiritual? practical?] in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them [educational] to obey [practical] everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always [spiritual], to the every end of the age. (Matthew 28:18-20 NIV)

Construct a short curriculum for a group of your own choice that involves all five categories of relevancy. For each category list two or three subjects from the CLASSIFICATION table. Theological: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Spiritual: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Practical: ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Evangelistic: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Educational: -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


COURSE BENEFITS – Why Study This Course? The benefits of studying specific to each course Choose any 3 areas of study shown on the next two pages and suggest for each of the courses selected what are the three greatest benefits of studying these subjects. (Note: Church History is already done as an example.) List them in order of importance as you see them. Share with colleagues and fill in further fields. BIBLICAL STUDIES Background to the Bible, its History, Interpretation and Study …….……….……….

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

. . . The Old Testament ……………………………..………………………………………… . . . The New Testament …..…………………………………………………………………… . .

. SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY ………………………………………………………………. . .

. PHILOSOPHY ………..……..……………..………………………………………………… . . . Apologetics ……………………………………………………………………………….. . . . . .

CONTEMPORARY STUDIES …………………………………………………………….


Islamics ................................................................................................................................

• • • • • • • • • • • • •


. COMMUNICATION ............................................................................................................. . . . Homiletics …..…………………………………………………………….………………. . . . Missiology ………..……………………………………………………………………….. . .

. CHURCH HISTORY ……….……………………………………………….……………… Understand how both God’s grace & His judgement work together amongst His Compare historical models of belief and behaviour with today’s church life. Understand your own Christian heritage and discover the roots of your own church. people

• • • • • • • • • • •
. . .

Historical Theology.……….………………………………………………………………………..

PRACTICAL THEOLOGY Discipleship …………………………………………………………………………………

. . .
. . .

Liturgical Theology / Worship ……………………………………………………………


Self-development …………………………………………………………………………..

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

. .

. CHRISTIAN ETHICS Moral Theology……………………………………………………………………………. . .

. Environmental Theology …………………………………………………………………. . .

. Social Theology …………………………………………………………………………… . .

. EDUCATION Study Methods ……………………………………………………………………………. . .

. Christian Education ……………………………………………………………………… . .

. PASTORAL THEOLOGY Shepherding the sheep (as individuals) …………………………………………………. . .

. Leading the church (as a body) …………………………………………………………… . . .


Some may argue that our “luggage” contains things that are not strictly “curriculum” subjects but are rather the more general concerns of a “training programme”: as such they may rightly appear on our educational agenda, but not as part of any curriculum list. During the conference that originated this paper, our family discussed this very point at home. My 17-year-old son informed us that by the word “curriculum” was meant “everything that went into a particular subject taught at school”. His mother responded: “That’s not right; the school curriculum is the list of all subjects taught at your school.” I then argued that “Curriculum” means all the activities that go on in a school, including the various courses taught in the classroom. To resolve our family argument we turned to Collins English Dictionary and read under “curriculum” the following definitions: “1. A course of study in one subject at school or college. 2. A list of all the courses of study offered by school or college. 3. Any programme or plan of activities.” Apparently we were all correct in our family! Now perhaps you should join in the discussion:

DISCUSSION What difference does it make to our training programme if we think of curriculum in terms of: Definition 1? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Definition 2? -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Definition 3? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Observation: Theological Curriculum is not only about THEOLOGY. It is about TRAINING EXPERIENCES also. Knowing or Doing? The fundamental emphasis of many Western models of theological education is on knowing. The over-riding question asked of its curricula is: “What is really necessary for the students to know in order to complete this course and fulfil the expectations that such an academic programme creates?” But what is the purpose of Theological Education? Once those who have been trained reach graduation and all the trophies have been handed out, what will be the needs that these graduates have to meet in their congregation in particular and in the community in general? How well will our three or four year programme have prepared them for their work outside in the real world? The question now becomes: “What do the students need to be able to do in order to be able to fulfil their calling as ministers?”


This introduces us to the idea of different realms of learning. Since there are several kinds of learning, it is useful to think of each kind as existing in a separate department or domain. The first two we may call the “cognitive” (knowing) and “functional” (performing) domains.

< Functional Domain

what how
proportion of programme’s agenda (“track”)

to to KNOW DO

Educational and training institutions will vary in their emphasis regarding knowledge and skills. Diagram 1 illustrates this difference. The diagonal (arrowed) line indicates the proportion of an institution’s agenda or “track” given over to INSTRUCTION (what to know) and the proportion dedicated to SKILLS (how to do). In this diagram the (fictitious) “Academic College of Education” (“ACE”) spends 85% of its time providing instruction in various fields of knowledge and 15% developing students’ skills. On the other hand, the “Basic Institute of Technology” (“BIT”) has two-thirds of its programme taken up with training the students in how to do the work that one day they will have to carry out in the outside world. Only one third is spent giving instruction in head knowledge. At this point we again ask: What is our business as theological educators? Are we simply providing knowledge - packing information into the heads of our students so that they may know what truths, ideas and facts with which to fill other people’s heads once they leave us?

Cognitive Domain >

“ACE” Institution: 85% Instruction in Knowledge 15% Training in Skills “BIT” Institution: 33% Instruction in Knowledge 67% Training in Skills

Diagram 1.

Or should we be developing skills, so that our graduates will be able to handle that knowledge, apply it to the various situations they will meet, and even research further information for themselves when necessary - knowledge that will be relevant to their particular ministry?

DISCUSSION List two major skills that future church leaders need to develop and suggest how these might be developed in training.



Curriculum Manual


MINISTERIAL FORMATION < Functional Domain SKILLS what to KNOW how to DO Affective Domain > FORMATION how to BE
Increasingly today those who are responsible for theological education are becoming concerned with what has been termed “ministerial formation”, that is, the spiritual development of those being trained. Indeed often this is the area where the students themselves experience most disappointment after they arrive at Seminary or Bible College. They come in great anticipation of somehow finding a spiritual oasis for their thirsty souls, but find instead all the marks of the world that they thought would be left outside! This has been the experience of the monk and hermit down the ages. Yet that does not absolve us from being concerned with the spiritual formation of our students – what is usually called the affective domain. This is the part of the training that aims to affect the behaviour of the student as his / her character is moulded by close discipleship of Jesus and as attitudes become more Christ-like.

INSTRUCTION Cognitive Domain > Diagram 2.

We must seek to be agents of change as we show our students how to minister to their people in such a way that the lives as well as the faith of their congregations are radically altered to express God’s Kingdom values and commitments. It is here that good modelling demonstrated by teachers has the greatest influence. (See Prof. Neil Foster’s article in Appendix L.) But such modelling should be reinforced by activities found in the curriculum. So we now have three domains (See diagram 2): the cognitive domain of instruction, the functional domain of skill acquisition. and the affective domain concerned with the spiritual formation of the student. Thus, as well as coming to know many things and learning how to do the work to which (s)he is called, the student reflects on how to be a man or woman of God. Example of a learning objective in the affective domain: “I came to Seminary to become a pastor who cares about his people’s economic, social, political and religious problems.” (- Student’s response to the question: “Why did you come to Seminary?”) These three educational domains each have their own appropriate mode of learning: formal study (course materials, books and lectures) in the cognitive domain; informal modelling in the affective domain; and non-formal practice and reflection (fieldwork) in the functional domain.

DISCUSSION Which of these three domains is most neglected and why? ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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LEARNING DOMAINS of THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION < Functional Domain Affective Domain > SKILLS what to KNOW how to FORMATION how to - STAND DO BE why WISDOM < Sapiential Domain to UNDER

Note carefully: “Doing” here refers not to obedience – doing what we have been told to do – but rather to practising certain skills, until we are able to “do” them. Obedience, on the other hand, is learnt through “being”, or becoming, more like Christ, as attitudes are changed and character is (trans)formed. The way Diagram 2 was drawn might suggest an imbalance needing to be corrected. This is indeed the case. For further reflection leads us to recognise that a truly balanced theological curriculum (in the widest sense of the word) requires a fourth element – the dimension of understanding. There is little point in knowing about things whose purpose we do not truly understand, and many practical tasks, if they are to be done effectively and with lasting results, require an approach that is also purposeful and wise. So we may call this fourth area of educational development the sapiential (or prudential*) domain, a label coined to highlight the

INSTRUCTION Cognitive Domain >

Diagram 3

discerning characteristic of this aspect of personal growth.
* “Prudential” and “sapiential” both come from Latin words meaning wise. “Prudential” is defined as: “exercising good judgement; practical and careful in providing for the future”, and derives from a Latin word meaning “farsighted, acting with foresight”, surely such qualities that are much needed in the ministry of God’s people.

The Case of Apollos

Acts 18:24-28 shows Apollos as a preacher well instructed in Knowledge, developed in Skills and well advanced in spiritual Formation, but lacking seriously in Wisdom. He was well informed (knowing), taught accurately and spoke eloquently (doing), but he needed the help of Priscilla and Aquila to explain the Way of God more adequately (understanding). Since “eloquently” in the Greek can be translated also as “full of Spiritual fervour”, there is a strong case for also finding a reference here to his spiritual character (his being). All four domains are important in learning, whether in order to write a school essay or to service a bicycle in the workshop, as has been pointed out by Roger Lewis, Professor of Learning Development at Humberside University. For in order to service a bicycle, he notes, “I need to: • know where to apply oil and which components to check; • have manual skills [doing], e.g. in adjusting brakes; • want to do it, or at least accept the importance of maintaining the bicycle [which is to do with attitude and so the formation of one’s being]; • understand why I am carrying out the various tasks [to do with purpose, design, and how the various parts of the whole fit together]”.*
*in “How to Write Essays”, by R.Lewis, p. 7, Collins Educational, 1995

So what is really needed in theological education? Should not all four learning domains be catered for, especially where students train and live together in a college community.

