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Transfer of Learning Jason C. Joseph University of the West Indies, Cave Hill One of the main goals of education is to enable the learner to use knowledge or skills learnt in one lesson or situation in a new environment. Students who have been taught how to calculate surface area or volume in math should be able to apply that learning when measuring liquids in a science class, or in woodwork class when constructing a chest of drawers. This ability is referred to as transfer of learning. Darling-Hammond and Bransford (2005), define transfer of learning as the ability to apply previous learning to a new situation, problem, or to future learning. Another definition explains it as “carrying over knowledge, skills, understandings, attitudes, and habits of thinking from one learning situation to another” (Johri, 2005, p. 145). Differences in beliefs about the manner in which transfer occurs, as well as attempts to categorize differences in the quality of transfer, have led to the emergence of several descriptions of transfer. Some of those widely used, include positive and negative transfer, lateral and vertical transfer, near and far transfer, and low road and high road transfer. Positive transfer happens when learning in one situation improves learning and performance in another situation. For example, learning the mechanics of sentence construction should assist students in writing better compositions. Negative transfer happens when learning in a previous situation interferes with, or inhibits learning in a new situation. One example of negative transfer could be switching from a right-hand drive vehicle to a left hand-drive. Lateral transfer happens when learning in one context is employed at the same level in a new context, for example, being able to apply the concept of averages in math to find the mean of a set of data

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in social studies. Vertical transfer is said to take place when learning at one level facilitates learning at a higher level. Evidence of vertical transfer can be seen when a music student is able to compose and arrange a song as a result of chord structures which he learnt previously. In near transfer, skills and knowledge which are usually done in a procedural manner are applied from one context to another. While it is usually considered to be the easiest and most successful transfer, the probability of the learner applying those skills in a new environment will most likely be low. Far transfer is more difficult to achieve and takes place when learning can be applied in new situations to solve new problems. The learner acquires general skills which can be used in more specific situations. The near and far theory of transfer was based on the notion that some tasks were very similar in nature and therefore allowed learning to transfer easily and automatically from one situation to the next. Though some tasks may be similar in nature, there are many learning situations or problems which are very different in nature, at least on a surface level, and so the concept of automaticity proposed in this approach does not hold. One of the more recent types of transfer to be proposed by Perkins and Salomon (as cited in Bruning, Schraw, and Ronning, 1995), is low-road and high-road transfer. Low-road transfer supposedly happens spontaneously and automatically, after a task has been practiced extensively in different environments similar to the expected transfer context. It can also be provoked and encouraged through reflection and self-monitoring exercises. High-road transfer is most likely to happen when students consciously and deliberately abstract ideas or principles and mindfully search for connections and situations in which those principles can be applied. It involves metacognition, analysis, and active involvement on the part of the learner. One of the differences between the low and high-road theory of transfer compared to other ideas of transfer, is that it offers strategies which can be employed to promote transfer.

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In an attempt to classify the various types of transfer, Haskell (2000), devised a taxonomy which comprised of six levels of transfer (p. 29). Level 1: Nonspecific transfer. All learning falls in that category since all learning depends on connections with past learning. Although this level of transfer is necessary, it is viewed more as learning than as true transfer. Level 2: Application transfer. This level refers to applying previous learning to a specific situation. For example, after learning the fundamentals of writing a good report, a student is then able to produce his own report. Level 3: Context transfer. This refers to the application of previous learning in slightly different situations. Context transfer is most likely to happen under situated learning conditions, and a change in context may result in a lack of transfer. Level 4: Near transfer. When previous learning is transferred to situations which are similar but not identical to the original learning context, near transfer is said to occur. An individual who quickly learns how to salsa after having learnt the cha-cha-cha reflects an example of near transfer. Level 5: Far transfer. This level involves applying knowledge and skills to situations which are very different from the original learning context. Anological reasoning is a good demonstration of the kind of thinking which takes place at this level. Level 6: Displacement or creative transfer. A newly-discovered relationship between old and new learning sometimes leads to the creation of a new concept. This kind of transfer is called displacement or creative transfer. Haskell (2000), views only the last three levels of his taxonomy as “significant” transfer. He postulates that transfer is only significant when it is preceded by some form of new learning. His taxonomy, like most transfer theories, was based on his assesment of similarity. The idea of

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similarity seems to feature in all transfer of learning theories, but contention with regards to what qualifies and quantifies ‘similar’ has resulted in various views and interpretations of the transfer phenomenon. In order to understand the multi-faceted, and evasive nature of transfer of learning, a brief history of the development of transfer theories is necessary.

