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2010. 104 .

1-31 03 01-02
, : , ,
, ,
. MS EXCEL .

2010


1.

.
1 , 2 ,..., m , B 1 , B 2 ,..., B n (
m n ). .
i , B j .
aij
. aij , , . (. 1).

B1

B2

Bn

A1

a11

a12

a1n

A2

Am

a 21

a m1

a 22

am2

a2n

a mn

= max a ij , = min j . j

, .

Bn

A1

a11

a12

a1n

A2

Am

a 21

a m1

a 22

am2

a2n

a mn

i
i
2

, ,
, (, ). , . , A

A2
p2

B
S B* = 1
q1

... A m
,
... p m

B2
q2

... B n
,
... q n

p 1 + p 2 + ... + p m = 1, q 1 + q 2 + ... + q n = 1 .

S *A -

, , .
, (, ,
). i = min a ij ,
i

B2

A
S *A = 1
p1

= max i ,

B1

, , , .
, , , .

S *A ,
B j j = p1a1 j + p2 a2 j + ... + pm amj .
S *A , , . ,
(1.1).
4

p 1 a 11 + p 2 a 21 + ... + p m a m1 ,
p a + p a + ... + p a
1 12
2 22
m m2 ,

..............................................
p 1 a 1n + p 2 a 2 n + ... + p m a mn .

(1.1)

(1.1) (1.2), (1.3).

p1

p 12

= 2 ,...,

pm

= m,

a 11 1 + a 21 2 + ... + a m1 m 1,
a + a + ... + a 1,
12 1
22 2
m2 m

= 1 ,

..............................................
a 1n 1 + a 2 n 2 + ... + a mn m 1,

(1.2)

( ). ,
, 2 . .
. .
, .
4 :
1) 3 0 . (3, 0);
2) 2 1 (2, 1);
3) 1 2 (1, 2);
4) 0 3
(0, 3).
2 : (2, 0), (1, 1) (0, 2). 3 .

(1.3)

(1.3) 1 , 2 ,..., m . p 1 + p 2 + ... + p m = 1, 1 , 2 ,..., m 1


1 + 2 + ...,+ m = . ,

1 , 2 ,..., m ,
(1.3), , L = 1 + 2 + ...,+ m . .
1. .
,
. . ,
, . 5

(2, 0)
(3, 0)
(2, 1)
(1, 2)
(0, 3)

(1, 1)
3
1
-1
0

(0, 2).
1
2
2
1

0
-1
1
3

.
a11 = 3 , 3 ,
2. , 2
, 2
. ,
a11 = 2 + 1 . a12 = 1 ,
3 , 1 . ,
. , 1
.
.
a12 = 2 1 = 1 . (. 4).
6

7 , 8
.

. >0 ( ) 1. .
5.

2
A* =
0

2
3
3
2

0
.
2


(1.4).
4

L = pi min
i =1

p 4 1,
4 p1 + 2 p 2 +
2 p + 3 p + 3 p + 2 p 1,
2
3
4
1
p +
2 p3 + 4 p 4 1,
1
p 0 i = 1,4.
i

(1.4)

. , 6.
7

9 .
:
p1 = 7 / 33 , p 2 = 0 , p3 = 1 / 11 , p 4 = 5 / 33 . *
8

A *
1 / L = * , * = 11 / 5 .
:

x1 = p1 * * = 7 / 33 *11 / 5 = 7 / 15,
x 2 = p 2 * * = 0,
x3 = p3 * * = 1 / 11 *11 / 5 = 1 / 5,
x 4 = p 4 * * = 5 / 33 *11 / 5 = 1 / 3.

10


= * 1 = 11 / 5 1 = 6 / 5 .
,
(1.5).

Z =

q j

max

j =1

4q + 2q + q 1,
2
3
1
2q 1 + 3q 2 1,

3q 2 + 2q 3 1,
q + 2q + 4q 1,
2
3
1
q 0 j = 1,3.
j

(1.5)

10
.
9

A1 A2 3 . A4
B B B
, S * = 11 32 13 .
S *A = 7
1
1
B

0
5
3
5
15
5 5
,
7/15 ,
1/5 1/3
.
6/5 .

