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Chapter 23

Reforms, Revolutions, and
War

Important Vocabulary to Know





Reform- a change; the improvement of what is wrong,
corrupt, or unsatisfactory
Suffrage- the right to vote
ColonyColony a territory under the control of a foreign
government (most colonies we will talk about are in
Africa, Asia, and Latin America and are controlled by
European countries)
Independence- not being controlled by others
NationalismNationalism loyalty and devotion to a national group
(not always the same as loyalty to your country); a
sense of national pride placing one nation above all
others
Nationalist movement- a member of a political party
or group that seeks independence for a national group
Revolutionary- bringing about a major or fundamental
change
Anti-Semitism- prejudice against Jewish people

British Reforms
• Increased Democracy
– Redrew political boundaries to equalize representation in
Parliament
– Gave industrial cities representation (Reform Act of 1832)
– Expanded the right to vote to more men (Reform Act of 1832)
– Women’s suffrage (1918- over the age of 30; 1928- same as
men)
– Secret ballot
– Self rule to Ireland, Australia, Canada, New Zealand

• Social Reforms



Abolished slavery (1833)
Improved lives in cities (new health and crime laws)
Limit the working hours of children (Factory Act in 1833)
Required schooling (Factory Act)

Main Idea:
During the
1800s Great
Britain passed
many
democratic and
social reforms
that changed
the way people
lived and
worked.

Changes in France
1830- King Charles X
(absolute monarch) flees
France and Louis Philippe is
crowned king. (Constitutional
monarchy)

1848- Louis Philippe
abdicates and the Second
Republic is formed with
Louis Napoleon as
president (Republic).

1852- Louis
Napoleon dissolves
the National
Assembly and is
elected emperor
by the people
(Absolute
Monarchy).
1870- After the FrancoPrussian War, a democratic
government is restored during
the Third Republic
(Republic).

MAIN IDEA: During the 1800s opposing groups in France struggled
to determine what kind of government France would have- a
republic, a constitutional monarchy, or an absolute monarchy.

Effects of Revolutions in
France
Which effect of the
revolutions in France do
you think was the most
important and why?

How do you think these
reforms changed the
lives of the citizens of
France?

• France becomes a republic
(voters choose members of
National Assembly)
• All adult French men can vote
• Began a women’s rights
movement
• Education available to all children
6-13
• Trade unions legalized
• Working hours reduced
• Employers required to give workers
one day off a week
• Expanded railroads= increased trade
• Inspired revolutions in other
parts of Europe

The Dreyfus Affair- 1894
The French government put Alfred
Dreyfus, a captain in the French army, on
trial for spying for Germany. At the time,
many French were anti-Semitic, or
prejudiced toward Jews. Because Dreyfus
was Jewish, he suffered from this antiSemitism and was found guilty even
though there was little evidence against
him and he was truly innocent. His
conviction led to the growth of a ZIONIST
movement, a nationalist movement to recreate a Jewish homeland in the Middle
East.
What is the message of the
cartoon? How is that
message contradicted by

What do you think it
would be like to be
controlled by a
foreign country?
Why do people fight
for independence?

Independence in Latin America
• Most of Latin America is colonized (controlled by a
foreign power)
• During the 1800s, many Latin American countries fight
for independence
• Haiti (1804)- led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, a former
slave, against France
• Colonies of Spain and Portugal
– Colonists inspired by Enlightenment
– Tension between creoles and peninsulares (creoles
were excluded from high government positions)
– Simon Bolivar (north) and Jose de San Martin
(south) fought Spanish in South America- gained
independence
– Brazil (Portuguese colony) gained independence with
little violence- Pedro I declared Brazil independent

MAIN IDEA:
Revolutionary
ideas took hold in
Latin America as
colonists fought
for independence
from Europe.

Independence in Latin America

During the early 1800s,
revolutionary leaders Simón
Bolívar and José de San
Martín led independence
movements across South
America. Inspired by their
efforts, other revolutions flared
up across the region, and neither
Spain or Portugal could hold onto
their empires in the Americas.
By 1831 a dozen nations had
declared their
independence.
Why
do you think

Spain and Portugal
had difficulty
holding onto their
colonies in Latin
America?

Causes and Effects of Revolution in
Latin America
Causes
• Tensions between
ethnic and social
groups
• The French
Revolution and
American Revolution
• Limited Freedoms
under Spanish rule

Effects
• Independence from
Spain
• New nations and
governments formed
• Ethnic and social
groups work together

Independence in Mexico
• Father Hidalgo (Father of
Mexican Independence)- 1st call for
Mexican independence; captured
and executed by Spanish
• Jose Maria Morelos- organized a
Mexican congress and wanted an
independent Mexico with guaranteed
freedoms for all- captured and
executed by Spanish
• Agustin de Iturbide- Led
Spanish forces and switched sides to
gain more power; became the first
emperor of independent Mexico

In 1810 Father Miguel
Hidalgo inspired
Mexicans to fight for
independence from

Review!!
• Use your “Words to Know” and create a
paragraph explaining the reforms and
revolutions that occurred in Great Britain,
France, and Latin America and the effects
of those reforms and revolutions.
• UNDERLINE each term
• Your paragraph must show the important
details and facts from these notes.