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Contents
Present Tense
Past Tenses

2, 3
Imperfect (in the middle of/used to)

4

Preterit (said & done)

5-8

Continuous verb forms

9, 10

Future/Conditional

11, 12

Perfect Tenses

Present perfect

13

Past perfect (pluperfect)

14

Reflexive Verbs

15

Passive Voice

16

Subjunctive Mood

17-20

Commands (Imperative Mood)

21-23

Imperfect Subjunctive Mood

24-26

1

Present Tense
In order to conjugate a standard present tense verb, following the following steps:
1. Drop the -ar/-er/-ir from the infinitive (original) verb
2. Add the proper ending from the tables below:

Regular -AR verbs
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

-o
-as
-a
-amos
-áis
-an

Regular -ER,-IR verbs
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

-o
-es
-e
-emos, -imos
-éis, -ís
-en

Example: trabajar-to work
yo trabajo
tú trabajas
ella trabaja
nosotros trabajamos
vosotros trabajáis
ellos trabajan

I work
you work
she works
we work
you guys work
they work

Example: comer-to eat
yo como
tú comes
él come
nosotros comemos
vosotros coméis
ellas comen

I eat
you eat
he eats
we eat
you guys eat
they eat

2

Example: vivir-to live
yo vivo
tú vives
ud. vive
nosotros vivimos
vosotros vivís
uds viven

I live
you live
you (formal) live
we live
you guys live
they live

Common Irregulars in Present Tense
(irregularities shown in red)
tener-to have

ir-to go
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

voy
vas
va
vamos
vais
van

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

ser-to be (permanent)

pensar-to think

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

soy
eres
es
somos
sois
son

estar-to be (temporary)

decir-to say

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

estoy
estás
está
estamos
estáis
están

pienso
piensas
piensa
pensamos
pensáis
piensan

digo
dices
dice
decimos
decís
dicen

costar-to cost

saber-to know
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

tengo
tienes
tiene
tenemos
tenéis
tienen


sabes
sabe
sabemos
sabéis
saben

(it)
(they)

cuesta
cuestan

3

Past Tenses (preterit and imperfect)
Imperfect (In progress/used to/background information)
Use imperfect if you would say “used to” example: I used to work with him (yo
trabajaba con él).
Use imperfect if you are referring to something that is in the middle of an action,
uses the phrase “used to” or is background information. Example of in process:
While I was stud.ying... (mientras yo estud.iaba...). Example of used to: Bill used
to eat potatoes Bill (Bill comía papas). Example of background information: When
he was young, his parents would buy him everything (Cuando él era joven, sus
padres se lo compraban todo).
How to do it: Drop the last two letters of the infinitive and add the following
endings: so trabajar becomes trabaj and then -aba is added: trabajaba (I was
working). There are only three irregulars in this tense.
-ar verbs
yo
-aba

-abas
ella, él, ud.
-aba
nosotros
-ábamos
vosotros
-abáis
ellos, ellas, uds. -aban

-er, -ir verbs
-ía
-ías
-ía
-íamos
-íais
-ían

Imperfect irregulars:

yo

él,ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

ser-to be

ir-to go

ver-to see

era
eras
era
éramos
erais
eran

iba
ibas
iba
íbamos
ibais
iban

veía
veías
veía
veíamos
veíais
veían

4

Preterit (said & done)
Use preterit for all simple past tense (completed actions) such as: I went. He ate
pizza. We worked last night. Any time that the duration of the action is stated,
preterit will be used: I worked with him for fifty-two years.
How to do it: Drop the last two letters of the infinitive and add the following
endings: so trabajar becomes trabaj and then -é is added: trabajé (I worked) There
are many irregulars in this tense.

yo

ella, él, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

-ar verbs

-aste

-amos
-asteis
-aron

-er, -ir verbs

-iste
-ió
-imos
-isteis
-ieron

Consider the following examples that compare the two past tenses:
Imperfect:

Preterit:

comías-you were eating OR you used to eat
estudiaba- he was stud.ying OR he used to study
trabajábamos-we were working OR we used to work
pensaban-they were thinking OR they used to think

comiste- you ate
estudió-she studied
trabajamos-we worked
pensaron-they thought

5

Common Preterit Irregulars
(said & done past tense)

