There are five major buying motives: physical, psychological, rational, emotional, product, and patronage. Locate a magazine ad that appeals to each of these different buying motives. Select each ad and fill out the table below. Put the Ads in order, according to your chart and staple to this sheet.

Buying motive

Physical Emotional Rational Patronage Psychologic al

What motivates prospects to buy? Why do they buy what they do? Each prospect enters the selling and buying process with emotional needs and motives that singularly or together cause them to buy your service or product. People buy for their own reasons, not yours or your company’s. Often these reasons are rooted in emotion rather than logic, so although they may not seem reasonable to you, they are important to the prospect. By being more aware of these buying motives in your prospects, you may help reinforce how your products and services meet their needs. The following buying motives are not presented in any special order, and no one motive is more important than another. At least one of these motives applies to every purchase (sale), although often more than one is involved.

Buying Motives


Desire for gain. The prospect desires to gain financially by

the purchase of the product. This especially applies to investments and variable products, and relates more to greed than to need.


Fear of loss. The motivation here is the anxiety of losing

what they have, a fear of financial loss if the product is not bought. The fear of loss is a prime motivation in the purchase of any type of insurance.


Security and protection. This is another important

motive in the purchase of insurance because consumers make countless purchases motivated by the desire to keep themselves, their families, and their property safe.

Satisfaction of emotion. To see our loved ones happy, we
are willing to make significant purchases. The pride of caring and providing special things for those who are important to us is a result of deep-seated emotions. We seek love and appreciation, and avoid disapproval and rejection, almost at all costs. The satisfaction of emotion relates directly to our need for love and satisfying our ego.

Physical Buying Motives
Have you ever stopped to think when you are out in the field working; what makes people buy a certain product or service? Why do some sales representatives and companies do so well, and sell so much? How come all of our products are not blockbusters? If you think about it a little, there really is no magic involved. Some companies and some salespeople know why their customers

buy. They know what makes them tick; they know how to determine a customer’s buying motives. Not only do these successful salespeople know how to determine a customer’s buying motives, but they also know how to fit their products into the customer’s buying motives, this involves creativity. Let’s talk about what makes people buy, and how we can fit our products into this buying scenario. When dealing with customers, especially physicians, in our industry, we need to look for prescribing motives. These are usually the reasons that physicians give for selecting a certain drug. In short, these are the physician’s goals. So you are probably saying to yourself really, but how do I determine the physician’s goals? We have to observe closely for these prescribing motives. Physicians may come out and state them directly. If a physician says, “My chief concern in these cases is achieving relief promptly,” we can accept this as a goal or motive that we can use in our presentation, if appropriate. You can also observe the physician or customer’s behavior to determine their buying motives. It is possible to observe some sign of the doctor’s behavior that suggests a buying motive.

If you notice some spark of interest when you mention low side effects, you may have found an area that is important to the physician, and that is probably one of their goals. We sometimes refer to these notable changes in behavior as the physician’s “hot button.” We need to look for the hot button that makes them respond and come alive. Another very important and easy way to understand the physician’s buying motives is by looking at the physician or customer profile. This profile, which you should have readily available on doctor record cards, or computer, is a powerhouse of valuable information of your physician’s buying motives. It is

precisely for this reason that we need to keep these profiles as up to date as possible. For example, if you notice on your profiles that a certain physician prescribes generics frequently, this may be an indicator that cost of therapy is his/her primary buying motive. We should always keep in mind that buying motives are powerful selling tools. When you have developed an understanding of the physician’s principal buying motives, you can use them to show how the product that you are presenting fits into the physician’s pattern for therapy. Keep in mind that we often have to show and help the physician to see where a product fits into his/her practice. An important point to keep in mind when we do this is show value added, what value does this product bring to the physician and their patients. The value that a product or service provides to the physician in running his/her daily practice is a very powerful buying motive.

Convenience is the desire to use products that are easy or pleasant to take, and thus ensure compliance. We have seen this with physicians favoring products that have a once a day dosage. Physician also likes products with low side effects, because they do not get annoying phone calls from patients who are having problems. It should be kept in mind that physicians have so many products to choose from, that they cannot possibly prescribe them all. So what usually happens is that physicians get into the habit of prescribing the two or three products that they know best, for each therapeutic area. Once again convenience prevails.

Physicians may prefer a product’s attractive color, because children will take it more readily. Many physicians believe that bright colors, in tablet or capsules (especially antidepressants),

are more acceptable to patients. Appearance can be a very important prescribing motive for the physician.

By performance we mean the desire for a product that produces immediate, dramatic results, one that works on a variety of patients. A very important and very challenging motive in our business, because you can’t look at a one pill and distinguish whether it will perform better than another.

The physician’s desire to save money for patients. Economy may be brought about by lower price, shorter duration of therapy, and no or less hospitalization, less time off work, and avoidance of relapse.

Every physician puts safety at the top of his or her lists of motives. They all appreciate a product with a minimum of undesirable side effects or high therapeutic ratio.

