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B Gio dc v o to

D n pht trin gio vin Tiu hc

Vn hc
Gio trnh o to gio vin Tiu hc
H Cao ng S phm
Bin son:
Cao c Tin (Ch bin)
Dng Th Hng

H Ni 2005
Li ni u

gp phn i mi cng tc o to v bi dng gio vin tiu


hc, D n pht trin gio vin tiu hc t chc bin son cc mun
o to theo chng trnh Cao ng s phm v chng trnh lin thng t
Trung hc s phm ln Cao ng s phm; bin son cc mun bi dng
gio vin nhm nng cao nng lc chuyn mn, nghip v, cp nht nhng
i mi v ni dung, phng php dy hc v kim tra nh gi kt qu
gio dc tiu hc theo chng trnh, sch gio khoa tiu hc mi.
im mi ca ti liu vit theo mun l thit k cc hot ng, nhm
tch cc ho cc hot ng ca ngi hc, kch thch c sng to v kh
nng gii quyt vn , t gim st v nh gi kt qu hc tp ca ngi
hc; ch trng s dng nhiu phng tin truyn t khc nhau (ti liu in,
bng hnh) gip ngi hc d hc, d hiu v gy c hng th hc tp.
Mun Ting Vit - Vn hc v phng php dy hc ting Vit
tiu hc, do nhm tc gi trng i hc s phm H Ni bin son.
Mc ch bin son mun Ting Vit - Vn hc v phng php
dy hc Ting Vit tiu hc l gip sinh vin Cao ng s phm c nhng
kin thc v k nng c bn v Ting Vit, Vn hc v Phng php dy hc
Ting Vit tiu hc, h c th thc hnh ngh nghip ca mnh mt
cch c hiu qu bc tiu hc.
Mun Ting Vit - Vn hc v phng php dy hc Ting Vit
Tiu hc c thi lng l 210 tit, gm 14 n v hc trnh (VHT) = 5 Hc
phn. C th nh sau:
1. Vn hc (75 tit = 5 VHT)
2. Ting Vit (120 tit = 8 VHT)
3. Ting Vit thc hnh (45 tit = 3 VHT)
4. Phng php dy hc Ting Vit Tiu hc (90 tit = 6
VHT)
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5. Phn gi ni dung cc chuyn t chn gm 5 Chuyn


(a. Kim tra, nh gi kt qu hc tp mn Ting Vit tiu hc; b. Dy hc
pht huy tnh tch cc ca hc sinh tiu hc; c. Dy hc theo hng tch hp
trong mn Ting Vit tiu hc; d. Ng php chc nng; e. T Hn Vit).
to iu kin thun li cho vic hc tp ca sinh vin, mi hc
phn c bin son thnh mt cun sch ring.
y l hc phn Vn hc, gm 75 tit, thuc mun Ting Vit - Vn
hc v phng php dy hc Ting Vit Tiu hc. Hc phn ny gm c
cc Ch sau:
+ Ch 1: H thng ho kin thc v vn hc Vit Nam hc
Trung hc ph thng (15 tit)
+ Ch 2: L lun vn hc (15 tit)
+ Ch 3: Vn hc dn gian Vit Nam (15 tit)
+ Ch 4: Vn hc thiu nhi Vit Nam (15 tit)
+ Ch 5: Vn hc nc ngoi trong chng trnh tiu hc (15 tit).
Ln u tin, ti liu c bin son theo chng trnh v phng
php mi, chc chn khng trnh khi nhng thiu st nht nh. Ban iu
phi D n rt mong nhn c nhng kin ng gp chn thnh ca bn
c, c bit l ca i ng ging vin, sinh vin cc trng S phm v
gio vin tiu hc trong c nc.
Xin trn trng cm n.
D n pht trin gio vin tiu hc

Ch 1
H thng ho kin thc v vn hc Vit nam
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hc trung hc ph thng
(15 tit: 8 tit l thuyt, 7 tit bi tp)
mc tiu
1. V kin thc:
+ Trnh by c nhng c im v thnh tu ca Vn hc Vit
Nam qua cc thi k pht trin.
+ Phn tch c nhng c im v thnh tu c bn ca Vn hc
vit Vit Nam,
2. V k nng:
+ Cm nhn c ci hay, ci p ca cc tc phm vn hc.
+ S dng c cc kin thc vn hc thit k cc bi ging tiu hc
theo tinh thn tch hp.
+ Khi qut ho v h thng ho cc hin tng vn hc; nhn ra cc
qui lut pht trin ca vn hc Vit Nam.
3. V thi :
+ C tinh thn ch ng v sng to trong vic s dng cc kin thc
v k nng vn hc vo hot ng dy hc ting Vit tiu hc.
+ C thc trau di kh nng cm th ci hay, ci p ca cc tc
phm vn chng v vn dng vo dy hc Ting Vit tiu hc.
II. Gii thiu v ch 1
Trong ch ny gm c cc tiu ch sau:
A. Khi qut v nhng c im v thnh tu
ca vn hc vit Vit Nam (6 tit)
1. Thi k t th k X n th k XIX (1, 5 tit)
+ c im: Nhng nt tiu biu ca thi php vn hc trung
i.
+ Thnh tu: Cc tc gi, tc phm tiu biu.
2. Thi k t u th k XX n 1945 (1,5 tit)
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+ c im: Cc xu hng, tro lu vn hc.


+ Thnh tu: Cc tc gi, tc phm tiu biu.
3. Thi k t 1945 n 1975 (1,5 tit)
+ c im: Cc xu hng, tro lu vn hc.
+ Thnh tu: Cc tc gi, tc phm tiu biu.
4. Thi k t 1975 n nay (1,5 tit)
+ c im: Cc xu hng, tro lu vn hc.
+ Thnh tu: Cc tc gi, tc phm tiu biu.
B. Vn hc Vit Nam trong chng trnh tiu hc (2 tit)
1. Gii thiu v nhn xt cch tuyn chn, sp xp v gi hng
dn hc tc phm vn hc Vit Nam trong chng trnh v sch gio khoa
tiu hc.
2. Hng dn sinh vin t nghin cu, hc tp, tch lu cc kin
thc v vn hc Vit Nam c iu kin dy hc tht tt trng tiu hc.
C. Tp phn tch mt s tc phm vn hc Vit Nam,
ch trng cc bi c la chn trong chng trnh tiu hc (6 tit)
1. Cn Sn ca (Nguyn Tri)
2. Ngy xun (Trch Truyn Kiu ca nguyn Du)
3. Ma thu cu c (Nguyn Khuyn)
4. V thm b (Thch Lam)
5. Rm thng ging (H Ch Minh)
6. Vit Bc (Trch Vit Bc ca T Hu).
*Kim tra: (1 tit)
III. iu kin cn thit hc tp ch 1
1. Cc ti liu tham kho cn thit nht v vn hc Vit Nam (S
c ch dn c th cho vic hc tng bi mc).
2. Bng hnh, tranh nh...(Nu c).
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IV. Ni dung
Nh gii thiu trn, ch ny c ba ni dung chnh bn cn tm
hiu. Di y l tng ni dung c th ca tng tiu ch .
Tiu ch 1: Khi qut v nhng c im v thnh tu
ca vn hc vit Vit Nam (6 tit)
Hot ng 1: Xc nh cc kin thc c bn v vn hc vit
Vit Nam t th k X n ht th k XIX (1,5 tit)

