9 views

Uploaded by api-233132806

save

- Chapter 3-thermodynamics final.doc
- Thermo 2
- CHY 111 Thermo Lecture 1
- Avaliação Da Inércia Térmica de Sistemas Construtivos Convencionais e Um Alternativo
- Chapter 3-Thermodynamics Final
- Engl Medical Chem 1 Med M-2 Tests
- Thermodynamics 1
- Thermo 12
- OBE TTP_FTE
- week1
- Notes
- Thermodynamics MCQ 1800 MCQ with Answers
- Principles of Thermodynamic Modeling of Igneous Processes
- thermodynamics
- lec3.pdf
- October
- Me 51 – Thermal Engineering
- Ergofocus Handbook v10 En
- 1-IES-ME-2011-OBJ-Paper-I.pdf
- n867
- IA Keep the Heat Answers
- Http://Newton.ex.Ac.uk/Cgi-bin/Htsearch? Words=Thermal+Energy&Config=Htdig&Submit=Search Http://Science.pppst.com/Thermo.html Heat and Temperature • • Heat Is
- air temp from smartphone
- Heat Transfer
- Celotex Handy Guide
- The Dynamic Temperature Field of Two Stage UCG
- mech
- CHAPTER 4 Heat and Energy 2017
- Hvac Calculation
- sm5-062
- scan0002
- 5 2 b a sr automobloxt9dimdwgs
- scan0001
- 1 3 3 a thermodynamics
- 4 1 p puzzledesignchallenge
- scan0003
- candy dispenser design brief
- 1 2 a instantchallengeaero
- 1 1 a instantchallengecablecar-1 doc
- 2 3 a glassbox
- 1 9 a designinnovation
- 1 6 a discoverengineering-1

You are on page 1of 32

Principles Of Engineering

© 2012 Project Lead The Way, Inc.

Thermodynamics

Rub your hands together for 15 seconds.

Are your hands warm?

Thermal energy

Thermodynamics

The study of the effects of work, heat

flow, and energy on a system

Movement of thermal energy

Engineers use thermodynamics in

systems ranging from nuclear power

plants to electrical components.

SURROUNDINGS

SYSTEM

BOUNDARY

**Thermal Energy versus Temperature
**

Thermal Energy is kinetic energy in transit from

one object to another due to temperature

difference. (Joules)

Temperature is the average kinetic energy of

particles in an object – not the total amount of

kinetic energy particles. (Degrees)

Temperature #1

Temperature #2

Heat

Temperature Scales

Scale

Freezing

Boiling point

point of water

of water

Celsius

0°C

100°C

Fahrenheit

Kelvin

32°F

273K

212°F

373K

Matter is made up of molecules in motion

(kinetic energy)

**An increase in temperature increases motion
**

A decrease in temperature decreases motion

Absolute Zero occurs when all kinetic energy is

removed from a object 0 K = -273° C

Thermodynamic Equilibrium

Thermal equilibrium is obtained when touching

objects within a system reach the same

temperature.

When thermal equilibrium is reached, the system

loses its ability to do work.

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics: If two systems

are separately found to be in thermal equilibrium

with a third system, the first two systems are in

thermal equilibrium with each other.

Object #1

(Thermometer)

Object #1

Object #2

Object #2

Object #3

**Thermal Energy (heat) Transfer
**

The transfer or movement of thermal energy

Most common types of transfer

–Convection

–Conduction

–Radiation

100% efficiency is unattainable

ALL processes are irreversible

**1st Law of Thermodynamics
**

Law of energy conservation applied to a

thermal system

– Thermal energy can change form and location, but

it cannot be created or destroyed.

– Thermal energy can be increased within a system

by adding thermal energy (heat) or by performing

work in a system.

**1st Law of Thermodynamics
**

Example: Using a bicycle pump

Pumping the handle results in what?

– Applying mechanical energy into the

system

– Mechanical energy is converted into

thermal energy through friction (the pump

becomes hot)

**The total increase in internal energy of
**

the system is equal to what?

– The applied mechanical energy

©iStockphoto.com

**2nd Law of Thermodynamics
**

Thermal energy flows from hot to cold

©iStockphoto.com

©iStockphoto.com

**When you touch a frozen
**

pizza with your hand,

thermal energy flows in

what direction?

Hand → Pizza

When you touch a cooked

pizza with your hand,

thermal energy flows in

what direction?

Pizza → Hand

**2nd Law of Thermodynamics
**

Entropy is the measure of how evenly

distributed heat is within a system.

- A system tends to go from order to disorder

Order

Disorder

**Firewood has low entropy (molecules in order) when stacked
**

and high entropy when burning (molecules in disorder).

The total amount of energy in the world does not change, but

the availability of that energy constantly decreases.

**Thermal Energy Transfer
**

Convection

The transfer of thermal energy by movement

of fluid (liquid or gas)

When fluid is heated, it expands, becomes

less dense, and rises.

Boiler heating systems

circulate heat

throughout a home

without pumps through

the use of convection.

**Thermal Energy Transfer
**

Conduction

The transfer of thermal energy within an

object or between objects from molecule to

molecule

A metal spoon placed in a hot

cup of soup will feel warm to

your hand. The heat from the

soup is conducted through the

spoon.