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In a three-dimensional model, these four learning domains would be best portrayed as the four sides of a pyramid, with equal emphasis being placed on each domain. All four are important for the support of the peak. This pyramid model emphasises the essential nature of each domain for the over-all development of an individual’s learning. Thus passing on knowledge by itself produces only a façade of learning. Knowing needs to be backed by doing, being and understanding in equal proportions for substantial learning to take place. If this mutual support of each domain for the other three is missing, sooner or later what is supposedly learnt is found not to have been truly learnt, and the whole edifice of such “learning” crumbles.

Educational Objectives involved in the four Learning Domains Within each learning domain many different educational objectives can be identified, each particular to that domain. The verbs that might be used in stating these objectives when constructing a course have been usefully charted as follows: If the goal is:
then the verb (or verbal phrase) used to describe an objective can be one of the following:





List State Select Trace Choose Write Discern Know Use Classify Recite Contrast Solve Plan Recall Study Separate View Define Evaluate Apply Desire to Identify Assist in Compare Appreciate Describe Discover Explain Be sensitive to Delineate Examine Produce Sympathise Memorise Reflect on Practice with Recognise Think through Interpret Be convinced Enumerate Pray about Understand of Become aware Comprehend Internalise Commit of Discriminate Experience yourself to Become between Communicate Have familiar with Differentiate confidence in (-Roy B. Zuck, quoted in Expository Preaching: Principles & Practice, Haddon W. Robinson, p.111, IVP, 1986)

To confirm your understanding of the differences between the four domains try the following exercise:

DISCUSSION Write four educational objectives using a verb from each of the domain boxes above:

K. I. S.




A. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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What are Our Goals?
Looking at Curriculum in terms of learning domains helps us to identify our pre-suppositions and priorities. We are provoked to ask ourselves: • Are we simply providing knowledge, packing information into the heads of our students so that they simply know what to say once they leave us (but do not why or when to say it)?

• Or are we developing skills, so that our graduates will be able to handle that knowledge, apply it to the
various situations they will meet, and even be able to research further information by themselves when necessary?

• Are we seeking to be “agents of change” in human behaviour, training students so to minister to their
people that not only faith is strengthened but lives as well are radically altered to express the values and commitments of God’s Kingdom?

• Are we training our students to be able to make good judgements and wise choices, based on clear

thinking, sound values and well understood principles of conduct? Are they learning to reflect on the purpose of their actions, expressing vision and insight in their decisions?

Wisdom comes through an understanding of the purpose of things. It is not simply an accumulation of past experiences, but rather an insight into the present suitability of something for fulfilling an ultimate end that accords with the wisdom of God himself. This sense of a human purpose that is also aligned with God’s purposes (original, present and ultimate) is crucial for development. Another important way of viewing our goals is to ask questions about the levels of learning development that we are aiming at in our students. We may want them to be able to understand the significance of the information they have come already to know. But a further development occurs when they start to reflect on the application of this understanding to their situation. Development of learning continues when a student can critique the arguments of others and eventually evaluate his or her own thinking, attitudes and actions in the light of what he or she has learnt previously. This encourages the formation of mature thinking and, when combined with the development of good attitudes, contributes to the spiritual formation of the student.

List three significant attitudes that future church leaders should be encouraged to cultivate. How can training take this kind of formation into account?




Identify one major area of understanding that needs to be developed during training:

What steps can we take to include all the learning domains when reviewing our curriculum and courses?
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Note: A summary of this section, together with further examples of its application, can be found in Appendix A.

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As educationally we have identified several fields (domains) of learning, equally we must be aware of several modes (or ways) of learning – termed formal, non-formal and informal. Formal learning takes place in an environment where grades, classes, examinations, written work and other academic requirements are emphasised. Non-formal learning is equally well organised, but the purposeful study combines fieldwork with dialogue, evaluation and reflection, and emphasises the practical purposes of a course. Students placed under local leaders as their apprentices (e.g. curates in Anglican type churches) are learning non-formally from their elders as they get the reactions of their more experienced colleagues to their own stumbling efforts. Informal learning occurs as a consequence of the ethos of the training institution, the quality of community life where students and staff can inter-act, the latter having the role of models as well as mentors. Students learn from such mentors by absorbing their insights and whole approach to ministry. Different modes of learning can be used in any domain. The challenge for the teacher (and his / her educational institution) is to use the appropriate mode(s) for each subject and to plan a curriculum that not only covers the most relevant subjects in each domain, but also makes use of a variety of modes in each domain.
Try the next exercise with a colleague or group of colleagues. Brainstorming might be helpful as a preliminary activity before selecting the examples that might prove most significant for your programme of training.

DISCUSSION Can you think of an informal way, and a non-formal way of teaching one subject (of your own choice) in each domain? Informal ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


If learning does not end at graduation, or at the end of a course, in what ways (if any!) does our curriculum encourage people to learn for themselves (not necessarily the same as learning by themselves)?

The next section deals with levels of learning and advocates a policy of Spiral Learning. It is presented in diagrammatic form and concludes with two Discussion questionsl

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How we might view the structure of our total programme of Theological Education. AN EXAMPLE

Thirty Courses
< Degree Level

(Conceptual, Arguing a Case)

Twenty Courses

Ten Courses

< Diploma

(Comprehension, Biblical Studies)

Family Life

Church Life Society
< Certificate Level (Emphasis on: Facts & Examples)

Three areas of “relationship” FAMILY LIFE, CHURCH LIFE and SOCIETY – form the core of each course in the above curriculum, which is constructed on three levels. These themes are expanded as the level of study rises each time they return round the spiral. Thus SPIRAL LEARNING builds on what has been previously learnt about any given subject.


F.L. Ch.L. S. Diploma Certificate

Note: All four learning domains – cognitive (knowing), sapiential (understanding), functional (doing) and affective (being) – must be advanced together. There is always a danger that knowledge and understanding will advance at the expense of skills and personal development and that knowledge and skills will squeeze out understanding and personal development.

DISCUSSION What are the advantages of applying the principle of Spiral Learning to curriculum planning? What constraints might it also put upon curriculum construction?

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Aims can be expressed in terms of what the student will be competent to do or what attitudes he or she will be expected to have acquired once the programme has been completed. Examples are listed below:
Take one group at a time and decide what level of learning (Certificate, Diploma, Degree) ought to be expected of each of the four competencies listed. Then write an example of one appropriate educational/training objective for each competency.
Note: The dominant learning domain (s) are indicated in the L/H margin.

Group A
K/U/D Expound clearly 20 major biblical doctrines as they relate to God’s plan of salvation. U/D Know how to interpret the different genres of Scripture. B Lead a life marked by personal holiness and devotion to God. U Know how to distinguish spiritual gifts from natural talents.

Group B
U/D Know how to use their natural leadership styles in church life. B A developing maturity in their walk with God and dealings with others. B/U Show practical compassion for people in need. K/U/D Apply significant lessons of church history to today’s church life, service and witness.

Group C
U/K B U/B/D B Understand the problems and opportunities of local church life. Demonstrate the fruit of the Spirit in significant areas of their life. Appreciate their own strengths and weaknesses in ministry to others. Demonstrate integrity and consistent honesty in their personal dealings.

Group D
B Demonstrate a servant’s heart in relationship to others. U/D Know how to minister across-culture. D/U Demonstrate conflict resolution skills in church and community life. D/U/B/K Enable a congregation to worship God in spirit and in truth.

Group E
B/U/K U B/D D/U Act courageously in ways consistent with biblical values. Understand the cultural, social and moral issues in their contemporary situation. Exercise spiritual disciplines in daily life. Demonstrate developing skills of evangelism in the local church’s outreach.

Group F
D/U Demonstrate management skills in a significant Christian ministry. B Take effective initiative in enabling others to minister and grow. D/U/B Demonstrate sound vision in the leadership of a Christian community or organization. D/U/K Demonstrate equipping, recruiting and mentoring skills.

Group G
D/U/K Exercise effective preaching and teaching skills. B/U/D Demonstrate shepherding skills in a complex pastoral situation. B Have a teachable spirit and an ongoing desire to grow in the things of the Spirit. D/U Exercise communication and listening skills in congregational life.

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Below are listed some constraints commonly experienced in Christian Institutions. Evaluate the most pressing in your situation and add any further constraints that come to mind. STUDENTS
 Level of Education at entry (relevance of study methods and habits, knowledge) Level of Commitment to study (motivation, distractions) Commitment to Christ (personal relationship, dedication) Powers of concentration (hence the relevance of: ‘how many consecutive classes?’) Range of general abilities (learning, initiative, understanding) Family situation / travelling in daily / other commitments (assignments) Health: physical, mental and spiritual Experience of community living and individual study Reliability with books (care and return) ……………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………………..