Thng tin c bn cho hot ng 1


tm hiu mt cch khi qut v nhng c im v thnh tu ca
vn hc vit Vit Nam t th k X n th k XIX, Bn cn c nhng ti liu
c bn di y:
1. Vn hc Vit Nam, T th k X n gia th k XVIII, Do cc gi
Bi Vn Nguyn, Nguyn S Cn, Hong Ngc Tr bin son, NXB Gio
dc, 1989.
Trong ti liu ny, Bn cn c k cc chng sau:
Chng I. i cng nhng vn thit yu tm hiu vn hc
vit Vit Nam di thi phong kin. Trong chng ny, cn ch ti hai
vn ln l: 1). Mt s vn v h thc thi phong kin; 2). Quan h
gia thc bo v, bi dng bn lnh, bn sc dn tc v kh nng tip
chuyn tinh hoa ngoi lai qua nn vn hc vit ca ta di thi phong kin.
Tm hiu cc vn trn t trang 31 n trang 92.
Chng II. Vn hc t th k X n th k XIV. Trong chng ny,
cn ch ti mt s im nh sau: 1). Tnh hnh t nc v vn ho x hi
t th k X n th k XIV; 2). Vn hc thi L; 3).Vn hc thi Trn. Tm
hiu cc vn trn t trang 93 n trang 137.

Chng III. Vn hc th k XV. Ch cc vn sau: 1) Tnh hnh


t nc phc hng sau cuc khng chin chng Minh thng li; 2). c
im ca vn hc vit th k XV. Tm hiu cc vn trn t trang 141 n
trang 177.
Chng VI. Vn hc t th k XVI n gia th k XVIII. Trong
chng ny, cn tm hiu cc vn sau: 1). Tnh hnh t nc t th k
XVI n gia th k XVIII v c im vn hc thi k ny; 2). Vn hc th
k XVI, hay vn hc thi L - Mc xung t; 3). Vn hc th k XVII n
gia th k XVIII, hay vn hc thi Trnh Nguyn phn tranh. Tm hiu
cc vn nu trn t trang 263 n trang 302.
2. Vn hc Vit Nam, Na cui th k XVIII, Na u th k XIX, Do
cc tc gi ng Thanh L, Hong Hu Yn, Phm Lun bin son, NXB
Gio dc, 1990.
Trong ti liu ny, Bn cn c Chng I: Khi qut vn hc Vit
Nam na cui th k XVIII n na u th k XIX. c chng ny,
Bn cn ch ti nhng im sau: 1).Bi cnh lch s, x hi, vn ho t
tng; 2). Tnh hnh vn hc. Tm hiu cc vn trn t trang 5 n trang
46.
3. Vn hc Vit Nam (T th k X n th k XX), Do Nguyn Phm
Hng bin son, NXB i hc quc gia H Ni, 2001.
Trong ti liu ny, Bn cn c Chng V: Vn hc thi Nguyn
(Na cui th k XIX) v ch ti cc vn sau y: 1). Nhng vn
chung; 2). Cc loi hnh vn hc chnh. Tm hiu cc vn trn t trang
191 n trang 212.
4. c trng vn hc trung i Vit Nam, L Tr Vin, NXB Khoa
hc x hi, 1996.

Trong ti liu ny, Bn cn c cc chng sau: Chng IV: c


trng vn hc Vit Nam Cao nh; Chng V: c trng vn hc trung i
Vit Nam V ng v hu ng; Chng VI: c trng vn hc trung i
Vit Nam Quy phm v bt qui phm. Tm hiu cc vn trn t trang
139 n trang 270.
Nhim v
+ Nhim v 1:

Tm cc ti liu nu trn (T ngun sch ca th vin, ca c


nhn,...)
Nhim v 2:

a). c cc ti liu ngun s 1, 2, 3, 4 theo nhng ch dn c th nu


i vi tng ti liu.
b). Khi c, Bn hy ghi chp, h thng ho cc kin thc
c bn v vn hc vit Vit Nam t th k X n ht th k XIX.
nh gi hot ng 1
Bn hy t nh gi v mc hon thnh Hot ng 1 ca mnh
bng vic tr li cc cu hi di y:
a). Nhng im ni bt v cc iu kin lch s x hi v mi
trng vn ho, t tng ca nn vn hc vit Vit Nam t th k X n th
k XIX l g?
b). S pht trin ca vn hc trung i tri qua cc giai on
nh th no? Trong mi giai on, nhng im ni bt v ni dung v hnh
thc l g? Bn hy nu ra nhng nt ln ca s vn ng vn hc trong ni
dung v hnh thc v nu cc tc gi, tc phm tiu biu.
c). V sao c th ni ni dung yu nc v nhn o l hai ni
dung ni bt v nh si ch xuyn sut nn vn hc trung i Vit Nam t
th k X n cui th k XIX ?
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d).Bn hiu nh th no v tnh qui phm trong vn hc vit


Vit Nam thi trung i? Gii thch do u m c nhng qui phm y t cc
iu kin lch s, x hi, vn ho, t tng ca ch phong kin thi trung
i. Nu ra nhng dn chng thy rng s vn ng ca nn vn hc
trung i Vit Nam mt mt b chi phi bi tnh qui phm v mt khc l
qu trnh ph v nhng qui phm y
e). Bn hy ch ra nhng th loi chnh trong vn hc vit Vit
Nam thi trung i. Ch r nhng th loi no c vay mn t vn hc
Trung Quc v nhng th loi no l thun tu dn tc. Hy ch ra nhng
tc phm quen thuc v cc th loi y.
g). Vn ho, vn hc Trung Quc c nh hng su sc n
vn hc vit Vit Nam thi trung i nh th no v v sao cc tc phm vit
bng ch Hn trong thi k ny vn c coi l tc phm ca nn vn hc
vit Vit Nam? Hy chng minh rng xu th dn tc ho l mt xu th vn
ng ch yu pht trin ca vn hc trung i Vit Nam.
h). Nhng nhn xt v kt lun ca bn y cha?
i). Bn hy xut nhng vn cn c vng mc t chc
smina di s hng dn ca ging vin. V d: V sao thi k vn hc t
gia th k XVIII n na u th k XIX li pht trin rc r? V sao ngi
ph n c coi l nhn vt ni bt trong vn hc thi k ny?

