You are on page 1of 1

v

Seen in:
a) Hemorrhage
b) Diarrhea
c) Vomiting
d) Isotonic urine


Seen in:
Infusion of Isotonic
fluid/Normal
saline/Physiologic saline
(0.90%)

Normal Na+
High Hct

Normal Na+

Low Hct

Seen in:
a) Sweat (loss in desert)
b) Fever
c) Alcohol (Nephrogenic
DI)
d) Diabetes Insipidus
(blocked ADH)
e) Hypotonic urine



Seen in:
a) Infusion of Hypotonic 
saline/Half Normal
Saline(0.3% or D5W) 
b) Water Intoxication

(Tap or distilled
water)
c) Primary Polydypsia
d) SIADH

High Na+
(Hypernatremia)
Normal Hct
(low ECF/ICF)
Low ADH

Low Na+
(Hyponatremia)
Normal Hct
(High ECF/ICF)
High ADH

Seen in:
d) Adrenal Insufficiency
e) Aldosterone/Mineralocorticoid deficiency


Low Na+ (Hyponatremia)
High Hct
Low Aldosterone

Seen in:
a) Salt tablet ingestion (Chips eating)
b) Aldosterone/Mineralocorticoid Excess
c) Hypertonic Saline (7%)


High Na+ (Hypernatremia)
Low Hct
High Aldosterone