A. Three of them do their own thing:
dar-to give
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

di
diste
dio
dimos
disteis
dieron

ir-to go AND ser-to be
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

fui
fuiste
fue
fuimos
fuisteis
fueron

B. Others have a stem change and then use the following endings:
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

-e
-iste
-o
-imos
-isteis
-ieron

andar-to walk stem: anduv___

caber-to fit stem: cup___

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

anduve
anduviste
anduvo
anduvimos
anduvisteis
anduvieron

cupe
cupiste
cupo
cupimos
cupisteis
cupieron

6

decir-to say/tell stem: dij___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

dije
dijiste
dijo
dijimos
dijisteis
dijeron

querer-to want (to attempt) stem:
quis___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

quise
quisiste
quiso
quisimos
quisisteis
quisieron

estar-to be stem: estuv___
saber-to know (to find out) stem: sup___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

estuve
estuviste
estuvo
estuvimos
estuvisteis
estuvieron

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

supe
supiste
supo
supimos
supisteis
supieron

hacer- to do/make stem: hic___
tener-to have stem: tuv___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

hice
hiciste
hizo
hicimos
hicisteis
hicieron

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

tuve
tuviste
tuvo
tuvimos
tuvisteis
tuvieron

poder-to be able to (to manage to)
stem: pud___

traer-to bring stem: traj___

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

pude
pudiste
pudo
pudimos
pudisteis
pudieron

traje
trajiste
trajo
trajimos
trajisteis
trajeron

poner-to put stem: pus___

venir-to come stem: vin___

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

puse
pusiste
puso
pusimos
pusisteis
pusieron

vine
viniste
vino
vinimos
vinisteis
vinieron

7

C. A few others have minor stem changes in the third person positions only (él,
ella, ud. and ellos, ellas, uds.), but continue to use the regular preterit endings:
divertirse-to have fun 3rd person stem: divirt___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

me divertí
te divertiste
se divirtió
nos divertimos
os divertisteis
se divirtieron

dormir-to sleep 3rd person stem: dur___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

dormí
dormiste
durmió
dormimos
dormisteis
durmieron

morir-to die 3rd person stem: mur___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

morí
moriste
murió
morimos
moristeis
murieron

pedir-to request 3rd person stem: pid___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

pedí
pediste
pidió
pedimos
pedisteis
pidieron

seguir-to request 3rd person stem: sig___
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

seguí
seguiste
siguió
seguimos
seguisteis
siguieron

8

Continuous Verb Forms
Continuous verb forms are those that show that an action is taking place right now
in the present or right then in the past. In English (progressive) we do this in the
following manner:
I am speaking English.
I was speaking English.
Compare this to the regular present/past tenses:
I speak English.
I spoke English/I used to speak English.
In Spanish this is very easy to do:
1. Conjugate estar according to the subject and tense*:
present
past
yo

él/ella/ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

estoy
estás
está
estamos
estáis
están

estaba
estabas
estaba
estábamos
estabais
estaban

*although it is rare, estar can also be changed to other forms such as future or conditional before adding
the continuous form (step 2).
2. Change the action (-ing) verb in the following manner:
-ar verbs:
-er and -ir verbs:

drop the -ar and add -ando
drop the -er/-ir and add -iendo

trabajando
comiendo
viviendo
3. Combine the two:
estoy trabajando
estamos comiendo
estarán viviendo

I am working
We are eating
They will be living

Past tense can also be done using the imperfect alone (see page 4)
yo estaba hablando
or yo hablaba
I was speaking
tú estabas comiendo
or comías
you were eating
estábamos viviendo
or vivíamos
We were living

9

Pronouns can be placed at the end of the continuous form as in the following examples:
Estoy dándole dinero. I am giving her money.
Ella estaba contándomelo. She was telling it to me.
Estábamos sirviéndotela. We were serving it to you.
Estabais corriendo. You guys were running.

Make sure that you add an accent mark to the continuous verb form when a pronoun is included at the
end of the -ando or -iendo. The stress of the word must remain in its original place (see examples
above).

Pronouns may also be placed before the estar verb as in the following examples:
Le estoy dando dinero. I am giving her money.
Ella me lo estaba contando. She was telling it to me.
Te la estábamos sirviendo. We were serving it to you.