Hot ng 2: Xc nh nhng kin thc c bn


v vn hc vit Vit Nam t u th k XX n 1945 (1,5 tit)

Thng tin c bn cho hot ng 2


xc nh c nhng kin thc c bn v vn hc vit Vit Nam t
u th k XX n 1945, Bn cn c nhng ti liu di y:
1. i cng vn hc, Nguyn Vn Long, Nguyn Th Tuyt
Nhung, Phm Th Vit, NXB i hc Quc gia H Ni, 2001. c ti liu
ny phn Vn hc Vit Nam t u th k XX n cch mng Thng Tm
1945, t trang 63 n trang 78.
2. Vn hc Vit Nam (T th k X n th k XX), Nguyn Phm
Hng, NXB i hc quc gia H Ni, 2001. c trong ti liu ny phn
Vn hc cn i Vit Nam, t trang 213 n trang 257.
3. Vn hc, Lp 11, Tp I, Phn Vn hc Vit Nam, Nguyn nh
Ch Trn Hu T (Ch bin), Nguyn Honh Khung, ng Thanh L,
Nguyn Lc, Hong Nh Mai, Nguyn ng Mnh, Sch chnh l hp nht
nm 2000 (Ti bn ln th t), NXB Gio dc, 2004. c phn ba: Vn hc
Vit Nam t u th k XX n cch mng Thng Tm 1945, t trang 63
n trang 82.
Nhng cun sch ni trn c coi nh ti liu ngun gip Bn
tm hiu nhng ni dung ca bi hc ny.
gii quyt tng ni dung ca bi hc, Bn cn ln lt hon
thnh cc hot ng vi nhng nhim v tng ng.
By gi, Bn hy lm r tng kha cnh ca ni dung bi hc theo
cc hot ng v cc nhim v gi cho Bn.

Nhim v
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hon thnh Hot ng 2, Bn cn tin hnh cc Nhim v sau:


Nhim v 1: Hy tm cc ti liu ni trn (T ngun sch ca th

vin, ca c nhn,...).
Nhim v 2:

a). c cc ti liu ngun s 1,2,3.


b). Khi c, Bn hy ghi chp, khi qut ho cc kin thc
c bn v vn hc vit Vit Nam t u th k XX n 1945.
Nhim v 3:

Sau khi c v ghi chp, Bn hy nu r nhng c im ca vn hc


vit Vit Nam t u th k XX n 1945.
Bn cn tp trung vo nhng kha cnh sau y:
+ Mt s im chung
- Thi k vn hc ny din ra ch gn na th k, nhng c mt v
tr ht sc quan trng trong lch s vn hc Vit Nam. X hi Vit Nam lc
ny c nhiu thay i ln dn n s thay i v thc v tm l con ngi.
y cng l lc nn vn hc mi ra i, n pht trin theo hng hin i
ho, dn dn ri xa nhng nh hng ca vn hc Trung Quc v chu nh
hng ca vn hc Php. Nhng xung t gia ci mi v ci c, gia
thc c nhn i vi thc ti... l c s to nn nhng xung t trong
sng tc vn hc.
- Qu trnh hin i ho ca vn hc Vit Nam t u th k XX
n Cch mng Thng Tm 1945 c th nhn ra ba chng nh sau:
* T u u th k XX n khong 1920 (Nn vn hc
c hin i ho bt u bng s hnh thnh cc th vn xui quc ng);
* T nhng nm 20 n khong 1930 (Nn vn hc c
hin i ho t c nhiu thnh tu);

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* T u nhng nm 30 n 1945 (Nn vn hc c hin


i ho tin ti mt bc mi bng nhiu cuc cch tn su sc trn cc
th loi).
Thi k vn hc ny c nhng im cn lu nh sau:
- Cc sng tc vn hc ly ch quc ng lm cht liu sng tc ngh
thut.
- Nhng ni dung mi do thi i mng li (nhng t tng, quan
im thm m, cm xc mi).
- Nhng hnh thc th hin mi (ngn ng v th loi vn hc).
+ Cc loi hnh vn hc
y l thi k nn vn hc vit bng ch quc ng c v tr quan
trng trong i sng x hi Mt s th loi c vn tip tc tn ti, nhng
s xut hin ca nhiu th loi mi nh: bo ch, truyn ngn, tiu thuyt,
kch bn sn khu, nghin cu, ph bnh, ngh lun to nn s trng
thnh vt bc ca vn hc Vit Nam thi k ny.
nh gi hot ng 2
Bn hy t nh gi v mc hon thnh Hot ng 2 ca mnh
bng vic tr li cc cu hi sau y:
a). Vn hc Vit Nam t u th k XX n 1945 c ny
sinh v pht trin trong bi cnh lch s, x hi, vn ho nh th no?
b). Vic hin i ho nn vn hc Vit Nam tri qua cc giai
on no? Hy nu cc ni dung hin i ho ca mi giai on; nhng
thay i quan nim ngh thut v h thng thi php; i mi v cc th loi
vn hc, ngn ng , ch vit v i ng nh vn.
c). Bn hy nu v phn tch nhng c im chnh ca giai
on vn hc t u th k XX n 1945.

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d). Hy nu nhng nt tiu biu ca cc khuynh lng mn v


hin thc vi nhng tc gi, tc phm tiu biu ca cc khuynh hng ny.
e). Hy nu cc giai on pht trin ca vn hc Vit Nam thi
k t u th k XX n 1945. Nhng thnh tu tiu biu ca tng giai on
l g?
g). Vn hc thi k t u th k XX n 1945 c v tr v
ngha nh th no trong lch s pht trin ca vn hc Vit Nam?
Hot ng 3: Xc nh nhng kin thc c bn v vn hc
Vit Nam t cch mng Thng Tm 1945 n 1975 (1,5 tit)
Thng tin c bn cho hot ng 3
xc nh c nhng kin thc c bn ca vn hc Vit Nam
t cch mng Thng Tm 1945 n 1975, Bn cn c nhng ti liu chnh
di y:
1. Vn hc Vit Nam 1945 1975, Tp I, Do cc gi Nguyn ng
Mnh, Nguyn Trc, Trn Hu T bin son, NXB Gio dc, 1983. Trong
cun ny cn c: Chng I Nn vn hc mi, t trang 3 n trang 36;
Chng II Vn hc giai on 1945 1954, t trang 38 n trang 89;
Chng III Vn hc giai on 1955 1975, t trang 91 n trang 170.
2. Vn hc, Lp 12, Tp I, Phn Vn hc Vit Nam, Hong Nh Mai
Nguyn ng Mnh (Ch bin), H Minh c, Nguyn Vn Long, Trn
Hu T, Sch chnh l hp nht nm 2000 (Ti bn ln th nm), NXB Gio
dc, 2005. Trong cun ny cn c Phn bn Vn hc Vit Nam t Cch
mng Thng Tm 1945 n 1975 (Bi khi qut), t trang 38 n trang 55.
Nhng cun sch ni trn c coi l ti liu ngun gip Bn tm hiu
nhng ni dung ca bi hc ny.

