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Written, Designed, and Published by 4H

1. Feudal System - Nishna
2. A Peasant’s Life - Preston
3. Clothes - Bodza
4. Castle Defenses - Abel
5. Castle Battles & Siege - Andriy
6. Castles - DaEun
7. Music and Instruments - Lara
8. Entertainment - Thessa
9. Medieval Feast - Khadija
10. Food - Andrew
11. Deadly Disease - Felix
12. Doctors and Medicine - Nalini
13. Crusaders - Cael
14. 100 Years War - Rushil
15.Torture & Punishment - Patrick
16.Medieval Banquet Movie
(iBook Only)



What would your life be
like if you were a king or a
noble or a peasant? In
Medieval times you were
born into a life of power or
poverty and it was
impossible to move from
one to another. In this
chapter I will tell you how
people in the medieval
society used to live.


Important People in The Feudal
Nobles and Lords
Lords and nobles would attend business matters in relation to their land.
They used to practice weapons, do hunting and hawking. They also use to
inspect their estate. Nobles were also tutored at home so they used to
spend a lot of time in learning, catechism etc. If nobles had a large castle it
was a job for them to keep it in a tip top shape, keep your fighting skills
honed and knights well-trained. Highborn ladies kept busy with
supervising the household, socializing, performing works of charity and
learning the fine arts like embroidery, poetry, music etc. They also
participated or were spectators at many sporting events and competitions.
Kings attended mass in the castle chapel. They used to do hunting with
hawks or dogs, jousting and practiced archery. Kings would attend council
meetings, hear petitions, discuss laws to be passed etc. They had three
meals during the day -breakfast at 6:00 AM, dinner at 11:00 AM and
supper at 5:00 PM. The mid morning meal (dinner) was the heaviest meal
with several dishes and the breakfast was the lightest with just bread and
wine with some cold meat. They started and ended their day with prayers.

Queens used to take care of the palace while the
king was away. A queens primary duty was to
provide a male heir to the kingdom. In some cases
queens also acted as a regent in the absence of the
king. They used to sew and mend the kings
clothes, pay homages to the poor, take care of the
education of their daughters if they had any. They
said prayers at the beginning and the end of the
day. They also used to practice arts.



What Work Did
Peasants Do ?
The lifestyle of peasants was quite
harsh. Peasants worked as farmers
for lords and in return the lords
gave permission to live in their
lands. Peasants lived in one room
cottages made from dried mud and
straw. In the cottage they did not
have running water, windows and
furniture and because some
peasants would allow their animals
to come inside in winters these
unhygienic conditions caused many
diseases. The peasants wore raglike tunics in comparison to the
nobles who wore fine clothing.
Peasants had high chances of death
if they were injured because of less
medical knowledge in those days
and only the nobles were treated


Monks And Nuns
In the Middle Ages monks and nuns
were the only people who knew how to
write. They lived in monasteries. They
used to copy books especially the Bible
by hand. They also used to teach the
wealthy children how to write and read.
Monks and nuns spent their time taking
care of people, meditating, praying,
preparing medicine and sewing. They
did not get a good night sleep and were
busy throughout the day. The
monasteries served like hospitals for sick
people, guesthouses for weary travelers,
distribution centers for the needy and storage
facilities for food.



It was such a hard life being a
peasant in Medieval Times.
Everything including sheep, fields,
cows, and homes were actually
owned by the lord of the manor. A
peasant was also known as a serf or
villein. Peasants were bound to
work for their lord who allowed
them to farm. The peasants were at
the bottom of the feudal system and
had to obey their local lord no
matter what. They lived on the lord’s
property. Peasants were very poor.
In this chapter you will learn more
about the life of a peasant.


Peasant lived in simple homes, the walls often made from something called wattle
and daub. Branches were woven together and covered with a mixture of mud,
straw, dung and clay. The floor is just bare earth. It is not very comfortable.

The one thing they had to do in England was to pay taxes or rent. To make it more
difficult they also had to pay a tax to the church called a tithe. This was a tax on the
products that they produced.

Peasants were bound to work for their lord, who allowed them to farm their own
piece of the lord’s land in return. They had to work very hard with no break.. It was
difficult for them to make enough food to feed their families and they also had to
give more than half of their crops to the lord. They could not leave the manor
without permission, or they would get into lots of trouble. The only way for a
peasant to receive his freedom was by saving enough money to buy a plot of land,
or by marrying a free person. It looks like today where you have to pay a lot of

Peasant’s clothes were made out of linen. They might wear a
cheap pin for good luck and they had a straw hat and woolen
split hose so they would not get hot. Peasants had to spin
wool into cloth and make their own clothes. When it was
cold they would wear a sheepskin cloak.