Availability (enough to cover all subjects / training exercises) Time commitment (full-time, part-time, other commitments taking priority) Experience and knowledge of the subject / field Willingness to study further / a new area in order to cover a subject / field Modeling (image presented to the students to imitate) Level of care for students Concern for maintenance of discipline Degree of initiative in developing new ideas Concern for appropriate educational methods used to teach subjects ………………………………………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………………….. …………………………………………………………………………………..


…………………………………………………………………………………..  Availability of text-books Availability of Library books (accessibility, gaps in certain areas) Use of copying facilities (for what purpose?) Journals for Faculty (for book reviews, new ideas) ……………..……………………………………………………….. ………………………………………………………………………

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DISCUSSION List 10 COMPETENCIES that you and your colleagues consider ESSENTIAL for the work for which you are preparing your students. Add the appropriate LEARNING DOMAINS for each 1. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------3. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------4. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------6. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------7. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------8. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------9. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------10. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thinking now of the CONSTRAINTS that apply to your programme’s goals and the situation in which you have to achieve those goals, can you create (and describe below) some NON-TRADITIONAL kinds of LEARNING EXPERIENCES that would enable you to develop the COMPETENCIES you have identified above? (These should not include class-room and Library work.) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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Part 3:

“RE-PACKING OUR LUGGAGE” - The Journey ahead. What is the best way for us to construct a curriculum package for theological education?

When the time comes to re-assemble our “luggage” for the journey ahead, the first question, surprisingly, is not: “what shall we include?” but rather: “how can we achieve a good balance in our selection of course subjects?” We have to resist the temptation to try and include everything that seems immediately desirable.

Over the years there have been many different approaches to the construction of a theological curriculum, including the evolutionary method of simply allowing a curriculum to grow unplanned as it accumulates subjects offered by each new addition to the teaching body. In this latter process “weaker” offerings die a natural death as they are replaced by more vigorous courses. But even the strong courses are liable to be neglected and ultimately omitted altogether when their custodian who first developed them moves on. Some approaches to curriculum administration are more planned. They include the following, each with its own strengths and weaknesses:


The Pragmatic (“jig-saw”) Approach: (dear to the heart of administrators!) The aim here is to fit into the students’ period of residence as conveniently as possible all the subjects which their teachers wish to teach them. This approach is primarily teacher orientated, and starts with the pragmatic problem of “who is available to teach our students now?” The administration lists those subjects thought worthy of being taught and that appeal to the teachers’ interests. A selection is then made from the curriculum CLASSIFICATION list (or something like it) to find out what might match the concerns of the faculty. Everyone is happy because the students presume that they have the most motivated teachers for the subjects chosen in this way. But how balanced is the resulting curriculum?


The Structural (“menu”) Approach: (beloved by academics!) This approach aims to fit into the timetable as much of a comprehensive curriculum as time will allow. Inevitably priorities have to be agreed as it is never possible to include every desirable topic. This approach shifts the attention onto the subjects to be taught. Again the CLASSIFICATION list provides a useful basis for selection, but this time extra care is taken to make a balanced selection from each major division. The approach is truly subject orientated (not teacher orientated) and is more balanced in its approach. It can, however, become degree driven, rather than task related. .


The Functional (“tools for the job”) Approach: (the assumption of the average church member)

Here the emphasis is on the needs of the work to which the student is called. “What is it that the student must be able to do after completing this course?” is the first question asked before any subject is “packed” into the curriculum “luggage”. This approach is thus task orientated and, for seminary students, the assumption is that they are being trained to provide a service for the church and meet the requirements of a congregation in terms of skills and knowledge.

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The Individual Development (“promising material”) Approach: (sometimes the hope of the student’s tutor!) The purpose here is the development of the student as a disciple of Christ. Thus the formation of a Christ-like character is sought foremost. But also important is the development of other areas of full potential (natural abilities, gifts and interests) in order to make him / her as creative, productive and influential for good as is possible in the area of ministry to which (s)he is called.


The Educational (“learning bricks”) Approach: (advocated by educationists aware of student learning problems) This is a sub-objective of individual development where it is realised that all learning must be appropriate to the educational level and experience of the student, rather than related to the academic level of the teacher. The approach here starts at the base of the student’s learning pyramid and builds on that foundation only as fast as the student can manage to cope with each new learning “block”, be it in the cognitive, functional, affective or sapiential domain. Specific consideration is given to the mastery of all the basic learning skills of grammar, comprehension, basic logic and study methods, rather than to the accumulation of content (“banking” information!).


The Contextualised (“here and now”) Agenda: (popular in the Western theological circles and now catching on in the two-thirds world churches also) This approach emphasises preparation for the world. Its aim is to teach every subject in the context of the world we live in now, in order to train students to think in terms of the relevance of what they are absorbing. Thus all subjects should be taught in their wider contexts to prepare students to face social issues that they will likely meet in society, as well as to train them in how to teach members of their congregations to tackle these issues effectively themselves.


The Integrative (“web”) Approach: (pioneered by educationists in secular fields in the West) The word “integrated” is used here to suggest that CONTENT, DOMAIN, MODE and LEVEL are all brought into consideration as those ideas, fields and methods are inter-woven at appropriate levels in a way that will be most effective in achieving the desired objectives of the programme. It also refers to the integration of diverse subjects. It is thus the complete opposite of the academic departmentalisation that has for so long characterised Western academic institutions. One version of this approach aims also to make all such integrative learning relevant to contemporary living. (See Integrative Theology: Gordon Lewis / B. Demarest) This is precisely what is needed in theological curriculum construction. The disciple-student needs a balanced blend of doctrine, experience and practice in his / her training that will enable that student to develop - long after formal training has been completed - what has already been learnt. (S)he needs to be trained in the four domains of knowing, doing, being and understanding, in such a way that the process will continue throughout his / her ministry, and a variety of methods will enhance this learning.

Which of the above approaches do you recognise as best describing your institution? Which would be both feasible and worth adopting for your programme? Why? Could you combine aspects of several of them to make a curriculum that is more appropriate for your situation? List below the elements you would wish to include. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

We now consider three models of curriculum construction currently in practice in the West.

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CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION : Three Current Models A. Traditional “Oxbridge”

College Raison d’etre



for its existence)

“By the terms of Queen Margaret’s Charter, this Chair was established for the teaching of Divinity in the University of C ….” “The Purpose of this College is to Prepare men and women for the Ministry of the Church of E…...”

v v v v

Requirements: 3 years’ residence under tutors for the study of chosen subjects: Definitions:
Professor: the principal teacher in a field of learning at a university or college, in charge of his department and usually occupying a “chair”. Fellow: a member of the teaching faculty of a university college. Dean: a college fellow with responsibility for undergraduate discipline. Reader: a lecturer in a university. Lecture: (the text of) a discourse on a particular subject given or read to an audience. Tutor: a member of staff responsible for the teaching and supervision of a certain number of students.
(Derivation: a “caring for” > to” watch over”.)

Content: A. Scripture B. Doctrine C. History D. Pastoralia

v v v v

Professorships / Lectureships
1. Subject “A” 2. Subject “B” 3. Subject “C” Professor “X” Professor “Y” Lecturer “Z”

Course Subjects Autumn Term (Usually 3 terms to each academic year)
1. 2. etc

Tutors Supervise the written work of students Essays
On Topics in the Field of Study

Reading Lists

Annual (or bi-annual) Examinations
On all the Course subjects taught

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Notice in this model the emphasis on: community living (the requirement for so many years’ residence), the importance given to the role of the teacher (a hierarchy of teaching staff), including the mentoring of the students, often in a one-to-one relationship, and the close relationship between the teacher and his subject (the “chair”* established for a famous teacher to be able to teach a particular subject). Analysed in this way, it may seem that this traditional approach gives too much emphasis to the teacher and the subject he teaches. However, the almost “guru” quality of this form of university education has stood the test of the time and has produced many remarkable scholars and has been the back-bone of the intelligentsia for many generations. **. This traditional model is orientated towards a concept of education as an art. Before we look at an example of a model orientated towards the complementary concept of education as a science, we shall consider a more pragmatic model that is orientated towards education considered more as a service agency for both the individual and the community.

B. Contemporary British College Clientele V V V V V V V V V V V


Questionnaire [sent to churches, former students, church leaders, etc] What? – How? – Why? – Where? – When? – Who? etc

Projection of future Needs Q: In 10 years time what will be the world scenario?

NEEDS to be met by the Programme 1. 2. 3. etc Course Subjects 1. 2. 3. etc
* The concept of a university “chair” derives from the Muslim practice of giving religious teaching at the foot of one of the main columns in a mosque. The Ulema would sit on a small stool (his “chair”) and teach to his students gathered around him. Perhaps this in turn derived from the Jewish practice of teaching similarly in the synagogue. Thus the apostle Paul once sat at the feet of Rabbi Gamaliel. ** A book published by Oxford University Press to commemorate Pakistan’s 50 years of Independence reviewed many aspects of life in Pakistan today. Of the 18 writers who contributed articles, 5 were associated with Cambridge University, a remarkable testimony to the contribution made by this famous example of traditional university education in Europe.

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C. North American

School Goals v v v v


Categories of Student Development
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 3 Year Programme

Year Programme or: Diploma Programme
1 Programme Objectives: 1. 2.

