You are on page 1of 11

Universitatea Tehnic Gheorghe Asachi Iai

Facultatea Construcii de Maini i Management Industrial


Specializarea Ingineria Sudurii

Referat la disciplina
Tehnologia Construciilor de Maini

Litography

Stundent: Iftemie Ovidiu Alexandru


Grupa: 4403
Anul de studii: IV
Anul universitar: 2014/2015

Litografia
Istoric

Litografie Mobilirio
"Hogar"
Litografia s-a dezvoltat n Germania prin dramaturgul Alois Senefelder (1771-1834), ce folosea
piatra de calcar pentru a transfera imagini pe hrtie. Litografia a fost folosit iniial n procesul de
printare comercial, n special pentru duplicarea actelor i pentru carile ilustrate.
Artitii au realizat c aceasta este o modalitate de excelen pentru a crea mai multe imagini
identice. Artiti precum Delacroix si Goya, printre multi alii, au excelat n aceasta tehnic. Mai trziu,
pictori precum Picasso, Miro i Chagall au mbriat litografia ncadrnd-o perfect n artele fine.
Defini
Definiie
Cuvntul litografie provine din greac, unde se traduce a scrie sau a desena pe piatra.
Litografia este un mediu planografic, n care imaginea i non-imaginea se regsesc pe aceeai
suprafa, fr a fi separate fizic.
n alte tehnici de gravur, precum intaglio (gravur chimic), imaginea este fie gravat fie
corodat de ctre un acid pe placa metalic. n cazul gravurii n relief (xilogravura sau linogravura),
non-imaginea (suprafaa neimprimat) este ndepartat. n litografie, separarea dintre imagine i

non-imagine este obinut n majoritate datorit principiului incompatibilitii dintre ulei i ap, ce
formeaz mpreun o reacie chimic, n momentul n care o soluie numit agent de corodare i
care se aplic pe piatra.
Piatra de litografie
Principiul litografiei, care are la baza idea repulsiei mutuale dintre ulei i ap si necesit o
suprafa adecvat, poroas, ce va absorbi uor apa i grsimea. Aceast proprietate se ntlnete n
cazul pietrei de calcar, ce este compus 96% din carbonat de calciu i este ndeajuns de fin ct s fie
desenat i imprimat.

Cu toate c majoritatea pietrelor pentru litografie provin din aceeai surs, este esenial c
piatra s fie bine verificat nainte de a se ncepe lucrarea, ntrucat calitatea acesteia poate varia, n
funcie de duritate, mrime i mai ales de fosilele sau venele minerale pe care le poate cuprinde.

Culoarea pietrei pentru litografie depinde de


coninutul

mineral,

densitate

duritate,

influennd tipul de imagini ce pot fi imprimate pe


aceste pietre. Pietrele de culoare alb sunt cel mai
puin indicate, ntruct tind s produc imagini
nefinisate i nu rspund bine la procesul de
imprimare.

n ciuda densitii sporite, pietrele gri nchis i


albastre sunt adesea prea nchise la culoare pentru
majoritatea tipurilor de desen, dar sunt ideale
pentru gravur.

Pietrele pentru litografie, de culoare galben,

Grunduirea pietrei pentru litografie

probabil cel mai frecvent folosite, tind s fie mai moi. Datorit densitii mai mici, ele vor permite
uleiului s ptrund mult mai bine n masa acestora i sunt recomandate pentru desenul n creion.
Totodat,

unele

pietre

galbene

vor

permite

obinerea

unor

lavisuri

reticulare.//////////////////////....

Pietrele pentru litografie de culoare gri deschis sunt mult mai dense i mai dure. Ideal pentru
orice tip de desen litografic, aceasta are proprietatea de a rezista la gravurile adnci.

Grunduirea
Majoritatea pietrelor pentru litografie sunt groase de 10cm i pot fi folosite pentru muli ani.
Dup fiecare utilizare, piatra trebuie grunduit cu un disc confecionat din inox inoxidabil, numit
levigator i un amestec de ap i nisip abraziv (carborundum, carbur de siliciu). Mai multe grunduiri
folosind un nisip fin las suprafaa pietrei fin i plat ideal pentru a se desena sau picta mai trziu
pe aceasta.
ntr-o grunduire de rutin, aproximativ 1 milimetru din piatra se ndeparteaz de pe suprafaa
ei. Dac piatra pentru litografie nu este uniform, sau dac soluia pentru grunduire nu este lsat s
se usuce, pot aprea zgrieturi pe suprafaa pietrei. Dac acest lucru se ntmpl, ntregul proces de
grunduire trebuie reluat, folosind un nisip mai grunjos, pentru a ndeprta zgarieturile.