In the Middle Ages clothes
were very different. The
clothes in Middle Ages showed
if the women are married or
not. They also showed a
person’s place in society, if they
were rich or poor. Only the
rich would wear clothes made
of beautiful cloth, and the rich
would never be seen in
peasant’s clothes. In this
chapter you will find out about
shoes, women’s clothing, men’s
clothing and hats.


Most shoes were made out of leather. The so called Scorpion
tail shoes became popular in early 12th-century. Peasants wore
leather boots for hard work. A Noble man wore leather boots
too. Nobel women’s shoes were made out of buckled leather
and had thin soles. They attached a wooden pattern to it. They
wore woolen stockings over the knee to keep feet and legs


had ribbons and maybe buttons on
their dresses. Women also had buns
in their hair and they had long hats.


Women’s Clothing
Women had leather
dresses. On the dress
they had leather purse
that serves as a
pocket, and prayer
beads were kept in
their belt. Under their
dresses they had Tshirts called Linen
shift. They also have
Linen hats. Women’s
dresses didn’t have
zippers. They only


Men’s Clothing
Most of the men’s shoes were made out of leather.
There were long boots and small shoes. Some men
had T-shirts made out of wool. Also men had hats
made out of straw and felt. On the men’s T-shirts
they had buttons. On their belts they had a leather
pouch. In it they had a knife and small rock to
make fire. Their belts were made of leather too. On
the men’s tunic they always had a sign. They also
had a cape and a helmet. And on their tunic they
had belts too.




Hats were really important in medieval garb. They
had linen hats, straw and felt hats, visored helmets,
wimple hats, cone hats and butterfly hats. Felt and
straw hats were the easiest to make. Peasants
always wore hats during work and peasants wore
the straw and felt hats. Most women wore butterfly
hats or cone hats. Knights wore visors when they
were fighting. Monks usually wore wimple hats.



The castle was a very
important part of the
middle ages, and it
was constantly under
attack so the people
always had to defend
it. In this chapter you
will read about how
people protect it.


Feelings of terror rushed through my mind. The castle I lived in was
under attack. I can hear the crashing and clanging of swords. If I am
captured I will be killed immediately or thrown into the dungeon. Either
way, I will not live to see tomorrow. Imagine that your castle is under
siege and you want to do all you can to defend it but you do not know how.
In the following chapter you will read about the main defenses of a castle.
The portcullis was a very thick iron or metal cage like thing. Even if the
attacking army got past the moat and the drawbridge they would have a
very hard time getting through the the portcullis.

The rampart was a big and wide ditch before the moat.The attacking army
would have to climb it’s way down and then back up again. This would kill
the foot soldiers. Since their armor was very heavy they would fall down
and get trampled by the horses and the cannons.
Inside the castle were tiny holes for the bowmen to shoot through and
when guns were invented the gunmen could shoot but not be shot.


The battlements were square-shaped holes in the wall
from which guardsmen could shoot arrows down at the
enemy and then hide behind the square-shaped bricks if
the enemy could shoot back.

The keep protected the king and his family. The keep
could have a smaller moat around it, or a very very very
deep hole around the castle.

When the curtain wall was being attacked the cooks
would boil hot sand, water and even OIL!!

armor was very heavy they would fall down and get trampled
by the horses and the cannons.

Above the portcullis were small holes that were called
murder holes the bowmen would hide and shoot through the
murder holes and “murder” the attacking army!!!

The rampart was a big and wide ditch before the moat.The
attacking army would have to climb it’s way down and then
back up again. This would kill the foot soldiers. Since their

Now that you know about the defenses of a castle you can
defend it and stay safe!!!



Imagine if you are in the castle
and you are attacked. Well,
something happened to the
people of the castle Chateau
Gaillard. The person who built
the castle was named Richard
Lionheart. The castle was built in
France, by the King of England.
Specifically, this was the siege
when some knights in France
decided to capture the castle.
Chateau Gaillard is one of the
most famous sieges in history.