Bachelor Programme
Programme Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4.

4 Year Programme or:

Master’s Programme
Programme Objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Designing a Curriculum to achieve (or support the accomplishment of) the above objectives Course Subjects
[Preliminary listing] 1. 2. etc

Note: Every COURSE has its own written objectives describing which “piece of the pie” (i.e. the over-all objectives of the programme) is to be accomplished within the course. Example: 800 Pastoral Theology Course Autumn 2000
[3 x 12 = 36 class “hours”]

3 Credit Hour

Course Description 2 – 3 line summary of content. [This will be included in the institution’s Catalogue.] e.g. The call to…duties of… skills needed…difficulties faced in the pastor’s live, etc. Course Texts 1. 2. 3. etc

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Course Objectives 1. In this course the student will learn this content…. e.g. the duties expected of a congregational pastor a) b) etc [Know]

2. By the end of this course, the student will be able to perform… e.g. a celebration of the Lord’s Supper Do] a) b) etc 3. By the end of this course the student will understand…. e.g. the nature of a sacrament Understand] a) b) etc 4. By the end of this course the student will have developed his / her… e.g. standard of personal preparedness before leading worship [Be] a) b) etc. Course Outline Tues Sept 15th Thur Sept 17th Sat Sept 19 Introduction / Assignments Definitions The Call to Ministry etc Course Assignments 1. Reading 2. Written Assignment (Essay)

Projects – interview 3 pastors about Topic A

Course Grading 1. End of term Exam 2. Term Paper

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The need to be very clear about what we are trying to achieve over-all is now recognised by the secular world as well as by Christian organisations. Nowadays banks and even CocaCola have their own mission statement which they share with employee and customer alike.

Actually this is not really a new discovery. European Universities had it before the Reformation. (See the examples of a College Raison d’etre at the beginning of Section A: Traditional “Oxbridge”.) They just did not call it their “Mission Statement”! What is the function of such a statement? What does it set out to do? And what are its characteristics? The purpose of a Mission Statement is to make clear what is the reason for the existence of the organisation or institution. For what purpose was it founded? It sets out to state in clear language what it is trying to achieve. It does not try to describe each and every aspect of its work, nor does it try to convey its particular ethos or way of doing things. That should be done somewhere else, in an advertisement, a constitution or a prospectus. The Mission Statement simply states the essential mission of the organisation. So a Mission Statement should be short – not more than 4 dozen words, clear – not complicated by technical language, and memorable. It should also of-course win the approval of all those involved in the organisation. When Gujranwala Theological Seminary held a Strategic Planning exercise to plan for the next 5 years, the 20 or so Board members, Faculty and Students involved began by formulating in groups of five a suitable Mission Statement for the Seminary. When eventually the four working groups collated and agreed the final Statement there was spontaneous applause as all present together recognised the essential nature of their Seminary’s work. The wording went as follows:

The mission of Gujranwala Theological Seminary is to train, develop and equip men and women called by God for ordained and other ministries
What do you find attractive and compelling about the above Mission Statement? ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------What are the various components of this Statement? ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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1. Write your own Mission Statement for your institution or organisation. (Either do this in small
groups or individually.) Remember to make it brief, clear and memorable. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. Now bring your various drafts together and compile an agreed Statement.

Before we consider next the construction of objectives, let us first compare our thinking with the aims and ethos of some North American colleges, as expressed in their recruiting advertisements. Note: These are not Mission Statements, but rather statements of ethos and general approach. They have the purpose of attracting attention. All the same, they tell us a lot about the institutions concerned!

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Below are extracts of advertisements for various American Seminaries. Taken from a recent issue of Christianity Today, they illustrate differing emphases in Seminary training. Not all portray an ethos we necessarily would wish to share, but some could nudge us to further thought about our own goals.

Columbia Biblical Seminary
Dedicated professors who will push you academically, lead you spiritually, and give you a rock-solid grounding in God’s Word. You need to develop the spiritual character that comes from applying what you learn to your life, and by being held accountable to a body of believers through personal discipleship and the highest standards of conduct. So if you want to have an impact in the world, choose the seminary that can have the greatest impact on you.

Fuller Theological Seminary
Our professors not only excel in the classroom, but are out there in the world, pastoring churches, engaging in mission, practising psychology e.g. Minister of a big church + chaplain to a high school football team. Subject: NT Work among the poor: Subject: urban mission. i.e. equally active on campus and in the community. We practice what we teach.

Wheaton College Graduate School
An educational experience that challenges students to integrate personal faith with academic disciple. Providing students with the knowledge and skills to help build the church, confront social problems, and bring a Christian perspective to any endeavour, anywhere in the world.

Beeson Divinity School
We pledge to nurture one another toward full maturity in Christ. We believe the missionary mandate should inform every aspect of a theological education. We commit ourselves to a pattern of theological training which emphasises The disciplines of the Christian faith, a life of prayer and worship, witness and discipleship, and social compassion with justice and peace.

Denver Seminary
Emphasis on hands-on learning directed by experienced mentors. Innovative approach to knowing, being and doing. We borrowed it from the best!

Make a List of points in these advertisements (above and on the other side) that appeal to you. How you could adapt them to your programme? Write a “profile” advertisement for your institution. PTO

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Haggard Graduate School of Theology
Doctor of Ministry with an emphasis in spiritual formation. Start a “change reaction” in your church! – with Richard Foster. By design, the program allows for new ideas and perspectives. It takes into account how very individualised ministry can be. Growth and learning are always reciprocal - rooted in a solid scriptural foundation, - tirelessly seeking truth and understanding.

Western Seminary Seattle
Reading is fundamental. We teach out students to “read” on three levels: the Bible, the human soul and today’s culture.

International School of Theology
You will be personally mentored by faculty. Helping students apply what they are learning to their own intimate relationship to God as well as their current and future ministries has been a passion of Dr Alan Scholes’ throughout his career.

The Master’s Seminary
‘A young seminary student once asked me what the secret is to a great sermon. My answer wasn’t what he expected. “Stay in your chair until the hard work is done.” I stand by that. There’s nothing magical about being an effective student and communicator of the Bible. Its’ a skill you learn, cultivate, then put to work. God’s Word deserves nothing less, God’s people need nothing more.’ - John Macarthur

The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary
Most seminaries will have you read good books. But here at Southern Seminary, you’ll sit in classes taught by the authors. That’s because professors in our School of Theology are writing the texts that are setting the pace in theological education.

Alliance Theological Seminary
Students focus on three areas of development. The Person Phase causes students to establish skills in understanding the biblical text and authentically apply it to their lives. The Church phase gives students a clearer picture of the nature and mission of the church they are callled to serve. The Ministry Phase allows student to apply these new perspectives to specific issues and needs in ministry.

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Suppose we take the over-all purpose of Theological Education to be: “the educational furtherance of God’s Kingdom”. Upon this basic statement of general intent we could construct more measurable objectives for each domain. Cognitive: To be able to list and explain the significance of… e.g. “10 major tenets of the Christian Faith”; “4 key teachings of Scripture concerning the Kingdom of God”. Functional: To be able to perform (in the field)… e.g. “the preaching to a rural congregation of a sermon on God’s grace that is both Biblical and contextual.” “the leading of evening worship in a busti (poor street community).” Affective: To be able to demonstrate (by behaviour and attitude)… e.g. “godly concern for a bereaved church member whose unbelieving son is killed in a road accident and offer counsel with integrity.” Sapiential: To be able to… e.g. “in a case of congregational schism (split), interpret Scripture with relevancy and insight into the purposes of God for his Church.” “counsel a husband whose wife has recently left him about how to cope with infidelity in the light of God’s will for his people in marriage.” A Nursing Example for Course Construction As an example of how this four-fold approach might be applied to a course, let us look at some examples of learning objectives in a training course for nursing sisters: Cognitive domain: Functional domain: Affective domain: Sapiential domain: Listing and being able to explain aspects of the anatomy, physiology and medical conditions of a patient. Enabling junior staff to work well with supervised practice. Demonstrating care for the self-esteem and morale of the patient.
(Note: in this area the modelling given by the tutor is very significant.)

Understanding the patient / doctors / colleagues / maids / superiors; the nature of the illness and its effects upon the patient.

DISCUSSION What is the pre-determined goal of our whole training programme?

What are the main objectives in each learning domain that will, if achieved, enable our students to reach this end? Cognitive -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Functional ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Affective ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sapiential --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

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EXERCISES - for selection during an introductory work-shop, etc
At this point an all-day workshop to review and apply the principles discussed so far is recommended. The following exercises could be carried out. (A relevant Bible Study is included in Appendix J.)
A) B) C)

What expectations do I bring with me to this retreat / conference / seminar / work-shop? Compare 3 construction models (Modern, Traditional European, N. American), noting the strengths and weaknesses of each. Imagine…(This exercise is about the essentials of a minimum curriculum. It should be done in pairs.) Project yourself 10 years hence into the following fanciful “nightmare” situation: The institution has been taken over by “baddies” and the property sold; 100 of the most useful Library books were rescued, but nothing else. A new Taliban government has expelled all missionaries; most went to Central Asia. The Church leadership is in crisis and new leaders are urgently needed for a persecuted church community dispersed into small groups. All the teaching faculty have dispersed. You and one colleague have got together to start a programme of training for 5 or 6 young Christians who show promise as potential local church leaders. What would you plan to teach them and in what order? You are asked to “unpack” your curriculum as it is at present and “declare” what it contains. Do this first for the total curriculum programme (as far as you are aware of it). Then do it again for your own subject / field of study. Both times ask yourself these questions: i. What kind of content does it cover? (e.g. mainly information?) ii. Where is the training focused? (e.g. on preaching? Church roles?) iii. What is excluded from our vision? (e.g. social issues, cultural hindrances?) To what pre-determined end do we plan our teaching? What are we aiming to achieve by our training? Reflect on the benefits of studying in your field or subject. Now choose any 3 areas of study shown on the sheet: “PURPOSEFUL STUDY: Why Study this Course?” List in order of importance the three greatest benefits of studying these subjects.