Transfer of Learning Theories In an effort to explain how and why transfer takes place, and what transfers from one situation to the next, various transfer theories have been proposed. Those theories will be summarized and discussed mainly from a behaviorist and cognitivist perspective. However, a historical analysis of transfer of learning will first be presented.

Theory of Formal discipline This theory is based on an older theory of mental faculties by Aristotle. The theory identifies two different theories of the mind: general-faculty-theory and organismic-unityfaculty-theory (Johri, 2005). In the general-faculty-theory, it was believed that the mind is made up of various faculties which worked independently of one another, whereas, in the organismicunity-faculty theory, the mind was considered to be one whole unit which expressed itself in different activities like imagination, recalling, reasoning, and perception. The theory of formal discipline (also known as the “mental muscle approach”) was based on the assumption that we all have a set of mental powers which can be trained by practicing certain skills or doing specific subjects. It was felt that those mental faculties could be strengthened in the same way that exercise strengthens the body; the more difficult the mental exercise, the more impact it would have on the faculties. That training which we receive can then be applied to other areas of our lives. It was once felt, for example, that taking courses in Latin

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would develop one’s ability to think or that learning to spell would also improve attention and observation. Latin, Greek, Mathematics, and science were the main subjects used in training. The theory also proposed that mental exercise or the form of the activity were more important than the content or subject-matter. The formal discipline theory was subsequently rejected on several grounds. In the late nineteenth century, William James (as cited in Ormrod, 2008), learnt a new poem every day, for several weeks in an attempt to see if his ability to learn poems would improve. Instead of improving, however, he found that he subsequently learnt poems more slowly. Other researchers also found that students who had studied Latin were no better off in English, grammar, or spelling, compared to students who had not (Mueller, 1975; Thorndike (as cited in Leberman, Doyle, & Mc Donald, 2006). It was also suggested that the students who benefitted from the formal discipline approach benifitted only because they were intelligent students who would be more inclined to choose the various subjects. In more recent research involving computer programming, it was also proven that learning skills in computer programming did not necessarily help students to transfer those skills to other problem solving situations (Ormrod, 2008). Despite criticisms of the formal discipline theory, there are still aspects of the theory which are still upheld today. Contemporary research has found that the idea of different “faculties” of the mind is not totally erroneous since there are areas of the brain which are more dominant in performing certain functions (Mueller, 1975). In other experiments, Rychlak, Nguyen and Schneider (as cited in Ormrod, 2008, discovered that the degree to which the learner likes a subject can have an impact on future learning. This affective component, they reasoned, was probably the foundation of the formal discipline approach. One of the major critics of the theory was Edward Thorndike, who proposed a theory of Identical Elements.

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Behaviorist view of Transfer Theory of Identical Elements A more specific form of transfer called “Theory of Identical elements” was propounded by Edward Thorndike. Following a series of experiments, he concluded that transfer is greatly dependant on the number of similarities which exist, either in content or technique, between the unfamiliar and familiar situations. Transfer takes place because the common elements in both situations require the same mental abilities and not because of mental exercise gained from studying specific topics. He argued that transfer could only be effective if tasks greatly resemble one another. A number of further experiments by other researchers, including Thorndike’s own experiments (Haslerud, 1972), revealed that the amount of transfer was minimal and tended to inhibit rather than facilitate transfer. Many of Thorndike’s experiments, as well as those of other classical transfer theorists, were criticized because it was felt that the evidence of transfer which was found, happened under unnatural circumstances and did not reflect the real learning process. The idea of detaching the task from the student’s purposes, attitudes, motivation, and environment was also questioned. His theory was also criticized for being too dependent on drill and practice. Haskell (2000), again raises the subjectivity of the concept of similarity, and opines that the identical elements model only results in near transfer. Despite the criticisms of the identical elements approach, it has been credited for having the most impact on education. The idea of practice continues to be a fundamental part of contemporary transfer theories.