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tm hiu tng ni dung ca phn ny, Bn cn ln lt hon thnh


cc hot ng vi nhng nhim v tng ng.
By gi, Bn hy lm r tng vn ca ni dung bi hc theo cc
hot ng v cc nhim v c gi di y.
Nhim v
thc hin Hot ng 3, Bn cn tin hnh cc Nhim v sau:
+ Nhim v 1:

Tm nhng cun sch thng k trn (T ngun sch ca th vin,


ca c nhn,...).
+ Nhim v 2:

a). c cc cun sch s 1 v 2 gii thiu trn.


b). Khi c, Bn hy ghi chp, khi qut ho nhng kin thc c bn
v Vn hc Vit Nam t cch mng Thng Tm 1945 n 1975.
+ Nhim v 3:

Sau khi c v ghi chp, Bn hy khi qut nhng im ch yu ca


vn hc Vit Nam t cch mng Thng Tm 1945 n 1975 theo nhng vn
di y:
+ Nhng chng ng pht trin ca vn hc Vit Nam t 1945 n
1975 v nhng thnh tu ni bt ca mi chng pht trin.
+ Nhng c im chnh ca vn hc Vit Nam t 1945 n1975.
+ Tnh i chng v tnh nhn dn ca vn hc Vit Nam t 1945 n
1975.
+ S k tha v pht huy nhng t tng ca truyn thng vn hc
dn tc trong vn hc Vit Nam t 1945 n 1975.

nh gi Hot ng 3
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Bn hy t nh gi v mc hon thnh Hot ng 3 ca mnh


bng vic tr li cc cu hi hoc cc vn di y:
a). Hy nu r nhng chng pht trin ca vn hc Vit Nam t 1945
n 1975 v nhng thnh tu ni bt ca mi chng pht trin.
b). Hy phn tch nhng c im chnh ca vn hc Vit Nam t
1945 n 1975 v ch ra mi quan h gia nhng c im y.
c). Tm nhng dn chng t cc tc phm hc chng trnh Vn
hc trung hc ph thng lm sng t mt c im ca Vn hc Vit Nam
t 1945 n 1975 l hng v i chng v mang m tnh nhn dn.
d). Hy ch r vn hc Vit Nam t 1945 n 1975 k tha v pht
huy nhng t tng no ca truyn thng vn hc dn tc.
Hot ng 4: Xc nh nhng kin thc c bn v vn hc
vit Vit Nam t 1975 n nay (1,5 tit)
Thng tin c bn cho hot ng 4
xc nh c nhng kin thc c bn v vn hc vit Vit
Nam t 1975 n nay, Bn cn c nhng ti liu chnh di y:
1. Vn hc Vit Nam (T th k X n th k XX), Phm Mnh Hng
bin son, NXB i hc quc gia H Ni 2001. Trong cun ny cn c
Phn bn Vi nt v vn hc Vit Nam ng i (1975 1995), t trang
335 n trang 349.
2. i cng vn hc, Nguyn Vn Long- Nguyn Th Tuyt Nhung
-Phm Th Vit, NXB i hc Quc gia H Ni, 2001. Trong cun ny cn
c Bi 4 - Nhng ni dung t tng c bn ca vn hc vit Vit Nam, t
trang 97 n trang 115.
Nhng cun sch ni trn c coi l ti liu ngun gip Bn tm
hiu nhng ni dung ca bi hc ny.

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tm hiu tng ni dung ca phn ny, Bn cn ln lt hon thnh


cc hot ng vi nhng nhim v tng ng.
By gi, Bn hy lm r tng vn ca ni dung bi hc theo cc
hot ng v cc nhim v c gi di y.
Nhim v
thc hin Hot ng 4, Bn cn tin hnh cc Nhim v sau:
+ Nhim v 1:

Tm nhng cun sch thng k trn (T ngun sch, ca th


vin, ca c nhn; tm thm trn cc bo, tp ch, cc bi vit ti cc hi
ngh, hi tho v vn hc Vit Nam trong thi ki i mi...).
+ Nhim v 2:

a). c cc cun sch, ti liu tm c.


b). Khi c, Bn hy ghi chp, h thng ho nhng kin thc c bn
v Vn hc Vit Nam t 1975 n nay.
c). Tho lun nhm v chun b cho cuc smina ca lp di s
hng dn ca ging vin: V nhng c im ca vn hc Vit Nam thi k
i mi.
+ Nhim v 3:

Sau smina, Bn hy khi qut nhng im ch yu ca vn hc Vit


Nam t 1975 n nay theo nhng vn di y:
a). Cc giai on pht trin v nhng thnh tu chnh ca mi giai
on.
b). Nhng c im chnh ca vn hc Vit Nam thi k i mi.
c). Nhng u im v nhng hn ch ca vn hc thi k i mi.

nh gi hot ng 4

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Bn hy t nh gi v mc hon thnh Hot ng 4 ca mnh


bng vic tr li cc cu hi hoc cc vn di y:
a). Hy nu r nhng chng pht trin ca vn hc Vit Nam t 1975
n nay.
b). Hy nu nhng c im chnh ca vn hc Vit Nam t 1975 n
nay v ch ra mi quan h gia nhng c im y.
c). Hy ch r vn hc Vit Nam t 1975 n nay k tha v pht
huy nhng t tng no ca truyn thng vn hc dn tc.
d). Nhng u im v hn ch ca vn hc Vit Nam sau 1975 l g?
Thng tin phn hi cho cc hot ng
Thng tin phn hi cho Hot ng 1

Nhng nt c bn ca vn hc vit Vit Nam t th k X n ht th


k XIX
a). V vn hc thi L - Trn
Vn hc L Trn ko di t th k X n th k XIV. Trong giai on
ny cn ch nhng im nh sau:
+ Mt s im chung:
- y l nn vn hc vit u tin ca nc nh. Nn vn hc
ny c hnh thnh v pht trin trong bi cnh va thot khi hn mt
nghn nm Bc thuc. y l thi k nh nc phong kin Vit Nam hnh
thnh v pht trin, va c nhng nt mang bn sc ring, va nhng nt m
phng phong kin phng Bc. Nn vn hc ny c nhiu ng gp vo
cng cuc khng chin chng xm lc v xy dng t nc.
- Vn hc v x hi thi L c s khc nhau so vi thi Trn.
Con ngi, x hi v vn hc thi L ch yu l con ngi, x hi v vn
hc Pht gio. Sang thi Trn, x hi chuyn t x hi Pht gio sang x hi

