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I urge the reader to have an understanding of Husserl's phenomenology and desription of geometry as formal ontology and inherently connected to eidetic (essential) insight. Also, the difference in circumferences of two circles equaling an arc length resembles his account of the phenomenology consciousness of internal time. This work of pure geometry is one that examples the characteristics of the Gestalt law of Pragnanz, translated from German to English as pithiness.
I. Math for Transforming a Circle into a Cone
by Parker Emmerson
When a sector of a circle is removed, we may "fold up" the resulting shape into a cone. The parameters are related by the following theorem : Theorem 1 radius r
1
When a sector of angle q is removed from a circle of radius r and the resulting shape is folded into a cone, then the base of the cone has
Hr q L 2p
given by r 1 = r 
; and height h, given by h =
r2  r1 2 =r Sin[b]
Proof. The circumference of the initial circle is 2 p r and the wedge removed has an arc length r q. Therefore, the remaining circumference is of length r (2 p  q), and after the fold, this is the circumference of the base of the cone. Establishing the circumference of the base of the cone, from the equation, q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 , we calculate that its radius r simplifies to r rq 2p 1
is
2 p rr q 2p
, which
. Thus, we have proved the first part of the theorem.
To find the height of the cone, h, we apply the Pythagorean theorem to a right triangle formed between the apex of the cone, the center of the base, and a point on the circumference of the base. This gives h = r2  r1 2 = r Sin[b], where b is the angle formed by the slant of the cone and the base of the cone. The initial radius is always equal to the slant of the cone, and the height of the cone is always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone. Lemma 1 The height of the cone can be caluclated in terms of r and q. Proof. qr=2pr2pr h= r 2  r1 2 Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L
1
qr=2pr2p
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2
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
::h Ø 
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
>, :h Ø
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
>>
Lemma 2 The angle q can be calculated in terms of r and h. Proof SolveBh ==
2 p r2 4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p r4 r2 h2 r2
, qF
2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2
::q Ø
>, :q Ø
>>
Lemma 3 The initial radius is a function of q and h. 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p 2ph 4pqq Lemma 4
2
SolveB
ã h, rF 2ph 4pqq
2
::r Ø 
>, :r Ø
>>
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus b is a function of q alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, bF
::b Ø ArcSinB
Lemma 5
H4 p  qL q 2p
F>>
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus q is a function of b alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq
2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, qF
::q Ø 2 p 
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>, :q Ø 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>>
Lemma 6 The initial radius can be calculated purely in terms of the angle q. Proof. From Lemma 1, the height of the cone has been solved in terms of the transformation. That expression for the height divided by the initial radius is set equal to the sine of b. Solving that equation yields an expression for b that includes r. This expression for b is then set equal to the expression found from Lemma 5. Sin@bD = h r = 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 r2p = 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 4p r
2
=
r H4 p  qL q 4 p2
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
3
b Ø ArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
H4 p  qL q F = ArcSinB 2p F
SolveBArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2 >>
F == ArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
F, rF
::r Ø
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
A note about time passing like a clock.
The elapse of one unit of time, t, can be expressed by a constant function of the angle q. The simplest expression is t (seconds) = because one unit of time is equal to one revolution of q through a circle. Proof. q r = 2 p r  2 p (r  r t) yields t Ø
q 2p
q
2p
; q = k t , where k is 2p,
.
Theorem 2 When we designate that a single unit of time passes per revolution of the angle through the total number of radians in a circle, instantaneous velocity through the distance of the height of the cone can be found by taking the first derivative of the expression for that distance, which is in terms of r and q, with respect to t =
h
J
q
H2 p L
q
2p
. There is also a velocity through the height of the cone, which is equal to wavelength times frequency = l ƒ =
considered the average velocity through the height of the cone. Under the condition that one unit of time passes with one revolution of the circle,
N
these two velocities are equal to each other at the position where a 306090 triangle is formed between the apex, center of the base of the cone, and point on the circumference of the circle of the base of the cone. Proof. To prove this, we can substitute r Sin@bD for the height of the cone in the expression of velocity = ((2 p h)/q ) and find a real and two complex solutions for theta in terms of b , thus from Lemma 4, we can solve for b exactly. Instantaneous Velocity = „h „t = „ „h
q H2 pL
= DB
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, tF = DBk
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = DB2 p
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = 2
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
Average Velocity = Hh ê Hq ê 2 pLL Instantaneous Velocity = 2
SolveB
2 4 p r2 2 r2 q 4 p r2 qr2 q2 2ph q
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
= Average Velocity =
2ph q
==
, qF
2 p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
1ê3
::q Ø
4p 3
+
4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 6 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
3
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6 3 r2
1ê3

>,
1ê3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1+Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>,
1ê3
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1+Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>>
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
k I4 p r2  2 r2 qM SolveB 4p 4pr qr q
2 2 2
==
k r Sin@bD q
, qF
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4
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
::q Ø
4p 3 2 3
6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 3 N I4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3
>,
:q Ø
4p 3
J1 + Â + 12 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2
p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6
2
6
4
6
6
1ê3

1 3 :q Ø
1Â
3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 J1  Â
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
>,
4p 3
3 N I4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+ 12 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2

1 3
1+Â
3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
>>
The real solution for q, solved from equating the instantaneous velocity to the average velocity, can be equated with the real solution for the expression for q from Lemma 4 to yield an exact solution for b that tells us that when these solutions for theta are equal, a 306090 triangle is formed between the azimuth of the cone, the point on the base of the cone and the center of the base of the cone. SolveB 4p 3 6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
== 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, bF
p p ::b Ø  >, :b Ø >> 3 3 We know that the height of the cone is perpendicular to the center of the base of the cone, so this proves a 306090 triangle, because the sum of the angles of the triangle must be 180 degrees or p radians. Lemma 7 We can show that b = H4 p  qL q ArcSinB 2p F=b
H4 pqL q 2p
p
3
, thus we can show that there are two solutions to q at which this occurs.