10

Future Tense
(future “will”)
Add the appropriate ending to the infinitive:
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.


-ás

-emos
-éis
-án

Example: comer-to eat
yo comeré
tú comerás
ella comerá
nosotros comeremos
vosotros comeréis
ellos comerán

I will eat
you will eat
she will eat
we will eat
you guys will eat
they will eat

Conditional Tense
(“would”-excluding background information which requires imperfect-see pg. 4)
Examples:
I would like to eat potatoes.
They said that they would come to my house.
If she were president, she would fix the economy.
Add the appropriate ending to the infinitive:
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

-ía
-ías
-ía
-íamos
-íais
-ían

Examples:
yo comería
tú comerías
él comería
nosotros comeríamos
vosotros comeríais
ellos comerían

I would eat
you would eat
he would eat
we would eat
you guys would eat
they would eat
11

Future and Conditional Irregulars
One very nice thing about these two tenses is that the irregular verbs are the same. Simply add the
endings (previous page) to the irregular stem to show either future or conditional.
verb
caber
decir
haber
hacer
poder
poner
querer
saber
salir
tener
valer
venir

stem
cabr___
dir___
habr___
har___
podr___
pondr___
querr___
sabr___
saldr___
tendr___
valdr___
vendr___

+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending
+ ending

Example: hacer-to do, to make
(Future)
yo haré
tú harás
ella hará
nosotros haremos
ellos harán

I will make
you will make
she will make
we will make
they will make

(Conditional)
yo haría
tú harías
ella haría
nosotros haríamos
ellos harían

I would make
you would make
she would make
we would make
they would make

12

Perfect Tenses
Present Perfect (I have worked / he has eaten / they have read)
Step 1: conjugate haber properly:
haber-to have (helping verb)
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

he (I have...)
has (you have...)
ha (he/she has or you formal have...)
hemos (we have...)
habéis (you guys have…)
han (they or you guys have...)

Step 2: add the participle
-ar verbs drop -ar add -ado
-er, -ir verbs drop -er,-ir add -ido

trabajado
comido

Examples:
yo he trabajado
tú has hablado
él ha comido
nosotros hemos aprendido
vosotros habéis corrido
ellas han vendido

I have worked
you have spoken
he has eaten
we have learned
you guys have run
they have sold

Irregular participles (don’t follow the -ado/-ido pattern)
abrir - abierto
cubrir - cubierto
decir - dicho
escribir - escrito
freír - frito
hacer - hecho
imprimir - impreso
morir - muerto
poner - puesto
proveer-provisto
resolver - resuelto
romper - roto
ver - visto
volver - vuelto

Example: yo he escrito

I have written
13

Past Perfect [pluperfect] (I had worked /she had eaten /you guys had read)
Step 1: conjugate haber properly:
haber-to have (helping verb)
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

había (I had...)
habías (you had...)
había (he/she/you formal had...)
habíamos (we had...)
habíais (you guys had…)
habían (they or you guys had...)

Step 2: add the participle (same as present perfect!)
-ar verbs drop -ar add -ado
-er, -ir verbs drop -er,-ir add -ido

trabajado
comido

This tense is identical to the present perfect except that the verb haber is conjugated into the
imperfect. The irregular participles are the same as present perfect (see previous page).
Examples:
yo había entendido
tú habías tenido
ella había ganado
nosotros habíamos vendido
vosotros habíais esperado
ellos habían muerto (irregular)

I had understood
you had had
she had won
we had sold
you guys had waited
they had died

Other Perfect tenses:
Use proper form of haber followed by the participle (-ado/-ido).
Examples:
Future habré ganado
Conditional habrías ganado
Subjunctive hayamos ganado
Imperfect Subjunctive hubieran ganado

I will have earned
you would have earned
(indicator) we have earned [see pages 17-20]
(indicator) they would have earned [see pages 24-26]

14

Reflexive Verbs
Reflexive verbs are verbs that, as I like to explain, “reflect” back on their subject. In
English we often do this by adding one of the following after a verb: myself, yourself,
herself, himself, itself, ourselves, themselves.
English Examples:
Reflexive

Non-reflexive

I hurt myself.
They burned themselves.
She helped herself.

He hurt me.
The sun burned them.
We helped her.