E) F)

G) Choose a level of leadership in church life, e.g. village padre, town SS superintendent, etc). List some qualities of this properly trained church “leader” under the headings: i. What (s)he would know: ii. What (s)he could do: iii. What (s)he would see (understand clearly, have insight into, be wise about): iv. What character qualities (s)he would be showing in her life-style:
H) I) J)

Apply the learning domains pyramid (knowing, doing, being, seeing) to your own particular field + one other field of your choice. How should we define or understand “curriculum construction”? Looking at curriculum construction as meeting needs, whose needs might we try to meet? Whose requirements and whose constraints need we also to consider and in what order? Write down some specific needs under each of the headings you have made.

K) What Expectations am I taking away with me? (At the end of the workshop)

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CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION based on EXTERNAL NEEDS and REQUIREMENTS Once the principles upon which the curriculum should be constructed have been agreed, and the approach decided, the next stage is to work through the following steps to produce a working timetable. This should provide a weekly framework for teaching all that needs to be learnt while truly reflecting the ethos, or principles, of the curriculum. This process involves the following general stages: STAGE 1. Listing the needs and requirements to be met by the training programme, and its constraints. STAGE 2. Identifying the subjects to be taught that will relate to these needs.
Reference to the Classification list may help here as menu from which to select topics, but it should not be considered as a model of what ought to be included.

STAGE 3. Evolving a timetable to provide a structured framework for teaching.
This includes first allocating credit hours (i.e. an appropriate weight to each subject) in order to achieve a balance in the over-all teaching or training.)

These stages may be reached by taking the following steps: (STAGE 1) STEP 1. Make a list of as many “interested parties” as come to mind when you ask yourself: “For whose benefit is this curriculum being created?” Consider whose needs and what kind of requirements you are trying to meet, and whether there are any groups involved that would place constraints on what you are might be able to teach. STEP 2. Now list all the needs, requirements or constraints of each of these groups. These two steps combined might result in something like this: God’s World’s Needs 1. 2. 3. etc Requirement s 1. 2. 3. etc

Student’s Church’s Needs 1. 2. 3. etc Needs 1. 2. 3. etc

Faculty’s Constrai nts 1. 2. 3. etc

STEP 3. Place these groups in order of priority.

STEP 4. The next step attempts to sort out what is appropriate to teach at various educational levels – Certificate (facts, examples), Diploma (interpretations of a text, Biblical studies), Degree (concepts, theories, evaluations) Identify for each “need” the appropriate level of learning.

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STEP 5. List, under the headings of the four learning domains, the learning objectives that may be expected to meet each of the needs listed above. This is a brainstorming exercise where the following key questions should be answered: • • • • i.e. To meet this need, (e.g. God’s R. No. 1) what does the student need to KNOW? 1. 2. To meet this need, what does the student need to be able to DO? 3. etc 1. 2. To meet this need, what does the student need to BE? (Character, 3. etc attitude) 1. To meet this need, what does the student need to SEE? (Understand) 2. 1. 3. etc 2. 3. etc What information needs to be “known”? What skills need to be learnt? (how to “do” things) What attitudes need to be adopted? (how to “be” a better person) What insights need to be gained? (for greater “understanding” of design and purpose)


STEP 6. Identify the subjects or topics to be taught in order to achieve these objectives. Add in any additional subjects suggested by scanning the CLASSIFICATION list. Consider why they should be added. (What needs do they meet?) Check whether or not each of the four learning domains is represented adequately. Finally ask: is anything missed out that is significant or important for a balanced coverage of this area of learning? STEP 7. Decide the method to be used to teach each subject. For each subject that is listed, it is necessary to decide upon either: A course subject under which this learning objective can be achieved through classes or personal study. or: A practical work assignment where training can be provided. Either: Course Subject Or: Practical Work

to provide experience / training to be studied / taught through doing… by means of……… (field-work in…, (lectures, project, etc) reading, . research, etc) Note the need to decide the method of learning as well as the content.

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STEP 8. Group all subjects, with their learning objectives attached, under Course headings. STEP 9. [optional] Decide where subjects from different departments / domains could be integrated. (See Appendix F)
Note: This is a big and important area of planning. It should only be attempted when there is sufficient time, experience and commitment to do the work of integration carefully. Otherwise natural over-lapping of subjects may be a more practical option.

STEP 10. Decide what programmes leading to student accreditation to offer (e.g. Diploma, B.Th., M.Div., etc.). (STAGE 3) STEP 11. Allocate credit hours. Note: A Credit Hour usually = 1 classroom period per week per 10- or 12- week term, I.e. 10 or 12 classroom “hours” (Note: an “hour” sometimes means only 45 minutes!). Decide A) how many credit hours would seem appropriate for each course in theory. Evaluate the weighting given to each subject in the context of the total curriculum being planned. Decide where “balance” means equal proportion and where appropriate proportion. Ask: Is the time spent on each subject proportionate to its significance? B) how many credit hours in total to expect of each programme. C) how, in practice, to allocate credit hours to each course. STEP 12. Evolve a Timetable Use the “Three Year Plan” curriculum chart to plot the curriculum so produced. (See Appendix C.) If there is not enough room for everything in the timetable it may be necessary to do some more pruning. The question then is: which are the subjects that do least to further the objectives of this programme of training? These must go! Read off from the “Three Year Plan” the subjects noted and plot them onto the “Time-table sheet. Revise the “Credit Hours” allocation to ensure that the number of classroom periods is realistic for both student and teacher. This raises the question: how many class periods should students be expected to sit through? 30 x 45 minute periods per week? (Too “heavy”?)… Or only 10 x 1 hour periods per week? (Too “light”?)

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Change is always threatening. New ideas introduced in a rush often fail, especially if they are not properly absorbed and digested. Old ways generally contain some merit and they have the advantage of being tried, familiar and understood! For these reasons it is best to progress slowly rather than swiftly, allowing everyone time to reflect on what is happening during change and to adjust at their own pace. What has been set out in the preceding pages represents an approach that is closer to an ideal than to what can be realistically achieved at a first attempt, given the pressures of time, the probable lack of sufficient teachers and just the urgency of the need “to teach the next class”. So at the first attempt at revising a Curriculum it may be best simply to select from many possibilities (as shown on the CLASSIFICATION list) and then prioritise, selecting only the most important subjects (see Appendix B). In making such a selection the four Learning Domains should also be checked to assess what kind of balance is being achieved by the suggested reforms. Another way of developing a preliminary curriculum that is also subject-orientated is to take one course subject at a time – take an essential subject – and construct from the CLASSIFICATION “menu” a preliminary course made up of the elements you decide to include from this list. Against each item you have selected write an educational objective. (For an example taken from the section on Discipleship see Appendix E.) Bearing in mind the limitations of a purely subject-orientated course, the resulting course must be thought of as purely a preliminary start. A later revision, say after three years of using the earlier attempt, might include additional felt needs (identified through reflective research and expressed by formulating specific measurable objectives) and again prioritise. In this selection more attention will be made to the needs of the student, of the work for which (s)he is being trained, of the church, of the community, of the nation, and even of the world (e.g. ecology). Ultimately it may prove possible to construct a Curriculum that begins in each learning domain with key objectives relating directly to the issues of Christ’s Kingdom. These learning objectives would address first those issues that affect the honour of God’s name, and then secondly the human needs of a fallen world, whether of the individual before redemption or of the redeemed body of Christ visibly manifest in the Christian community. Such a Curriculum would be need-related and integrated rather than degree-driven and departmental. In the meantime let us all, students, teachers and leaders alike, “run with resolution the race which lies ahead of us, our eyes fixed on Jesus” who is our model, mentor and teacher in working out our programmes in the complex but crucial process of Theological Education.

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Part 4

Construction Tools



D. E. F. G. H. A SEMINARY CURRICULUM: RELATIVE WEIGHTING of COURSES. A CURRICULUM SCHEDULE: . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YEAR TRAINING PLAN ( Indian example) . The “PROGRAMME” . . . . . . . . . 52 54 55 56 57 58

A BEGINNER’S SCHOOL (Starting from Core TEXT BOOKS) . THE READING LIST: A Core Self-Study Programme

Constructing a Course (Examples)
I. J. USING THE MENU FRAMEWORK for INTEGRATIVE COURSE Worship example 61 CONSTRUCTING A COURSE from the MENU: Discipleship example . 62

More on Learning Domains
K. RANGES OF LEARNING outlined (4 Domains) . . . . . . . . 65 66 69 70 71 Categories of DOINGs, KNOWINGs & UNDERSTANDINGs. . LEARNING DOMAINS Summary Chart of Theory and Practice .. L. LEARNING DOMAINS: As Personal Growth. . In Proverbs . . . . . . .