Theory of Generalization

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This theory was developed by Charles Judd who viewed transfer of learning as essentially a transfer of principles (Johri, 2005). The theory of generalization contends that transfer occurs as a result of common features or general principles which one learns in a situation. As a result, one is able to apply those generalizations to a new situation. In one experiment, two groups of children were asked to throw darts at an underwater target. The experimental group which was taught the principles of light refraction was able to transfer that knowledge and perform better than the control group. Judd’s theory also posited that the attitudes and dispositions of the learners, such as motivation, also impacted on transfer, and that the subject matter is not as important as the methodology. His model, in essence, is a precursor to the cognitive perspective on transfer in the sense that it acknowledges the learners prior knowledge, as well as the use of strategies to promote transfer.

Cognitive approaches to transfer of learning Gestalt perspective Gestalt theorists believed that transfer happens when the individual is able to recognize similarities among facts, and general concepts or principles which can be applied in another context. This theory is known as the Configuration or Transposition Theory (Johri, 2005). They do not subscribe to the view that parts of a whole can operate in isolation, but instead believe in emphasizing, in a holistic manner, common elements like perception, insight, and intelligence. The learner’s perception of the relationship between the old and the new situation is also important. The more meaningful an experience is, the more thoroughly the concepts will be grasped, thus facilitating maximum transfer. The use of appropriate teaching methods also plays an important role in the transfer process.

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Other cognitive perspectives The information processing model or Schema theory suggests that transfer happens when people are able to retrieve what was learnt previously at the appropriate time. Schema is the term used to describe a mental representation of knowledge which individuals construct from previous experiences. Old schemata are adjusted when new learning occurs. In this approach, positive transfer takes place when the learner uses schema to understand a new situation, or when a connection is made between prior knowledge, the new situation, and the application of the prior knowledge. Since knowledge is not always available in the short term memory to allow people to make connections between the current situation and prior knowledge, transfer is most likely to happen when connections have been made in the long term memory between what is to be learned and previous knowledge. Another cognitive perspective is the contextual perspective which posits that most knowledge and skills learnt are restricted to the situation in which they are learnt (situated learning) and that transfer to new and different situations is unlikely. The organization, retrieval, and processing of schema, as well as metacognition, all play an important role. Transfer becomes more possible when the learner searches for similarities between the new problem and prior learning. Contemporary perspectives on transfer of learning advocate both the general principles and context-specific approach. The idea that there must be some common elements between the old and new tasks in order for transfer to occur is still maintained. The idea of general transfer, on which the formal discipline theory was based, is believed to take place on occasion but not as often as specific transfer, and not in the extreme manner proposed by the formal discipline theory. For example, Fong, Krantz, and Nisbett (as cited in Haskell, 2000), found that students who received training in statistical probability and principles were able to transfer those principles to everyday reasoning and problem solving. It was also found in another experiment

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that the training which graduates received in the rules of certain fields allowed them to transfer that training in other fields. The importance of prior knowledge, experience, and the learner’s own involvement in the learning process is also fundamental to all the theories. While it is still not clear as to exactly how transfer happens, more recent research has outlined several ways in which positive transfer can be encouraged and the significant role which the teacher must play in facilitating the transfer process.

Improving learning outcomes through transfer of learning theory: Implications for teaching and learning Given the various perspectives of the transfer of learning theory, it is clear that promoting transfer in the classroom requires a systematic and persistent approach if there is to be any improvement in the learning outcomes of students. A deliberate and conscious effort must be made on the part of both teacher and student, and the teaching activities and strategies employed must be purposeful, and suited to the kind of knowledge to be transferred, as well as the abilities of the students. Intrinsic motivation should be encouraged, since the amount of motivation a student has determines his persistence on a task, which in turn affects the extent to which transfer will occur (Bransford, 2001). Teachers can help to increase intrinsic motivation by ensuring that tasks are neither irksome nor too difficult, but instead appropriately challenging. It should be made clear to the student exactly what is to be learnt and why. Students are more likely to be motivated when they understand why a particular task must be done, or in what ways it will be useful to them. The transfer of learning concept has several other implications, some of which will be highlighted in the following discussion.

