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Annotated Bibliography

Primary Sources
Baer, Ralph. "Ralph H. Baer Consultants." Ralph H.Baer. 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 6
Nov. 2014. <http://www.ralphbaer.com/>.
Having been an active engineer for the past seventy years, I have
accumulated over 150 U.S. and foreign patents, many of which are in the
Consumer Electronics area and have resulted in a variety of products,
including many successful electronic toys and games. Typical of these is
the SIMON game, an early single-chip microprocessor-controlled game
which has been popular for over 30 years.
Baer, Ralph. Videogames: In the Beginning. Springfield: Rolenta, 2005. 280.
Print.
Videogames: In The Beginning is Ralph H. Baer’s account of how today’s
$11-billion per year videogame industry began. A meticulous note keeper,
Baer presents in his own words the real story of what led to the Odyssey…
and beyond.
PONG Creator Ralph H. Baer Interview. Perf. CoinOpTv. Youtube, 2010. Film.
N/A
Ralph Baer and Bill Harrison Play Ping Pong Video Game, 1969. Youtube, 2007.
Film.
N/A
Ralph, Baer. "Ralph Baer." Biography. 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.ralphbaer.com/biography.htm>.
Donated all original videogame units to the Smithsonian Institution along
with 500+ pages of related data. These can be accessed by going to
http://invention.smithsonian.org/baer/

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Ralph Baer and David Winter Playing with the Brown Box. Perf. David Winter,
Ralph Baer. Youtube, 2007. Film.
N/A
"The National Medal of Technology and Innovation." The United States Patent
and Trademark Office. National Government, 3 May 2014. Web.
<http://www.uspto.gov/about/nmti/>.
The National Medal of Technology and Innovation Nomination Evaluation
Committee, a distinguished, independent committee appointed by the
secretary of commerce, reviews and evaluates the merit of all candidates
nominated through an open, competitive solicitation process. The
committee makes its recommendations for medal candidates to the
secretary of commerce, who in turn makes recommendations to the
president for final selection. The National Medal of Technology and
Innovation Laureates are announced by the White House and the
Department of Commerce once the medalists are notified of their
selection.
Secondary Sources
Biggs, John. "Ralph Baer, The Grandfather Of Gaming, Dead At 92." 8th Annual
Crunchies Awards 14 Sept. 2012. Tech Crunch. Web.
<http://techcrunch.com/2014/12/09/ralph-baer-the-grandfather-of-gaming-deadat-92/>.

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On weekends, my basement could be considered a shrine and church to
Ralph Baer. It is there that my children congregate and play video games
for hours, a pastime now as familiar as gathering around an open flame
was to our early forbears. Ralph Baer, who died on December 6 at the age
of 92, lit a thousand digital fires in a thousand cozy living rooms. He was

the grandfather of gaming.
Brooks, David. "Engineer had a blast building first home video game system."
Telegraph, The (Nashua, NH) 01 July 2012: Newspaper Source. Web. 9 Nov.
2014.
Electronics has been a big part of the Nashua business scene for half a
century, but perhaps its most famous accomplishment -- development of
the first home video game by an independent team at Sanders Associates -was so quiet it almost occurred in secret."We were working for this big
company and we were doing what we chose," recalled Ralph Baer, of
Manchester, who recently turned 90. Baer, with engineer colleagues Bill
Harrison and Bill Rusch, created what became the Magnavox Odyssey, the
first video-game home console that plugged into TV sets. "It was a couple
guys on a bench, just working away."
"Careers in Focus: Computer & Video Game Design, Second Edition." Infobase
EBooks. 1 Jan. 2014. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.
<http://ebooks.infobaselearning.com/View.aspx?
ISBN=9781438117195&Format=HTML&PGSelectedAbsolute=98>.
According to the Entertainment Software Association, approximately 145
million people in the United States play video and computer games. Game

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testers examine new or modified computer and video game applications to

evaluate whether or not they perform at the desired level.
Drake, Shannon. "A Natural Born Inventor." Escapist 6 Mar. 2007. Print.
The idea first came to him in the summer of 1966 , but from there, it was a
start and stop affair. The late '60s weren't a good time for playful things,
especially among weapon-makers not working on making weapons. His
work started at Sanders Associates (a defense contractor), in "late '66,"
Baer says, but progress moved in fits and starts. This was largely because
Sanders had bigger projects on hand, Baer's was "a couple guys in a room,
and they were called away half the time to go do more important work.
Edwards, Owen. "Simon Game." EBSCOhost. 1 Sept. 2006. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.
<http://web.b.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail/detail?vid=2&sid=2ab215c0-e298-4cd0b35792b37b96167d@sessionmgr115&hid=124&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ
==#db=asm&AN=22027101>.
The mind behind this not-so-simple Simon belongs to Ralph H. Baer, a
huge figure in the world of computer games, who came to America from
Germany in 1938 at the age of 16, after he was forced to leave school by
Nazi anti-Semitism. During World War II, he joined the Army and served
in England and Europe. Upon returning home, he got a degree in
engineering. Baer is one of those protean inventors who seem to be
powerfully inspired by America's competitive commercialism: if you
make it--and it works--they will buy.
Kent, Steven L. "Father of the video game." Boys' Life Apr. 2007: 54. Biography
in Context. Web. 29 Oct.
2014.http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/bic1/MagazinesDetailsPage/MagazinesDetailsWi

