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K THUT SY

THIT B SY THNG QUAY,


TNG SI, DNG CAO TNG,
BC X
GVHD: Thy Nguyn L Hng Sn
Nhm bo co: NHM 4
Khoa : C Kh ng Lc
Ngnh: Cng ngh K thut Nhit

NI DUNG TRNH BY
1

Tng quan

Thit b sy thng quay

Thit b sy tng si

Thit b sy dng cao tn

Thit b sy bc x

Thit b ph trong h thng

TNG QUAN
Vai tr ca sy trong sn xut v i
sng
Sy l qu trnh tch lng ra khi vt liu bng phng php nhit. Ngy
xa ngi ta bit s dng phng php sy t nhin rt n gin l phi
nng. Tuy nhin, phi nng b hn ch ln l cn din tch sn phi rng v
ph thuc vo thi tit, c bit l bt li trong ma ma. V vy, trong
nhiu lnh vc sn xut ngi ta phi sy nhn to.
Kt qu ca qu trnh sy l hm lng cht kh trong vt liu tng ln.
iu c ngha quan trng trn nhiu phng din khc nhau.
- Nguyn tc ca qu trnh sy l cung cp nng lng nhit bin i
trng thi pha lng trong vt liu thnh hi. Hu ht cc vt liu trong sn
xut cha pha lng l nc v ngi ta gi l m.
- Vic cung cp nng lng cho vt liu trong qu trnh sy c tin hnh
theo cc phng php truyn nhit bit.

Phn loi k thut sy:


1. Da vo tc nhn sy: sy khng kh hay khi l, sy thng hoa, sy
bng dng in cao tn.
2. Da vo p sut lm vic: sy chn khng, sy p sut thng
3. Da vo phng php lm vic: my sy lin tc, my sy gin
on.
4. Da vo phng php cung cp nhit cho qu trnh sy: sy tip
xc hay sy i lu, sy bc x, sy bng dng in cao tng.
5. Da vo cu to thit b: phng sy, hm sy, sy bng ti, sy trc,
sy thng quay, sy tng si, sy phun,..
6. Da vo chuyn ng tng i ca tc nhn sy v vt liu sy:
sy xui chiu, ngc chiu, cho dng,

Cc thit b sy c bn:
- Thit b sy i lu.
- Thit b sy bc x.
- Thit b sy tip xc.
- Thit b sy dng in trng cao tn.
- Thit b sy thng hoa.
- Thit b sy chn khng thng thng

Cc thit b ph:
- Qut gi.
- Calorifer.
- Thit b lc bi.
- Thit b truyn ti

2. SY THNG QUAY
H thng sy thng quay l mt
thng sy hnh tr vi mt gc
nghing xc nh. Trong thng c cc
cnh xo trn, khi thng quay th vt
liu sy chuyn ng t u ny sang
u kia v tc nhn sy cng vo u
ny, ra u kia.
H thng sy thng quay chuyn
dng sy vt liu dng ht hoc dng
cc nh, m thng ly i l
m b mt.

2.1 Cu to v nguyn l hot ng


Cnh khuy
Nhim v ca cc cnh
khuy l o trn cho cc
VLS cho u v lm cho
cc VLS tng kh nng trao
i nhit v lm cho vt liu
sy thot hi m nhanh hn v
lm gim bt thi gian sy. V
ta c rt nhiu cnh khc nhau,
cnh khuy kp, cnh khuy
n v cng c lm t
nhng vt kiu cng v chu
c va p nh thp.

1.Thng quay
2.Vnh i
3.Con Ln
4.Bnh rng
5.Phu hng sn phm 6.Qut ht
7.Thit b lc bi 8.L t
9.Con ln chn
10.M t qut chuyn ng 11.B tng
12.Bng ti
13.Phu tip liu
14.Van iu chnh 15.Qut thi

2.1 Cu to v nguyn l hot ng


My sy thng quay gm 1 thng hnh tr (1) t nghing
vi mt phng nm ngang 1- 6o. Ton b trng lng ca thng
c t trn 2 bnh ai (2). Bnh ai c t trn bn con
ln (3), khong cch gia 2 con ln cng 1 b (11) c th
thay i iu chnh cc gc nghing ca thng, ngha l iu
chnh thi gian lu vt liu trong thng.
Thng quay c l nh c bnh rng (4 ). Bnh rng (4) n
khp vi vi bnh rng dn ng (12) nhn truyn ng ca ng
c (10) qua b gim tc.