Plan of Attack &
Siege Tower


Plan of Attack

French soldiers dug a tunnel under the first wall. After, they made a door so that
other soldiers could pass. But if they were digging another tunnel they would come
out right in front of the soldiers defending the castle, and
they decided to go around to the other side. They dug the
tunnel and approached the soldiers from the back and
killed them. Finally, they killed everybody in the castle.

Siege Tower

A siege tower could be used by an attacking army to try to
capture a castle. A high tower on wheels would be built and
rolled up to the castle in an attempt to overpower the defenders on the walls. This
siege tower has four platforms within it. Long ladders help soldiers quickly climb to
the top. There are small holes so archers could shoot from their bows.


Knights in a Battle

Many knights died from the big battles and not from disease.
In our time, people can get sick from a disease or die from it
but our doctors and hospitals can help us. In medieval times
a person could easily die from wounds suffered in battle after
saving his kingdom. Knights always fought on the orders of
the king. When there was an attack many knights would go
off to battle, and often very few returned.

Richard I (Lionheart)

(Richard I 8 september 1157 - 6 april 1199) Richard I was a
King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death. He also
ruled as Duke of Normandy (as Richard IV). He was the
third of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor
of Aquitaine. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or
Richard the Lionheart because of his reputation as a great
military leader and warrior.



Have you ever heard about
Medieval castles? Did you ever
wonder about what they looked
like in the Middle Ages? In the
Middle Ages, the castles were
built to protect the king, queen,
and nobles. Over several
centuries, the castles started
changing their shape as they
became stronger and better for
protection. In this chapter I will
describe the rooms in the castle,
and what they were for.


Inside the
By the 13th century, the castles were
built in stone, which made better
protection for the king and queen.
First at the very top floor, there is a
room for king, and queen. This is where
they would sleep and do their work.
Under, there is a place called the Chapel.
Below, there is a place called the Hall. This is
where the king and queen would enjoy their
meal. Next to the hall, there is a bathroom.
At the very bottom, there is a place called the
storeroom where they keep food and drinks.
Next to the storeroom, there is a place called a
Dungeon. This is where they would hold bad
people and enemies.


Defense and Attack



Usually, defending a castle was easier than attacking.
There are several layers of the walls. To stop the enemy

Actually getting in, there would be two tall tower known as the
This part of the castle would have drawbridge, portcullis, arrow
slit, murder holes,
anything that can stop the enemies from coming in.


The main method to attack:




•Breaking the walls

•Siege tower




Fire was mostly used when the castles were entirely built in
wood. Ladders were used by those attacking a castle to climb
walls and breaking them. The strong man would climb the
walls and fight. While the strong men were fighting, the
other men would break the walls with the hammers while
climbing on the ladders. Also, siege towers were used to
enter the castle.
It’s designed to protect the soldiers that are attacking the
wall of a castle. The siege tower was usually a tall,
rectangular construction with four wheels and the height is
mostly equal to the wall or sometimes higher.
At the top of the siege tower, there is a big container. In front
of the container, there is a drawbridge which keeps the
soldiers safe and still attack.




In this chapter you will learn
about the gorgeous Music in the
Medieval Times. Do you know
how important music was in the
Medieval times? In this chapter
you will learn why it was
important. Also you will learn
about new instruments from the
old times. If you want to learn
more about Medieval music
read on!


Why was Music Important in
the Medieval Times?
Music was extremely important to people who lived
in the Medieval era, especially in the royal courts
of the Middle Ages. The Musical instruments
would also be used by the Medieval musicians the
minstrels and troubadours. The oldest Medieval
instrument was the human voice! The spread of
Christianity in the dark ages and the early
Medieval period led to the popularity of hymns
and secular songs. The earliest Church organ dates
back to the 8th Century. Musicians played music at
feasts too. That’s why music was so important.



+ Pipe: The pipe was an extremely
basic instrument usually having only
three melody holes.

+ Bagpipe: The bagpipe was an ancient
instrument, used by poorest people and
was made out of a goat's or sheeps skin
and a reed pipe.

+ Flute: similar
to our modern
flutes. This
type of
were played by
flute- minerals
of Medieval

+Crumhorn: The crumhorn (Curved
Horn) was included in 1400’s like a
double reed musical instrument.
+Gemshorn: The Gemshorn was made of an ox horn and played like a flute
musical instrument.
+Rebec: The rebec was an instrument with a round pear-shaped body much
like an early violin.

made out of
metal, often in
four parts. The
associated with
fanfare and
pageants. If
there was a
ceremony or a

+Viol: Viols were played with a bow and held on the lap or between the legs.
+Harp: The harp was the favorite instrument of troubadours and minstrels and
it was about 30 inches in length.