SolveBArcSinB
F ==
p 3
, qF
88q Ø p<, 8q Ø 3 p<< Lemma 8 We can show can show that ::b Ø ArcSinB 4p 3
4 p2 q+4 p q2 q3 2p 4 p+q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
4 p2 q+4 p q2 q3 2p 4 p+q
F>>.
SolveBq ==
6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
, bF
::b Ø ArcSinB
4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
F>>
II. The Visualizations of Mathbyfor Transforming a Circle into a Cone Printed Mathematica for Students
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
5
II. The Visualizations of Math for Transforming a Circle into a Cone
by Parker Emmerson
When a sector of a circle is removed, we may "fold up" the resulting shape into a cone. The parameters are related by the following theorem : Theorem 1 radius r
1
When a sector of angle q is removed from a circle of radius r and the resulting shape is folded into a cone, then the base of the cone has
Hr q L 2p
given by r 1 = r 
; and height h, given by h =
r2  r1 2 =r Sin[b]
Proof. The circumference of the initial circle is 2 p r and the wedge removed has an arc length r q. Therefore, the remaining circumference is of length r (2 p  q), and after the fold, this is the circumference of the base of the cone. Establishing the circumference of the base of the cone, from the equation, q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 , we calculate that its radius r simplifies to r rq 2p 1
is
2 p rr q 2p
, which
. Thus, we have proved the first part of the theorem.
To find the height of the cone, h, we apply the Pythagorean theorem to a right triangle formed between the apex of the cone, the center of the base, and a point on the circumference of the base. This gives h = r2  r1 2 = r Sin[b], where b is the angle formed by the slant of the cone and the base of the cone. The initial radius is always equal to the slant of the cone, and the height of the cone is always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone.
r1 = r 
rq 2p
(1)
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6
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
RevolutionPlot3DBr 
rq 2p
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
q r = 2 p r  2 p r1
(2)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
7
Plot3D@2 p r  2 p r1 , 8r,  1, 1<, 8r1 ,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticD
r=
2p
H4 p q L q H4 p q L q
RevolutionPlot3DB2 p
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
 2 p r1 , 8r1 ,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
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8
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
RevolutionPlot3DB2 p 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
 2p r
rq 2p
, 8r,  1, 1<,
PlotB q
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
30 25 20 15 10 5
, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
10
5
5
10
h = r Sin@bD =
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
Sin@bD
(3)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
9
RevolutionPlot3D@r Sin@bD, 8r,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<D
SphericalPlot3DB
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
Sin@bD , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, 8b,  p, p<F
h=
r2  r1 2
(4)
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10
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
Plot3DB
r2  r1 2 , 8r,  1, 1<, 8r1 ,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
RevolutionPlot3DB
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
2
 r1 2 , 8r1 ,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
Lemma 1 The height of the cone can be caluclated in terms of r and q. Proof. qr=2pr2pr h= r 2  r1 2 Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L
1
qr=2pr2p
h=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
11
qr = 2pr2p
Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , 8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
(5)
Plot3DB2 p r  2 p
h=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
(6)
Plot3DB
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
h=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
(7)
Printed by Mathematica for Students
12
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
RevolutionPlot3DB
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Lemma 2 The angle q can be calculated in terms of r and h. Proof SolveBh ==
2 p r2 4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p r4 r2 h2 r
2
, qF
2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2
::q Ø
>, :q Ø
>>
2 p r2 + qØ
r4  r2 h2 r
2
(8)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
13
2 p r2 + Plot3DB
r4  r2 h2 r2 , 8r,  2, 2<, 8h,  2, 2<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
2 p r2 ! q=
r4  r2 h2 r
2
(9)
2 p r2 Plot3DB:
r4  r2 h2 r2 ,
2 p r2 +
r4  r2 h2 r2 >, 8r,  2, 2<,
8h,  2, 2<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
Lemma 3 The initial radius is a function of q and h. 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
SolveB
ã h, rF
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14
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
::r Ø 
2ph 4 p q  q2
>, :r Ø
2ph 4 p q  q2
>>
r=
2ph 4 p q  q2 (10)
RevolutionPlot3DB
2ph 4p qq
2
, 8h,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
Lemma 4
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus b is a function of q alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, bF
::b Ø ArcSinB r= 2 p r Sin@bD 4 p q  q2
H4 p  qL q 2p
F>>
(11)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
15
ContourPlot3DB
2 p Hr Sin@bDL 4 p q  q2
, 8b,  2 p, 2 p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, 8r,  10, 10<,
AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
Lemma 5 yields,
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus q is a function of b alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation,
Printed by Mathematica for Students
Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
16
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, qF
::q Ø 2 p 
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>, :q Ø 2 p + p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>>
(12)
RevolutionPlot3DB2 p 
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<F
RevolutionPlot3DB:2 p + 8b,  p, p<F
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 2 p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>,
Lemma 6 The initial radius can be calculated purely in terms of the angle q.
