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January 27/28 2015

Argumentation and Persuasion
claim: (opinion) what the author is trying to


argument: statement(s) made to convince
you of something



Cell phones should be banned from high school.

A student with a cell phone is an uninterested
student, one with a short attention span who
cares more about socializing than education.

appeals: reasons used to show a claim is
true (or should be true)

Argumentation and Persuasion
ethos – credibility appeals: reasons
used to show a claim is true based on


We are more apt to believe someone who
has a strong character, who is well-liked,
who is educated or experienced in the
subject. We are more apt to believe sources
from credible places (New York Times vs.
National Inquirer) from non-biased places.
An article written by a scientist studying the
effects of cell phone and distraction on
learning would be more believable than a
student letter begging to use the phone.

Argumentation and Persuasion

logos – logical appeals: reasons used to show a
claim is true based on facts
 Texting is the second most common use of cell
phones, following checking the time
 65 percent of high school students use their cell
phone in school
 One-fourth of text messages sent by teens are
during class hours
 42 percent of teens say they can text with their
eyes closed
 One study shows that teens under 18 years old
send and receive 2,779 texts a month

Argumentation and Persuasion

pathos – emotional appeals: reasons used
to show a claim is true based on emotion

Emergencies? Please name me three
emergencies in the history of schools
that couldn't be taken care of by the
people already there … Cell phones exist
to make profits for phone companies,
and no matter how much we try to
convince ourselves that we NEED them,
they're still luxury items, not necessities.
Ban them!


loaded words: words with strong emotional


Students who use cell phones in school are rude and

anecdotes: brief stories

Schools should ban cell phones. And I'm a student saying
this!!! I've sat next to kids all the time who are busy
using there cell phones in class and the teacher doesn't
even notice. And with technology these days, kids can
get on Facebook in the middle of class, and any other
thing that there is an app for. Like about a week ago, I
look and see that one of my friends is on Facebook. I turn
to him and say, "Dude, why are you even on? Everyone’s
in class, so no else will be on there." He turns to me,
shows me that at least 20 kids that are at my school are
on Facebook at that moment. And those are just the kids
that he is friends with. And he’s getting a D!!!


connotation: all meanings, emotions or
associations attached to one word

10. evidence:

information an author uses to
support their reasons

11. CTA

– Call to Action: a catchy slogan or
phrase that encourages the audience to
take a desired course of action – what
you want the audience to do/think

Arrive alive- don’t text and drive!

Research portfolio
 Left


Research Portfolio Checklist

 Right


Process Journal
Research Day 1
Research Day 2

What do you think?
 Should

schools offer single-sex education?

For each article:
Circle and label the claim.
2. Underline examples of ethos.
3. Put a box around examples of logos.
4. Squiggle under examples of pathos.
5. On the back of the page, answer the
following question in complete
 Which AUTHOR do you tend to agree
with more and why? (Cite effective
elements of the author’s argument in
your answer.