+Fiddle: There were a variety of Medieval Fiddles which were played with a
bow or plucked and usually held under a chin or in the crook of the arm. They
were easily portable and it was the most popular musical street instrument.

dinner for a king they hung the coat of arms on the trumpets.



The guitar is a stringed instrument played with our fingers or a plectrum
(guitar pick). Instruments like the guitar have been popular for about 5000
years: wall paintings in Egypt show woman playing music instruments like the
guitar from the time of the Pharaohs, but the name “guizar” first appears from
a Spain in the 13th century. The word guitar comes from an Arabic word
called gitara, the name of an instrument that they brought into Spain by the
Moors after the 10th century. Guitars have frets on the fingerboard, to show
where the fingers should go.



shawm, sackbut, pipe and tabor. Read the
above history, facts and information about the
English Horn.

More Instruments
Medieval Musical instruments,including the
English Horn,would be used by the musicians
of the period including the Waits, Minstrels
or Troubadours. There were three categories
of musical instruments in the Middle Ages wind, string and percussion. Terms of
description were Bas instruments and Haut
instruments. Bas referred to soft instruments
(literally, "low," but referring to volume, not
pitch) which were suitable for the chamber
which included the vielle, rebec and other
bowed strings, the lute and other plucked
strings.The Haut referred to loud instruments
(literally "high" because they were loud and
were suitable for outdoors which included the


The shawm was a Renaissance
musical instrument of the woodwind
family, made in Europe from the late
13th century till the 17th century. It
is in the same family as the modern
oboe. It had a long bore (looks like a
thing that you dug) which started
straight but widened into a conical
end, and had a double reed. It
produced a loud shrill tone, and was
used by military bands during the
Crusades, as well as in ordinary life
for dancing.

I hope you learned a lot about
Music and Instruments in the
Medieval Times!!!



When you think about Medieval
Times, do you think of dungeons
and slaves? Well they also had
parties and they played games and
sports. On special days they had
fun events and fairs. This chapter is
about all the fun things they do for
kids and adults. Maybe you can play
these games. You're also going to
learn about troubadours and what
their songs were about.

Medieval Fairs


If there was a feria (fairs) people did not have to work, they
got to buy amazing goodies such as food, supplies, instruments
and so on. One of the most common things they sold was wool
so people could make clothes.



need at least three players. One person is
blindfolded they have to stand in the middle
of the play area. Spin them around a few
times and ask them to count to 100 so the
other people can hide. The people must stop
when the person that’s blindfolded stops
counting. The person in the middle when he
is done counting will yell ‘blind mans’… and
the other people say ‘bluff’. If you touch
someone when you're blindfolded they will be
out. You can only move your upper body to
not get tagged, the last person left wins.

Medieval Games
Fun game and sports were
checkers, chess,
blind-man’s bluff, wrestling
archery, swimming,
card games, gambling dice,
gameball, early
soccer, alquerques, fox and
geese,hop scotch,
pick up the stick, tennis and
horse races.
My favorite game out of the
list is archery.
What’s your favorite?
You might wonder what
blinds man bluff, Well you


Troubadours went around singing songs about love. In
the Medieval times people married for their land and
riches. Troubadours were the first people who sang
about love as we think about it now. Here is an
example of a song it’s called Strambotti Siciliani

More than honey the words you speak are sweet,
Honest and wise, nobly and wittily said,
Yours are the beauties of Camiola complete,
Of Iseult the blonde and Morgana the fairy maid.
If Blanchefleur should be added to the group,
Your loveliness would tower above each head.
Beneath your brows five beautiful things repose:
Love and a fire and a flame, the lily, the rose.


Juggling, food , entertainment are
all part of a medieval feast.
Medieval feasts were held on
special days like when the king or
queen had visitors. Cooks
decorated their food with fruits
and feathers so the food looked
beautiful . Medieval feasts were
held in the great hall in a castle. .
Special guests would eat on high
tables and less important people
were on a low tables. In these next
few pages you are going to learn all
about a medieval feast, the foods
you serve and more.