M. N. O. P. Q. PASTORAL OBJECTIVES Bible Study WESTERN MODELS Critique . . Essay on MODELLING – Neil Foster . TAIL- PIECE - A Fable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 78 79



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SUMMARY CHART of CURRICULUM FIELDS for THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION (Pakistan Context) (taken from A Progressive Classification)
Dept. of Biblical Studies, Hermeneutics & Systematic Theology THE MESSAGE of THE CHURCH: SALVATION 100 BIBLICAL STUDIES
(The primary SOURCE of our Faith) 110 BACKGROUND STUDIES 115 The Canon of The Text The Transmission of the Text
(Describing the extent of the text & how it was handed down)

Dept. of Philosophy, Communication & Contemporary Studies THE MISSION of THE CHURCH: WITNESS 300 PHILOSOPHY
(The philosophical BASIS of our Faith) 350 PHILOSOPHICAL THEOLOGY 360 APOLOGETICS
(Commending & defending the Faith as truth & wisdom)

Dept. of Historical Theology & Church History THE MOVEMENT of THE CHURCH: DISCIPLING: CHURCH HISTORY
(How the Faith SREAD and was effective) 601 THE EARLY CHURCH 607 THE WEST The Middle Ages The Renaissance 615 THE MODERN ERA The Enlightenment The Evangelical Revival 620 ASIA Near East & Central Asia 624 THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT Missionary Agents Spheres of Mission 640 S. E. ASIA 650 AFRICA 656 AMERICA

Dept. of Practical & Pastoral Theology & Christian Education THE MINISTRY of THE CHURCH: NURTURE-CAREPRAISE 700 PRACTICAL THEOLOGY
(Following Jesus in the Way)

(Finding the implications of Faith for conduct)


(Clarifying what the Text says, & what the Text means)




(What may be discovered about God apart from revelation)

(Preaching the Faith to-day) 545

(Surveying all that the texts say on all the subjects with which they deal)


(How the Faith was STATED in the past)


(Formulating the Faith today)

(Defining the Christian task in the world)


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Appendix G

 Introduction to the Bible  OT-NT relationship Geography of Bible 

Lands Biblical Archaeology Transmission & Canon  Higher Criticism Translation Hermeneutics Bible Study Methods Other: 120 OLD TESTAMENT Survey of the OT Historical Outline of OT Themes of OT The Law Genesis – Exodus Deuteronomy The Prophets  “Early” (Historical)  “Later” Isaiah  “12” (Minor) The Writings  Wisdom Literature 5 Rolls (Festivals / Fasts) Daniel (Apocalyptic Ezra / Nehemiah (Hist.) Other: 160 NEW TESTAMENT Survey of the NT OT fulfilment in the NT Themes of NT The Gospels Jesus’ Life & Death Jesus’ Teaching Synoptic Gospels John’s Gospel Acts Paul’s Theology Romans Epistles (Cor-Thes) Pastoral Epistles Hebrews Revelation Other:

Systematic Theology God The World  Revelation  Jesus Christ  The End Times  Humanity  Redemption  The Holy Spirit  The Church  Other: 

600 CHURCH HISTORY Early & Patristic Era The Western Church 4th-10th C Middle Ages The Reformation Counter-Ref. & Puritans E. Europe & Russia Eastern Churches Modern Era: The West Evangelical Awakening Contemporary Times Asia (incl. Persia, C.Asia) Indian Sub-continent 1st-10th C 16th-21st C Pakistan (regions) Other Countries Denominations Individuals Others: 690 HISTORICAL THEOLOGY H. of Hermeneutics H. of Spirituality H. of Sexuality Patristic Medieval Reformation Enlightenment Modernity Post-Modernity Formularies & Creeds Controversies Doctrinal Development Others: 700 PRACTICAL THEOLOGY Personal Discipleship Conversion Obedience Guidance Spiritual Warfare Self-control & Discipline The Cost of Discipleship Imitating Christ Growth Fruit of the Spirit Holiness Communion with God The Means of Grace Feeding on God’s Word

300 PHILOSOPHY Areas of Philos. Enquiry Philosophical Theology Apologetics Eirenics Polemics Hist. of West.Rel. Thought Other: 400 CONTEMPORARY STUDIES Modern Beliefs Contemporary Issues Contemporary Theology Cults & Sects Pluralism & Other Faiths Comparative Religion ISLAM Culture & Local Values Contextual Theology Basic Xian Communities Other: 500 COMMUNICATION Principles of Communic. Preaching (Proclamation) Expository Preaching Other kinds of Preaching Homiletics (Craft of Pr.) Other Ways of Commun. Faith Sharing Evangelism Other: 550 MISSIOLOGY Theology of Mission Culture in Mission LINGUISTICS Approach to Other Faiths Strategy of Mission Call to Mission Leadership in Mission History of Mission
 Other: 

Introduction to Theology Sources of Theology Types of Theology  Fundamental Doctrines 

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Prayer life Worship with others Christian Fellowship  Christian Service  Using Gifts of the Spirit  Local Ch. Involvement  Service to Community  Work  Use of Time & Money  Giving & Tithing  Psychology of Self  Other: 

Appendix G


780 THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION Theological FrameworkK Theological Reflection U Godly Character B Ministerial Skills D Other: 800 PASTORAL THEOLOGY Pastor: gifts & character His Office & Church Order Manager Missionary Strategist Preacher Liturgist (Lead pub Wor) Spiritual Director Counsellor Psychology of Past. Care Jesus as Counsellor Care of the Individual Shepherding the wayward Encouraging the faint Counselling the troubled Rescuing the weak Problems of Families Comforting the grieving Ministering to the sick Visiting the parish Seeking the lost
Building up the faithful Other

How Cultural locally? The Psychological elem: How adapted to Personal Temperament? Essential ingredients Word and Sacrament Occasional Services Liturgy(prescribed forms) Other:

720 CHRISTIAN ETHICS Principles Moral Theology Christian Virtues Values Setting Priorites Conscience & Conflicts Sexual Morality Lying and Truth Money Attitudes Vices Environmental Theol. Ecological Issues Use of Resources Use of Technology Social Theology Personal Attitudes Social Issues Global Issues
Community Development

835 CONGREGATIONAL OVERSIGHT Equipping for service Disciplining disobedient Dealing with conflict Other: 840 LOCAL CHURCH LEADERSHIP Jesus as Leader Modelling: Personal Example Vision Team Work Managing Change Congregational Strategy Missionary Outreach Stewardship Other 850 ORGANISATION Administration (Congr.) Finances & Fund Raising Property & Maintenance Legalities Church Courts (Higher) Boards of Institutions Parish Councils, etc Other: 870 DENOMINATIONS Own Denom. Ethos Other Denominations Denom. History Denom. Doctrines Denom. Worship Denom. Government Denom. Official posts Denom. Geog. Divisions W.C.C.

730 EDUCATION Principles Logic Study Methods Thinking Skills Reading Skills Researching Note Taking Evaluating & Organising Writing Essays Computer Skills Other: 770 CHRISTIAN EDUCATION Religious Educ.(Schools) Teaching Catechists Sunday School Youth Work Marriage Preparation Parish Training

820 RENEWAL & REVIVAL Personal Renewal Hist. & Theol. of Revival Leading House Groups Charismatic Renewal Tongues & Spirit Baptism Spiritual Discernment Vital Churches Conducting Retreats Other: 830 PUBLIC WORSHIP Public Worship aspects: The Historical element: How Traditional?  The Universal element: How World-wide?  The Social element:

Curriculum Manual


Using the Classification for Course Construction The following Course was constructed mainly from the Progressive Classification “menu”. Educational Objectives were added for each subject.


Part 1: Following Christ 1.  The Evilness of Sin, Repentance, Conversion and the Life of Faith
To understand what is involved in conversion and to be assured of eternal life.

2.  Commitment and the Lordship of Christ; Freedom and Obedience; Living out the Ten Commandments Today; Self-denial
To learn what is involved in obeying God’s commands, in commitment to Jesus as Lord, in denying the desire of self-pleasing, and in experiencing the freedom of Christ’s Spirit within.

3.  Guidance and a Sense of Purpose
To learn how God guides the Christian disciple and shows us what he wants him/her to do now.

4.  Spiritual Warfare & Empowerment
To be able to fight victoriously against the world, the flesh and the Devil.

5.  Persevering against Temptation, Hindrances, Backsliding and Spiritual Decline
To be able to withstand temptation and avoid backsliding.

6.  Self-control & Self-discipline: The Quiet Time, Fasting, Silence
To learn self-control and practice various spiritual disciplines.

7.  The Cost of Discipleship & Sacrificial Living
To evaluate and accept the cost of being a disciple of Christ.

8.  Imitating Christ
To learn how to abide in Christ and become more like Him.

9.  Character development & Growth in the Fruit of the Spirit
To learn how the believer’s life can bear spiritual fruit.

10.  Spiritual Pruning of Bad Habits and Obstacles to Growth
To learn how to check one’s spiritual life and allow the Holy Spirit to remove all hindrances to growth.