Depth of teaching versus scope

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The common approach to teaching is to attempt to cover as many topics in the syllabus as possible in order to prepare students for exams, while sacrificing students’ understanding and depth of knowledge in the process. According to Wellington, 2006, students should master the original material thoroughly in order for transfer to take place. This implies that teachers should also spend some more time in covering material to allow students time to fully grasp the concepts. In an effort to achieve this depth of understanding, students need to experience the material in different ways through a variety of different examples. Students who are learning the multpilication of single digit numbers, for example, should be able to see that 3x4 means 3 groups of 4, and that although 4x3 gives the same result, it represents a different concept from 3x4. The relationship between 3x4 (multiplication) and the sum of 3 groups of 4 (addition) can also be highlighted since understanding is gained by observing both similarities and differences of ideas. The students should be able to work with both concrete objects as well as abstract examples. Students should be presented with several variations of the same concept and the common principles should be made clear. For example: • • 7 x 4 = 28 How many mangoes would you have if someone brought you 6 mangoes every day for a week? • If a book costs $8, how much would 6 books cost?

One method of teaching math for transfer which has been found to be successful is schemabased transfer instruction – a method which teaches students how to develop schemas to identify the superficial aspects of a problem which make it appear to be different (Fuchs, 2004). By giving students varied examples and building their vocabulary of algorithm, students will eventually be able to get past the surface differences of problems and recognize the underlying

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principle. Such an approach would ensure that students have a solid grasp of the subject matter and its related principles, consequently facilitating improved academic performance.

Planning and assessment Teaching for transfer will also have implications for unit planning and assesment. Teachers would need to pay more attention to the selection of content, and to focus mainly on the more significant and pertinent aspects of the syllabus. In order to do this, the teacher would also need to know precisely what are the skills, knowledge, or principles to be transferred, and those should be reflected in the unit and lesson objectives. The structure of tests or examinations would need to be modified in order to accommodate transfer objectives and the individual differences among students. Equal emphasis should also be placed on formative assessment and alternative forms of assessment, such as observation checklists, and practical exams, since some transfer behaviours are difficult to observe using traditional evaluation methods.

Creating a spirit and culture of transfer Failed transfers usually happen when students are unable to make connections between what was learnt previously and the task at hand. The practice of drawing students attention to connections, practical applications, and abstract relationships should be a deliberate and conscious strategy on the teachers’ part. It should become second nature to a teacher to ask students questions like, “Why is this topic important?”; “In what other situation can this principle be applied?” This culture of transfer should be ecouraged both in the structured classroom environment and in informal, out of class settings. While on the way to a class excursion, for instance, the teacher could seize opportunities for transfer by asking pupils questions such as, “What does this remind you of?”; “Why do you think this part of the island is much colder than

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another part?”. This practice would also inculcate in students a spirit of transfer and get them in the habit of thinking about their learning and relating school to everyday life.

Helping students to make connections The relationship between concepts and possible applications of knowledge and skill is not always visible to students. In teaching a lesson, the teacher should assist students in making those connections by emphasizing simlarities. For example, in teaching the concept of a major scale, music students should be fully aware of the relationship between the major scale and an actual melody or song, and a major scale and “do re mi”. The teacher can play a major scale on a keyboard and ask students what does it remind them of. The teacher can also play the song “DoRe-Mi-“ from the Sound of Music in order to get students to see that the same notes of the scale are involved using a combination of patterns. The teacher can then play a popular song which students like and highlight certain parts of the melody to demonstrate that the notes all come from amajor scale. Connections between the various disciplines, and how classroom learning tasks relate to their everyday lives should also be shown. For example, following a simple survey in social studies to determine the attitudes of students and staff towards the music of Vybz Kartel, students can be asked to summarize their data using measures of central tendency (math), and provide a written report which would be checked for proper spelling and grammar (english). Students should also be fully aware that they were engaged in research that is similar to the kind of scientific research which happens every day on a wider and more professional level. They should be made to understand the link between the exercise they did, and what is normally done before the foods they eat and medicines they use are labelled as being good to eat or safe to use.

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The idea of getting students to dig deeper into conceptual issues and to think about why and how learning is taking place should be habitual.

Emphasize differences between ideas Understanding the differences between concepts or principles could help minimize negative transfer. Sometimes it is best to highlight the differences between concepts by introducing them at the same time. In differentiating between “to” and “too” for example, the teacher can exaggerate the “oo” sound in the word “too” to emphasize “excess” or “in addition”. Students presented with two sentences: (a) She wants me to carry her bag, (b) Her bag is tooooooo heavy to carry. By exaggerating the “oo” sound, and by presenting both words, students will better be abe to distinguish between the two. The differences between other concepts are best understood when taught seperately or in different environments, such as the difference between a fish and a whale.