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
17
Lemma 6 The initial radius can be calculated purely in terms of the angle q. Proof. From Lemma 1, the height of the cone has been solved in terms of the transformation. That expression for the height divided by the initial radius is set equal to the sine of b. Solving that equation yields an expression for b that includes r. This expression for b is then set equal to the expression found from Lemma 5.
Sin@bD =
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
h r
=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 r2p
H4 p  qL q F
=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 4p r
2
=
r H4 p  qL q 4 p2
b Ø ArcSinB
F = ArcSinB
2p
SolveBArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2 >>
F == ArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
F, rF
::r Ø
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
Sin@bD =
r H4 p  qL q 4 p2 r H4 p  qL q 4 p2 , 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
(13)
RevolutionPlot3DB
Printed by Mathematica for Students
18
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p
PlotB
H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
H4 p  qL q , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
1.0
4 p2
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
10
5
5
10
b = ArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
F
(14)
Plot3DBArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2
F, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
r=
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
(15)
Printed by Mathematica for Students
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
19
RevolutionPlot3DB
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
A note about time passing like a clock.
The elapse of one unit of time, t, can be expressed by a constant function of the angle q. The simplest expression is t (seconds) = because one unit of time is equal to one revolution of q through a circle. Proof. q r = 2 p r  2 p (r  r t) yields t Ø
q 2p
q
2p
; q = k t , where k is 2p,
.
Theorem 2 When we designate that a single unit of time passes per revolution of the angle through the total number of radians in a circle, instantaneous velocity through the distance of the height of the cone can be found by taking the first derivative of the expression for that distance, which is in terms of r and q, with respect to t =
h
J
q
H2 p L
q
2p
. There is also a velocity through the height of the cone, which is equal to wavelength times frequency = l ƒ =
considered the average velocity through the height of the cone. Under the condition that one unit of time passes with one revolution of the circle,
N
these two velocities are equal to each other at the position where a 306090 triangle is formed between the apex, center of the base of the cone, and point on the circumference of the circle of the base of the cone. Proof. To prove this, we can substitute r Sin@bD for the height of the cone in the expression of velocity = ((2 p h)/q ) and find a real and two complex solutions for theta in terms of b , thus from Lemma 4, we can solve for b exactly.
Printed by Mathematica for Students
20
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
To prove this, we can substitute r Sin@bD for the height of the cone in the expression of velocity = ((2 p h)/q ) and find a real and two complex solutions for theta in terms of b , thus from Lemma 4, we can solve for b exactly. Instantaneous Velocity = „h „t = „ „h
q H2 pL
= DB
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, tF = DBk
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = DB2 p
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
, qF = 2
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
Average Velocity = Hh ê Hq ê 2 pLL Instantaneous Velocity = 2
SolveB
2 4 p r2 2 r2 q 4 p r qr q
2 2 2
4 p r2  2 r2 q 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
= Average Velocity =
2ph q
==
2ph q
, qF
2 p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
1ê3
::q Ø
4p 3
+
4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 6 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
3
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6 3 r2
1ê3

>,
1ê3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1+Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>,
1ê3
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
:q Ø
4p 3

J1Â
3 N I4 p2 r4 +12 p2 r2 h2 M 3 r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
1ê3
J1+Â
3 N p r6 18 r4 h2 +3
3 3 r2
r10 h2 +11 r8 h4 +r6 h6
+
>>
12 p r2 r6 18 r4 h2 +3
k I4 p r2  2 r2 qM SolveB 4p ::q Ø 4p 3 2 3 :q Ø 6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3
3 3 2
== 4 p r2 q  r2 q2
k r Sin@bD q
, qF
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 3 N I4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3
>,
4p 3
J1 + Â + 12 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3

1 3 :q Ø
1Â
3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 J1  Â
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
>,
4p 3
3 N I4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+ 12 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3
3 3 2

1 3
1+Â
3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
>>
The real solution for q, solved from equating the instantaneous velocity to the average velocity, can be equated with the real solution for the expression for q from Lemma 4 to yield an exact solution for b that tells us that when these solutions for theta are equal, a 306090 triangle is formed between the azimuth of the cone, the point on the base of the cone and the center of the base of the cone.
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21
SolveB
4p 3
6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
== 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, bF
p p ::b Ø  >, :b Ø >> 3 3 We know that the height of the cone is perpendicular to the center of the base of the cone, so this proves a 306090 triangle, because the sum of the angles of the triangle must be 180 degrees or p radians. Before visualizing these solutions, it should be noted that q will always equal p or 3p, at the point of instantaneous velocity = average velocity of the apex of the cone. This position is specified if time is said to pass constantly with the angle measure, because the speed of the apex of the cone is always changing through the transformation. If the angular velocity of theta is accelerating, then the velocity through the height of the cone could be constant through the entire thing. The system of the cone allows for this paradox to be questioned and scientifically analyzed. However, we do have solutions in terms of variables, and often looking at what you can't do is just as important as looking at what you can do. For instance, if I say that theta is equal to p or 3p, the equation in terms of r and h is not solvable by any efficient method. However, it is still reasonable to inquire into what the relationship of the initial radius and the height of the cone looks like from the solutions of q at this position.
q=
4p 3
+
 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2
1ê3
(16)
6 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
2 p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 3 r2
Plot3DB
4p 3
+
 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2
1ê3

6 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
2 p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 3 r2 , 8r,  1, 1<,
8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
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(17)
22
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
q=
4p 3
J1 + Â 12 p r
2 6 4
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
r  18 r h + 3
2
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
2
8
4
6
6
1ê3
J1  Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
Plot3DB
4p 3
J1 + Â 12 p r
2 6 4 2
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
r  18 r h + 3
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
2
8
4
6
6
1ê3
J1  Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 , 8r,  1, 1<,
8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
q=
4p 3
J1  Â 12 p r
2 6 4
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+ (18)
r  18 r h + 3
2
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
2
8
4
6
6
1ê3
J1 + Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
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(17)
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
23
Plot3DB
4p 3
J1  Â 
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
12 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
J1 + Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 , 8r,  1, 1<,
8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
I can also visualize all of these equations at once.