11.  Integrity, Reliability and Simplicity
To learn how to live simply and with complete reliability & integrity in every dealing with others.

12.  Holiness and the Question of Perfection in This Life
To become closer to God and learn how to please Him better.

13.  Growth through Suffering & Inner Healing.
To understand the place of suffering in the Christian life and develop a scriptural understanding of healing of body, mind and spirit.

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Part 2: Walking with God & The Means of Grace 1.  The Means of Grace
To understand, and learn how to use, the means of grace.

2.  Studying God’s Word & Hindrances to Hearing God’s Word
To learn to feed on God’s Word regularly.

3.  Biblical Meditation
To learn how to meditate on God’s Word.

4.  Prayer Life
To learn how to talk with God and develop a personal prayer life.

5.  Worship
To learn how to worship God in truth and in spirit.

6.  Rest & the Sabbath
To learn how to keep Sunday as God’s day of rest and recreation.

7.  Fellowship with God’s People
To learn how to maintain fellowship with other Christians at all times.

Part 3: Christian Service 1.  Involvement in the Life of the Local Church, Using & Developing the Gifts of the Spirit
To be able to distinguish the fruit of the Spirit from the gifts of the Spirit and develop one’s own gifts for the up-building of the Church.

2.  Witness
To learn how to share a personal faith with others.

3.  Service to Society & the Community
To learn to recognise and fulfil our responsibilities as Christians to meet human need and serve others.

4. Work
To learn how to work purposefully, productively and conscientiously.

5. The Use of Time
To learn how to make the best use of time.

6. A Giving and Tithing
To learn how to make best use of personal resources for the extension of God’s kingdom. The course, as laid out above, represents a two term period of 13 weeks per term. However, some topics may well require longer treatment than others. Also some topics may not be considered as essential as others. It is recommended that for each topic listed above a further suboutline of main points be developed – with key Bible texts where possible – and then priorities established for inclusion in a final syllabus. Reference to the NIV Thematic Study Bible (Hodder & Stoughton, 1996) is highly recommended for this exercise.

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Examples of the different uses of “UNDERSTAND” and “KNOW” in considering Educational Objectives. RANGES of LEARNING: Terms Defined (The Four “Learning Domains” or Areas of Learning Development)
When we learn something, it is not always the same kind of activity or result that is involved. We can learn a fact (e.g. the place where Jesus was born); we can learn to understand something (why God allowed Jesus to die); we can learn to do something (present the Gospel of Jesus Christ to children); and we can learn to become something (more Christ-like in our attitudes and behaviour).
These are all things we can “learn” (and to a greater or lesser extent be “taught”), but, in each case, the “learning” involved is of a different kind: it occurs in a different “domain” or area of our personality. (The word “domain” suggests the scope or extent of a type of learning. Though the different kinds of learning relate to each other, they have a distinguishable boundary. A different kind of process is taking place within each domain.)

The first area we can call the Sapiential Domain, because in this range of learning we are gaining insight. This kind of learning often comes through reflecting upon our own experience. Thus: “we learn by experience”. Proverbs 2 provides an extended celebration of this type of learning.
(“Insightful” might be another term for this domain, or “prudential”, which points to the element of wisdom gained through learning any new understanding. Some educational theorists like to subsume this domain under the next domain: “cognitive”. This is because both emphasize the process of thinking. But apart from conceptual understanding, insight generally includes some degree of spiritual understanding that transcends purely any mental process.)

The second area is known as the Cognitive Domain, because the learning involves thinking. The term comes from the Latin: cognitio, which means study, or knowledge. This is the most easily accessible form of knowledge and lends itself especially to “rote-learning”, which, paradoxically, is marked by its lack of thinking!
(Cognition, in psychology, includes perception, memory, reasoning, judgement, problem-solving, language, symbolism and conceptual thought, in fact any mental activity that enables a person to experience and learn about his or her environment. But, educationally, we suggest it be restricted to its original Latin connotation of knowledge and the study of that knowledge. Robert Ferris divides the cognitive domain into theory and information, recognizing differences in the ways these areas are taught and tested. However, it is also possible to contrast theory with practice. Then theory would cover both information and the understanding of that information, while practice concerns the next two domains: the affective and the functional.)

The third kind of learning is called Affective. This relates to how we are influenced or affected by what we learn and so become changed, or at least developed, as a result. It is the sphere of learning where the Holy Spirit can touch our personality at its deepest level.
(Some Christian educationalists object to the use of the term “affective” because it was used in the scheme of the naturalist behaviourist B.S. Bloom, “affective” to refer to feelings, whereas “character qualities” are much more substantial than emotions. However, “affective” can also be thought of as affecting character.) The last kind of learning is very practical, so we may call it the Functional Domain. This sort of learning enables us to do things that we could not do before, or, if we could, to do them better. Demonstration followed by practice is often the method of training that is most effective in this domain. (Bloom uses the term “psycho-motor domain” which Ferris rightly finds too technical and substitutes “skills”, which fairly describes this domain, as does the adjective “functional” which is preferred here.)

Roger Lewis, who is Professor of Learning Development at Humberside University, UK, points out that all four domains are important in learning, as in any common human activity (where learning is put into practice). This is so whether in order to write a school essay or to service a bicycle in the workshop. For the latter, he notes,
“I need to know where to apply oil and which components to check; have manual skills [doing], e.g. in adjusting brakes; want to do it, or at least accept the importance of maintaining the bicycle [which is to do with attitude and so the formation of one’s being]; understand why I am carrying out the various tasks [to do with the purpose, design, and how the various parts of the whole fit together.”

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Appendix O


“FOLLOW MY EXAMPLE” TEACHING THE WORD OF GOD IN OUR LIVES Neil Foster 1. Introduction One of the topics which is justifiably high on the agenda of everyone interested in theological education is that of “spiritual formation”, or, in terms perhaps closer to New Testament terminology, training our students to grow in godliness. No matter how much information about the Bible and the Christian faith that our students have, it will be of no use unless they know the Lord personally and grow in maturity. It struck me very forcibly, when reviewing New Testament material on “teaching” generally, how strong the emphasis is on the teacher providing a model of godly living for the student. We must teach, not only in the classroom, but through our lives! I knew, of course, one or two verses which mentioned this; but it surprised me when I looked a bit more closely how much material on this topic there is in the new Testament. Not only the apostle Paul, but the Lord Jesus, the apostle Peter, and the author of the letter to the Hebrews stress that we who are teachers, must be careful to live what we teach! Of course there is a general principle in the Christian life that we as believers are to imitate Christ (e.g. Rom 15:1-3, 2 Cor 8:9, Phil 2:5-11, 1 Pet 2:21, 4:1) and even God (Eph 5:1, 1 Pet 1:15-16)! These verses alone would give us good grounds for teaching by example, for this is just what the Lord Jesus did (e.g. Mk 10:45). Yet beyond these general principles of Christian life, there is a solemn charge laid upon those of us who are teachers of God’s people, that our lives must be worthy of imitation. 2. The Lord Jesus’ teaching We start with a saying of the Lord Jesus in Lk 6:39-40: “Can a blind man lead a blind man? Will they not both fall into a pit? A student is not above his teacher, but everyone who is fully trained will be like his teacher.” A frightening thought, but true! If a blind man leads another blind man, they will both be ruined. And if a teacher is not following the Lord Jesus himself, how can we expect the student to be any better? We praise God, of course, that in his mercy he does sometimes rescue students from poor teachers. But as teachers we must take this warning very seriously. If we read in Lk 6 we see the dangers that we can fall into: hypocrisy, trying to correct minor problems in our students when we have major areas of sin in our lives; ungodly talk, which reveals the true state of our hearts; lack of firm foundations in the Lord ourselves. May the Lord teach us these things clearly so that we do no prove to be a danger to others!

3. The Apostle Paul
When we turn to Paul’s writings we find again and again that he learned this lesson from the Lord Jesus very well: that his way of life was a pattern, an example, for others to follow. (a) Paul himself set an example for those he taught.

Let’s look first at 1 Thessalonians, probably one of Paul’s earliest letters. This is the way he describes his ministry in Thessalonica in 1 Thess 1:5-7: “Our gospel came to you not simply with words, but also with power, with the Holy Spirit, and with deep conviction. You know how we lived among you for your sake. You became initiators of us and of the Lord. And so you became a model to all the believers in Macedonia and Achaea.”

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From this passage we see that (i) Paul consciously chose to live his life in a certain way, for the benefit of the Thessalonians, for their sake. His life and that of his companions was a model to the Thessalonians of the gospel he was preaching. Indeed, when we look at 2 Thess 3:9 we see that Paul and his companions always had in mind the fact that the Thessalonians would observe their behaviour and imitate it. They had refused to accept financial help from the Thessalonians, and instead had worked for their own living. He says:
“We did this, not because we do not have the right to such help, but in order to make ourselves a model for you to follow.”
For Paul was prepared, even if he had no rights as an apostle, to give them up in order to set an example to others.