111
, -
.
1. ,

.
2. , : 2
. .
3. , : , . 2 3 .
10

4. . I m n. II i j, I, I
p ij . II qij . m=n=2,

3 1
2 3
, Q =
.
P =
1 4
2 5
5. , : II . .
6. . , , , , , . , , . ,
; B,
; ,
; D, . A>B, A>D, C>B,C>D.
.
. ,
.
7. . 1 2 , , , .
, ,
, ,
.
8. ,
1, 2 3 .
9. . ,
(. 11).
11

,
. ,
, .
, ,
.
, , (>A).

11

10. :
, .
=3, =2, =1.
11. .
.
20, 50, 100 , 5, 15 . ,
.
10 15

P = 5
20 .
1
20

1216 . .
12. 7 :
[1, 2].
12

13. 11 , 20 100 , 5 15 .
14. .
. .

. b
.
, .
15. . , .
16. . 14 , , .

2.
2.1.
G = (X, )
X = {x1, x2, , xn} = {a1, a2, , am}, X
, A . A , , . ,
.
. 1213

.
X = {x1, x2, x3, x4},
A = {a1, a2, a3, a4}.

12

13

X = {x1, x2, x3, x4},


A = {a1 = (x1 , x2 ), a2 =
(x1 , x3 ), a3 = (x3 , x4 ),
a4 = (x3 , x2 )}.
13

. S
:

s ij

(),
i xj;
.
(i, j=1, 2,, n).
U = u ij

1,
=
0

G, n
:
i aj;
1,

uij = 1, i aj;
0,
i aj

(i=1, 2,,n; j=1, 2,, m).

mn

, (i, xi)
, ,
, 1 1, .
G .
G (
) a1, a2, ... an...,
ai ai+1 .
.
(a1, a2, ... an) a1
an. x1, a1,
a2, , 14

xn, an, an-1,


.
,
, , .
.
(), , (). (),
( ) , ().
14
x1 x4: M1 = (a1, a2, a4) M2 = (a1, a2, a5, a6).
M1 3, M2 4.

.
, ,
, .

14

.
, .
(), , .
(), ,
, , .
15

, , ,
.

,
, ,
.
, ,
(xi ,xj) c(xi, xj) = cij, ( , ).
( ) s,
(xi, xj), l(s),
, , ..
l(s) =

c ij ,

(xi, xj) s.
C = (cij)
.
G
, G. , .
.

, .
( ) .
16

(-,
, ) G
, G .
2.2.


-
.
[7].
1.
.
2. ,
.
3. . :
) , ,
, , -;
) , ,
, ,
.
4.
,
3, :
) ,
,
;
) ,
, .
,
, . .
17

1.
(,
i- ). , 1- i (i1).
2. 1- i- .
3. 1- i- ( ,
).
4. 2 3 ,

, ()
.
. .
2.3.
G = (, ) , (x, y) 0.
s t
, ,
, , .
[7]. .
1. . d(x),
s ,
.
d(s)=0, d(x)= , s. s y=s (y ).
2. d(x):
d(x)=min {d(x), d(y)+a(y, x)}.
18

d(x)= , :
.
x, d(x)
. y=x.
3. y=t, :
s t .
2.
2.4.


s t -

( )

, s t. X , X
G = ( N , A) , s t,
, s X , t X . X X = , X X = N .
sN tN ,
, ,
,
.
:

;
 s ,
t;

, ,
,
.
- [12].
.

( ), ( ),
, 19

.
: , , . .
( ).
s (-, (s)=) (
, ).
.
z , ( x) . y, f(x, y) < c(x, y)
x + , ( y ) ,
( y ) = min[ ( x), c(x, y)-f(x, y)]

( y ). -

y, f(y, x)
> 0 x , ( y ) ,

( y ) = min[ ( x), f(y, x)]


( y ,
).
,
1) t,
2) ,
, t .
, ,
.
( ). t
y , (t ) . y + , (t ) ,
f(y, t) f(y, t)+(t);
y , (t ) , f(y, t) f(y, t)-(t).
y. , y x + , ( y ) , f(x, y) f(x, y)+(t),

(
)

)
(x

, ( y ) , f(x, y) f(x, y)-(t)


. s, . .
20

.
. [12]

.
.

3. G 10 .
18. -, .

2.5.
2. , 15.
.
16, 17.