©iStockphoto.com

Thermal Energy Transfer Equations

Q = m cΔT

Q = energy transfer (Joules)

m = mass of the material (kilograms)

c =specific heat capacity of the material (J/kgoC )

ΔT = change in temperature

**Thermal Energy Transfer Equations
**

Q

P=

Δt

k AΔT

P=

L

**P = rate of energy transfer (Watts)
**

Q = energy transfer (Joules)

Δt = change in time (seconds)

k = thermal conductivity

A = area of thermal conductivity

L = thickness of material

ΔT = difference in temperature

P L

k=

AΔT

**Calculating Energy Transfer
**

Calculate the energy transferred when a

block of aluminum at 80.0°C is placed in

1.00 liter (1kg) of water at 25.0°C if the final

temperature becomes 30.0°C.

Q

**Step 1. List all known values
**

Mass of water = mwater = 1 kg

Specific heat capacity of water = cw= 4184

J

kg ×o C

**change in temperature = ΔTwater = 30.0°C – 25.0°C = 5.0°C
**

cAl =

900.

J

kg ×o C

change in temperature = ΔTAl = 80.0°C – 30.0°C = 50.0°C

**Calculating Energy Transfer
**

Step 2. List all unknown values

Q = energy transferred

mAl = mass of the Al block

Step 3. Select equations to solve unknown values

Q = m c ΔT

Q Al = Q water

Step 4. Solve for Qwater

Q water

J

o

= (1.00kg) • 4184

5.0 C = 21, 000 J gained

o

kg × C

**Calculating Energy Transfer
**

Step 5. Solve for mAl

Q Al (lost) = Q water (gained) = 20,920 J

Q Al = m Al c Al ΔT

Q Al

20,920J

m Al =

=

c Al ΔT 900. J 50.0o C

kg oC

m Al = 0.46 kg = 460g

**Calculating Energy Transfer
**

Calculate the energy transfer in a wall

section measuring 2m by 1m by 0.04m thick

J

with a thermal conductivity of 0.10 s× m ×°C .

Opposing sides of the wall section have a

temperature of 10°C and 5°C after one hour.

Step 1. List all known values

Area of thermal conductivity = A = 2m * 1m = 2m2

Thermal conductivity = k =0.10

J

s× m×o C

**Thickness of material = L = 0.04m
**

Difference in temperature = ΔT = 10°C - 5°C = 5°C

Change in time =

Δt = 1 hour = 3600s

Q

**Calculating Energy Transfer
**

Step 2. List all unknown values

P = Rate of energy transfer

Q = Energy transfer

Step 3. Select equations to solve unknown values

Q

P=

Δt

kA T

P=

L

Step 4. Solve in terms of Q

Q = PΔt

Step 5. Combine equations

kAΔT

Q=(

)Δt

L

**Calculating Energy Transfer
**

Step 6. Apply known values

kAΔT

Q =Δt

L

0.10 smJ C 2m 2

5 C

Q=

3600s

0.04m

Q = 90,000J

U-Value

Coefficient of Heat Conductivity

The measure of a material’s ability to

conduct heat

P

U=

AΔT

W

Metric system

m 2 °C

Btu

U.S. customary system ft 2 hr °F

R-Value

Thermal Resistance of a Material

The measure of a material’s ability to resist

heat

The higher the R-value, the higher the

resistance

1

R=

U

P

U=

AΔT

Bulk R-value =

R-value Object 1 + R-value Object 2 + … = Total R-Value

Calculating R-Value

Determine the R-value of the wall cavity below

Fiberglass batt

(R=19)

5/8 in. drywall

(R=0.56)

**1 in. foil-faced polyisocyanurate
**

(R=7.20)

1 in. air space

(R=0.17)

Brick 2 ¼ x 3 ½ x 8

(R=0.8)

**What is the R-value
**

at a stud location?

Wall cavity R-value

0.56

+19.00

+ 7.20

+ 0.17

+ 0.8

= 27.7

0.56

+ 6.88

+ 7.20

+ 0.17

+ 0.8

=15.6

2x6 construction

(2x6 R=6.88)

**Thermal Energy Transfer
**

Radiation

The process by which energy is transmitted

through a medium, including empty space, as

electromagnetic waves

Stefan’s Law

All objects lose and gain

thermal energy by

electromagnetic radiation.

©iStockphoto.com

4

4

1

Pnet =σAe(T 2 - T )

P =radiated energy transfer

W

σ =Stefan's constant =5.6696x10

m2 ×K 4

A =area

-8

**Electromagnetic waves transfer
**

to food and other matter

e emissivity constant

T temperature in Kelvin

**Thermal Energy Transfer
**

Prior to dressing for school, a student watches the morning

weather to decide what clothes to wear. The bedroom is 65ºF

and the student’s skin is 91.4ºF. Determine the net energy

transfer from the student’s body during the 15.0 minutes spent

watching the morning weather. Note: Skin emissivity is 0.90,

and the surface area of the student is 1.30m 2.