Crearea imaginii
Imaginea ce va fi creat poate s fie dintr-o
fotografie, o schi sau o pictur a unui alt artist.
Inainte de a se ncepe desenul sau pictura propriuzis, se obinuiete s se traseze pe suprafaa
pietrei conturul desenului, folosind eventual o
hrtie de copiat sau o folie de acetat. n funcie de
experiena i ncrederea n sine, desenul se poate
realiz direct pe piatr.
Lucrarea realizat pe piatr va aprea de fapt
n oglind pe hrtie, astfel nct este recomandat s
se deseneze pe un material transparent. Hrtia ce Transferarea desenului pe piatra de litografie
conine conturul desenului se aeaz cu faa n jos pe piatra. O foaie de hrtie scufundat anterior n
oxid de fier, se aeaz ntre hrtia de copiat i piatr, astfel ct s acioneze precum o hrtie de
crbune. Folosind un creion cu vrful rotunjit, artistul va trasa conturul desenului, iar oxidul de fier
va transmite pietrei o linie rocat, ce va servi ca ghidaj...

Artistul ndeparteaz foile de hrtie de pe piatra i apoi deseneaz peste conturul rou,
ncepnd s adauge detaliile imaginii. Piatra proaspt grunduit este foarte sensibil la grsime.
Orice cantitate de grasime va ajuta ca formarea imaginii fie ca provine de la un creion pentru
litografie sau este n stare lichid. Chiar i uleiul de pe piele poate lsa impresii pe piatra, deci trebuie
avut grij s nu se ating piatra de-a lungul procesului de desenare. Datorit finerii creionului de
litografie, pentru a se obine linii fine sau tonuri, este necesar ca instrumentele pentru desen s fie
ascuite n permanen (folosind chiar o hrtie abraziv).

Dac lucrarea dorete s cuprind mai multe culori, este esenial s se traseze linii care s te
ajute n procesul de desenare ulterior (fiecare culoare necesit un proces de colorare individual),
astfel nct toate desenele s fie uniform aliniate n etapa final a imprimrii.
Timpul necesar crearii unei imagini depinde de complexitatea acesteia. Cu ct desenul include
mai multe culori, cu att mai complex i mai lung va fi ntreg procesul.
Dup ce imaginea este complet, aceasta trebuie fixat pe piatra.

Tratarea pietrei pentru litografie


Regula foarte simpl a fobiei apei fa de ulei,
sensibilitatea pietrei fa de grasime i aplicarea
unui agent coroziv pe piatra de calcar toate
acestea stau la baza litografiei.
Pentru c imaginea i non-imaginea sunt pe
acelai plan sau suprafa, spre deosebire de alte
medii pentru gravur, imaginea este separat pe
piatr printr-un proces chimic, folosind un agent de

Tratarea pietrei de litografie cu soluia


decapant pe baz de gum arabic

corodare. Practic, acesta este o soluie de gum


arabic i acid azotic. Formula potrivit a agentului de corodate difer n funcie de imagine i
densitatea grsimii absorbit de piatr, cu toate c se obine foarte precis, numrndu-se stropii de
acid raportai la fiecare gram de gum arabic.
O imagine gras este rezistent la soluia solubil n ap a agentului de corodare i astfel, doar
non-imaginea poate primi soluia i astfel reacia chimic se poduce.

nainte ca agentul de corodare s fie aplicat, imaginea este curat cu colofoniu (sacz praf).
Acest pas are rolul de a stabiliza natura, destul de delicat, a materialului desenat. Folosind o bucat
de serveel de hrtie, suprafaa imaginii este lustruit bine, pregatind-o pentru decapantul lichid.
Agentul de corodare este aplicat cu o pensul, acoperind ntreaga suprafa a pietrei. n acest
moment imaginea desenat este impenetrabil (ulei i ap) n timp ce piatra de calcar este receptiv
fa de soluie. Soluia decapant este lsat s acioneze pe piatr timp de aproximativ 5 minute,
dup ca este ndeprtat prin tamponare cu ajutorul unui tifon. Acest procedeu se realizeaz viguros
i n acelai timp gentil (superficial), lsnd n urm un strat fin i uscat de gum arabic.
Imaginea va deveni complet ndepartat. Astfel, se toarn solvent pe baza de ulei, pe suprafaa
pietrei i se freac energic cu ajutorul unei crpe curate, pn cnd ntreaga imagine este
ndeprtat. Un strat fin de cerneal (toate cernelurile pentru litografie sunt pe baza de ulei) este

mprtiat uniform pe suprafaa pietrei, folosindu-se o crp curat. Urmeaz apoi ndepartarea
stratului de soluie apoas decapant, pe baza de gum arabic.