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ndow?
failOverType=&query=&prodId=BIC1&windowstate=normal&contentModules=
&displayquery=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Magazines&limiter=&currPage=&dis
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IC1&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE
%7CA162101257&source=Bookmark&u=las89135&jsid=b4924cef46187868b8c
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Born nearly 50 years before the first video game appeared in an arcade,
Ralph Baer never worked for a video game company. But the 85-year-old
is considered the father of video games. In 1966, Baer was working for a
company that made military equipment, where he began toying with new
ways to use television. He and his engineer team made a toy rifle into a
light gun for shooting targets on TV. They created a game of catch for TV,
then a video table tennis game.
Marino-Nachison, David. "Ralph Baer: The Godfather of Video Games Whose
Magnavox Odyssey 'Brown Box' Led the Way for the Playstation, Xbox and Wii."
9 Dec. 2014. The Independent. Web. 24 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/news/ralph-baer-the-godfather-ofvideo-games-whose-magnavox-odyssey-brown-box-led-the-way-for-theplaystation-xbox-and-wii-9913634.html>.
At the dawn of the television age in 1951, a young American engineer
named Ralph Baer approached executives at an electronics firm and
suggested the radical idea of offering games on television sets. "And of

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course," he said, "I got the regular reaction: 'Who needs this?' And nothing

happened."
Martin, Douglas. "Ralph H. Baer, Inventor of First System for Home Video
Games, Is Dead at 92." Business Day 7 Dec. 2014. The New York Times. Web. 24
Dec. 2014. <http://www.nytimes.com/2014/12/08/business/ralph-h-baer-diesinventor-of-odyssey-first-system-for-home-video-games.html?_r=0>.
Ralph H. Baer, who turned television sets into electronic fantasy lands by
inventing and patenting the first home video game system, died on
Saturday at his home in Manchester, N.H. He was 92.
"Ralph H. Baer." Biography in Context. Gale, 1 June 2010. Web. 29 Oct. 2014.
<http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/bic1/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow
?
failOverType=&query=&prodId=BIC1&windowstate=normal&contentModules=
&displayquery=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disa
bleHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&search_within_results=&p=BI
C1&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE|
K1650007016&source=Bookmark&u=las89135&jsid=2879961a723103a0ab1a66
841416a322>.
Ralph H. Baer was born March 01, 1922 in Pirmasens, Germany. He
moved to America and is considered to be American. He became a video
game developer after toying around with television controls and settings.
He has won many awards for his works like: National medal of
Technology, 2006; Developers Choice Pioneer Award, 2008.

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"Ralph Baer: Recovering the History of the Video Game." The Lemelson Center 1
Dec. 2008. The Smithsonian. Web. 4 Dec. 2014.
<http://invention.smithsonian.org/resources/online_articles_detail.aspx?id=531>.
In the late 1990s I became aware that there is a growing community of
classic video-game enthusiasts in the U.S. and elsewhere and that
collecting hardware (game consoles, accessories, etc.) is an ongoing,
growing hobby. So I became very concerned about the fate of all of the TV
game hardware, as well as its supporting documentation, that we had built
at Sanders Associates in Nashua, N.H., from 1966 through 1969. Hence, I
began to inquire into the whereabouts and recoverability of the
developmental games and the many supporting documents that Bill
Harrison, Bill Rusch, and I generated during that period.
"The Brown Box, 1967–68." The National Museum of American History. The
Smithsonians. Web.
<http://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_1301997>.
In 1967, Ralph Baer and his colleagues at Sanders Associates, Inc.
developed a prototype for the first multiplayer, multiprogram video game
system. Since Sanders hoped to license the technology for a commercial
venture, Baer understood that the games had to be fun or investors and
consumers would not be interested.
"The Seventies in America." Salem Press. Web. 5 Nov. 2014.
<http://history.salempress.com/doi/full/10.3331/1970_4079?
prevSearch=Ralph+Baer&searchHistoryKey=&queryHash=526d42d96379b262e
22a4338c3b40fd3>.
Many of the most famous video game companies were founded during this
period. In 1972, Bushnell formed Atari in a room in his home. “Atari” is a

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Japanese word that means much the same as the term “check” in chess.
Magnavox, known as a television manufacturer, began promoting its
Odyssey video game in the early 1970’s. The Odyssey game console was
inspired by the work of Baer. The game, marketed for home use, allowed
for a variety of tennislike, hockeylike, and maze games. By the end of
1972, 100,000 units had been sold at about $150 each.