18

. 1.
1
15

16

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

(3, 7)
(8, 9)
(2, 3)
(5, 6)
(6, 10)
(6, 7)
(5, 10)
(2, 4)
(3, 8)

2
4
4
4
4
4
4
6
6

17

21

22

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

(4, 5)
(1, 2)
(3, 4)
(5, 7)
(1, 4)
(6, 9)
(4, 7)
(9, 10)
(1,5)

6
7
7
7
9
9
10
10
12

(3, 7). , ,
V1 = {3,7} .

1. (8, 9) 8 V1, 9 V1 . , V2 = {8,9}


.

2. (2, 3) 2 (V1 V2 ), 3 V1 . ,
V1 = {2,3,7} . .

3. (5, 6) 5,6 (V1 V2 ) . , V3 = {5,6} .


.
23

4. (6, 10) 10 (V1 V2 V3 ), 6 V3 . , V3 = {5,6,10} .


.

5. (6, 7) 6 V3 , 7 V1 . , V1 V3 V13 = {2,3,5,6,7,10} .

6. (5, 10) 5,10 V13 . .


24

7. (2, 4) 4 (V13 V2 ), 2 V13 . V13 = {2,3,4,5,6,7,10} .

11. , (-)
, 41 (. 19).
8. (3, 8) 3 V13 , 8 V2 .
V13 V2 V123 = {2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10}
(3, 8) .

19

9. (4, 5) 4,5 V123 .


.
10. (1, 2) 2 V123 , 1 V123 .

V123 = {1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10} .

25

4. - ,
18,
.

. MS EXCEL. 1000.
, 20.
26

3 (. 20) (2.1)
2. , , (2.2) 2:2.
(2.3), Q3. R3 1 .

, 3 (. 22), , -.
, .
3
15:AM24. .
12 .

20

()
3
2:2
Q3
R3, 3, D3
A4
C3

=(F3:O3)
{=(F3:O3=$P3;F$2:O2;100)}
=(T3:AC3)
1
=Q3
=P3

21

27

(2.1)
(2.2)
(2.3)
(2.4)
(2.5)
(2.6)

22

()
F15:O24

=(((($E15:$E24;
($A$3;0;0;(D151)*12;1);1;)))+
(((F14:O14;($A$
3;0;0;(D15-1)*12;1);1;))=2);1000;
28

(2.7)

S15:AB24
Q15
AD15:
AM24
R15
D15
A15

C15
1

((($E15:$E24;
($A$3;0;0;(D15-1)*12;1);
1;));1000;(
((F14:O14;($A$3;0;0;(D151)*12;1);1;)); $F$3:$O$12; 1000)))
{=(F15:O24=$P15;F14:O14;1000)}
=(S15:AB24)
{=($Q15=S15:AB24;$E15:$E24;
1000)}
{=(AD15:AM24)}
=D3+1
=(((Q15;($
A$3;0;0;(D15-1)*10;1);1;));
Q15;R15)
=(Q15;$E$3:$O$12;R15+1)
=((C3:C99)>=1000; "
";(C3:C99))

(2.15) 3). Q R, , -.
24. [21].
(2.8)
(2.9)
(2.10)
(2.11)
(2.12)
(2.13)

(2.14)
(2.15)

24

5. 25 s t.
. .

d ( s ) = 0, d ( x) = s; s
.
23

14:M24.
26 .
38, 50, 62, 74, 86 98.
,
, , 1000. , (
29

25

30

d (1) = min{d (1), d ( s ) + a( s,1)} = min{,0 + 2} = 2;


d ( x) = x s, 1.
1, y=1
(. 26).

, ,
,
.
d (2) = min{d (2), d (1) + a(1,2)} = min{,2 + 3} = 5;

d (3) = min{d (3), d (1) + a(1,3)} = min{,5 + 4} = 9;


d ( x) = x s,1,2,3.
2, y=2
(. 27).
d (3) = min{d (3), d (2) + a (2,3)} = min{9,5 + 2} = 7;
d (6) = min{d (6), d (2) + a(2,6)} = min{,5 + 1} = 6;
d ( x) = x = 4,5, t.