In Spanish reflexivity is shown using the following pronouns:
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

me
te
se
nos
os
se

Spanish Examples:
Reflexive

Non-reflexive

Me quemé. (I burned myself.)
Se mira en el espejo. (He looks at himself
in the mirror.)

La vela me quemó. (The candle burned me.)
La mira en clase. (He looks at her in class.)

Also in Spanish one must be careful to account for reflexives that are not so obvious in English:
Se cepilla los dientes. He brushes his teeth. (Reflexive-he brushes his own teeth.)
El dentista cepilla nuestros dientes. The dentist brushes our teeth. (Non-reflexive)
Se casó con un hombre rico. She married (herself off to) a rich man. (Reflexive)
El cura casó a la pareja. The priest married the couple. (Non-reflexive because the priest doesn’t
marry himself off to someone else in this sentence)
Se ahogó en el río. He drowned in the river. (Reflexive-he drowned himself-not necessarily suicide.)
Me ahogó en el río. He drowned me in the river. (Non-reflexive-he drowned another person-in this
case ME!! That’s murder!!!)

15

Passive Voice
Passive voice is where there is no specific subject present. Here are some examples in
English:
Spanish is spoken. (who speaks it?)
Smoking is prohibited. (who prohibits it?)
Bird is said “el pájaro” in Spanish. (who says it?)
The building was destroyed by an earthquake. (“by an earthquake” is a prepositional
phrase and therefore the subject remains unstated. Compare to active voice: An earthquake
destroyed the building)

Passives are formed much like reflexives (see previous page) only there is no yo, tú,
nosotros etc. form. There is only a third person singular or plural form.
Se habla español.
Se prohíbe fumar.
Se dice bird en inglés.
¿Cómo se dice...?
Se enviaron las cartas.
Se venden libros aquí.

Spanish is spoken.
Smoking is prohibited. or One prohibits smoking.
One says bird in English.
How does one say...?
The letters were sent.
Books are sold here.

Passives are also formed with a conjugated form of ser + participle form (-ado, -ido
from perfect tenses). Unlike the perfect tenses, the form must agree in number and
gender with the object (see the last example below). These are most commonly done
in the past tense:
El edificio fue destruído.
Yo fui encarcelado por dos días.
Las cartas fueron enviadas.

The building was destroyed.
I was jailed for two days.
The letters were sent.

16

Subjunctive Mood
The subjunctive tense is rarely used in English today and is often very difficult for English speakers
to master. The following will give you basic guidelines for subjunctive indicators and with sufficient
practice you will find that it is really not difficult. There are other uses for the subjunctive but they
are less common.
Bear in mind that the subjunctive mood is for present or future context only. For past or conditional
context, see imperfect subjunctive mood on pages 22-24. How to form the subjunctive:
1. Take the present tense yo form (pongo from poner for example) and drop the o.
2. Add the following on the new stem: (the example would be ponga)
-ar verbs
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros*
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

-er, -ir verbs

-e
-es
-e
-emos
-éis
-en

-a
-as
-a
-amos
-áis
-an

* In verbs whose yo form reflects a stem change from e to ie such as pensar, the nosotros form
should maintain the original e: yo form of pensar: pienso- but subjunctive we form: pensemos.
The same situation applies to verbs whose yo form reflects a stem change from o to ue such as poder.
In this case maintain the o: yo form of poder: puedo- but subjunctive we form: podamos.

When do you use it?
Always after the following:
para que-so that
Iré para que no se queje mi madre. I’ll go so that my mom doesn’t complain.
a fin de que-so that Trabajo a fin de que mi familia pueda comer. I work so that my family can eat.
a menos que-unless No como a menos que tenga hambre.
I don’t eat unless I am hungry.
con tal que-provided that Comeré con tal que traigas comida. I will eat provided that you bring food.
sin que-without (that) Comerermos sin que ella venga.
We will eat without her coming.
(without that she comes)

After the following when a specific action still is in the future:
cuando
después (de) que
antes (de) que
en cuanto que
hasta que

Hablaremos cuando vengas.
Hablaremos después que vengas.
Hablaremos antes que vengas.
Hablaremos en cuanto que vengas.
Hablaremos hasta que vengan.

We will speak when you come.
We will speak after you come.
We will speak before you come.
We will speak as soon you come.
We will speak until they come.