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24
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
Plot3DB:
4p 3
+ 6pr
2 6 4
 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2
1ê3

r  18 r h + 3
2
3
r
10
h + 11 r h + r h
1ê3
2
8
4
6
6
2 p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 3 r2 ,
4p 3
J1 + Â 
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
12 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
J1  Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 ,
4p 3
J1  Â 
3 N I 4 p2 r4 + 12 p2 r2 h2 M
1ê3
+
12 p r2 r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6
1ê3
J1 + Â
3 N p r6  18 r4 h2 + 3
3 3 r2
 r10 h2 + 11 r8 h4 + r6 h6 >,
8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
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25
We designate, from the previous lemmas, that b := ArcSinB
H4 pqL q 2p
F in order to formulate a few visualizations of the solutions to the position at
which the instantaneous velocity equals the average velocity. However, please consider that, although there are a vast number of possible substitutions that can be made, I am only selecting a few of the more simple notions.
q= 4p 3 2 3 6  p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3
3 3 2
 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3  p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+ (19)
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
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26
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
SphericalPlot3DB 4p 3 6  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD + 3  p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 3
2
 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2
1ê3
+
3
 p6 Sin@bD + 11 p6 Sin@bD + p6 Sin@bD
2
4
6
2 3
1ê3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
q=
4p 3
+ J1 + Â 3 N I 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M 3  p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
(20)
12  p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 1 3 K1  Â 3O 3
3
3
2
 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
1ê3
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
27
SphericalPlot3DB 4p 3 1 3 J1 + Â + 12  p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 J1  Â 3N
1ê3 3 3 2
3 N I 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M
1ê3

3
 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6
2
6
4
6
6
 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
,
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28
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
29
SphericalPlot3DB 4p 3 1 3 J1  Â + 12  p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 J1 + Â 3N
1ê3 3 3 2
3 N I 4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 M
1ê3

3
 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
6
2
6
4
6
6
 p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
3
 p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6
,
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30
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
31
Lemma 7 We can show that b = H4 p  qL q ArcSinB 2p F=b
H4 pqL q 2p
p
3
, thus we can show that there are two solutions to q at which this occurs.
SolveBArcSinB
F ==
p 3
, qF
88q Ø p<, 8q Ø 3 p<< To place more commentary on the ensuing paradox, Lemma 8 We can show can show that ::b Ø ArcSinB 4p 3
4 p2 q+4 p q2 q3 2p 4 p+q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
4 p2 q+4 p q2 q3 2p 4 p+q
F>>.
SolveBq ==
6 p + 18 p Sin@bD + 3 3
3 3 2
4 p2 + 12 p2 Sin@bD2 3 p Sin@bD + 11 p Sin@bD + p Sin@bD
1ê3 6 2 6 4 6 6 1ê3
+
2 3
p3 + 18 p3 Sin@bD2 + 3
p6 Sin@bD2 + 11 p6 Sin@bD4 + p6 Sin@bD6 4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
, bF
::b Ø ArcSinB
4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
F>>
::b Ø  ArcSinB
 4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
 4 p2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F>>
(21)
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32
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2
RevolutionPlot3DB:ArcSinB
SinB
 4 p 2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p
2
F F,
4 p + q
 ArcSinB
SinB
 4 p 2 q + 4 p q2  q3 2p 4 p + q
F F>, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
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33
We see a similar cone to the relativistic light cone, which is in 454590 proportionality and describes how a flash of light travels through spacetime. The forms are similar, though they have not been tested exactly.
II. Mathematics for the Univocity of Space  Time
by Parker Emmerson Borrowing the term from Duns Scotus, we can see its meaning in terms of mathematics. In essence, space exists purely in terms of an angle within a univocal system. This angle could be seen to represent time if one unit of time passes per revolution of the system, or time passes constantly with the angle measure's increase. The system is univocal in the sense that any parameter of the system can be placed in solely terms of any other parameter. The meaning of the univocal comes from the fact that the system described is unified, and expresses each of its parameters in terms of other elements of the system in simple terms. The purpose of this section is to visualize all the possible expressions of the equation found in Lemma 6, r Ø
2p H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
within one "level" of substitutions from previous lemmas describing q. By this, I mean that I will not be making further substitutions, e.g. I will make
2p 2p 4 p2 p+ p2 p2 Sin@bD2 q 4 p2 p+ p2 p2 SinBArcSinB
H4 pqL q 2p 2
FF
q
statements such as: r Ø
2p
H4 pqL q H4 pqL q
=
H4 pqL q
, but not like,
H4 pqL q
, however,
one could make visualizations of this equation through a spherical plot. This section is to serve as showing how expansive this theory is, and that the notion of substitution is similar to the multiple adumbrations of the consituents of spatiality of the perception of an object, which are lines, planes and angles. Also, I will add that each of the equations, when plotted spherically, will deliver a different object if the order of the coordinates in the graphing function changes. In addition, changing the scale of the visualization from b =
p 2
to b = p, radically alters the perceivable object delivered. However, only in the
case of especially aesthetically pleasing examples will this method be applied, and it will be done so immediately after graph that follows the original pattern of substitutions being used. Lemma 6 The initial radius can be calculated purely in terms of the angle q. Proof. From Lemma 1, the height of the cone has been solved in terms of the transformation. That expression for the height divided by the initial radius is set equal to the sine of b. Solving that equation yields an expression for b that includes r. This expression for b is then set equal to the expression found from Lemma 5.
