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Synchronous Motors

Synchronous Motors

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Published by: Syed Muhammad Munavvar Hussain on Jan 20, 2010
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Synchronous motor

Synchronous motor

Basic principle.
Basic principle.

Starting of synchronous motor.
Starting of synchronous motor.

Why dc excitation is used?
Why dc excitation is used?


SYNCRONOUS
SYNCRONOUS
MOTOR
MOTOR

what is synchronous
what is synchronous
motor?
motor?

It is a synchronous machine use to
It is a synchronous machine use to
convert electrical power to
convert electrical power to
mechanical power.
mechanical power.

A synchronous motor is identical
A synchronous motor is identical
with a an alternator or ac
with a an alternator or ac
generator or synchronous
generator or synchronous
generator
generator

Some features of
Some features of
synchronous motor
synchronous motor

It runs as synchronous speed the only to
It runs as synchronous speed the only to
change its speed can be change only by
change its speed can be change only by
changing supply frequency.
changing supply frequency.

It is not self starting. it has to be run up to
It is not self starting. it has to be run up to
synchronous speed by some means before it
synchronous speed by some means before it
can be synchronied to the supply.
can be synchronied to the supply.

It can used for both lagging and leading power
It can used for both lagging and leading power
factor.
factor.


BASIC PRINCIPLE
BASIC PRINCIPLE

It should be noted!
It should be noted!

"he rotating part is called rotor
"he rotating part is called rotor
and field winding is mounted on
and field winding is mounted on
it .it is also called rotor winding
it .it is also called rotor winding

Armature winding mounted on
Armature winding mounted on
stationary part called stator so also
stationary part called stator so also
called stator winding.
called stator winding.

Basic principle
Basic principle

#onsider a two pole synchronous motor
#onsider a two pole synchronous motor

A $%
A $%
&
&
supply is applied to the stator of the
supply is applied to the stator of the
motor which produces a
motor which produces a
$%
$%
&
&
current flow
current flow
in the winding.
in the winding.

"his current results a magnetic flux of
"his current results a magnetic flux of
constant magnitude rotating at
constant magnitude rotating at
synchronous speed.
synchronous speed.

"he field winding is excited by dc current
"he field winding is excited by dc current
which produces steady state magnetic
which produces steady state magnetic
field
field

Basic principle
Basic principle

'ow there two magnetic field present
'ow there two magnetic field present
in the motor !
in the motor !

(otor filed
(otor filed

Stator field
Stator field

Both field will tend to line up each
Both field will tend to line up each
other )ust li*e two bar magnets will
other )ust li*e two bar magnets will
tend to line up if place near each
tend to line up if place near each
other.
other.

Basic principle
Basic principle

"he stator magnetic field is rotating so
"he stator magnetic field is rotating so
the rotor magnetic field will try to catch
the rotor magnetic field will try to catch
up.
up.

+ue to inertia of the rotor and also
+ue to inertia of the rotor and also
inertia of the load connected to the
inertia of the load connected to the
rotor it can never catch up the stator
rotor it can never catch up the stator
field but always lags behind it .
field but always lags behind it .

"he greater the angle between the two
"he greater the angle between the two
magnetic fields greater will be the
magnetic fields greater will be the
torque on the rotor.
torque on the rotor.


We can say the rotor chases the
We can say the rotor chases the
rotating stator magnetic filed
rotating stator magnetic filed
around in a circle never quit
around in a circle never quit
catching up with it.
catching up with it.



Starting of
Starting of
synchronous
synchronous
motor
motor

Why synchronous motor is
Why synchronous motor is
not self starting?
not self starting?

when the supply is given to the stator the rotating magnetic field is created, the when the supply is given to the stator the rotating magnetic field is created, the
poles will be generated by the formula poles will be generated by the formula

Ns=120f/p Ns=120f/p

consider,when the frequency is 50Hz and 2 pole motor the synchronous speed consider,when the frequency is 50Hz and 2 pole motor the synchronous speed
will be 3000rpm. so that the rotating magnetic field completes its one cycle in will be 3000rpm. so that the rotating magnetic field completes its one cycle in
0.02seconds.when the supply given to the rotor the poles will be created which 0.02seconds.when the supply given to the rotor the poles will be created which
is constant.due to the force of attraction and repulsion the rotor ust is constant.due to the force of attraction and repulsion the rotor ust
oscillates.due to the inertia of the rotor it cannot be rotated. oscillates.due to the inertia of the rotor it cannot be rotated.

so the magnetic loc!ing cannot ta!es place.so that the synchronous motor is so the magnetic loc!ing cannot ta!es place.so that the synchronous motor is
not a self starting motor. not a self starting motor.








