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Conflict in Sudan

EGYPT

PLIR 101

International Relations

CHAD
Khartoum

UR
RF
A
D

Prof. Todd S. Sechser


December 1, 2008

ETHIOPIA
CENTRAL
AFRICAN
REPUBLIC
DEM. REP. OF CONGO

Why did Sudan change its position?

NGOs are a major part


of international life.

Credit goes to Hollywood Mia Farrow and


Steven Spielberg in particular.
New York Times, April 13, 2007

Numbers of:
States:
IGOs:
NGOs:

193

325

> 6,000 (transnational)

Sudanese president
Omar al-Bashir

Three broad classes of


advocacy NGOs
1.Environmental

2.Human rights

3.Development & aid

NGOs try to influence states behavior.

How? By targeting
citizens
business leaders
politicians and bureaucrats

Keck and Sikkink identify four


central strategies of NGOs.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Symbolic politics

Information/framing
Symbolism
Accountability
Leverage

Greenpeaces Rainbow Warrior

Keck and Sikkink identify four


central strategies of NGOs.
1.
2.
3.
4.

Information/framing
Symbolism
Accountability
Leverage

The boomerang effect

NGO

Publicity

Favorable conditions
for NGO influence

Target
state

Intermediate
state

Indirect influence

1. Issues can be cast as clear


cases of right and wrong

Sudan

NGO activists

2. Actors are susceptible to


moral suasion
6
Publicity & linkage

China

The NGO strategy for pressuring


China

A boomerang effect

Its time now to begin shaming


China: demanding that if the Beijing
government is going to host the
Summer Olympic Games of 2008,
they must be responsible partners.
Reeves

We are amazed by Beijings


reaction. It shows that one thing is
more important to the Chinese than
their access to Sudans oil, and that's
the success of their Olympic
Games.
Farrow

Can NGOs solve long-term problems?

Response paper topics


1. Can we measure the impact of NGOs?

NGOs claim to campaign on behalf


of poor people, yet many of their
campaigns harm the poor.

2. Do NGOs simply reflect social views?


3. Do they focus on easy problems?

Mallaby

Concluding observations about NGOs

1. NGOs may challenge the


notion of state sovereignty.

4. Can you think of other international problems


that NGOs are well-suited to help solve?

For Wednesday

1. Bring your laptops!


2. Final exam: details and review sheet

2. NGO operations suggest that


preferences are inconstant.

3. Review session time/date