Step 1. List all known values

2

Area =A=1.30m

Emissivity constant =e=0.90

Stefan’s constant

= σ = 5.6696•10-8

W

m2 ×K4

©iStockphoto.com

Bedroom temperature =T1=65°F

**Skin temperature =T =91.4°F
**

2

Change in time = t = 15.0 minutes = 900.s

**Thermal Energy Transfer
**

Step 2. List all unknown values

P = Rate of energy transfer

Q = Energy transfer

©iStockphoto.com

Step 3. Select equations to solve unknown values

Pnet =σAe(T 2 4- T 14)

Q = PΔt

4

4

Step 4. Apply known values to Pnet =σAe( T2 - T1 )

4

4

1

Solve for( T2 - T )

**91.4°F =306.15K
**

65°F =291.48K

Thermal Energy Transfer

4

4

Step 4 (continued). Apply known values to Pnet =σAe T 2 - T 1

Step 5. Combine equations and solve

Q = PΔt

Q =103.92W 900.s

Q =93,500J

©iStockphoto.com

**93,500J of energy are
**

transferred from the

student’s body during

the 15 minutes spent

watching the morning

weather.

Applications of Thermal Energy

http://www.nrel.gov

Examples of Solar Energy

All images were obtained from the following URL: http://www1.eere.energy.gov

Geothermal Energy

Energy generated from the thermal energy

stored beneath the Earth’s surface

Also refers to the heat that is collected from

the atmosphere; for instance, near the oceans

Resources

Energy Information Association. (n.d.). Energy kid’s page. Retrieved

March 23, 2008, from http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts

McGraw-Hill dictionary of engineering. (2nd ed.). New York, NY:

McGraw-Hill.

NASA. (2008). Glenn research center. Retrieved March 23, 2008

from http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/home/index.html

National Renewable Energy Laboratory. (2007). TroughNet.

Retrieved March 23, 2008, from http://www.nrel.gov/csp/troughnet

U.S. Department of Energy. (2008). Solar energy technologies

program. Retrieved March 23, 2008, from

http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar

- Chapter 3-thermodynamics final.docUploaded bygsudhanta1604
- Thermo 2Uploaded bycarlo manabat
- CHY 111 Thermo Lecture 1Uploaded byNagarajan Rathnakumar
- Avaliação Da Inércia Térmica de Sistemas Construtivos Convencionais e Um AlternativoUploaded bySérgio Gnipper
- Chapter 3-Thermodynamics FinalUploaded bySwapnil Rahane
- Engl Medical Chem 1 Med M-2 TestsUploaded byCharles David Cabigon
- Thermodynamics 1Uploaded byOrley Fadriquel
- Thermo 12Uploaded byJess Ryan Olayon
- OBE TTP_FTEUploaded byAnonymous mqIqN5z
- week1Uploaded byUthaya Kumar Rajendran
- NotesUploaded byManu K Vasudevan
- Thermodynamics MCQ 1800 MCQ with AnswersUploaded byswai singh
- Principles of Thermodynamic Modeling of Igneous ProcessesUploaded byGao Yuya
- thermodynamicsUploaded byKapilesh_Chasw_8226
- lec3.pdfUploaded byShahriar Alam Akash
- OctoberUploaded byOxymoronic Blasphemy
- Me 51 – Thermal EngineeringUploaded bysruthy
- Ergofocus Handbook v10 EnUploaded byaakarmans
- 1-IES-ME-2011-OBJ-Paper-I.pdfUploaded byHimanshuMeshram
- n867Uploaded byAnaSiPutriSulung
- IA Keep the Heat AnswersUploaded bySheena Levita de Leon
- Http://Newton.ex.Ac.uk/Cgi-bin/Htsearch? Words=Thermal+Energy&Config=Htdig&Submit=Search Http://Science.pppst.com/Thermo.html Heat and Temperature • • Heat IsUploaded byfhiel
- air temp from smartphoneUploaded byRaunakRajGupta
- Heat TransferUploaded byrui ann
- Celotex Handy GuideUploaded byMelissa Graham
- The Dynamic Temperature Field of Two Stage UCGUploaded byMuhammad Ahad Rahman Miah
- mechUploaded byDipendu Chanda
- CHAPTER 4 Heat and Energy 2017Uploaded byPikachu Alsaleh
- Hvac CalculationUploaded byBatak Ranau
- sm5-062Uploaded bySadie Hnatow

- scan0002Uploaded byapi-233132806
- 5 2 b a sr automobloxt9dimdwgsUploaded byapi-233132806
- scan0001Uploaded byapi-233132806
- 1 3 3 a thermodynamicsUploaded byapi-233132806
- 4 1 p puzzledesignchallengeUploaded byapi-233132806
- scan0003Uploaded byapi-233132806
- candy dispenser design briefUploaded byapi-233132806
- 1 2 a instantchallengeaeroUploaded byapi-233132806
- 1 1 a instantchallengecablecar-1 docUploaded byapi-233132806
- 2 3 a glassboxUploaded byapi-233132806
- 1 9 a designinnovationUploaded byapi-233132806
- 1 6 a discoverengineering-1Uploaded byapi-233132806