Sin@bD =
4 p r q  r q2 4p
2
h r
=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 r2p
H4 p  qL q F
=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 4 p2 r
=
r H4 p  qL q 4 p2
b Ø ArcSinB
F = ArcSinB
2p
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34
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
SolveBArcSinB
4 p r q  r q2 4 p2 >>
F == ArcSinB
H4 p  qL q 2p
F, rF
::r Ø
2p
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
We will discuss only the "positive" solutions for q and their substitutions used to form multiple expressions for the initial radius.
q = 2 p+ 2p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
rØ
H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q 4p 2 p+
=
2p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2 2 2
2 p+ 2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 =
2 2
4p 2 p+
p  p Sin@bD
p  p Sin@bD
2p
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
q =
(22)
H4 p  qL q 2p H4 p  qL 2 p + p2  p2 Sin@bD2
H4 p  qL q 2p 4p2 p+ H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
=
=
2p
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2
H4 p  qL 2 p +
2p PolarPlotB
4p 2 p+ 4p 2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2
2 p+ 2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , p  p Sin@bD
2 2
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
1.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 5 10 15 20 25
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
35
2p SphericalPlot3DB 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
q , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
H4 p  qL q
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36
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
H4 p  qL q
This graph is similar to the one above, except the order of the coordinates has been reversed in the graphing function.
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37
2p SphericalPlot3DB 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<,
H4 p  qL q
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38
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
SphericalPlot3DB
2p 4p2 p+
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
This graph is similar to the one above, except the order of the coordinates has been reversed in the graphing function and the scaling has been altered.
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39
SphericalPlot3DB
2p 4p2 p+
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
, 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
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40
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
SphericalPlot3DB
2p
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
H4 p  qL 2 p + 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
2p rØ
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 H4 p  qL q
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 = (23)
2p
4p2 p+ 4p2 p+
2
p  p Sin@bD
2 2
2
2
2
q = q
2p
4p2 p+ H4 p  qL 2 p +
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
2
q
p  p Sin@bD
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
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41
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 H4 p  qL q
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 ,
8q,  2 p, 2 p<, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
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42
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+ 4p2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2
q , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, q
8b,  p, p<F
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43
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44
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+ H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2 2
q , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<,
8b,  p, p<F
2p
H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 =
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2p
H4 p  qL 2 p + 4p2 p+
2
2p =
H4 p  qL 2 p + H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
q
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
45
2p SphericalPlot3DB
H4 p  qL 2 p + 4p2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8q,  4 p, 4 p<,
2 2
p  p Sin@bD
q
8b,  p, p<F
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB
H4 p  qL 2 p + H4 p  qL 2 p +
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, p  p Sin@bD
2 2
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
rØ
2p 4p2 p+
H4 p  qL q = p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q 4p2 p+
2p
H4 p  qL q = 2 p+ p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2p
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
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47
SphericalPlot3DB 4p2 p+
2p
H4 p  qL q 2 p+ p2  p2 Sin@bD2
,
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
8q,  2 p, 2 p<, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
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48
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2 2
2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , q
4p2 p+ 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, 8b,  p, p<F
p  p Sin@bD
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
49
2p SphericalPlot3DB 4p2 p+ 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, 8b,  p, p<F
4p2 p+ p  p Sin@bD
2 2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2
q ,
2 2
2 p+
p  p Sin@bD
2
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
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51
Conclusion
I can also substitute time = t =
q 2p
if one unit of time passes per 2p radians, and further visualize these expressions for the initial radius in terms of
t=
q k
=
q 2p
q=2pt 2p H4 p  qL q H4 p  qL q
rØ
q := 2 p t
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
q , 8t,  1, 1<,
H4 p  qL q
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53
2p SphericalPlot3DB 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8t,  1, 1<,
H4 p  qL q
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54
A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
SphericalPlot3DB
2p 4p2 p+
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
, 8t,  1, 1<,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
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55
SphericalPlot3DB
2p
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, 8t,  1, 1<,
H4 p  qL 2 p + 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
2p
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2 2
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 =
2p
4p2 p+ 4p2 p+
q = q
2p
4p2 p+ H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p2  p2 Sin@bD2
q
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 H4 p  qL q
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 ,
8t,  1, 1<, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
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2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+ 4p2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2
q , 8t,  2, 2<, q
8b,  p, p<F
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+ H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p  p Sin@bD
2 2 2
q , 8t,  2, 2<,
8b,  p, p<F
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p
H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 =
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2p
H4 p  qL 2 p + 4p2 p+
2
2p =
H4 p  qL 2 p + H4 p  qL 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
q
2p SphericalPlot3DB
H4 p  qL 2 p + 4p2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8t,  2, 2<,
2 2
p  p Sin@bD
q
8b,  p, p<F
2p SphericalPlot3DB
H4 p  qL 2 p + H4 p  qL 2 p +
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , 8t,  2, 2<, p  p Sin@bD
2 2
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p 4p2 p+
H4 p  qL q p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p q
=
H4 p  qL q
2
= p  p Sin@bD
2 2 2
4p2 p+
p  p Sin@bD
2
2
2 p+
2p
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 q
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
SphericalPlot3DB 4p2 p+ 8t,  2, 2<, 8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<F
2 2
H4 p  qL q
2
, p  p Sin@bD
2 2 2
p  p Sin@bD
2 p+
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61
2p SphericalPlot3DB
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2 2
2 p+
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , q
4p2 p+ 8t,  2, 2<, 8b,  p, p<F
p  p Sin@bD
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2p SphericalPlot3DB 4p2 p+ 8t,  2, 2<, 8b,  p, p<F
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2 p+
q ,
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
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63
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
If I use the substitution: perceivable object.