The Food


Food was bought by young boys from noble families.
Leftover food was fed to animals or the poor. At feasts
people ate swan and peacock. Guests might have soup,
swan, huge pies, eels, fruit and goose. Bread was the
main food. Food which was soft or mushy could be
scooped on to bread. Other food was cut in small pieces
so it could be picked up with a knife. The best pieces of
food were given to the people on the high table. Cooks
made sculptures of castles, cut of a half of a animal and
sew it to another’s half. Food was decorated to impress
the guests.



A food taster would taste all of their food to
check if it was poisoned. People on the high
table had silver plates and the servants had
trenchers a big slice of stale bread which
soaked up the grease from the food. If you
were very hungry then you could eat bits of
your trencher.

A Feast

After the feast all the trenchers were gathered
up and were given to beggars who are
waiting outside the castle gate. Most people
ate their food with fingers because forks were
invented at the end of middle ages. Many
people also thought that using a fork was silly
but every person behaved properly.

In the great hall at the
high table the lord, his
family and guests
would be sitting and
the servants would be
seated on a low table.
The people on the high
table were served first.

At meals they were rules it was rude to talk
with your mouth full and munch noisily.
Jesters, jugglers, mummers and musicians
often performed at a feast.In the great hall at
the high table the lord, his family and guests
would be sitting and the servants would be

seated on a low table. The people on the high
table were served first. A food taster would
taste all of their food to check if it was
poisoned. People on the high table had silver
plates and the servants had trenchers a big
slice of stale bread which soaked up the
grease from the food. If you were very
hungry then you could eat bits of your
trencher. After the feast all the trenchers were
gathered up and were given to beggars who
are waiting outside the castle gate. Most
people ate their food with fingers because
forks were invented at the end of middle ages.
Many people also thought that using a fork
was silly but every person behaved properly.
At meals they were rules it was rude to talk
with your mouth full and munch noisily.
Jesters, jugglers, mummers and musicians
often performed at a feast.



By: Andrew
Is pigeon pie your idea of a delicious
meal? It sounds quite gross to me.
What you ate in Medieval Times
depended on your position in society.
The wealthy people ate a lot of very
rich food and very few vegetables.
Normally if you were a peasant you
would eat what you could grow.
Peasants actually had a healthier diet
than some of the richer nobles. In this
chapter I will talk about food that
people ate in Medieval Times and how
it was prepared. You will find that a
lot of the food is very different to
what we eat today.


Some of the herbs they used to cook with in Medieval Times were sage, mint, rosemary and
parsley. These herbs were used to add flavor.
They ate fresh river trout and boar, deer, peacocks and pigeons. Barley, oats and rye were
eaten among the poor people, and wheat for the rich. It was eaten as bread, porridge, gruel
and pasta.
The ground floor was usually where the kitchen and storerooms were found. The castle
kitchens included cooking ovens for baking and fireplaces for smoking and roasting food.
They also had a water supply completed with a sink and drainage.
The kitchen was built against the wall of the castle. In some castles they kept a storeroom
full of salt for preserving their food because they did not have refrigerators. Kitchens were
usually situated some distance from the great hall and therefore food was generally served
cold.The number of daily meals eaten during the day was most likely three.
The number of daily meals eaten during the day was three but it varied depending on how
wealthy people were, if they were rich they were able to afford good meals.
BREAKFAST. The lord ate breakfast between 6 and 7 in the morning. He might have
white bread; three meat dishes; three fish dishes and wine or ale to drink.
Peasants had breakfast at sunrise. It would consist on dark bread with ale to drink.


DINNER. The lord had dinner between 11 in the morning and 2 in the afternoon. They had
three courses but each course might have between four to six dishes in it! It could be meat and
fish with wine and ale. They ate only small parts from each dish and the rest was meant to be
thrown away, that was a lot of wasting, but the servants ate the rest sometimes.
Peasants would eat dinner about 11 to 12 o’clock. This was their lunch and it was eaten in the
fields where the peasant was working. They have dark bread and cheese, that was it, but they
were lucky, they might have some meat.
For a lord supper would be eaten between 6 and 7 in the evening. It would be very similar to
the dinner but with slightly more unusual dishes such as pigeon pie, woodcock and sturgeon.
Wine and ale would also be available.
Many guest were shown to their table after washing their hands at the entrance of the main
hall. At the start of the medieval feast the food was brought from the kitchen. The medieval
feasts included two, three, four, five, even six courses. There were jugglers and acrobats. A
feast would be very involved and the cook would serve wild game, fish, vegetables, fruit both
dried and fresh and something for dessert. There was no tableware only knives and fingers to
get food.