Procesul chimic ce va rezulta din aceast


aplicare a decapantului permite suprafeei desenate
s primeasc cerneal pe baz de ulei i s resping
apa. n revers, non-imaginea accept apa i respinge
cerneala.
Un roller din piele se trece prin recipientul de
cearneal, transfernd-o apoi pe suprafaa pietrei.
Aplicarea de cerneal pe piatr trebuie repetat de
cteva ori, inndu-se cont c de fiecare dat piatra
s fie splat cu ajutorul unui burete mbibat n
ap.
Odat ce imaginea este complet acoperit cu

Aplicarea cerneleii de litografie pe baz de ulei


pe piatr

cerneal, se las la uscat piatra. Urmeaz o nou


aplicare de colofoniu (sacaz), talc i soluie decapant.

..

Este nevoie ca procesul s se repete de cteva ori, astfel ncat imaginea s devin foarte stabil
nainte de a fi imprimat pe hrtie. Fiecare strat de soluie decapant dureaz aproximativ o or, de
la mbibarea pietrei cu apa i cerneala i pn la uscarea soluiei decapante. Ultimul strat de soluie
acid rmne pe piatr pn la imprimare.
Tratamentul pietrei este partea cea mai critic din litografie. O lucrare de succes necesit o
grij deosebit acordat acesteia pe ntregul parcus al procesului de gravare i imprimare. Orice
deteliorare a imaginii duce la reinceperea ntregului procedeu, de la grunduirea i lefuirea pietrei.
Imprimarea
Imprimarea
O lucrare de litografie este imprimat prin presarea unei foi de hrtie, asezat pe piatra
desenat i tratat cu cerneal, transfernd cerneala pe hrtie.
Odat ce piatra este aezat n locaul presei pentru litografie, imaginea format din cerneal
neagr este scoas prin aciunea solventului i astfel hrtia devine impregnat cu cerneal. Soluia
pentru decapare este cltit, iar piatra este curat cu ap, cu ajutorul unui burete, ntre fiecare
etap de trecere a rollerului cu cerneal. Un strat de cerneal este adaugat periodic n recipientul n
care se introduce rollerul.
Pietrei pentru litografie i sunt aplicate mai multe mini de cerneal. Hrtia se alege cu grij

(fr coninut de acid, preferabil 100% bumbac) i se aez deasupra pietrei. O folie de plexiglass
(numit i timpan) este aezat deasupra pietrei.

Blatul presei pentru litografie este aezat la


orizontal, pn n punctul care screperul (bara de
lemn cu o fie de piele ataat de aceasta) este
cobortp pnp la timpan. Blatul presei este apoi
uor manevrat sub scaper. Ct timp blatul presei ce
susine piatra de litografie trece pe sub scraper,
hrtia este presat nspre piatra, transfernd
cerneala de pe piatra pe hrtie. Presiunea este mai
apoi eliberat i blatul presei se aduce napoi, n
poziia iniial i hrtia este ndeprtat.
Piatra este imediat curat prin trecerea pe
suprafaa ei a unui burete nmuiat n ap i
procesul de aplicare a cernelii se repet, pentru
fiecare foie de hrtie ce se dorete imprimat.
ntreaga ediie se imprim i se las la uscat n

Imprimarea desenului pe hartie folosind


presiunea presei de litografie

raster. O ediie de aproximativ 50 de imprimri necesit o sesiune de imprimare de aproximativ 8-10


ore pentru fiecare culoare.
Lucrrile de litografie realizate n mai multe culori sunt frecvente i se folosete un desen
separat pentru fiecare culoare imprimat. Piatra de litografie este regrunduit i ntregul proces este
repatat: transferarea desenului, desenul pe piatr, procesarea i reimprimarea pe aceeai foaie de
hrtie.
Editarea
Odat ce imprimarea este complet i hrtia este uscat, ediia este inspectat cu atenie
pentru a verifica continuitatea culorii i registrarea. ntr-o ediie se recomand a se imprima mai
multe foi dect cele stabilite iniial, deoarece se pot strecura imperfectiuni n procesul de imprimare.
n mod tradiional, imprimarile sunt numerorare, intilulate i semnate n creion. Numrul unei hrtii
imprimate nu reprezint neaprat ordinea n care acestea au fost realizate.