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Nho gio, nho s thay th tu s, vn hc nh cha c thay bng vn hc


ca nh Nho. Vn hc thi Trn pht trin kh phong ph, a dng.
- Vn hc L Trn ch yu c vit bng ch Hn. n cui
i Trn ch Nm ra i. Vn hc thi k ny thng s dng ngn ng
mang tnh tng trng, c l v quy phm.
- Th loi vn hc c tip thu ca Trung Quc dn dn
c dn tc ho din t i sng tinh thn ca ngi Vit.
+ Cc loi hnh vn hc:
C th phn chia cc th loi vn hc thi L Trn nh sau:
- Th ca : Th sm, th suy l (th Thin), th tr tnh, th t s;
- Bin vn: Ph, hch, co, chiu ch, biu, tu;
- Tn vn: Vn bnh lun, th tn, ng lc;
- Tp vn: Lun thuyt tn gio;
- Truyn k: Truyn, s, vn bia;
Tuy nhin, phi ni rng thnh tu t c nhiu hn c l Th
Thin, Vn chiu, Th tr tnh, Vn hch, Vn ph v Truyn.
b). V Vn hc th k XV

Giai on vn hc ny cn c gi l Vn hc thi L s. Cn ch
nhng im sau:
+ Mt s im chung:
- y l mt thi k vn hc pht trin rc r, l s k tc v pht
trin nhng phm cht tt p ca vn hc thi L Trn c v cm hng v
ngh thut phn nh.
- V t tng x hi, th k XV bc vo thi k ca Nho hc
c tn. Nho gio gi a v b ch trong i sng tinh thn ca con ngi.
- Vn hc c ba khuynh hng chnh:
* Vn hc yu nc;

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* Vn hc th tc, ca tng ch ;
* Vn hc bt mn vi thi th.
+ Cc loi hnh vn hc:
Cn khng nh rng: giai on ny, nhng thnh tu ca cc th
loi vn hc thi L Trn vn c tip tc pht trin. Mt s th loi vn
hc c mt dn vai tr; mt s th loi mi xut hin v kh ni bt l Vn
lun chin bang giao, Co v Th Nm tht ngn xen lc ngn.
c). V vn hc th k XVI na u th k XVIII

n th k XVI, Vn hc trung i Vit Nam bc vo giai on mi,


c nhng im cn ch nh sau:
+ Mt s im chung:
- Vn hc thi k th k XVI na u th k XVIII tn ti trong
bi cnh phc tp ca ch phong kin Vit Nam. Sau khi vua L Thnh
Tng qua i (1479), x hi phong kin Vit Nam bc vo giai on khng
hong trm trng. t nc bt u i vo thi k ri lon t cc triu L Uy
Mc, L Tng DcNm 1527, Mc ng Dung cp ngi nh L. Cuc
chin tranh Nam Bc triu ko di gn 50 nm (1546 1592), ri cuc
Trnh Nguyn phn tranh cng ko di gn na th k (1627 1672).
- Mu thun c bn ca x hi Vit Nam t th k XVI n u
th k XIX l mu thun giai cp. l mu thun gia cc tng lp b tr
vi cc tng lp thng tr. Nu giai on trc, vn s phn dn tc
c t ln hng u, th giai on ny, vn s phn con ngi l vn
ni bt. Vn hc c s chuyn hng mnh m trong vic u tranh v
bnh vc cho con ngi b nh thot khi nhng bt cng ca x hi.
- Nho gio chim a v c tn, tr thnh cng c ca giai cp
thng tr qun l x hi v km hm con ngi. Cng do vy, mt tt yu

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phi xy ra l s xut hin nhng t tng chng i ca cc tng lp bnh


dn v nhn dn lao ng.
+ Cc loi hnh vn hc
Trong thi k ny, c cc th loi vn hc ng c ch l: Th
Nm gio hun, Truyn truyn k, Ph Nm v Din ca lch s.
d). Vn hc t gia th k XVIII - n gia th k XIX

+ Mt s im chung:
+ y l thi k rc r nht ca lch s vn hc c trung i
nc nh, t gia th k XVIII n ht na u th k XIX, tc l t triu L
Vnh Thnh (1705 1719) n trc khi thc dn Php xm lc (1858).
y cng l thi k khng hong trm trng nht ca ch phong kin Vit
Nam, c bc l qua nhng xung t d di gia cc tp on phong kin
Trnh v Nguyn, qua phong tro nng dn khi ngha vi nh cao l khi
ngha Ty Sn. T nm 1790, Nguyn nh tiu dit nh Ty Sn, khi phc
quyn bnh, thng nht thin h v thit lp ch phong kin h
khc(1802).
- im c bit ni bt ca giai on ny l: Ch phong kin
lung lay, rn v trc sc mnh vng dy ca qun chng b p bc; nhng
con ngi b tr c iu kin bc l v khng nh bn thn mnh, v do vy,
xut hin nhng con ngi c nhn vi nhng c im lch s c th.
- Vn hc ch Nm pht trin, t ti nh cao nht trong vic
din t th gii ni tm ca con ngi. Vn hc ch Hn tip tc c pht
trin trong iu kin mi, theo hng miu t i sng con ngi vi nhng
c tnh c th.
- Nhn vt trong vn hc thi k ny ch yu l ngi ph n.
Cuc i v s phn ca ngi ph n c khc ho kh sinh ng, su sc
v tr thnh nhn vt chnh ca vn hc thi k ny.