The use of appropriate teaching strategies As has been illustrated so far, teaching for transfer and improved learning outcomes depends most heavily on the type and appropriateness of the teaching activities used. The classroom environment should also be conducive to transfer and students should be bombarded with frequent opportunities within which transfer could take place. Many authors have proposed several specific strategies for improving transfer in the classroom (Perkins & Solomon, 1992; Clarizio & Mehrens, 1994; Wellington, 2006). A few of the most widely used methods will be outlined here, along with examples of how they can ultimately improve learning outcomes.

Hugging and Bridging

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Perkins and Salomon, 1992, suggested the technique of “hugging” and “bridging” which has found appeal in both educational and vocational settings.The method of hugging involves structuring and presenting a lesson in a way that is similar to the intended application of the learning. It is a way of encouraging automatic or low road transfer. Bridging promotes high road transfer and encourages students to think divergently, make connections, and to be more aware of their thought processes. Two kinds of high road transfer were also suggested. Forward reaching, or preparing students to apply what is being learnt in a future context, and backward reaching, or helping students to refer to what they learnt previously in an effort to solve a current problem.

Modeling One of the main ways in which children are socialized and learn new behaviour is through imitating others (Fisher, 2005). With this strategy, the teacher performs the behaviours or actions which he wants students to learn or imitate. Thinking aloud, for instance, can be a good way of showing students the thought processes they should go through in solving a problem. Other attitudes like enthusiasm, curiousity, and critical thinking can also be modeled. One area in which this can be useful is in reading and comprehension. The teacher could model certain reading strategies by reading aloud and thinking aloud. For example, the title of a story, “Invisible Alligators” could first be read to the class. The teacher could think aloud, “I wonder what the story will be about. Maybe it’s about an alligator that makes itself invisible to attack its prey.” (predicting). The teacher could model phrasing and intonation while reading, and stop to ask himself/herself questions along the way and make inferences.


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With the scaffolding technique emerged from Vygotsky’s idea of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Students are given tasks which are slightly more challenging than what they can manage alone. The teacher provides just enough guidance to help the students use their prior knowledge in accomplishing the task. The assistance or scaffolds are gradually removed as the students ability and confidence increase. The scaffolding method can be used in the following example: After a unit on social problems in social studies, students are given an assignment to produce a two minute video or jingle on a social issue. Teacher can provide general guidelines as to the kinds of equipment which can be used – digital cameras, mobile phones, and the school’s computer lab. Students will be allowed to plan their productions while the teacher provides advice and assistance only when necessary without actually showing students what to do. The teacher can instead direct students as to where or how to get help, for example, asking someone who is knowledgeable or searching the internet.

Cognitive coaching This is approach fosters independence in learning and develops metacognition by helping students to be in tuned with their thinking processes. In math, the strategy works best when students have been taught problem solving skills and strategies, such as algorithms, brainstorming, and using analogies. Instead of giving students a math problem to solve and correcting it or “going over” it, as is normally done, students are asked to go through each stage of the problem solving process in an effort to help them understand their approach, and to enable the teacher to remedy any misunderstandings. The teacher asks questions like, “What is the first thing you did? Why? How did you arrive at that answer? Did anybody use a different strategy?”

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With this approach, students are more likely to understand why certain procedures are used, have a deeper understanding of concepts and principles, and become better problem solvers. There are many other methods which can be used encourage transfer. The inquiry method of teaching, for example, could allow students to make use of prior learning (backward reaching) in investigating hypotheses. An example of the inquiry approach could be posing the following question to a group of students who are preparing to learn about pulleys and levers: “How do you think castles, churches and other buildings were constructed in ancient times in the absence of modern technology?”. Students can be asked to design a machine which could have been used to raise building material at high altitudes. This activity can encourage creativity, which is an important aspect of transfer, and also create an opportunity for them to reach back into their maths, science, or history learning. Students are also more likely to understand and recall key principles associated with the concepts. The project method can also be used to help students gain a better understanding of certain concepts and the relationship between them. In math, students can be given a project to create a mathematics game, which can encourage the application and transfer of various mathematical principles, making learning more practical and meaningful. The use of simulations and drama in the classroom can also contribute to helping students master concepts and make meaningful connections. According to Courtney, (1989), drama creates high motivation, a climate for learning, and encourages specific transfer of skills to the real world. Simulations of job interviews, mock trials, and playing the role of a minister of government during a mock budget debate can all have positive and far-reaching effects. Writing reflective essays or portfolios is a good way to develop metacognition in students. Through reflection, students become more in tuned with their learning styles and strategies, and decide what worked, what didn’t, and why. Metacognition is recognized as an impotant ingredient in learning and transfer.