17

In conjunction with verbs that show doubt, need or preference:
querer que
preferir que
necesitar que
esperar que
dudar que
ojalá que

Quiero que hable.
Preferimos que hable.
Necesitan que yo hable.
Esperamos que hablen.
Dudo que hable bien.
Ojalá que hable conmigo.

I want that he speak. (I want him to speak).
We prefer that he speak. (We want him to speak).
They need that I speak. (They need me to speak).
We hope that they (will) speak.
I doubt that she speaks well.
Hopefully he will speak with me.

In the following types of constructions that have no specific subject:
es posible que
es probable que
es mejor que
es increíble que
es razonable que
es preciso que
es necesario que
es una tragedia que
Etcetera

Es posible que coman.
Es probable que él trabaje.
Es mejor que vivamos aquí.
Es increíble que no entiendas.
Es razonable que yo necesite dos.
Es preciso que aprenda todo.
Es necesario que diga adiós.
Es una tragedia que no lea.

It is possible that they eat.
It is probable that he work.
It is better that we live here.
It is incredible that you don’t understand.
It is reasonable that I need two.
It is necessary that she learn it all.
It is necessary that she say goodbye.
It is a tragedy that he doesn’t read.

But the following do not require subjunctive because they show certainty:
es cierto que
es seguro que

Es cierto que vivimos aquí.
Es seguro que hablamos inglés.

It is true that we live here.
It is sure/certain that we speak
English.

When giving orders or showing expectation etc.:
mandar que-to command that
esperar que-to expect that
ordenar que-to command that
pedir que-to request/ask that

Os mando que vayáis. I command you all to go (that you go.)
Esperamos que coman.
We expect that they eat.
Ella te ordena que trabajes. She orders you to work.
Le he pedido que te escriba. I have asked her to write to you.

With negative sentences that would be indicative if positive:
no creer que-to not believe that
no pensar que-to not think that
Etcetera.

No creo que pueda venir.
I don’t believe that he can come.
No pienso que quiera venir. I don’t think that he wants to come.

With statements of emotion:
sorpender que
qué bien que
qué triste que

Me sorprende que tengas tanto dinero. It surprises me that you have so much $
Qué bien que haya venido hoy.
It is well (good) that he has come today.
Qué triste que no haya podido acompañarte. How sad that he hasn’t been able
to accompany you.
18

Depending on the degree of certainty/uncertainty**, you may use subjunctive
after the following:
quizás
Quizás él tenga trece años.
OR
tal vez
Tal vez tú juegues mejor que yo.
OR
aunque (meaning “even if”) is always subjunctive
aunque (meaning “although”) is never subjunctive

Quizás él tiene trece años.
Tal vez tu juegas mejor que yo.
Aunque venga, no lo invitaré.
Aunque viene, no lo invité.

**Note: when determining certainty/uncertainty keep in mind that all events that are still in the
future must be uncertain and would therefore require subjunctive.

When describing something that is being sought or needed (always follows que) or
when describing something that is unknown:
Estoy buscando un persona que tenga trece años. BUT Tengo una hermana que tiene trece años.
Necesito un sándwich que cueste menos de $1.00. BUT Este sándwich cuesta menos de $1.00.
¿Hay una persona aquí que hable español?
BUT Hay dos personas aquí que hablan español.

With "narrated commands" (often with past context using imperfect subjunctive)
Está diciendo que te vayas. He is telling you to leave.
¡Qué tengas un buen día! Have a nice day! ([I hope] that you have a nice day)

When emphasizing something (to make it appear extreme)
¡Es la mejor sopa que yo haya probado! It is the best soup that I have ever had!
El Diablo es el carro más rápido que haya visto la autopista. The Diablo is the fastest car the
freeway has ever seen.

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Subjunctive Irregulars*:
dar-to give
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.


des

demos
deis
den

estar-to be
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

esté
estés
esté
estemos
estéis
estén

haber-to have (aux), there is/are
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

haya
hayas
haya
hayamos
hayáis
hayan

ir-to go
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

vaya
vayas
vaya
vayamos
vayáis
vayan

saber-to know
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

sepa
sepas
sepa
sepamos
sepáis
sepan

ser-to be (permanent)
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

sea
seas
sea
seamos
seáis
sean

* Note that all irregular verbs have
odd “yo” forms that do not allow the
rule (stated on page 16) for formation of
the subjunctive mood. That is, the “yo”
forms do not end in -o in present tense:
dar-doy
estar-estoy
haber-he
ir-voy
saber-sé
ser-soy

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Commands (Imperative mood)
+ POSITIVE commands:
tú form: simply use the third person (he/she etc.) present (see page 2):
¡Come!
¡Trabaja!

