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Year 13 Chemistry 2015

Chemistry 3.5 (AS91391) Demonstrate understanding of the properties of


organic compounds (5 credits)
Learning Objectives:
At the end of this unit you should be able to:
Recognising, Naming and Drawing

Recognise each of the following functional groups: alkane, alkene,


alkyne, haloalkane, carboxylic acid, amine, ester, aldehyde, ketone,
amide, acyl chloride
Name compounds from the above groups that contain 8 or less
carbon atoms in the main chain
Draw compounds from the above groups that contain 8 or less
carbon atoms in the main chain
Recognise one or more of these groups in more complex molecules
Identify organic reactions as: addition, substitution, condensation,
elimination or redox
Recognise the differences in empirical, molecular, structural and
condensed structural formula
Recognise the differences between constitutional (structural) and
stereoisomerism (geometrical and optical)
Identify the conditions needed for different types of isomerism to
occur
Explain the reasons for the different physical properties of isomers
of the same compound

Alkanes and Alkenes

Explain the different physical and chemical properties of alkanes


and alkenes
Write equations for the common reactions of alkanes and alkenes
Recognise the difference between substitution and addition
reactions and explain the reasons why each one occurs
Identify the major and minor products formed from the addition
reactions of asymmetric alkenes with asymmetric reagents

Alcohols

Classify alcohols as primary, secondary or tertiary


Explain the different physical and chemical properties of alcohols
Explain the differences in the physical properties of isomeric
alcohols
Identify the functional groups formed from the oxidation of primary,
secondary and tertiary alcohols

Identify the common oxidising agents used to perform the oxidation


reactions above
Identify the product formed, write equations for and state the
required reagent(s) for the common reactions of alcohols:
combustion, oxidation, elimination and halogenation
Identify the major and minor products formed from the elimination
reactions of asymmetric alcohols

Haloalkanes

Classify haloalkanes as primary, secondary or tertiary


Write equations for and state the common reagent(s) for the
formation of haloalkanes from alcohols, alkanes and alkenes
Explain the physical properties of haloalkanes
Write equations for and state the common reagent(s) for the
formation of alcohols, alkenes and amines from haloalkanes
Explain nucleophilic substitution with reference to the above
equations
Identify the major and minor products formed from the elimination
reactions of asymmetric haloalkanes

Amines

Classify amines as primary, secondary or tertiary


Explain the physical properties of amines using knowledge about
their intermolecular forces
Identify the product formed and write equations for the reactions of
amines with water and acids

Aldehydes and Ketones

Distinguish between aldehydes and ketones


Write equations for and state the required reagent(s) for the
formation of aldehydes and ketones from the appropriate alcohol
Explain the physical properties of aldehydes and ketones using
knowledge about their intermolecular forces
Describe how to distinguish between aldehydes and ketone
experimentally, stating the reagent(s) required to do so

Carboxylic Acids, Esters, Acyl Chlorides and Amides

Write equations for and state the required reagent(s) for the
formation of carboxylic acids from alcohols or esters
Explain the physical properties of carboxylic acids using knowledge
about their intermolecular forces
Identify the product formed and write equations for the reaction of
carboxylic acids with water, metals, carbonates, bases, PCl3, PCl5,
SOCl2 and ammonium carbonate

Write equations for and state the required reagent(s) for the
formation of esters from alcohols and carboxylic acids or acyl
chlorides
Explain the physical properties of esters using knowledge about
their intermolecular forces
Identify the product formed and write equations for the hydrolysis of
esters and the reaction of esters with ammonia
Describe the structure of fats
Write equations for and state the required reagent(s) for the
formation of acyl chlorides
Explain the physical properties of acyl chlorides using knowledge
about their intermolecular forces
Identify the product formed and write equations for the reaction of
acyl chlorides with water, ammonia solution, primary amines and
alcohols
Write equations for and state the required reagent(s) for the
formation of amides
Explain the physical properties of amides using knowledge about
their intermolecular forces
Identify the product formed and write equations for the hydrolysis of
amides using aqueous acids and alkalis

Polymers

Distinguish between addition and condensation polymers


Name some common polymers formed from addition polymerisation
reactions
Identify the monomers that make up a polymer
Describe the structure of proteins and carbohydrates
Describe the properties of amino acids
Explain the process of forming proteins from amino acids
Explain the hydrolysis of proteins and carbohydrates

Reaction Schemes

Name reagents and write equations for steps in an organic reaction


scheme.

The reagents you are expected to know in this course are:

Substitution reactions (including esterification, condensation,


hydrolysis and polymerisation): Br2 (with light or heat), conc. HCl,
HBr, SOCl2, NaOH, KOH, conc. NH3, primary amines, primary
alcohols/H+, H2O/H+ and H2O/OHOxidation reactions: MnO4-/H+, Cr2O72-/H+, Tollens reagent, Fehlings
reagent and Benedicts reagent
Reduction reactions: NaBH4

Elimination reactions: KOH (in alcohol) and conc. H2SO4


Addition reactions: Br2, conc. HCl, HBr, H2, Cl2

Physical properties that you will need to explain for each functional group
are

Solubility in polar and non-polar solvents


Melting and boiling point
Rotation of plane polarised light