Desire for satisfaction, success and esteem, avoidance of discomfort, patient complaint or colleague’s criticism. Status is involved here, especially if you are one of the first to prescribe a new high tech product. We want to sell these prescribing motives in the most effective way possible. It involves noting each physician’s general

prescribing motives and specific prescribing motives for a particular indication, or type of patient. When prescribing a product, one, two, or three motives will normally be enough to make the sale, if we have planned well and have selected the correct motives. All of these motives have to be supported with plenty of proof from analyzing the product for features, advantages, and benefits.

Emotional Buying Motive.
This is a motive that prompts the prospect to act because of an appeal to some sentiment or passion. However, the most powerful of emotional motives can be associated to humans' most basic drivers: Fear or Gain. Emotional motives can generally be seen as those of the heart as opposed to the head and made to satisfy a wish for pleasure, comfort, or social approval. However, when associated with fear or greed, some elements of rationality come into play. For example: (a) Fear-decision to buy a life insurance policy out of fear that spouse and children will be without support or (b) Gain - decision to buy a stock or bond because it has potential (real or imagined) that it will increase in value. Emotional motives are very powerful and often are the underlying basis of the DMB, dominant buying motive. Successful salespeople ask "feel-finding" questions during the "Recognition of Needs" phase of the buying process to uncover these powerful motives.

Rational Buying Motive.
This is a motive which usually appeals to the customer's reason or logical judgment. A buying decision based on rational buying motives is generally the result of an objective review of available information. Some examples include: (a) profit potential or enhancement, (b) quality of service, and (c) availability of technical assistance. Successful salespeople ask "factfinding" questions during the "Recognition of Needs" phase of the buying process to uncover rational buying motives.

A Patronage Buying Motives motive is one that causes the
customer to buy products and services from one particular business (customer loyalty). The customer's prior experience with the company has been judged beneficial, thus the customer wishes to repeat the experience (repeat business). If a competitive product is more or less the same, then these motives can be very powerful in the buying decision. In a world of commodity-like products/services these motives can be the extra competitive advantage. Some examples of patronage buying motives include: (a) Competence of the salesperson and development of relationship with customer, (b) superior service to that of competition is addedvalue which builds loyalty, and (c) selection which offers the customer choice and variety.

Patronage Buying Motives

A Product/Service Buying Motive is one that influences
the customer to make a buying decision to purchase one product/service over a competitor's product/service. In a way, this is an emotional decision since the customer may not directly compare the competitive products/services; they have an intuitive feeling that one product is better than the other. Of course, these feelings may be actual or perceived. These motives can be triggered by marketing stimuli that create a product/service position. Some examples of product/service buying motives are: (a) brand preference, (b) quality preference, (c) price preference, and (d) design or engineering preference. In summary, buyers of low-priced and non-complex consumer products generally tend to rely heavily on emotional buying motives while buyers of higher priced and complex industrial products/services tend to rely on rational buying motives. However, always remember that both sets of motives, emotional and rational, are being considered by all buyers even if in different proportions. Thus, one might say that all buying motives are "Hybrids."

Psychological buying motives
Psychological factors include:

Motives-A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person's activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. Actions are effected by a set of motives, not just one. If marketers can identify motives then they can better develop a marketing mix. MASLOW hierarchy of needs!!
o o o o o

Physiological Safety Love and Belonging Esteem Self Actualization

Need to determine what level of the hierarchy the consumers are at to determine what motivates their purchases.

Handout...Nutriment Debunked...
Nutriment, a product marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb originally was targeted at consumers that needed to receive additional energy from their drinks after exercise etc., a fitness drink. It was therefore targeted at consumers whose needs were for either love and Belonging or esteem. The product was not selling well, and was almost terminated. Upon extensive research it was determined that the product did sell well in inner-city convenience stores. It was determined that the consumers for the product were actually drug addicts who couldn't not digest a regular meal. They would purchase Nutriment as a substitute for a meal. Their motivation to purchase was completely different to the motivation that B-MS had originally thought. These consumers were at the Physiological level of the hierarchy. BM-S therefore had to redesign its MM to better meet the needs of this target market. Motives often operate at a subconscious level therefore are difficult to measure.

Perception-What do you see?? Perception is the process of selecting, organizing and interpreting information inputs to produce meaning. IE we chose what info we pay attentionto, organize it and interpret it. Information inputs are the sensations received through sight, taste, hearing, smell and touch.

Selective Exposure-select inputs to be exposed to our
awareness. More likely if it is linked to an event, satisfies current needs, intensity of input changes (sharp price drop).

Selective Distortion-Changing/twisting current received
information, inconsistent with beliefs. Advertisers that use comparative advertisements (pitching one product against another), have to be very careful that consumers do not distort the facts and perceive that the advertisement was for the competitor. A current example...MCI and AT& you ever get confused?