(you) Eat!
(you) Work!

vosotros form: simply drop the final -r and add a -d:
¡Hablad!
¡Escribid!

(you guys) Speak!
(you guys) Write!

All other forms: use the subjunctive form (see pages 15, 17) that coincides with the entities being
commanded:
¡Venga!
¡Comamos!
¡Hablen!

(you formal) Come!
Let’s eat!
(you guys) Talk!

With all positive forms, additional pronouns are added on to the end of the command:
¡Cómelo!
¡Dígalo!
¡Dígaselo!
¡Dénselas!
¡Mírenla!
¡Preparadlo!

(you) Eat it!
(you formal) Say it!
(you formal) Say it to him!
(you guys) Give them (feminine items) to her!
(you guys) Look at her!
(you guys-vosotros) Prepare it!

nosotros commands:
For nosotros commands (let’s stud.y, let’s work etc.) you may use the subjunctive form (see above) or
you may simply use vamos a (+ unconjugated verb). This form is more common is colloquial
speech.
¡Vamos a comer!
¡Vamos a estudiar!
¡Vamos a estudiarlo!

Let’s eat!
Let’s buy!
Let’s study it!

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- NEGATIVE commands:
All forms: use present subjunctive form that coincides with the entity being
commanded after the word “no”.
¡No comas!
(you) Don’t eat!
¡No trabajemos/No vamos a trabajar! Let’s not work!
¡No mire!
(you-usted) Don’t look!
¡No gritéis!
(you guys-vosotros) Don’t shout!
¡No hagan eso!
(you guys) Don’t do that!
With all negative forms, additional pronouns are NOT added to the verb. Place them before the
command in the traditional order: indirect object THEN object THEN verb.
¡No lo comas!
¡No se lo digas!
¡No me la den!
¡No los guardemos!
¡No les habléis!

(you) Don’t eat it!
(you) Don’t tell it to her!
(you guys) Don’t give it (feminine item) to me!
Let’s not keep them!
(you guys-vosotros) Don’t talk to them!

Irregulars for Commands
All these irregulars are only related to the positive tú form commands. Instead of using the third
person present for these verbs, you will need to use the alternative. Again, you will need to add
pronouns to the end of the form because it is positive.

poner use pon
tener use ten
salir use sal
venir use ven
ser
use sé
ir
use ve
decir use di
hacer use haz

¡Ponlo aquí!
¡Ten tres galletas!
¡Sal cuanto antes!
¡Ven acá!
¡Sé un hombre!
¡Ve al supermercado!
¡Dilo claramente!
¡Hazme sonreír!

(you) Put it here!
(you) Have three cookies!
(you) Leave as soon as possible!
(you) Come here!
(you) Be a man!
(you) Go to the supermarket!
(you) Say it clearly!
(you) Make me smile!

The only others would be verbs that have different stems hooked onto these verbs such as:
proponer use propón
suponer use supón
retener use retén

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Positive Reflexive nosotros Commands:
When using a positive reflexive nosotros command you have two options:
Option 1: Use vamos a ... with the nos pronoun attached to the end of the unconjugated verb
¡Vamos a sentarnos!
¡Vamos a peinarnos!

Let’s sit down!
Let’s comb (our hair)!

Option 2: Use the subjunctive form and then remove the final “s” before adding the nos pronoun.
Vamos + nos = Vámonos
Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos

Let’s leave!
Let’s sit down!

The only common use of this type of reflexive command in today’s spoken language is vámonos. I
would recommend that you use Option 1 for all other reflexive nosotros commands.

Positive Reflexive vosotros Commands:
When using a positive reflexive vosotros command you must drop the final -d before adding the
reflexive -os.
1. form the vosotros command:
2. drop the final -d
3. add the reflexive -os

preparad
prepara
¡preparaos! (prepare yourselves!)