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Transfer of values and attitudes One aspect which is often overlooked, yet which has a significant impact on learning, is the attitudes, self discipline, and values of students. According to Stewart, Jane, Jon, and Keown, (1996), “it is only by changing the sense students have of themselves as learners that they can begin to develop their capacities and realize their potential” (pp. 11). Too often, teachers spend a considerable amount of time trying to teach or impart appropriate values and attitudes, either in their daily interactions with students, in moral education, or in citizenship education in social studies. Those attitudes, however, fail to transfer in real situations. The concept of transfer of learning can also be applied in this context. In teaching values and attitudes, the hugging and bridging strategy can be applied. Students can be made to practice, or roll play certain behaviors in a variety of simulated situations (hugging). Skills such as anger management, conflict resolution and courtesy, can all be practiced and opportunities can be created for students to put those skills into paractice. Group work, physical education and other school or class organized activities are opportunities for practice. Following roll play, students can be asked to reflect on the experience and to suggest other real life scenarios where the skills being learnt would be useful (bridging). The teacher could encourage students to think deeper about the reasons why they behave in a particular way (their causal attributions) and the consequences of such behaviour, in an effort to promote mindful transfer.

Conclusion Perhaps one of the reasons why transfer of learning has been such a rare occurrence both at school and in the work place is because our students have not been taught how to transfer. The kind of high-road transfer that is desired cannot be left to chance. Educators now have a

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responsibility to create a culture of transfer in their classrooms and a spirit of transfer in each child. This must be done in a deliberate and systematic manner and requires a radical transformation from traditional teaching methods.

Bransford, J. D. (2001). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books? id=WaCW7i92lYkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=how+people+learn&ei=IfAGS_m NDKqGyQS81JDaDw#v=onepage&q=&f=false Bruning, R. H., Schraw, G. J., & Ronning, R. R. (1995). Cognitive psychology and instruction. New Jersey: Merril, Prentice Hall. Clarizio, H., & Mehrens, W. A. (1994). Contemporary issues in educational psychology (6th Edition ed.). New York: Mc Graw-Hill Inc. Courtney, R. (1989). Play, drama, and thought: Intellectual background to dramatic education. Canada: Simon & Pierre. Darling-Hammond, L., & Bransford, J. (2005). Preparing teachers for a changing world: What teachers should learn and be able to do. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Fisher, R. (2005). Teaching children to learn (2nd Edition ed.). Cheltenham: Stanley Thornes. Fuchs, L. S., Fuchs, D., Finelli, R., Courey, S. J., & Hamlett, c. L. (2004). Expanding schema-based transfer instruction to help third graders solve real-life. Retrieved from ERIC data base , 419-445. Haskell, R. E. (2000). Transfer of learning: Cognition, instruction, and reasoning. San Diego, California: Academic press. Haslerud, G. M. (1972). Transfer, memory: After-learning as perceptual process. . Minneapolis: UniveJJrsity of Minnesota Press. Johri, P. K. (2005). Philosophical foundation of education. India: Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books? id=zdKNzJJ0hN8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=philosophical+foundation+of+edu cation&ei=rvAGS4LzO6q-ygSX7uCqDw#v=onepage&q=&f=false

19 Transfer of Learning #03729219 Leberman, S., Doyle, S., & Mc Donald, L. (2006). The transfer of learning: Participants perspectives of adult education and training. Aldershot: Gower. . Gower: Aldershot . Mueller, R. J. (1975). Principles of classroom learning and perception. London: Praeger Publishers Inc. Ormrod, J. E. (2008). Human Learning (5th Edition ed.). New Jersey: Merril Prentice Hall. Perkins, D., & Solomon, G. (1992). Transfer of learning. Retrieved from: http://learnweb.harvard.edu/alps/thinking/docs/traencyn.htm Stewart, R., Jane, M., Jon, N., & Keown, P. M. (1996). Toward a theory of learning. British Journal of Educational studies , 9-26. Wellington, J. (2006). Secondary education: The key concepts. London: Routledge.

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