Selective Retention - Remember inputs that support
beliefs, forgets those that don't. Average supermarket shopper is exposed to 17,000 products in a shopping visit lasting 30 minutes-60% of purchases are unplanned. Exposed to 1,500 advertisements per day. Can't be expected to be aware of all these inputs, and certainly will not retain many. Interpreting information is based on what is already familiar, on knowledge that is stored in the memory.

Handout...South Africa wine....
Problems marketing wine from South Africa. Consumers have strong perceptions of the country, and hence its products.

Ability and Knowledge-Need to understand individual’s capacity to learn. Learning, changes in a person's behavior caused by information and experience. Therefore to change consumers' behavior about your product, need to give them new information re: sample etc. South bottle of wine and pour it!! Also educate American consumers about changes in SA. Need to sell a whole new country. When making buying decisions, buyers must process information. Knowledge is the familiarity with the product and expertise. Inexperience buyers often use prices as an indicator of quality more than those who have knowledge of a product. Non-alcoholic Beer example: consumers chose the most expensive sixpack, because they assume that the greater price indicates greater quality. Learning is the process through which a relatively permanent change in behavior results from the consequences of past behavior.

Attitudes-Knowledge and positive and negative feelings about an object or activitymaybe tangible or intangible, living or non- living.....Drive perceptions Individual learns attitudes through experience and interaction with other people. Consumer attitudes toward a firm and its products greatly influence the success or failure of the firm's marketing strategy.

Handout...Olds mobile.....
Oldsmobile vs. Lexus, due to consumers attitudes toward Oldsmobile (as discovered by class exercise) need to disassociate Aurora from the Oldsmobile name. Exxon Valdez-nearly 20,000 credit cards were returned or cut-up after the tragic oil spill. Honda "You meet the nicest people on a Honda", dispel the unsavory image of a motorbike rider, late 1950s. Changing market of the 1990s, baby boomers aging, Hondas market returning to hard core. To change this they have a new slogan "Come ride with us". Attitudes and attitude change are influenced by consumer’s personality and lifestyle. Consumers screen information that conflicts with their attitudes. Distort information to make it consistent and selectively retain information that reinforces our attitudes. IE brand loyalty. There is a difference between attitude and intention to buy (ability to buy).

Personality-all the internal traits and behaviors that make a person

unique, uniqueness arrives from a person's heredity and personal experience. Examples include:
o o o o o o o o o

Work holism Compulsiveness Self confidence Friendliness Adaptability Ambitiousness Dogmatism Introversion Extroversion

Traits affect the way people behave. Marketers try to match the store image to the perceived image of their customers. There is a weak association between personality and Buying Behavior; this may be due to unreliable measures. Nike ads. Consumers buy products that are consistent with their self concept.

Lifestyles-Recent US trends in lifestyles are a shift towards personal independence and individualism and a preference for a healthy, natural lifestyle. Lifestyles are the consistent patterns people follow in their lives. EXAMPLE healthy foods for a healthy lifestyle. Sun tan not considered fashionable in US until 1920's. Now an assault by the American Academy of Dermatology.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Foremost I would like to thanks “Mrs. Dipshikha” for assigning an interesting and important task. I like to thanks to my subject teacher “Mrs. Kamaldeep Kaur” to help all the students and all necessary support and information .Also thanks to my Friends who helped me in completing the assignment. Last but not least my Parents without their support and love; I can’t able to correct my mistakes.


Buying motives are the influences which provide impulse to buy, induce or determine choice in the purchase of goods and services. They are the driving forces to act this way or that way. The knowledge of these buying motives is significant because: 1. they help to understanding the human mind to match the products accordingly. 2. They enhance the efficiency to face the customers. 3. They improve sales prospects with increased satisfaction to the customers. There are five major buying motives are: Physical buying motives: Economy, Convenience, Safety, Appearance, Performance, pride/pleasure

Emotional buying motives: - Emotional motives can generally be seen as those of the heart as opposed to the head and made to satisfy a wish for pleasure, comfort, or social approval. Rational buying motives: - A buying decision based on rational buying motives is generally the result of an objective review of available information.

Patronage buying motives: - A Patronage Buying Motives motive is one that causes the customer to buy products and services from one particular business (customer loyalty).

Psychological buying motives: - A motive is an internal energizing force that orients a person's activities toward satisfying a need or achieving a goal. Actions are effected by a set of motives, not just one.

At the level it is essential to distinguish buying motives and selling points. Buying motives are those which are in the mind of the consumers. They are consumer specifications. They are the consumer expectations. On the other hand, selling point are the talking points as developed by the manufacturers and dealers. These refer to the product features and benefits that the consumers get if they buy and use them. They are the producer or dealer specifications. In the final analysis these two specifications must match to strike a transaction. Stated briefly, buying motive are the consumer expectations and the selling points are promises of the sellers.




Buying Motives   Physical Buying Motives Emotional Buying Motive

Patronage Buying Motives Psychological buying motives



Mrs. Kamalpreet kaur



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