Litography
Lithography developed in Germany by Alois Senefelder playwright (1771-1834), which
limestone used to transfer images on paper. Lithography was originally used in the printing trade,
especially for duplication of documents and illustrated books.
Artists have realized that this is an excellent way to create more identical image. Artists like
Delacroix and Goya, among many others, have excelled in this technique. Later, artists such as
Picasso, Miro and Chagall lithograph embraced - fitting it perfectly fine arts.
Definition
The word comes from the Greek lithography, which means "to write or draw on the
stone". Lithography is a flatbed medium, wherein the image and non - image are on the same surface
without being physically separated.
In other etching techniques such as intaglio (chemical etching), the image is either
engraved or etched by acid on a metal plate . If the relief engraving ( woodcut or linocut ), non- image
(blank area) is removed. In lithography, the separation between image and non- image is obtained
mainly due to the principle of incompatibility between oil and water, which together form a chemical
reaction, when an agent called etching solution which is applied to the stone.
Stone lithography
The principle of lithography, which is based on the idea of "mutual repulsion of oil and
water" and requires a suitable surface, porous, which will easily absorb water and fat. This property is
found where the limestone, which is composed 96% of calcium carbonate and is fine enough as to be
drawn and printed.
Although most of the lithography stones come from the same source, it is essential that
the stone should be thoroughly checked before commencing work, since quality may vary depending
on the hardness, size and especially of fossil or mineral veins you may contain.
Color stone for lithography depends on the mineral content, density and hardness,
influencing the type of images that can be printed on these stones. White stones are the least
indicated, as they tend to produce images unfinished and do not respond well to printing.
Despite the increased density, dark gray and blue stones are often too dark for most types
of drawing, but are ideal for engraving.
Stones for lithography, yellow, probably the most frequently used tend to be softer. Due to the lower
density, they will allow the oil to penetrate much better in their mass and are recommended for
drawing in pencil. However, some yellow stones will allow for the lavisuri crosslinking.
Stones for lithography light gray are much denser and tougher. Ideal for any type of
lithographic drawing, it has the ability to withstand deep engravings.

Priming
Most stones for lithography is 10 cm thick and can be used for many years. After each use,
the stone must be primed with a disc made of stainless steel, called leachate and a mixture of water
and sand abrasive (carborundum, silicon carbide). More Priming using fine sand stone surface smooth
and flat leaves - ideal to draw or paint on it later.
In a priming routine about 1 inch of stone is removed from the surface. If stone lithography
is not uniform, or if priming solution is allowed to dry, it may cause scratches on the surface of the