(ii) Secondly, if we look at the context of this imitation, we find that it expressed itself partly in the way that the believers endured severe suffering, while welcoming the gospel with the joy given by the Holy Spirit. (iii) And not only did they imitate Paul, but they in turn became a model for other believers. We might call this the “golden chain” of imitation: Paul imitates the Lord, the Thessalonians imitate Paul, others believers imitate the Thessalonians. Think of the “multiplication” factor: from Paul, to the congregation in Thessalonia, to the congregations in Greece. Think of the potential effect of our modelling on the church in our country! If we present a godly model of life to our students, which (with God’s grace) they follow, and they then present a godly model of life to the congregations they work in, then this can spread through many churches. If we behave in a godly way when in the Seminary issues of status or property are at stake, who can tell what good effects this might have in the future in the church at large? In 1 Thess 2:9-10 Paul refers to this again:
“Surely you remember, brothers, our toil and hardship; we worked night and day in order not to be a burden to anyone while we preached the gospel of God to you. You are witnesses, and so is God, of how holy, righteous and blameless we were among you who believed. For you know that we dealt with each of you as a father deals with his children, encouraging, comforting and urging you to live lives worthy of God.”

Paul says that he was like a father to them. What do we see in someone’s children? How much they resemble and imitate their parents! It is no surprise, then, when Paul says to the Thessalonians in 2 Thess 3:7 “For you yourselves know how you ought to follow our example.” Turning to other letters of Paul we find the same theme. In 1 Corinthians 4:14-17 we again find the image of the father. Paul, he says, is their “father” in Christ because through him the gospel first came to them.
“Therefore I urge you to imitate me. For this reason I am sending to you Timothy, my son whom I love, who is faithful in the Lord. He will remind you of my way of life in Christ Jesus, which agrees with what I teach everywhere in every church.”

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We may note in passing how deeply involved Paul is in imitating God, for, like God, he “sends” his “beloved son”. The Greek word agapetos, used to describe Timothy here, is the word used of the Lord Jesus at his baptism - see Mk 1:11 and parallels. What is most significant for our purposes is this: that Paul can boldly claim that his teaching and his life in Christ completely agree with each other. And this is why, I Cor 11:1, Paul can say: “Follow my example, as I follow the example of Christ.” Next in Paul’s career we come to a letter written from a Roman prison. He says in Philippians 3:17:
“Join with others in following my example, brothers, and take note of those who live according to the pattern we gave you.”

The context tells us two important things.

First, that Paul here (and in other examples we’ve seen) is not being haughty or proud, as if to say: “I’m perfect, look at me!” No! In the immediate context of Phil 3:12 he reminds his readers that he is not perfect, that he has not reached complete godliness. But he reminds them of the direction in which he is moving, the energy he is putting into reaching the goal, running the race, with the call of Jesus Christ as his goal, the prize of heaven.

(ii) Again, there are other people involved as well as Paul. Not just Paul but also his companions have given the pattern. There is one pattern, a life of serving God, but it is a pattern that they gave. We should never forget the impact that can be made, not just by individual lives, but by an example of godly community life set by a group of teachers! Finally from Paul’s letters, we have one that was probably written at the end of his life, from another prison. He says this in 2 Timothy 3:10: “You, however, know all about my teaching, my way of life, my purpose, faith, patience, love, endurance.” His teaching and his chaal challan, his way of life, are again tied up together. And so in v.14 he goes on to make this the basis of Timothy’s behaviour: “Continue in what you have learned…because you know from whom you learned it.” (b) Paul taught that teachers ought to set an example of godliness Having seen Paul’s example of godly behaviour, we ought also to listen to his teaching, as to how we should teach. When he wrote to Timothy and Titus he gave them clear principles as to how they should pastor the people in their care. In 1 Timothy 4:11-12 Paul says: “Command and teach these things. Don’t let anyone look down on you because you are young, but set an example for the believers in speech, in life, in love, in faith and in purity.” The result of this we see in vv.15-16:
“Be diligent in these matters; give yourself wholly to them, so that everyone may see your progress. Watch your life and doctrine closely. Persevere in them, because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers.”

For Paul both life and doctrine are essential! We need to understand the word of God correctly and have right teaching. But that teaching will be powerless if it is not reflected in our living! Paul gave the same advice to Titus, in Titus 2:7: “In everything set them an example by doing what is good. In your teaching show integrity, seriousness and soundness of speech.”

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The way we teach God’s word and the other subjects we present is also a big part of modelling godly behaviour. Do we do so frivolously, without adequate preparation, in a lazy way? This will model bad habits for our students.

3. Other New Testament writers.
We should briefly notice the teaching of two other New Testament authors.
(i) In Hebrews 13:7 the author writes to the congregation to urge them to follow the example of

their leaders: “Remember your leaders, who spoke the word of God to you. Consider the outcome of their way of life and imitate their faith.” (ii) The apostle Peter gives a stern warning to all those who teach the word of God to others, in Peter 5:2-3: “Be shepherds of God’s flock that is under your care…not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock.”

4. Conclusion
God’s word speaks clearly to us from all these passages, doesn’t it? Any one of them deserves detailed study and reflection. Taken together, they provide a powerful argument for living transparently godly and obedient lives, which can be modelled by our students. We are rightly concerned when we catch students copying each others’ exam papers and essays. This is difficult to stop! But we cannot stop another copying the way they will copy the lives of their teachers. They will do this whether we like it or not; this is the way God made us, so that we learn by modelling. The only question left is that raised by the simple words of the apostle John in his third letter (3 John 11): “Dear friend, do not imitate what is evil, but what is good!” Will we set a good example, or a bad? The responsibility on our shoulders as teachers is indeed a heavy one, but we rejoice that with God nothing is impossible! As we allow the Spirit of God, through the Word of God, to shape our lives in godliness, we can look forward to the Lord producing much fruit through our ministry, for his glory.

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“Towards a THEOLOGY of TRAINING METHODS” Questions raised by Dr. Robert W. Ferris in a Conference paper delivered to the South Pacific Association of Bible Colleges, Australia, in 1993.
The following questions relate to attitudes that we all have towards any form of curriculum or course development. They all need to be addressed if we are genuine in wanting an effective curriculum that “scratches where it itches”. EMPHASIS and ETHOS Priorities in Education: What order of priority should be given in Christian education to: a) attitudes? b) learning techniques? c) content? d) relationships? OPENNESS to ALTERNATIVES Learner involvement: How can opportunity be given for the learner to contribute towards the process of formulating goals? Is there room for re-formulating during the learning process? Serendipity (happy chance discoveries): How can opportunity be given for alternative avenues of enquiry, and for unplanned, fortuitous discoveries to be made? JOINT RESPONSIBILITY: SHARING, PROVIDING and BUILDING on EXPERIENCE Partnership in learning: If students and their sending churches were to be involved also in the process of curriculum planning, what knowledge, experience and emphases would possibly be brought to the task by: a) the student? b) the sending church or congregation? c) the ministry educator or curriculum designer? Field-work: How can work in the Church / Community be adequately guided and monitored? STUDENT RESPONIBILITY Critical Reflection: How can personal reflection and group analysis of what has been done in the field be fostered? Self-examination: How can students learn to examine their own previously held values, beliefs and behaviours? STUDENT OWNERSHIP Self-direction: How can students be motivated to direct their own learning and become independent of their teachers for continuing their learning? Elective courses (optional, student-chosen): How feasible are opportunities for students to take elective courses within the over-all curriculum? What constraints restrict offering elective courses? THE CURRICULUM DESIGNER’S RESPONSIBILITY Subjectivism: will the curriculum be manipulated to meet the personal values or interests of the curriculum designer? Facilitation, not dictation: How can the curriculum designer ensure that (s)he is facilitating student learning, not prescribing what the curriculum should be? SETTING GOALS and ASSESSING OUTCOMES Tyler’s four basic questions: Objectives: What are our educational goals? Methods: What learning experiences are needed to achieve these goals? Curriculum: How can these experiences be organised effectively?

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How can we evaluate how far we are achieving our goals?


An Arabian Folk Tale THE MAKING OF FIRE Once there was a man who discovered how to make fire. The man, named Nour, traveled from one community to another teaching his discovery. Some received the knowledge gladly; others, before they could learn how valuable fire could be, drove him away thinking he must be dangerous; finally a tribe became so panicstricken by the fire that they killed him, fearing that he was a demon. Centuries passed, and a wise man and his disciples passing through the lands discovered that one tribe reserved the secret of fire for their priests, who were warm and wealthy while the people froze; another tribe had forgotten the art but worshipped its instruments and some ashes that survived; a third worshipped the image of Nour, who once made fire, but they themselves had forgotten the secret; a fourth retained the story and the method in their legends but no one believed or tried it; a fifth used the fire to cook, to give warmth, and to manufacture all kinds of useful goods, even bronze and iron. The disciples were amazed at the variety of rituals and said, “But all these procedures are in fact related to the making of fire, nothing else. We

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should reform these people.” The teacher said, “Very well, then. We shall retrace our journey. By the end of it, those who survive will know the real problems in teaching people and in how to suggest change.” So the teacher and his disciples attempted to teach as Nour had taught. They too were scorned, abused, driven away. At the end of their journey, the master said, “One must learn how to teach, for no one wants to be taught. First you must teach people that there is still something to be learned. Then you must teach them how to learn. Then you must wait until they are ready to learn. Then you will find that they learn what they imagine is to be learned, not what they really must learn. When you have learned all this, then you can devise a way to teach.” (Adapted from DavidW. Augsburger: Pastoral Counseling across Cultures, 1986)

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