, many of the graphs deliver blank, empty boxes. However, one visualization of the equation will deliver a
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2p Plot3DB
4p
, 8r,  1, 1<,
2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2 2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2
4p
8h,  1, 1<F
Taking a Look at Comparisons of q Solutions
SolveBArcSinB 4 p r q  r q2 4 p2 F == ArcSinB H4 p  qL q 2p F, qF  r2 + r4 r2
:8q Ø 0<, 8q Ø 4 p<, :q Ø 2 p 
2p
 r2 + r4 r2
>, :q Ø 2 p +
2p
>>
4p radians is practically synonmous with 0 in our system. The height of the cone has gone up to its maximum value of the intial radius and come back down over the course of 4p.
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
65
PlotB2 p +
2p
 r2 + r4 r2
q
, 8r,  10, 10<, AxesLabel Ø 8r, q<F
12.4 12.2 12.0 11.8 11.6 r
10
5
5
10
2p+
2p
r2 + r4 r2
2 p r2 + =2 p+ p  p Sin@bD
2 2 2
r4  r2 h2 r2
=
2 p r2 + SolveB
r4  r2 h2 r2 == 2 p +
2p
 r2 + r4 r2
, hF
88h Ø  1<, 8h Ø 1<<
SolveB2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
== 2 p +
2p
 r2 + r4 r2
, rF
88r Ø  Csc@bD<, 8r Ø Csc@bD<< Plot@Csc@bD, 8b,  p, p<, AxesLabel Ø 8b, r<D
r
6 4 2 3 2 1 2 4 6 1 2 3 b
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
SolveB2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
== 2 p +
2p
 r2 + r4 r2
, bF
::b Ø  ArcSinB
1 r2
F>, :b Ø ArcSinB
1 r2
F>>
PlotBArcSinB
1 r2
F, 8r,  100, 100<, AxesLabel Ø 8r, b<F
b 0.12 0.10 0.08 0.06 0.04 r
100
50
50
100
III. Visualizing the Height of the Cone
To describe visual textures of the height of the cone, substitutions can be made for q or r in multiple ways. Making substitutions, there are certain guidelines if one wishes to stay within the actual factuality of the scenario of a circle ' s transforming into a cone. These guidelines are as follows. Make a selection of positive or negative solutions. In order to stay true to the system, we do not mix and match positive and negative values, e.g. in the case of, 4 p r2 HqL  r2 q2 2p
2
,
4 p r2 a substitution like,
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
 r2 2p
2 p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
,
would not be admissible, because it takes the positive solution for h, and says that q = 2 p + p2  p2 Sin@bD2 = 2 pp2  p2 Sin@bD2 , which is not true. This
section will only visualize the solutions to theta that are from the initial lemmas of Theorem 1.
(24)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
67
h=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
4 p r2 =
2 p!
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
 r2 q2 =
4 p r2
2 p!
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
 r2
2 p!
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2
=
4 p r2 q  r2
2 p! 2p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2
We will visualize these solutions, while in each visualization, theta will either be set equal to 2 p + 2 p2 p+ p2  p2 Sin@bD2 p2  p2 Sin@bD2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
, or
for a given instance of substitution. This is because solutions for theta from the height of the cone yield either , or 2 p p2  p2 Sin@bD2 , not both at the same time such that they may be mixed when returning to the initial
expression to produce visualization of that equation.
4 p r2 ContourPlot3DB
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
 r2 q2 , 8r,  1, 1<,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
(24)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
4 p r2 ContourPlot3DB
2 p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
 r2 q2 , 8r,  1, 1<,
8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF
RevolutionPlot3DB
2
4 p r2 :
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
 r2
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 ,
2
4 p r2
2 p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
 r2
2 p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 >,
8r,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<F
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71
2
4 p r2 q  r2 ContourPlot3DB:
2 p+ 2p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 >, 8r,  1, 1<,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
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2
4 p r2 q  r2 ContourPlot3DB:
2 p2p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 >, 8r,  1, 1<,
8b,  p ê 2, p ê 2<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
2 p r2 +
r 4  r 2 h2 r2
q=2 p +
p  p Sin@b D
2
2
2
=
(25)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
73
4 p r2 h= 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p =
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
 r2 2 p + 2p
2
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2
=
4pr
2
2 p+
p  p Sin@bD 2p
2
2
2
r
2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
=
4 p r2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
 r2 q2 =
2p
4pr
2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
r 2p
2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2
=
4 p r2 q  r2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2
2p
2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2 2
4 p r2 ContourPlot3DB
 r2 2 p + 2p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 ,
8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<F
(25)
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4 p r2 ContourPlot3DB
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
 r2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2
,
8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<F
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
4 p r2 Plot3DB 8h,  1, 1<F
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
 r2 2p
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2
, 8r,  1, 1<,
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4 p r2 ContourPlot3DB 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
 r2 q2 , 8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<,
2p
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
4 p r2 q  r2 ContourPlot3DB 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2
2p
, 8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<,
IV. Complex Analysis Applied to the Height of the Cone
In complex analysis, a radius, r = Abs@zD = Abs@x + Â yD = x2 + y2 , and, in our cone, x is translated to be the base of the cone, and y is translated to be the height of the cone. In this section, I will build up a few descriptions through visualization of the expressions that our new set of expressions for the basic parameters of the system gives us and apply a pattern of substitution in terms of the initial lemmas of transformation of a circle into a cone to the expressions for the height of the cone.