27

6, y=6
(. 28).
d (3) = min{d (3), d (6) + a(6,3)} = min{7,6 + } = 7;

d (4) = min{d (4), d (6) + a(6,4)} = min{,6 + 2} = 8;


d ( x) = x = 5, t.
3, y=3
(. 29).

28

26
29

31

32

d (5) = min{d (5), d (3) + a (3,5)} = min{,7 + 4} = 11;


d (4) = min{d (4), d (3) + a (3,4)} = min{8,7 + 2} = 8;
d (t ) = .
4, y=4 (. 30).
d (5) = min{d (5), d (4) + a (4,5)} = min{11,8 + 1} = 9;

d (t ) = .
5, y=5
(. 31).
d (t ) = min{d (t ), d (5) + a (5, t )} = min{,9 + 3} = 12.
32

t ( ), y=t
(. 32). ,
s t.
, s t 1, 2, 6, 4 5.
12.
6. 1
30

10 , 33, MS EXCEL [19].


. [6] .
,
. , 34.
, 1000.

31

33

34

35

26 (2.18) 26:X35 ( 35).


=(B26=$L26;B$25;1000).
(2.18)
27 (2.19), ,
27:35.

33

=($M26<>$Q$2;((($M2
6;$A$14:$K$23;B$13+1));"";(B26;$L26+
($M26;$A$14:$K$23;B$13+1)));"")

34

, 35 , d(x) .
2 Q2 . 26 (2.16) 27:27. L26 (2.17)
L27:L35.

=(B25=$O$2;0;1000)

(2.16)

=(((B26:K26;A
26));"";(B26:K26;A26)).

(2.17)

, 26, ,
:. 36 :
1. 27 : : .
( 2) 27:27, 27 (. 37) ..

36

37

35

(2.19)

36

38 , 32:32 , 6 8
( , 13).
.
40

38

, , 6. 8 ( 39).
,
10. 19.

41

42

43

39


1 10 , 40. 52 (2.20).
52:61. 41 , 35. , , 4244 .

=((($M26;$A$14:$K$23;B$1
3+1));"";((B26;$L26+
($M26;$A$14:$K$23;B$13+1))=B26;O51;
$M26))
37

(2.20)

44

9 (. 44)
. 10
, 7. , 10 7. 7 ,
5. , 7 5. 5 1. , 1 10 1, 5, 7 10.
19. 46 .
, 2
Q2 , -
1000. .
45
8 9.
38

. 7 (. 48). , .
45

46

7.
, 1 6 , 47. .

48

49
47

39

, ( 1) (-, ). 1 2.
40

2 5, 5 3 ( 6).
, .
(5+, 1). , f(5, 6)
2+1=3. 5. (2+, 2), ,
(2, 5) 0+1=1. ,
f(2,5)=0+1=1.
2. (1+, 2),
(1, 2)
. (1, 2) 1+1=2.
, f(1,2)=1+1=2.

( 1),
.
50. ,
.
51

, (5, 6), (3, 6) (4, 6) . 6 (),


8.
15, 6, ,
,

(X , X ) = {(5, 6), (3, 6), (4, 6) } ,

X = {1, 2, 3, 4, 5 }, X = {6}.
52.
50

( )

X , X .