Vt liu t c np lin tc vo u cao ca thng qua phu


cha(14)v c chuyn ng dc theo thng nh cc m ngn. Cc
m ngn va c tc dng phn b u vt liu theo tit din thng,
o trn vt liu va lm tng b mt tip xc gia vt liu sy v tc
nhn sy. Cu to ca m ngn ph thuc vo kch thc ca vt
liu sy tnh cht v m ca n.
Vn tc ca khi l hay khng kh nng i trong my sy khong
2- 3 m/s,thng quay 5-8 vng/pht. Vt liu kh cui my sy c
tho qua c cu tho sn phm (5) ri nh bng ti xch (12) vn
chuyn vo kho.
Khi l hay khng kh thi c qut (7) ht vo h thng tch bi,
tch nhng ht bi b cun theo kh thi. Cc ht bi th c tch
ra, hi lu tr li bng ti xch (12). Kh sch thi ra ngoi. C nhiu
loi thit b lc bi hnh bn l thit b lc bi kiu Xyclon

2.2 u nhc im ca h thng sy thng quay


u im :
- Qu trnh sy u n v mnh lit nh tip xc tt gia vt liu
sy v tc nhn sy.
- Cng sy ln, c th t 100kg m bay hi/m3h.thit b nh
gn, c th c kh v t ng ha hon ton.
- My sy quay c c trng bi cng sut ln vi mc tiu th
nng lng thp.
- N c thit k vi c cu hp l, hot ng thn thin vi mi
trng, t to nhim
Nhc im :Vt liu b o trn nhiu nn d to bi do v vn.
Do trong nhiu trng hp s lm gim cht lng sn phm
sy.

2.3 ng dng:
My sy thng quay c s dng sy cc loi vt liu dng bt
hoc ht nh m t. c bit thch hp cho cc loi nguyn liu c
khuynh hng b ri hoc dnh vo nhau trong bng chuyn hoc khay
sy. Tuy nhin do va p, c xt trong my, chng ch hn ch s dng
cho tng i t loi sn phm (v d: ht u, ht cacao, caf,). My
c cu to chuyn bit cho vic lm kh nhanh chng cc vt liu.
N vn hnh n gin, tiu th in nng thp v c s dng rng ri
trong ngnh cng nghip.

H thng sy ct

Sy Cafe Thng Quay

5. H THNG SY BC X
Sy bc x l phng php sy dng dng nhit bc x gia
nhit v sy kh vt lu. Ngun nhit bc x thng dng l n
hng ngoi,in tr (dy,tm hay thanh in tr), dng nhin liu
lng hay kh, tm kim loi c t nng ti nhit nht nh
vt nng pht ra bc x hng ngoi.
Ngoi ra sy bng bc x cng c da trn s hp th nng
lng bc x mt tri v chuyn i thnh nng lng nhit ca
nhin liu sy (phng php t nhin).
Bn cht ca qu trnh sy bc x:L s bc hi nc ca sn
phm nhit bt k. L qu trnh khuch tn do chnh lch m
b mt v bn trong vt liu.

CC PHNG PHP SY BNG BC X


Phng php t nhin: phi nng
Phng php nhn to:
- Thit b sy bc x dng hng ngoi
- Thit b sy bc x dng b mt bc x bng in tr
- Thit b sy bc x gia nhit bng hi t

Phng php t nhin


Phi nng
y l phng php li dng nng
lng mt tri lm kh nguyn
liu v cng l phng php sy
truyn thng ph bin nht.
Nhit t nh sng mt tri s t
nng nguyn liu v lm cho nc
trong nguyn liu bc hi v t n
m cn thit. Hiu qu ca qu
trnh phi nng ph thuc vo nhit
v m tng i ca khng kh,
tc gi,loi v iu kin ca
nguyn liu

u im:
+ Khng cn dng n nhin liu hay nng lng cho cc my sy.
+ Thc hin n gin, r tin.
+ S hot ng ca vi sinh vt, su mt gim ng k do tc dng
ca bc x mt tri.
+ Khng gy nhim mi trng.
Nhc im:
+ Khng ch ng,hon ton ph thuc vo thi tit.
+ Khng thc hin c lin tc hoc trong sut c nm.
+ Tn tht do gy v, chim chc, chut, b ln t ct v d b m
khi tri ma, v vy phi c nhng dng c hay xy dng sn phi
c bit.
+ Khng ph hp cho mt lng ln nhin liu c thu hoch
trong mt thi gian ngn.
+ Tn nhiu cng lao ng v khng c gii ha c.