Every person had their own knife, spoons were barely used as any liquid was drunk from a
cup. Forks were not introduced until the late 14th century.The finest plates of gold or silver
were displayed on the buffet and the servants served for them.

For peasants the last meal would be eaten towards sunset, so this would vary with the seasons.
The main meal was vegetable pottage. Again if the family as lucky there might be some meat
or fish to go round. Bread would be available and ale.


Black stowaway rats crawl on board
Italian ships on the water toward
Europe. These terrible black rats
carry a very deadly and contagious
disease that you will not likely
survive. It killed about 200 million
people in Europe from 1328 to 1351.
Although it was so deadly, if
somehow or another you survived
the terrible plague you had more
chance of living longer. In this
section you will learn all about the
cures the doctors tried on people
and much more that the black
plague did to people.


What Are The Symptoms?

You can see if someone has the terrible plague
in many different ways. A few of the symptoms
are trembling, if someone acts like they have a
fever, if someone is very weak, sweating a lot,
coughing constantly and having a parched
throat. These previous symptoms are bad but
these are nothing compared to the buboes. The
buboes symptom is a black-blue swelling under
an armpit or somewhere where there is dead
blood, the swelling could become the size of a
golf ball to a soft ball!



would work (didn’t). Sometimes leeches had
to suck the bad
blood out of you
but it mostly
didn’t work and
they weren’t
cheap. Another
idea was to wash
yourself with urine or smear yourself with
human poo. Another very weird cure was to
rub your wounds with a chicken, which
would hurt. Finally the last cure that I will
tell you is sad and wrong. It is also a religious
cure because Christians didn’t really like
Jews in the day and the cure was to kill a

What Were The
Doctors had weird cures
for trying to save people,
for example, you had to
smell good. They believed
that smells like flowers
would make you feel
better. Another one was
that you had to pray to
God because people
thought God punished
you. Drinking treacle was
another cure but you could
only drink it if you were at
least 10. People thought
that living in sticky sewer


had the plague and you also had fleas
in your hair if a flea bit you, and then
goes on another person he would also
get it. The black death is very
contagious and deadly indeed.

How Was It
The terrible plague was
very contagious and
here are some of the
ways that it could get
spread. Bacteria was
very dangerous you
could get it so easily.
All the liquids we have
like sweat, tears, blood
and even urine, even
with poo you could get
it. Also there is a very
weird way. Say if you


More Facts
One third of the people who had the
plague died within 3 to 4 days! In
Europe 20 million people died but in
the world 500 million. The bubonic
plague was mostly found under the
armpit or thigh and people hid it and
the only time you could see it was at a
swimming pool, gymnasium or
changing room. The bubonic plague
started in central Asia and then spread
to mostly everywhere around the


Doctors and
By: Nalini
Imagine walking along a dirty street with
sick and dying people around you. The
smell is terrible and hygiene is non
existent. It is hard to find clean water for
washing and drinking which is why so
many people got sick. There wasn’t a lot
of medicine back in the Middle Ages.
Doctors in the Middle Ages didn’t know
much about medicine and they didn’t
have lots of equipment like we have in
today’s world so it was really hard
sometimes for the patients to heal. The
Catholic church was very powerful in
that period of time, they believed that
illnesses were punishments from God. In
this chapter you will learn more about
doctors and medicines in the Middle


Doctors and Hospitals
Doctors in the middle ages were usually priests, but using
potions and herbal medicine was considered witchcraft and
was forbidden by the church. Hospitals were in monasteries
most of the time but could be in other religious places.
Usually men and sometimes women were trained to be
doctors. Laws said that, ‘only trained people could use
Schools and universities started to teach rich people law and
medicine. Hygiene was not common in the middle ages,
however, because of that diseases were more common. One of
the reasons people got so many diseases is that there was no
sewage system what meant that there wasn’t any clean water
to drink, people threw the water from the toilet out the
window which was another reason so many people got



with good smells all the diseases would go
away. Peasants could only eat food grown by
themselves and lots of people died because
they didn’t have enough energy to fight off

Potions, Medicine,and
Bloodletters and wise
woman also tried to cure
illnesses with potions or
songs. The medicine had a
horrible taste and often
had things like blood or
animal droppings in them.
Back in the middle ages
people didn’t know how
diseases spread but
thought that people were
sick from bad breath and
terrible smell. Because of
that people started to think
that if they scented the air

Medicine in the middle ages wasn’t a very popular thing
but they did have some, however it isn’t like what we
have like today. The medicine was made out of all
different kinds of plants. These are some medicines in
the middle ages:
Lung problem-liquorice and comfrey
Stomach ache-mint,balm and wormwood
Headache-roses and lavender

Facts: for headaches they used roses, and lavender for
its sweet smell. For stomach aches they used mint or
balm. There weren’t any antibiotics in medieval times
and it was really hard to cure without them.