q r = q Abs@zD = 2 p Abs@zD  2 p x RevolutionPlot3D@q Abs@zD, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<, 8z,  1, 1<D
(26)
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Plot3D@2 p Abs@zD  2 p x, 8z,  1, 1<, 8x,  1, 1<D
q Abs@zD = 2 p Abs@zD  2 p
z = x+Â y
HHAbs@zDL ^ 2  y ^ 2L
(27)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
ContourPlot3DB 4pq q Abs@x + Â yD 2p
2 p Abs@x + Â yD  2 p
Abs@x + Â yD ^ 2 
^2 ,
8x,  1, 1<, 8y,  1, 1<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
r = Abs@zD = Abs@x + Â yD =
x2 + y2
q r = 2 p Abs@x + Â yD  2 p
HAbs@x + Â yD ^ 2  y ^ 2L
(28)
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83
Plot3DB 2 p Abs@x + Â yD  2 p 8y,  1, 1<F
HAbs@x + Â yD ^ 2  y ^ 2L , 8x,  1, 1<,
SolveBq Abs@zD == 2 p Abs@zD  2 p 4pq q Abs@zD 2p
HAbs@zD ^ 2  y ^ 2L , yF 4pq q Abs@zD 2p
::y Ø 
>, :y Ø
>>
y = Abs@zD Sin@bD =  x2 + Abs@zD2 = 4pq q Abs@zD 2p = 4pq q Abs@x + Â yD 2p (29)
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
ContourPlot3DB 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
4pq
q Abs@x + Â yD 2p
, 8x,  1, 1<, 8y,  1, 1<,
SolveBy ==
4pq
q Abs@zD 2p
, qF
2 p Abs@zD2 ::q Ø
 y2 Abs@zD2 + Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2 >,
2 p Abs@zD2 + :q Ø
 y2 Abs@zD2 + Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2 >>
Now I can visualize the height of the cone in terms of complex analysis.
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85
yØ
4pq
q Abs@zD 2p
=
2 p Abs@zD2 +
y2 Abs@zD2 +Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2
2 p Abs@zD2 +
y2 Abs@zD2 +Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2
4p
Abs@zD =
2p 2 p Abs@zD2 + 4pq  y2 Abs@zD2 + Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2 2 p Abs@zD2 + 4p y2 Abs@zD2 + Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2 q Abs@zD = Abs@zD =
1 2p
1 2p
2 p Abs@x+Â yD2 +
y2 Abs@x+Â yD2 +Abs@x+Â yD4 Abs@x+Â yD2
4p
q Abs@x + Â yD = 4pq
2p 2 p Abs@x + Â yD2 +  y2 Abs@x + Â yD2 + Abs@x + Â yD4 Abs@x + Â yD2
Abs@x + Â yD
Plot3DB
1 2p
2 p Abs@zD2 + 4p
 y2 Abs@zD2 + Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2
2 p Abs@zD2 +
 y2 Abs@zD2 + Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2 Abs@zD, 8y,  1, 1<, 8z,  1, 1<F
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ContourPlot3DB
1 2p
2 p Abs@zD2 + 4pq
 y2 Abs@zD2 + Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2 Abs@zD,
8y,  1, 1<, 8z,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
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ContourPlot3DB
1 2p
2 p Abs@zD2 + 4p
 y2 Abs@zD2 + Abs@zD4 Abs@zD2 q Abs@zD,
8y,  1, 1<, 8z,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
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2 p Abs@x+Â yD2 +
y2 Abs@x+Â yD2 +Abs@x+Â yD4 Abs@x+Â yD2
4pContourPlot3DB
q Abs@x + Â yD ,
2p
8x,  1, 1<, 8y,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
ContourPlot3DB 2 p Abs@x + Â yD2 + 4pq  y2 Abs@x + Â yD2 + Abs@x + Â yD4 Abs@x + Â yD2 Abs@x + Â yD,
1 2p
8x,  1, 1<, 8y,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<F
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A Geometric Pattern of Perception by Parker Matthew Davis Emmerson © 20092010.nb
yØ
4pq
q Abs@zD 2p
=
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2 p+ 2p
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
Abs@x + Â yD = (31)
4p2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
q Abs@zD =
4pq
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
Abs@zD
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ContourPlot3DB 4p2 p+ p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2 p+ 2p 8x,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<, 8y,  1, 1<, AxesLabel Ø AutomaticF p2  p2 Sin@bD2 Abs@x + Â yD ,
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4p2 p+ ContourPlot3DB 8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
q Abs@zD , 8z,  1, 1<,
4pq ContourPlot3DB
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p
Abs@zD , 8z,  1, 1<,
8b,  p, p<, 8q,  4 p, 4 p<F
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V. Volume of a Cone
by Parker Emmerson
Volume of Cone = H1 ê 3L height * area of base = H1 ê 3L 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p p rrq 2p (32) ^2
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Theorem 1 radius r
1
When a sector of angle q is removed from a circle of radius r and the resulting shape is folded into a cone, then the base of the cone has
Hr q L 2p
given by r 1 = r 
; and height h, given by h =
r2  r1 2 =r Sin[b]
Proof. The circumference of the initial circle is 2 p r and the wedge removed has an arc length r q. Therefore, the remaining circumference is of length r (2 p  q), and after the fold, this is the circumference of the base of the cone. Establishing the circumference of the base of the cone, from the equation, q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 , we calculate that its radius r simplifies to r rq 2p 1
is
2 p rr q 2p
, which
. Thus, we have proved the first part of the theorem.