Why synchronous motor is
Why synchronous motor is
not self starting?
not self starting?

A synchronous motor is not a self
A synchronous motor is not a self
starting motor because torque is
starting motor because torque is
only developed when running at
only developed when running at
synchronous speed, therefore ,the
synchronous speed, therefore ,the
motor needs some type of device
motor needs some type of device
to bring the rotor to synchronous
to bring the rotor to synchronous
speed
speed

-ethods of starting
-ethods of starting
synchronous motor
synchronous motor

By reducing supply frequency.
By reducing supply frequency.

By using external prime mover.
By using external prime mover.

By using damper winding.
By using damper winding.

(educing the
(educing the
frequency
frequency

When we reduce the supply frequency
When we reduce the supply frequency
speed of the stator magnetic field to a
speed of the stator magnetic field to a
low enough value that the rotor can
low enough value that the rotor can
accelerate and loc* in with it during one
accelerate and loc* in with it during one
half of the magnetic field rotation.
half of the magnetic field rotation.

"hen the frequency is gradually
"hen the frequency is gradually
increase up to normal value.
increase up to normal value.
Disadvantage
Disadvantage

It requires an independent generator for
It requires an independent generator for
frequency control.
frequency control.

By using external prime
By using external prime
mover
mover

"he speed of the rotor is made
"he speed of the rotor is made
equal to the synchronous speed.
equal to the synchronous speed.

when the both speed are
when the both speed are
synchronied the prime mover is
synchronied the prime mover is
detached and motor is connected
detached and motor is connected
to $%
to $%
&
&
supply and field is excited
supply and field is excited
the motor will continue to rotate.
the motor will continue to rotate.
+isadvantage
+isadvantage

It needs the external prime mover.
It needs the external prime mover.

By using damper winding
By using damper winding

"he pole shoes of most f the
"he pole shoes of most f the
machines are punched with slots
machines are punched with slots
having copper bar which are short%
having copper bar which are short%
circuited at both ends by heavy
circuited at both ends by heavy
copper rings."hse bars are *nown
copper rings."hse bars are *nown
as damper windind or amortissuer
as damper windind or amortissuer
windind.
windind.


.irst main fild winding is short circuited.
.irst main fild winding is short circuited.

(educe voltage with the help of auto
(educe voltage with the help of auto
transformer,applied across stator
transformer,applied across stator
terminals."he motor starts up.
terminals."he motor starts up.

When it reaches a steady speed a wea*
When it reaches a steady speed a wea*
d.c excitation is applied by removing the
d.c excitation is applied by removing the
short circuit on the main field winding.If
short circuit on the main field winding.If
excitationis sufficient thenthe machine
excitationis sufficient thenthe machine
will be pulled into synchronism.
will be pulled into synchronism.


.ull supply voltage is applioed
.ull supply voltage is applioed
across stator terminals by cutting
across stator terminals by cutting
out the auto transformer.
out the auto transformer.

"he motor may be operated at any
"he motor may be operated at any
desired power factor by changing
desired power factor by changing
the d.c excitation.
the d.c excitation.


The torque deveo!ed "# the
The torque deveo!ed "# the
s#$hhoronous %otor as an
s#$hhoronous %otor as an
indu$tion %otor&'ith its (ied
indu$tion %otor&'ith its (ied
un e)$ited* is $aed !u in
un e)$ited* is $aed !u in
torque
torque
Pu in torque
Pu in torque

/ull out torque
/ull out torque
/ull%out torque is the maximum sustained torque /ull%out torque is the maximum sustained torque
the electric motor develops at synchronous the electric motor develops at synchronous
speed for one minute with rated frequency and speed for one minute with rated frequency and
normal excitation. 'ormal pull%out torque is normal excitation. 'ormal pull%out torque is
usually 0123 of full%load torque for unity%power% usually 0123 of full%load torque for unity%power%
factor electric motors, and 041 to 5223 for 2.6% factor electric motors, and 041 to 5223 for 2.6%
leading%power%factor electric motors. leading%power%factor electric motors.

Why d.c excitation?
Why d.c excitation?
"orque developed in a motor is
"orque developed in a motor is
unidirectional only when
unidirectional only when

+irections of both the field and
+irections of both the field and
armature currents remains
armature currents remains
unchanged
unchanged


7(
7(


Both change simultaneously
Both change simultaneously


So in synchronous motor the
So in synchronous motor the
armature current and field flux will
armature current and field flux will
change simultanously only if +.# is
change simultanously only if +.# is
given to the field because it to
given to the field because it to
rotate at synchronous speed.
rotate at synchronous speed.



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