Imagine if you were sent on a
Crusade to capture Jerusalem a holy
city that Christians and Muslims
pray. You’ll need to free Jerusalem
from Saladin's army of Muslim. The
bad thing is the heavy armour, burns
in the heat, the horses get tired,
there is limited food, and people get
seasick from boat traveling Also it’s
cold in the winter and hot in the
summer, and there is lots of walking.
Being on a Crusade is hard. In
this chapter I will try to answer
some of your questions about the


Who Were The Crusaders?
What were the Crusades? They were holy wars against the Muslims who captured
the holy lands. The Pope wanted wars to stop destroying Europe so he sent armies
to fight the Muslims. Why did people listen to the Pope? The Pope promised the
people that they would go to Heaven and, greedy people wanted riches. How did
the crusaders get to Jerusalem? They couldn’t take a car or a plane so they used
horses and ships, it takes a long time so be thankful that you're not having to use a
ship or horse. What kind of weapons did they use? The crusaders used swords,
war horses, pikes [spears], lances [long poles], battle axes. How many Crusades
were there? There were five main Crusades and, they took place in Israel. Did
anyone survive the Crusades? Yes, lots of people survived but they were exhausted.
When did Crusades happen? When the Pope asks for one and there were more
other Crusades in Europe. Armies fought hard for land. Constantinople [Istanbul]
was taken sometimes by the Crusaders. Did the Crusades win Jerusalem? Nope,
the Crusaders took the holy lands then the Muslims drove the the last Crusaders
out of the holy lands [present day Israel] but the last Crusaders brought back
spices, foods, and inspired trade, which changed Europe forever. What kind of
people joined the Crusaders? Kings, Lords, Knights, and a army of Peasants led by
a hermit known as Peter the Hermit, but most of them did not make it to the holy
lands. What kinds of knights were in the Crusades? Templars who are rich but vow
to live in poverty, and there are Hospitallers that take care of the sick.



SWISH! In this section of the book
you will find out about the Hundred
Year War like the Battle of Crécy,
Battle of Poitiers, Treaty of
Brétigny, and also the Death of the
Black Prince. You may be
wondering who fought in this war.
Well it was between England and
France. The important people in the
war were Joan of Arc, King Edward
the III and the Black Prince. You
will also learn a lot more about
events, people, weapons, defenses
and areas where they fought.


Why did the Hundred Year War
In 1337 France provoked England. After he gets
provoked the king attacks his own land in France.
Then King Edward declares himself the King of
France, after that arguing that he can legally claim
the French throne. France and England argued for a
long time until the Hundred Year War started. For a
long time I mean from 1337 to 1360. Yup 23 years of
arguing that means about 77 more years of war or
maybe more.



year 1327, Also the son of
King Edward the II. These
are some things that
happened while King
Edward was alive. Battle of
Crècy, Battle of Poitiers and
Battle of La Rochelle. King
Edward first had a problem
with the Scotts. The King
won a glorious victory at the
battle of Crécy. Then King
Edward died in June/

Who was Alive While
the Hundred Year War
Joan of Arc
Now I am going to tell you about the
people who lived while the hundred
year war. Let’s talk about Joan of
Arc first. She was involved in the 100
years war but also in other things.
But first about Joan of Arc’s
nicknames, she is called The Maid of
Orléans and La Pucelle.During her
life Henry V of England invaded
France in 1415. Then 1418 Pairs was
taken by the Burgundians. Joan of
Arc died in May/30/1431.

