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Submitted by:

Ortega, Merylle Rose P.


Submitted to:

Mr. Gene Pardo

Science is a fundamental to the understanding of sociology and
anthropology as social sciences. It is also a way of learning about the world
through disciplined inquiry which combines systematic theory and
observation that provide explanation of how things work.

The history of anthropology starts at 15th to 18th century during
discoveries and explorations period. In 19th century, anthropology began to
take shape as a separate field of study which had its roots in the natural
sciences, social sciences and the humanities. Edward Taylor was the first
professor of anthropology in Oxford, England. In U.S, it was Franz Boas of
Clark University, Massachusetts. Modern anthropology starts 20 th century.
Edward Taylor, Lewis Morgan and Herbert Spencer were pioneers. Sociology
is considered one of the youngest of the social sciences, has its roots in
Europe, particularly France at the time of the French Revolution around the
middle of the 19th century.

The ideas of sociology and anthropology were diffused in Europe, in
the Americas and Asia, and one of the receiving countries is the Philippines.
Anthropology began as a practical activity of colonizers in the service of
religion and government. Anthropology was elevated to an academic
discipline in the University of the Philippines in 1914 by Otley Beyer. It was
introduced by Fr. Valentin Marin as a subject in the curriculum in 1896 at the
University of Sto. Tomas and it was initiated in the University of the
Philippines in 1911 by Pres. Murray Bartlett and A.E.W Salt. Silliman
University was also one of the first to include it in its curriculum. In 1920,
Serafin Macaraig, the first Filipino to obtain a Ph.D in sociology from the
University of Wisconsin, introduced the social problem orientation.

Sociology is the science of society and the social interaction taking
place among individuals in a social group. There are various areas concern of
sociology are as follows: a.) Social organization, b.) Social Psychology, c.)
Social change and social disorganization, d.) Population, e.) human ecology,
f.) sociological theory and methods and g.) applied sociology.

As in other sciences, there are patterns of behavior required for
sociologist, such as: a.
) Emperical observation, b.) critical spirit, c.) objectivity, d.) ethical neutrality.

Anthropology is also a science of humanity and its society. It is a
scientific study of humanity, the similarities and diversity of cultures and
attempts to present an integrated picture of humankind. There is
subdivisions linked by unifying themes, there includes: a.) Universilism, b.)
integration, c.) adaptation, d.) holism. One can glean the vastness of the
subject matter of anthropology by looking into its various fields such as the
following: a.) biological or physical anthropology, b.) sociocultural
anthropology, c.) archaeology. 2 fields of anthropological archaeology are
prehistoric and historical arcaheology.

The disciplines of sociology and anthropology have close affinities and
many sociologists and anthropologists recognize that two disciplines have
much in common. Both disciplines synthesize and generalize data about
human behavior and social systems. Both are related to the humanities.

Sociology and anthropology are also related to history, which is the
study of past events and which attempts to establish the social contexts that
influence people. Psychology is likewise closely linked sociology and
anthropology. It is the study of the mind, of mental processes and of
individual behavior. Economics, the study of the production, distribution and
consumption, as well as the allocation of the material goods and services, is
related to the two disciplines. Political science is focused on power as
embodied in formal and informal organizations and processes within the
government. These social sciences are dependent on each other in concepts.

Social researchers seek to identify order and regularity in our complex
social life and make us understand the meaning of our world.

1. Statement of the problem
2. Formulating the hypothesis
3. Planning the research design
a. The experimental design
b. Survey research
c. Field study (Ethnographic Method)
4. Collection of data
a. Observation
b. Interviewing
c. The historical method
d. Life history
e. Case Study
5. Analysis of the data and formulating the conclusion
6. Checking and reformulating conclusions
7. Communicating the results to others

Other approaches in Research include:

1. Content Analysis
2. Quantitative techniques
3. Qualitative techniques
4. Comparative method