The only exception to this is the verb irse which must retain the final -d thus:
¡idos! (you guys leave!)

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Imperfect Subjunctive Mood
How to form it:
1) Take the preterit ellos, ellas, uds. form of the verb (see pages 6-8): pudieron,
trabajaron, etc.
2) Drop the -on.
3) Add the following:
-ar, -er, -ir
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

-a
-as
-a
-amos
-ais
-an

Examples:
poder-to be able to
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

pudiera
pudieras
pudiera
pudiéramos
pudierais
pudieran

hablar-to speak
yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
vosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

hablara
hablaras
hablara
habláramos
hablarais
hablaran

The imperfect subjunctive is used in ALL of the same situations as the subjunctive
with some additional uses. The difference is that the context is in the past or
conditional tenses instead of the present or future. Notice the difference between
the following examples:
Imperfect subjunctive
Quería que tuvieras buena suerte.
Me gustaría que vinieras.
Sabía que mi padre estaría enojado cuando volviera.

Subjunctive
Quiere que tengas buena suerte.
Me gusta que vengas.
Sé que mi padre estará enojado cuando
vuelva.

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ADDITIONAL USES:
A. Use the imperfect subjunctive in hypothetical if/then clauses along with
conditional. Use the imperfect subjunctive after the if and the conditional for the
then.
Si yo fuera presidente, compraría un avión.
Si pudieras ver, sabrías que estoy aquí.
Les gustaría ir, si tuvieran tiempo.
Si tuvieras un millón de dólares, ¿qué harías?

If I were president, (then) I would buy a plane.
If you could only see, you’d know that I’m here.
They would like to go, if only they had time.
If you had a million dollars, what would you do?

B. Always use after the following even if the context is the present tense:
Como si-as if
Ojalá-when used with the meaning “if only” (do not put a que after ojalá-compare to ojalá que in
subjunctive mood on pg. 17)
El hombre habla como si supiera todo.
Mi hermano come como si su vida se acabara.
Trabajaban como si nesecitaran dinero.
Ojalá estuvieras aquí conmigo.
Ojalá tuviéramos tanta suerte.

The man speaks as if he knows everything.
My brother eats as if his life were ending.
They were working as if they needed money.
If only you were here with me.
If only we had so much luck.

C. Use the imperfect subjunctive to show politeness or emphasis with querer,
poder:
Yo quisiera tener otro carro.
¿Pudiera pasarme la pimienta?

I would really like to have another car.
Could you (formal) pass me the pepper?

-SE variant
In some regions and in older texts the final -ra may be replaced with an -se. The meanings are
exactly the same. There is really no need to learn to speak the variant, but it is helpful to recognize it
when reading.
comer-to eat

yo

él, ella, ud.
nosotros
ellos, ellas, uds.

Standard
comiera
comieras
comiera
comiéramos
comieran

hablar-to speak
Variant
comiese
comieses
comiese
comiésemos
comiesen

Standard
hablara
hablaras
hablara
habláramos
hablaran

Variant
hablase
hablases
hablase
hablásemos
hablasen

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There are NO irregulars in the imperfect subjunctive. Here is a sample of a few
“regulars” that are somewhat harder to recognize. If you have learned your
preterit irregulars, these will not be much of an issue. Learn to recognize and
ultimately use the following:
anduviera - andar

El hombre dobló como si anduviera a la biblioteca.

cupiera - caber

Compramos un carro más grande para que todos cuperian.

diera - dar

El ladrón nos mandó que le diéramos nuestro dinero.

dijera - decir

Sería bueno que dijera la verdad.

estuviera - estar

yo fui para que ellas estuvieran contentas.

fuera - ir AND ser

Era necesario que fueran al supermercado.

hubiera - haber

Si me hubieran prestado el carro, yo habría llegado a tiempo.

hiciera - hacer

Si tú hicieras más de estas lecciones, aprenderíamos más.

pudiera - poder

Trabajó para que pudiéramos comprar un carro nuevo.

pusiera - poner

Era preferible que ellos pusieran sus abrigos en la cocina.

quisiera - querer

ella no necesitaba venir a menos que vosotros quisierais.

supiera - saber

él hablaba como si supiera todo.

tuviera - tener

Le pedimos que tuviera paciencia.

trajera - traer

Le dije que trajera sus juguetes.

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