Phng php nhn to:


Thit b loi ny c kt cu gn nh v d iu khin ch sy.
Thng dng n hng ngoi hay dy in tr lng trong ng gm
hoc tm in tr lm ngun bc x nhit.
Trong h thng sy bc x, nng lng nung nng vt sy n
nhit bay hi ca m v cp cho qu trnh bay hi m chnh l
nng lng bc x pht ra t cc ngun bc x (n hng ngoi,
dy in tr)

Thit b sy bc x dng hng ngoi

1.Qut,
2.Tang quay,
3.Phu cp vt liu sy,
4.ng thi tc nhn sy,
5.Bung sy,
6.n pht tia hng ngoi,
7.Bng ti,
8.Ca ra sn phm

Dng n hng ngoi c u im l qun tnh nhit khng ng


k, iu khin d dng. Nhc im l do ton b sng hng ngoi
pht ra c bc sng kh rng t 0.76 400m, khi dng sy nng
sn tch nc li cn bc sng thp t 0.4 40m, do tiu
hao nng lng cao, hiu sut thit b thp.
qu trnh bay hi m tt v trnh cho vt liu sy b t nng
qu mc ngi ta dng qut i lu cng bc tc nhn sy (khng
kh). V vy m h thng sy bc x cn gi l h thng sy bc x i lu.

Thit b sy thp bc x - i lu
h thng sy thp bc x - i
lu th thi gian sy ph thuc vo
tc t chy ca ht v tng
chiu di mng nghing. Nng sut
sy ph thuc vo chiu rng,
chiu dy,tc chy ca lp ht.
Chiu cao ca thp ph thuc vo
kch thc, gc nghing v s
lng mng nghing. Nu ma st
gia ht v mng ln, gc nghing
nh th c th to rung cho cc
mng mt cch hp l.
1.Ca vo vt liu sy, 2.Thn thp,
3.n pht tia hng ngoi, 4.Ca ra

Thit b sy bc x dng b mt bc x bng in tr


Thit b ngun nhit l dy in
tr ttrong ng kim loi, thanh
in tr hay in tr tm. Cng
sut ring trn n v din tch b
mt kh ln. Thit b sy bc x
thng b tr cc thanh in tr
t xung quanh vch bung sy.
Vt liu sy c treo trn gi
trong bung sy.
1.Thanh in tr 2.Gi treo vt
liu

Thit b sy bc x gia nhit bng hi t


Phng php ny r tin hn s dng in nhng c nhc
im l vn hnh phc tp,sn phm chy thot ra gy nhim
mi trng.
Trong thit b sy bc x dng hi t, b mt bc x l cc tm
gch chu la c gia nhit bng kh ga. Thit b ny dng sy
giy (ngi ta c th dng my sy l).

u im:
+ Cng bay hi m ln hn vi ln so vi phng php sy i
lu v tip xc do dng nhit bc x trn n v din tch ln hn
ng k.
+ Thit b gn nh, chim t din tch.
+ Thi gian sy cho php rt ngn, do tng nng sut v gim gi
thnh sn phm.
Nhc im:
+ Sn phm sy d nt v cong vnh. V vy cc vt liu nh g, men
s khng thch hp vi kiu sy ny.
+ Phng php sy bc x thch hp vi cc vt liu mng nh vi,
giy, cc chi tit kim loi sn hay cc sn phm xi m.

CC THIT B PH TRONG H THNG SY


6.1 Calorifer
C nhim v t nng khng kh n mt nhit theo yu cu
cung p nhit cho VLS ng thi gim m tng i tng
kh nng nhn m.
Ty theo ngun cung cp nhit lng m ta c:
- Calorifer in
- Calorifer hi nc
- Calorifer khi thi.

QUT

6.2 Qut
Qut l thit b dng vn
chuyn ( ht v y) a khng
kh qua Calorifer vo thit b sy
thc hin qu trnh sy v mang
m thi ra mi trng. Cu to v
cch chn qut theo lu lng ta
c hc trong gio trnh
Bm qut v My nn

6.3 Bung t
Bung t trong thit b sy
khc vi bung t trong l hi.
Bung t trong thit b sy c
th s dng nhin liu sy v
nhit ca mi cht yu cu
thp( thng khng vt qu
900-1000C)

6.4 Thit b truyn ti


Thit b truyn ti trong HTS
c hiu l thit b vn chuyn
VLS trong TBS trc cng nh
sau khi sy. Thit b truyn ti
co th l xe gong, bng ti,
- Kt cu v kch thc ca xe
gong ph thuc vo hm sy
- VLS khng ri, chiu rng
ca bng ti khng nn nh hn
500mm. Cc thng s ca bng
ti c xc nh theo nng sut
th tch

Cyclone

2.1.3 Cyclone

Khi dng kh v bi chuyn


ng theo mt qu o trn (dng
xoy) th cc ht bi c khi lng
ln hn nhiu so vi cc phn t
kh s chu tc dng ca lc ly tm
vng ra pha xa trc hn, phn gn
trc xoy lng bi s rt nh.
Nu ta gii hn dng xoy trong
mt v hnh tr th bi s va vo
thnh v v ri xung y. Khi ta
t tm dng xoy mt ng dn
kh ra, ta s thu c kh khng c
bi hoc lng bi gim i kh
nhiu.