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- Cm hng ch o ca vn hc t th k XVI, c bit l vn


hc th k XVIII v na u th k XIX l ph phn, t co ch chnh tr
ng thi. Cn nhng con ngi b nh, nhng s phn c nhn tch khi
trt t x hi ng thi th c ca ngi.
+ Cc loi hnh vn hc
Thi k ny c s thnh cng rt ng k ca cc th loi c tnh dn
tc, c th l: Truyn th Nm, Khc ngm tr tnh, Ht ni, Ph Nm, Th
Nm tr tnh tro phng, Tiu thuyt chng hi v Vn t.
e). V vn hc na cui th k XIX

+ Mt s im chung
+ y l thi k kt thc nn vn hc c trung i Vit Nam.
Sau cuc xm lng nm 1858, thc dn Php tin hnh cng vic bnh nh
trn ton ci Vit Nam. Triu nh nh Nguyn bt lc. i sng x hi b
xo trn. chnh l nhng c s ca s phn ho ra cc khuynh hng t
tng khc nhau trong vn hc nh: Vn hc yu nc; vn hc ph phn,
t co x hi; vn hc nhn tn, thot li; vn hc ym th, bt lc; vn hc
bm gt bn thc dn xm lc v b l bn nc. Trong cc khuynh hng
ni trn th b phn vn hc yu nc chng Php, cao tinh thn dn tc
v ch ngha anh hng l ng ch hn c.
+ Cc loi hnh vn hc
C nhiu th loi t c nhng thnh tu ngh thut cao, to thnh
nhng mc ln trong lch s vn hc nc nh. C th l: Truyn th Nm,
Kch bn tung, Th Nm tr tnh v tro phng, v Vn t.
Sau khi t nh gi v mc hon thnh Hot ng 1, Bn hy i
chiu vi nhng ni dung c tnh cht phn hi di y kim tra vic
hon thnh Hot ng 1 ca mnh t c mc no. Cc ni dung
phn hi c bn nh sau:

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2.1.1. Nhng im ni bt v mi trng lch s, x hi, vn ho trong giai


on vn hc vit Vit Nam t th k X n ht th k XIX
a). V mi trng lch s, x hi

+ Vn hc vit Vit Nam t th k X n th k XIX tn ti trong


nhng iu kin ca x hi phong kin trung i. Nn vn hc ny tri
qua nhiu triu i phong kin vi nhng giai on khc nhau, song nhng
nt chung v mi trng x hi, vn ho vn mang m tnh cht ca x hi
phong kin trung i cng nhng c im lch s ca thi k i Vit.
+ Tri qua hn mt nghn nm Bc thuc, n th k th X, dn
tc ta tin hnh cuc u tranh ginh c lp. Chin thng qun Nam Hn
ca Ng Quyn trn sng Bch ng (Nm 938) l mt thng li c tnh
quyt nh. Tip l vic inh B Lnh dp lon mi hai s qun, thng
nht t nc, ln ngi hong m ra mt thi k mi ca nc i
Vit.
+ Cc triu i phong kin tip ni sau u c mt hng i
chung l ra sc cng c nn c lp v xy dng nh nc theo hng tp
quyn. C th l:
- Triu L (t 1010 n 1225) v triu Trn (t 1225 n
1400) u tch cc xy dng v pht trin nh nc phong kin c lp,
hng mnh, sc nh bi nhng cuc xm lng ca nh Tng v nh
Nguyn.
- Triu Hu L th k XV, bng cuc khng chin chng
nh Minh thng li, t ti nh cao cc thnh ca nh nc phong kin
Vit Nam vi s tri dy mnh m ca tinh thn dn tc.
+ Tuy nhin, t th k th XVI tr i, nh nc phong kin bc
l nhng mu thun gay gt. Quyn li ca giai cp phong kin v cc tng
lp nhn dn khng thng nht trong nhng mc tiu chung ca dn tc nh
trc y na, m i dn ti s khng hong. Nhng mu thun gia cc tp
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on phong kin v gia nng dn vi a ch cng tr nn gay gt hn, hu


qu l:
- Tnh trng ct c, phn tranh ko di sut my trm nm
t L Mc n Trnh Nguyn, chia ct t nc thnh vng triu
ng trong v vng triu ng ngoi.
- Cc cuc khi ngha ca nng dn lin tip n ra m nh
cao l cuc khi ngha Ty Sn lt tt c my vng triu ng
trong v ng ngoi, thu giang sn v mt mi v nh tan cc cuc xm
lng c pha Bc v pha Nam.
- Triu Nguyn thay th nh Ty Sn, c gng cng c
ch phong kin tp quyn, nhng khng tr ni trc cuc xm lng ca
ch ngha thc dn phng Ty. Cui cng, i n tht bi v u hng.
- Vo cui th k XIX, nc ta tr thnh thuc a ca
Php v x hi nc ta chuyn sang ch thc dn na phong kin.
Nh vy, ch phong kin Vit Nam tn ti sut mi th k,
tri qua nhng giai on khc nhau nhng vn khng vt ra khi x hi
phong kin trung i phng ng.
b). V mi trng vn ho

Nn vn hc trong x hi phong kin trung i c coi l mt b


phn trong i sng vn ho tinh thn ca thi y, n cng chu s chi phi
ca vn ho, t tng v tn ngng ca c dn tc trong ch y. Vn ho
Vit Nam trong giai on ny l mt h thng a dng, bao gm c nhng
yu t ni sinh v ngoi nhp, c th hin cc phng din: Con ngi
trong quan nim o c, nhn sinh; tn gio v tn ngng; quan nim
thm m; cc sinh hot vn ho, phong tc tp qun,...
2.1.2. Cc giai on pht trin

C ba giai on pht trin.

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Giai on th nht: t th k X n th k XV
Giai on ny c nhng im ng ch nh sau:
+ V lch s: Nc ta thot khi hn mt nghn nm Bc
thuc, bc vo thi k c lp, t ch di ch phong kin. Sc mnh
ca dn tc c th hin rt mnh lit trong xy dng t nc v trong cc
cuc khng chin chng ngoi xm i L, i Trn v i L.
+ V vn hc: Nn vn hc vit ra i l mt bc ngot
ln trong tin trnh lch s vn hc ca dn tc. Ch Hn c s dng cho
sng tc vn hc vit thi k u, n cui th k XIII th c thm ch
Nm. Nhng ngi sng tc vn chng l vua, quan, nh nho, nh s. Ban
u, cc th loi ca vn hc vit c tip thu t nn vn hc ca Trung
Quc, v sau c thm mt s th loi mang ngun gc dn tc nh th lc
bt, song tht lc bt,...
Cc tc gi, tc phm tiu biu ca giai on ny l: Vn nc (Quc
T) ca nh s Php Thun (915-990), Chiu di (Thin chiu)
vit nm 1010 ca vua L Thi T, Sng ni nc Nam (Nam quc sn h)
tng truyn l ca L Thng Kit. y l nhng tc phm m u cho
dng vn hc yu nc trong vn hc vit ca nc nh. Dng th Thin i
L c nhng bi ng ch l: C bnh bo mi ngi (Co tt th chng)
ca s Mn Gic, T lng (Ngn hoi) ca s Khng L,...
n thi Trn, dng th yu nc tip tc pht trin. Tc phm tiu
biu c Hch tng s vn ca Trn Hng o, Ph gi v kinh (Tng gi
hon kinh s) ca Trn Quang Khi,...Vo cui th k XIII, Hn Thuyn v
Nguyn S C dng ch Nm sng tc vn hc. Cng giai on ny
xut hin nhng tc phm vn xui bng ch Hn nh Nhng chuyn linh
thing t Vit ( Vit in u linh) ca L T Xuyn, Nhng chuyn qui l
t Lnh Nam (Lnh Nam chch qui) ca Trn Th Php,...
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Sang th k XV, nn vn hc vit tip tc pht trin v c nhng thnh