To find the height of the cone, h, we apply the Pythagorean theorem to a right triangle formed between the apex of the cone, the center of the base, and a point on the circumference of the base. This gives h = r2  r1 2 = r Sin[b], where b is the angle formed by the slant of the cone and the base of the cone. The initial radius is always equal to the slant of the cone, and the height of the cone is always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone. Lemma 1 The height of the cone can be caluclated in terms of r and q. Proof. q r = 2 p r  2 p r1 h= r 2  r1 2 Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L
qr=2pr2p
h=
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
Volume of Cone = H1 ê 3L p H Hradius of baseL ^ 2L * height = H1 ê 3L p H r1 ^ 2L * h = H1 ê 3L 4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p p rrq 2p (33) ^2
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Plot3D@H1 ê 3L p H r1 ^ 2L * h, 8r1 ,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<D
Plot3DBH1 ê 3L
4 p r2 q  r2 q2 2p
p r
rq 2p
^ 2, 8r,  1, 1<, 8q,  2 p, 2 p<,
8AxesLabel Ø 8q, r<<F
Lemma 2 The angle q can be calculated in terms of r and h. Proof SolveBh ==
2p r 2
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p r r h r2
4 2 2
, qF
2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r2
::q Ø Lemma 5
>, :q Ø
>>
The height of the cone can be calculated in terms of only r and q, thus q is a function of b alone.
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation,
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Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq
2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
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97
Proof. Since we have shown that q r = 2 p r  2 p r 1 and r1 Ø r2  h2 , we can substitute the expression for r1 , calculated from the Pythagorean theorem in terms of the height of the cone and the initial radius of the circle, into the expression for q r in terms of the change in circumference of the initial circle to the circle that is the base of the cone into which the circle was transformed. qr=2pr2p equation, Hr ^ 2  h ^ 2L , thus, h =
4 p r2 qr2 q2 2p
= (r Sin[b]). From
2ph 4 p qq2
= r, we note that: r =
2 p r Sin@bD 4 p qq2
. So we solve the
SolveBr ==
2 p r Sin@bD 4pqq
2
, qF
::q Ø 2 p V=
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>, :q Ø 2 p +
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
>>
4pr H1 ê 3L
2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
r 2p
2
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2 2 p r2 + r4 r2 h2 r
2
r p r
(34) ^2
2p
4 p r2 Plot3DBH1 ê 3L
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
 r2 2p
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
2
p
2 p r2 +
r4 r2 h2 r2
r r
2p
^ 2, 8r,  1, 1<, 8h,  1, 1<, 8AxesLabel Ø 8h, r<<F
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4 p r2 2 p + V = H1 ê 3L
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
 r2 2p
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
2
(35)
r 2 p+ p r
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p ^2
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RevolutionPlot3DB
2
4 p r2 2 p + H1 ê 3L
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
 r2 2p
2 p+
p2  p2 Sin@bD2
r 2 p+ p r
p2  p2 Sin@bD2 2p ^ 2, 8r,  1, 1<, 8b,  p, p<F
VI. The "Second Level" of Difference
Theorem 3 Theorem 1 showed that the difference in two circumferences equals an arc length and the equation that the Pythagorean Theorem could be applied to that difference to form a cone with the initial radius of the circle being kept as the slant of the cone and the apex of the cone always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone. This present theorem states that Theorem 1 can be applied to a difference in two circles where the first circle has radius r 1 , and the second circle has radius r2 . When a sector of angle q1 is removed from a circle of radius r1 and the resulting shape is folded into a cone, then the base of the "cone within the cone" has radius r2 given by r2 = r1 Hr1 q1 L 2p
; and height h1 , given by h1 =
r1 2  r2 2 = r1 Sin[ b1 ]
Proof. The circumference of the initial circle is 2 p r1 and the wedge removed has an arc length r1 q1 . Therefore, the remaining circumference is of length r1 (2 p  q1 ), and after the fold, this is the circumference of the base of the "cone within the cone." Establishing the circumference of the base of the cone within the cone, from the equation, q1 r1 = 2 p r1  2 p r2 , we calculate that its radius r2 is
2 p r1 r1 q 2p
, which simplifies to r1 
r1 q1 2p
. Thus, we have proved the first part of the theorem.
To find the height of the cone, h1 , we apply the Pythagorean theorem to a right triangle formed between the apex of the cone, the center of the base, and a point on the circumference of the base. This gives h1 = r1 2  r2 2 = r Sin[b], where b is the angle formed by the slant of the cone and the base of the cone. The initial radius is always equal to the slant of the cone, and the height of the cone is always orthogonal to the center of the base of the cone. Lemma 10 The height of the cone within the cone can be caluclated in terms of r1 and q1 . Proof.
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