Edward,The Black Prince
Even the Black Princes original name is Edward. He is born
on June/15/1330. Edward was sixteen when he went to the
battle of Crécy. In 1346 Edward won his greatest victory at
the Battle of Poitiers. After the Battle of Poitiers Edward
was at the Treaty of Brétigny. There was something called
the Edwardian war it ended right after the Great Raid.
Somewhere in between the Treaty of Brétigny and the Siege
of Limoges the Caroline war started. That war ended after a
while when Edward went back to England. He died on
June, 8, 1376. The Black Prince died from Infectious
Diarrhea. You might think why he is called the Black Prince
he is called that from the French because he wore black

King Edward the III
King Edward the III. He was born
on 13 November 1312. The French
provoked King Edward to say
specially for of England. King
Edward was crowned king in the

King Richard II
King Richard was
born on Jan, 6, 1367.
He was crowed in
the year 1377. His
parents are the Black
Prince and Joan of
Kent. King Richard
succeed his grandfather when he was only ten years old. But
in 1394 he leads the English army to reconquer the west part
of Ireland. Surprisingly he married Isabella daughter of the
French King and also signs a 28 year truce with France. He
died on Feb, 14, 1400. After he died Henry IV became king
of England.
Henry IV
He was born on April 4, 1366. King Henry was crowned
king Oct 13, 1399.
King Henry was crowned white king 1 year before King
Richard died. King Henry was the one who got King
Richard imprisoned, and King Richard is King Henry's
cousin so King Henry imprisoned his own cousin. King
Henry had 5 sons including Henry V he also had two
daughters. He died March 20, 1413.



The servant could hear screams coming
from the dungeon. He had seen one
common torture device called the rack
and he was still frightened from that one
experience.In the Middle Ages tortures
and punishments were VERY harsh. In
this chapter you will find out about all
kinds of gory punishments and tortures in
the Middle Ages. Including impaling,
which was when the victim has a wooden
pole stuck through their body vertically.
Vlad the Impaler (also known as
Dracula) did that to almost all of his
victims. You will find more info about this
nasty character later. Can you believe that
some punishments were even worse, most
would result in death.


One way of hanging is strappado. This was
used by the Spanish Inquisition. (S.I.) The
victim's arms would be tied behind their
back and they would then be suspended by
their wrists. This would dislocate the arms
because they would bend the wrong way
and the shoulder joints would pop.
The other way of hanging is squassation. In
this form of hanging the victim would be
hung by their wrists and they would have
more and more weights hung from them.

body. That would obviously
kill the victim, but it might
take a while and the victim
would be in agonizing pain.



This is what Vlad
the Impaler (also
known as
Dracula) did to
his victims and
enemies. A sharp
wooden pole
would be stuck
through the
middle of the

The Guillotine


The guillotine was a sharp blade that
would cut off the victim's head. A
string would be pulled and the blade
would fall and chop off the person's
head. One woman made a living by
making wax molds of people's faces
that were guillotined.



The Tub

The victim would be placed in a
wooden tub with their head sticking
out. Their face would be covered in
honey and milk. Flies would start to
feed on the person. Although the
person would be fed regularly, after a
few days maggots and worms would
find their way into their body and the
person would decay, ALIVE!




This was usually used on witches. The
person accused of being a witch would be
tied to a wooden pole and a fire would be
burned under them. The fire would then
burn them up. They would do this so that
the witch's soul would be burned also.
Joan of Arc was killed this way when
someone accused her of being a witch.



Cement Shoes
The victims feet would be placed inside cinder blocks.
Then they would pour wet cement inside the cinder
shoes. They would let the cement dry then throw the
victim (alive) into a deep body
of water. The cement and



The Head

This was used during the Middle Ages a lot. The
victims chin was placed on the bottom bar and the top
of the head under the cap. A handle would be turned
and the cap would slowly lower which would crush the
victims head and kill them.



The Saw

The victim would be hung upside down so
the blood would rush to their heads to
keep them awake. They would have a saw
cut through the middle of their body
vertically. The saw would cut through
their body until they were two halves.


Rat Torture


The victim would have a metal cage with
no bottom placed on their chest. Rats
would be inside the cage. They would heat
up the cage and the metal would
turn red from the heat. The rats
would dig into the victim's skin to
escape from the light and the heat.



The Rack
The victim was tied to a wooden board.
One rope at the top, and one rope at the
bottom. The person who is torturing the
victim will then turn a wheel round and
round which will then pull on the ropes
and dislocate the victims joints.


The Spanish Tickler
This torture device would simply tear
the victim's skin apart. It was an iron
staff with long and curved spikes on
the end. They wouldn't stab the
person though. They would scrape it
along their skin.




© Grade 4, AISB

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