tu rt ng k l: Quc m thi tp ca Nguyn Tri, Hng c quc m thi
tp ca L Thnh Tng v Hi Tao n. Th vn Nguyn Tri c ch Hn
ln ch Nm, c coi l tiu biu nht ca th k XV.
Giai on th hai: t th k XVI n na u th k XVIII
+ V lch s: Giai on hn hai th k ny t nc khng b ngoi
xm e do, nhng s tranh ginh quyn lc bng nhng cuc chin tranh
gia cc tp on phong kin L - Mc v sau l Trnh Nguyn lm
cho t nc b phn x v cng lm suy yu dn ch phong kin tp
quyn.
+ V vn hc: Thi k ny vn tip tc pht trin vi cm hng yu
nc nhng thin v khai thc lch s dn tc. Tc phm tiu biu c th k
n l Thin Nam ng lc - mt bn din ca v lch s t nc bng th lc
bt; Truyn k mn lc (Ghi chp tn mn v nhng truyn l c lu
truyn) ca Nguyn D. Tc gi tiu biu ca giai on ny phi k n l
Nguyn Bnh Khim, ng c coi l cy cao bng c ca th k XVI vi
s tng hp cao ca Nho gio, o gio v vn ho dn tc trong cc sng
tc vn hc.
Giai on th ba: t gia th k XVIII n gia th k XIX
+ V lch s: y l giai on ch phong kin Vit Nam ri vo
tnh trng khng hong trm trng. Cc s kin lin tip xy ra l: cc tu
bun phng Ty mang theo t tng t bn ch ngha v o Thin Cha
vo nc ta; nhiu cuc khi ngha nng dn bng n m tiu biu l cuc
khi ngha Ty Sn dp yn cc tp on phong kin, thng nht t
nc, qut sch qun xm lc Mn Thanh, em li mt tng lai xn ln
cho t nc. Nhng nh Ty Sn nhanh chng tht bi. Nh Nguyn ln
nm quyn v thit lp mt ch phong kin cc k bo th.
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+ V vn hc: y l giai on pht trin mnh m nht trong mi


th k ca vn hc trung i nc ta. Th vn vit bng ch Hn, vit bng
ch Nm u rt pht trin v u t c nhng thnh tu to ln. Ni
dung vn hc kh phong ph, a dng. Cm hng v t nc, v dn tc v
c bit l cm hng nhn o u c ch trng khai thc. Hnh tng
ngi ph n ni bt trong nhiu tc phm ca Nguyn Du, H Xun
Hng, Nguyn Gia Thiu, ng Trn Cn. Cc th loi vn hc kh a
dng. loi hnh t s vit bng ch Hn c cc th tu bt, k s v c
bit phi k n b tiu thuyt lch s Hong L nht thng ch ca Ng
Gia Vn Phi. Truyn th Nm bnh dn v bc hc u pht trin mnh, m
tiu biu nht l Truyn Kiu ca Nguyn Du c coi l tp i
thnh ca c nn vn hc dn gian v bc hc nc nh. Trong loi hnh tr
tnh, th ng lut v c phong vn tip tc c duy tr, nhng n y
c s pht trin mnh ca th ngm khc, thng c vit bng th song
tht lc bt, mt th th thun tu ca dn tc, vi nhiu tc phm t n
trnh cao v ngh thut. Giai on ny c im rt ng ghi nhn na l
vic sng to ra th ht ni mt th th m v sau c cc nh th mi s
dng to thnh th th tm ch rt c gi tr. Tm li, y l th k c
nhiu tc gi, tc phm tiu biu, c nhiu ti nng v phong cch c o
v c nhiu sng to c bit cho vn hc nc nh.
Giai on th t: Na sau th k XIX
+ V lch s: Ngy 31-6-1858, thc dn Php n sng vo
Nng, chnh thc xm lc nc ta. Nh Nguyn bc nhc, khng tp hp
c lc lng ca ton dn chng ngoi xm, nhanh chng tho hip
ri i n u hng. Cc nh nho yu nc dy ln phong tro chng
Php xm lc trn khp t nc v c nhn dn hng ng si ni.
Nhng nhng cuc chin u khng cn sc u tm thi b tht bi. Cuc
26

giao tranh gia hai nn vn ho ng Ty din ra mt cch trc tip. V


c bn, x hi Vit Nam lc ny vn l x hi phong kin. Nhng cng vi
s h ca thc dn Php, x hi phong kin Vit Nam chuyn dn
sang ch thc dn na phong kin, bt u l Nam k.
+ V vn hc: Nhng bin ng ca lch s tc ng mnh m ti
vn hc. xut hin vn hc vit bng ch quc ng Nam k, nhng
nhn chung trong c nc th vn hc vit bng ch Hn v ch Nm vn
chim phn ln v vn theo nhng th loi, nhng thi php vn c. Cm
hng yu nc, chng ngoi xm c khi dy mnh m v thot dn ra
khi thc trung qun. Vn hc lc ny c ba thi ca ngi sng tc
trc vn s phn ca dn tc.
- Vn hc ca nhng ngi yu nc gm: vn hc ca nhng
ngi trc tip chng Php nh Nguyn nh Chiu, Phan Vn Tr, Nguyn
Quang Bch, Nguyn Xun n, Phan nh Phng, Tn Tht Thuyt; vn hc
ca nhng ngi khng chng Php nhng mun cu nc bng con ng
duy tn, ci cch nh Nguyn Trng T; v vn hc ca nhng ngi yu
nc nhng ch cn bit s dng vn chng, s dng ting ci lm
phng tin chm bim, kch nh Nguyn Khuyn, T Xng...
- Vn hc ca nhng ngi khng c thi g ng k trc vn
mnh ca dn tc: l vn chng c t, vn chng ca mt b phn
trong tng lp qu tc nh Nguyn, vn chng v o l thng thng v
truyn thng, vn chng thot li lng mn.
- Vn hc ca nhng ngi t nhiu c quan h vi ng li vn
ho ca thc dn Php nh Tn Th Tng, Hong Cao Khi... Ring
Trng Vnh K th kh phc tp: ng gn b mt thit vi thc dn Php
nhng chnh ng li l ngi c cng ln trong vic hin i ho nn vn
ho Vit Nam.
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Tm li, nn vn hc Vit Nam na sau th k XIX c ba tc gi tiu


biu nht l Nguyn nh Chiu, Nguyn Khuyn v T Xng. Vn
chng ca cc tc gi ny l nhng du son m nt trong lch s vn hc
nc nh.
2.1.3. Mt s c im ln v ni dung v hnh thc

Trong sut mi th k, nn vn hc Vit Nam c nhiu s bin i


v ni dung v hnh thc, nhng nhn chung, cc giai on pht trin ca
vn hc nc nh vn c s thng nht cn bn v ni dung v hnh thc
ngh thut. Nhng im thng nht c th tm tt nh sau:
a). Ch ngha yu nc v ch ngha nhn o l nhng ni dung ni
bt, n nh mt si ch xuyn sut c qu trnh pht trin ca lch s vn hc
Vit Nam.

