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DBQ Outline

Thesis: The mistreatment of the working class, the peoples dissatisfaction with the government
and church, and the demand for suffrage and freedom were the perfect conditions for the
revolutions of 1848 as well as the push for unification.
Paragraph I: The working class was subject to harsh working conditions and mistreatment by
those in the upper class, leading to the demand for reforms.

Document 1- About ten o'clock, a considerable body of workmen, and young men
belonging to the different schools of Paris collected on the Place du Pantheon, and set
out for the Madeleine by the Rues St. Jacques, des Gres, the Pont Neuf, the Rue St.
Honore, etc., crying as they went, Vive la Reforme, and singing the Marseillaise and the
chant of the Girondins
a) POV: Percy B. St. John was a journalist and experienced the revolution in France
first-hand. As a journalist, he gives more of an unbiased report compared to
others who experienced it as well.
Document 5-picture
Document 9- The true meaning of freedom is that it recognizes the inhabitants of the
fatherland only as a whole, and not as castes or privileged groups, and that it extends the
blessings of collective liberty to all, without distinction of language or religion.

Paragraph II: There was unrest due to the people discontent with the current governments across
Europe and the Church.

Document 2- The difference between these two kinds of revolutionists is, that the first
were inspired by the hatred of royalty, the second by the progress of humanity.
Document 4- The Church is not a true and perfect society, entirely freenor is she
endowed with proper and perpetual rights of her own, conferred upon her by her Divine
Founder; but it appertains to the civil power to define what are the rights of the Church,
and the limits within which she may exercise those rights.
a) POV: Pope Pius wrote this list condemning revolutionary ideas that were
published by others, and he is against them because they limit his control of other
governments and the churchs role in state affairs.
Document 10-map
Document 12-. It had accepted principles of liberty in the charter; it had promised to
establish them, but it made this promise under the cloak of the ancien rgime, on which
there had been written for so many centuries: Divine Right. It was unable to solve the
problem. It died in the process, overwhelmed by the burden. It is on us, on the Revolution
of July, that this job has been imposed; it is our duty and responsibility to establish
definitively, not order alone, not liberty alone, but order and liberty at the same time.
a) POV: Francois Guizot was a dominant figure in French politics during the July
Monarchy, so he experienced this new government first-hand, but he was also a

conservative and was opposed to the more extreme ideas of the liberals and
republicans who fueled the revolutions.
Paragraph III: People were pushing to receive suffrage for all and other freedoms such as the
freedom of speech.

Document 6- picture
Document 7-picture
Document 11-map

Paragraph IV: Unification was a significant factor behind some of the revolutions in Europe.

Document 3- Now had arrived in Germany the day for the establishment of "German
Unity," and the founding of a great, powerful, national German empire.
Document 8- The explicit purpose of your assembly is to put a German people's
association [Volksbund] in the place of the existing federation of princes, to bring the
German nation to real unity, to strengthen German national feeling, and thus to raise
Germany's power both internal and external.
a. POV: This document is a direct letter from F. Palacky, a Czech polition, who was
asked to join the Frankfurt Parliament. He discusses the purpose of the
parliament in an unbiased manner because he is not blinded by German
nationality, but he still respects their endeavors.