stone. If this happens, the whole process must be repeated priming using a coarse grit to remove
scratches.
Creating the image
The image will be created can be a photograph, a drawing or a painting of another artist.
Before you begin drawing or painting itself, it is customary to trace the outline of the drawing surface
of the stone, possibly using a paper copy or acetate foil. Depending on the experience and
confidence, drawing can be done directly on the stone.
The work performed on stone will actually appear in the mirror on paper, so it is advisable
to draw a transparent material. Paper containing contour drawing is placed face down on the stone. A
sheet of paper previously dipped in iron oxide, is placed between the copy paper and stone, so as to
act as a carbon paper. Using a pencil tip rounded artist will outline drawing and iron oxide stone will
send a reddish line that will serve as a guide.
The artist removes papers on the stone and then draw over red contour starting to add
image details. Freshly primed stone is very sensitive to fat. Any amount of fat that imaging will help whether it comes from a lithograph pencil or liquid. Even oil on the skin can leave impressions stone,
so care should be taken not to touch the stone along the drawing process. Thanks finerii pen
lithography, to obtain fine lines and tones, it is necessary to design instruments to be sharp at all
times (even using sandpaper).
If the work wants to include more colors, it is essential to draw lines to help you later in the
drawing (each color requires an individual coloring process) so that all drawings are uniformly aligned
in the final stage of printing.
The time required to create an image depends on its complexity. The design includesmore
colors, the more complex and longer will the whole process.
After the image is complete, it must be "fixed" on the stone.
Treatment for stone lithography
Very simple rule phobia of water to oil, grease and sensitivity stone towards applying a
corrosive agent on limestone - all underlying lithography.
Because the image and non- image are on the same plane or surface, unlike other media
for engraving on stone image is separated by a chemical process using an etching agent. Basically, it is
a gum arabic solution of nitric acid. Formula suitable corrosion agent varies depending on the image
and density of fat absorbed by the stone, although very accurate yield by counting the drops of acid
per every ounce of gum arabic.
An image fat is resistant to the solution of the water soluble corrosion agent, and thus only
the non - image is "receive" the solution and thus afford the chemical reaction.
Before etching agent is applied, the image is cleaned with rosin (colophony dust). This step
has the function of stabilizing nature rather delicate, the material is drawn. Using a piece of tissue
paper, the image area is well polished, prepared for liquid stripper.
Etching agent is applied with a brush, covering the entire surface of the stone. Currently
drawn image is impenetrable (oil and water) while limestone is responsive to the solution. Etching
solution is allowed to act on the stone for about 5 minutes, after that is removed by using a gauze
tamponade. This procedure is performed while vigorous and gentle (superficial), leaving a thin layer
of gum arabic and dry.
The image will be fully removed. Thus, the oil-based solvent poured onto the surface of the
stone and rubbing vigorously with a clean cloth, until the entire image is removed. A thin layer of ink
(all lithographic inks are based on oil) is spread evenly on the surface of the stone, using a clean cloth.
Is followed by removal of the aqueous layer etching, on the basis of gum arabic.

The chemical process that will result from the application of the dressing allows the surface
drawn to receive oil-based ink and repel water. In reverse, non-image accept water and repel ink.
A leather roller passes through ink container, then transferring it to the surface of the
stone. Applying ink stone should be repeated several times, taking into account that every time the
stone to be "washed" with a sponge soaked in water.
Once the image is completely covered with ink, allow to dry stone. Follow further
application of rosin (colophony), talc and etching solution.
There is a need to repeat the process several times, so the image to become very stable
prior to being printed on paper. Each layer of solution etching takes about one hour, the imbibing of
the stone with the water and to dry the ink and the pickling solution. The last layer of acid solution
remains on the stone to print.
Stone therapy is the most critical part of lithography. A successful work requires special
care given to its DURING throughout the process of engraving and printing. Any cause considerable
damage image restart the whole process, from priming and sanding stone.
Print
A lithography paper is printed by pressing a sheet of paper sitting on the stone and treated
with ink drawn by transferring ink on paper.
Once the stone is put into place for lithography press, the image formed by the black ink is
"pulled" by the action of the solvent and thus the paper is impregnated with ink. Pickling solution is
rinsed, and the stone is cleaned with water using a sponge between each step of crossing ink roller. A
layer of ink is added periodically Roller container insert.
Stone for lithography they are imposed more hands ink. The paper carefully choose (free of
acid, preferably 100 % cotton) and sat on top of the stone. A plexiglass sheet (also called the eardrum)
is located above the stone.
Leaf is placed lithography press for horizontal to the point that the scraper (wooden bar
with a strip of leather attached to it) is down Panpei the eardrum. Press dough is then easy to handle
under scaper. While supporting countertop stone lithography press passes under the scraper, the
paper is pressed into stone, stone transferring ink on paper. The pressure is then released and the
press cake is brought back to its original position and the paper is removed.
The stone is away on its surface cleaned by passing through a cloth moistened with water
and ink application process is repeated for each desired for sheet of paper that is printed. The entire
edition is printed and dry the raster. An edition of 50 prints print session requires about 8-10 hours
for each color.
Lithography works made in several colors are common and used a separate drawing for
each color printed. Stone lithography is repriming and the whole process is Repeated: transfer
drawing, drawing on stone processing and reprint on the same sheet of paper.
Editing
Once printing is complete and the paper is dry, edition is carefully inspected to verify the
continuity of color and registration. One edition is recommended to print more sheets than initially
because they can sneak imperfections in the printing process.

Traditionally, the prints are numerorare, intilulate and signed in pencil. Number of printed
paper do not necessarily represent the order in which they were made.

Bibliografie
http://www.lucas-impex.ro/article--litografia--370.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lithography