- Ch ngha yu nc vn c hnh thnh v pht


trin t trong vn hc dn gian; khi t nc ginh c c lp, ch
ngha yu nc cng c iu kin pht trin, n va ra sc t cng, va
phi ng u vi nn ngoi xm lun lun e do. Ch ngha yu nc
c biu hin thc t cng, t tn dn tc, nht l khi T quc b xm
lng, n c th hin lng yu nc, cm th gic v ch quyt chin
gi gn c lp dn tc. Trong vn hc L Trn v vn hc L s, ch
ngha yu nc pht trin kh rc r. iu ny c th hin r t Chiu
di ca L Thi T (1010) n Bi th thn ca L Thng Kit, Hch
tng s ca Trn Hng o, Ph Bch ng giang ca Trng Hn Siu,
Trm x kim ph ca S Hi Nhan, Qun trung t mnh tp v Bnh Ng i
co ca Nguyn Tri, Hong L nht thng ch ca Ng gia vn phi...
- Ch ngha nhn o c ni dung c bn l o l
lm ngi, o l y c xy dng trn c s tm l cng ng x hi v
dn tc. Trong vn hc L Trn, ch ngha nhn o vn c ca dn tc
kt hp vi ch ngha nhn i ca nh Pht cng ang c dn tc ho.

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Vua Trn Thi Tng l ngi theo o Pht, c tc phm Thin tng ch nam
t ni nhiu v lng nhn i i vi dn, mun c sng gn dn. Trong
vn hc L s, lc Nho gio tr thnh quc gio th ch ngha nhn o
vn c ca dn tc kt hp vi hc thuyt nhn ngha ca Nho gio v
c ci ho theo tinh thn o l ca dn tc Vit Nam. Vn chng
Nguyn Tri l tiu biu nht cho tinh thn ny. Sang th k XVIII v u
th k XIX, mt tro lu nhn o ch ngha tri dy kh mnh m v mang
tnh lch s c th r rt. l tro lu nhn o ch ngha chng phong
kin, i quyn sng cho con ngi. Nhiu ting ni i quyn sng vi
nhng kha cnh khc nhau c th hin trong cc tc phm tiu biu nh:
Chinh ph ngm, Truyn Kiu, Cung on ngm khc, Hoa tin truyn..., cc
truyn Nm khuyt danh, th ca Cao B Qut, Lc Vn Tin ca Nguyn
nh Chiu (vit trc khi thc dn Php xm lc). na sau th k XIX,
ch ngha nhn o trong vn hc nhng ch cho ch ngha yu nc
chng xm lc, hay ni cch khc, ch ngha yu nc chng xm lc l
ch ngha nhn o c tip tc pht trin trong hon cnh t nc c
gic ngoi xm. Tinh thn ny c th hin trong cc phm ca Tng
Thin Vng, ng Huy Tr, Nguyn Khuyn, T Xng...
b). V th loi vn hc: Vn hc trung i Vit Nam c mt h

thng th loi kh phong ph, bao gm nhng th c ngun gc t Trung


Quc v nhng th thun tu dn tc. V vn c cc th vn vn, vn xui
v bin vn. V th, bn cnh cc th c ngun gc Trung Quc nh th c
phong, th ng lut c dng rt ph bin vi nhng bin th ca n
nh th lc ngn, cn c nhng th th thun tu dn tc nh th lc bt,
song tht lc bt, ht ni. Vn bin ngu c s dng nhiu trong cc th
ph, vn t v li nhiu tc phm ni ting cho vn hc trung i nc
nh. Cc th th lc bt, song tht lc bt thng c s dng vo vic vit
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cc tc phm di, c t s v tr tnh. Hu ht vn xui trong vn hc Vit


Nam trung i u c vit bng ch Hn, gm cc th truyn (truyn lch
s, truyn truyn k), cc th k (k s, tu bt, bt k). Bn cnh cc th
thuc loi hnh t s v tr tnh, cc th vn hnh chnh cng v nh
chiu, biu, hch, co... cng gi mt v tr quan trng trong vn hc trung
i. Cc th vn ny cng mang nhiu sc thi thm m v nhiu tc phm
t ti nh cao v ngh thut, c coi l nhng kit tc ca vn hc dn
tc nh Hch tng s vn ca Trn Hng o, Bnh Ng i co ca
Nguyn Tri. S vn ng v mt th loi trong mi th k ca vn hc
trung i Vit Nam l lun hng ti s phong ph v hon thin ca cc
th loi, ng thi pht trin theo hng dn tc ho, nht l cc th thun
tu dn tc b phn vn hc vit bng ch Nm v gim thiu tnh qui
phm ca cc th loi c ngun gc nc ngoi.
c). V tnh qui phm v s ph v tnh qui phm trong ni dung v hnh thc
ca vn hc trung i

- Vn hc trung i tn ti v pht trin trong mi trng x


hi v vn ho phong kin mang m tnh qui phm, nn bn thn n cng
c hnh thnh nhng qui phm rt cht ch v c ni dung v hnh thc.
Tnh qui phm c th hin cc kha cnh khc nhau, chng hn nh ni
n con ngi th trc tin phi l minh qun, hin thn, qun t, k s vi
l tng trung qun i quc, vi o l qun thn, ph t; ni n ph n th
phi l cng - dung - ngn - hnh, hoc l nhng tm gng lit n, nhng
mi tnh ca cc bc ti t, giai nhn; ni v thin nhin th bao gi cng
phi c tng cc trc mai. Tnh qui phm cng gn lin vi tnh trang
nh, tnh c l qua nhng ngn ng, hnh nh, cch thc so snh, biu hin.
Vn hc trung i khng ch trng miu t mt cch tht chnh xc nhng
s vt, hin tng, m ch trng ti nhng vn c biu th bng cc s
vt, hin tng . V vy, mun hiu c vn hc trung i, cn phi bit
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