. ( 1) (-, ). 1 2
(. 51). 2 5, 5 3.
3 4.
41

42

43

10

1. G 10 . 45.
- (
).

52

5
6

1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4

9
10
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
5

1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

17
11
18
20
6
18
1
5
8
19
10
13
4
14
12
14
20
15
4
17
16
18
15
16
6

20
13
20
7
6
14
11
12
14
14
7
18
5
8
4
5
2
10
6
2
11
18
4
17
11

12
10
4
9
18
9
3
4
5
8
9
7
16
19
9
14
3
6
2
11
12
9
10
18
14

17
13
15
13
10
13
18
11
11
1
12
17
7
15
19
9
16
7
2
17
3
2
20
1
10

9
2
16
17
15
19
5
8
16
13
17
18
8
20
19
11
20
17
6
1
10
15
19
20
18

14
12
12
6
4
5
14
3
17
15
14
1
16
2
11
5
11
13
9
12
8
6
11
5
18

13
13
19
2
3
10
4
14
9
9
11
14
2
7
2
9
7
5
16
12
8
4
10
18
15

10
14
14
17
3
14
8
6
20
20
14
6
20
17
18
16
9
3
12
13
14
5
1
1
11

4
13
12
16
19
1
7
1
11
1
6
9
13
7
20
4
5
19
4
12
5
4
7
3
1

44

4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
6

6
7
8
9
10
6
7
8
9
10
7
8

10

10

10

7
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10

1
5
13
7
6
1
8
16
7
10
16
13
17
7
10
15
9
18
15

2
9
1
14
6
16
8
7
20
4
14
5
18
6
14
13
15
8
14

8
3
8
10
20
1
13
20
11
11
18
8
19
14
15
20
7
1
4

20

11

16

19

12

13

19

12

10

14

14

18

18

16

13

12

18

10

11

13

17

12

20

10

18

19

10

17

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10

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10

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19

20

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16

13

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10

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20

12

17

14

19

20

10

16

20

15

15

13

10

12

17

16

17

15

16

11

10

15

20

10

17

18

10

20

10

19

10

12

15

20

14

19

11

19

14

18

17

11

11

20

10

13

10

11

13

10

19

10

16

18

13

15

19

20

17

20

12

12

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13

20

12

15

11

11

19

18

17

16

18

18

18

18

10

11

20

18

18

13

20

19

18

17

13
18
19
15
14
5
3
2
9
4
19
12
17
15
3
7
4
9
13

14
15
16

18
16
13
15
3
2
3
15
17
16
16
2
3
13
16
2
1
14
10

10
2
1
10
14
12
14
5
3
5
7
3
20
10
2
6
7
19
11

13

11
3
11
13
19
7
1
8
8
10
14
1
2
17
17
6
16
18
2

12

12
17
16
20
17
7
19
17
11
4
7
12
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2. 10 (.53).
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2.
.
2.1.
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19
25
5
24
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31

43
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6

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53

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3

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7
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27
54
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17

44
13
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7
23

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19
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32

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34
29
49
3
36

37
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64
3

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4
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4
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31
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58
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15
58
12
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35
41
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49

2.7.
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4
29
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11

53
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46
49
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20
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50
35

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30
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55
24

2.8.
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29
41
58
57

60
34

10
38
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12
15

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51
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2.9.
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62
63
34
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54
52

7
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3

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36
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26

52
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2.10.
27
58
68 19
4 43
47 44
50
9

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58
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70
10

69
2

3
6
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49
59

2.11.
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41
30
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64

9
16

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26
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58
6
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41

2.12.

8
1
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52 30
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41
32
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6
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62
30
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70


45
45
37
7
49

14
9
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55

2
45
3
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4
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57
7
8
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. [4]:
1) ;
2) ;
3) ,
;
4)
;
5) , ..
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87

88

6) (. 88);
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4.
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11









71

A
B
C
D
E
F
G

( )
1
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1
2
2
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89

72

8)
;
9) (.. ), ,
(.. ), (. 89);
10) (.90).

j ,
j
k + t kj , (k, j). (i, j)
i. (i, j)
E i + t ij .


2)

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90


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92

3)
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91

73

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x

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2

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3

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1
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0
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102

+ 4 x + 7) cos 2 xdx.


1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

, . . 3- / ..
., , 1972.
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01.01 /
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, . / . . .: , 1981. 323 .
, .. / .. , .. . .: , 1975. 256 .
, . : 2 . / . . .:
, 1985. 2 .
, . Excel
2002/ . . .: , 2002. 624 .
, . / . , . -.
.: , 1984. 496 .
, . / . , . . .: , 1966.
276 .
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http://exponenta.ru/educat/systemat/revchuk/index.asp
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http://window.edu.ru/window/library?p_rid=54384

20. , .. / .. , .. .
http://www.exponenta.ru/educat/systemat/revchuk/index4.asp. 2009. 7 .
21. , ..
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http://www.rusedu.ru/detail_3396.html, 2009. 4 .
22. , ..
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http://www.exponenta.ru/educat/systemat/revchuk/index6.asp 2009. 7 .

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18. , .. / .. ,
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http://www.exponenta.ru/educat/systemat/revchuk/work2.rar
19. , .. / .. , .. .
http://www.rusedu.ru/detail_2404.html. 2009. 7 .

103

104

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