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IIIustrations and text:
One. three or Trinity
Jehovah Witnesses say: "It
is cIear truth that teaching about
the Trinity is one of the deviI's
attempts to stop godIy peopIe
from Iearning the truth about
They add that the word
"trinity" is not in the BibIe and
the theory about the Trinity is
against aII Iogic, it's from the
Deut.6:4 is one of the verses
that JWs think they can use to
disprove the truth about the
Trinity: "Hear, O IsraeI: The
LORD our God is one LORD."
JWs deny that Jesus is God.
They aIso deny that the HoIy
Spirit is a person.
The word "Trinity" is reaIIy
not in the BibIe. There are other
words that are not in the BibIe
but we use them to describe
some spirituaI phenomenon.
But because Trinity as a
phenomenon is in the BibIe it
has a bibIicaI source.
Being against Iogic is not
enough to deny the teaching
about the Trinity.
The BibIe says:
"but God has reveaIed it to us
by his Spirit. The Spirit searches
aII things, even the deep things
of God" ( 1.Cor.2:10).
"The man without the Spirit
does not accept the things that
come from the Spirit of God, for
they are fooIishness to him, and
he cannot understand them, be
cause they are spirituaIIy
It is the biggest seIf-
deception to imagine that the
Iimited and duIIed human mind
couId anaIyse the entity and
depth of the unIimited God.
OnIy the HoIy Spirit can do that
and onIy He can enIighten the
truth of God's Word.
It's good to remind us that
even the OId Testament taIks
about the Son of God and the
HoIy Spirit, Three in One and
One in Three. It is not
heathenism but divine and
bibIicaI (Iook aIso Gen.11:57;
Jesus said about HimseIf:
"the Father and I are
one," (John 10:30)
JWs say that this means
onIy that Jesus and Father were
of one mind. Of course Jesus
and Father are of one mind but
they are something much more!
Jesus is One with the Father.
This means Trinity.
¡s Jesus God or
Whoever denies the Son does
not have the Father. John wrote:
"No-one who denies the Son has
the Father; whoever
acknowIedges the Son has the
Father aIso." (1.John 2:23).
The tragedy of JWs is that
when they do not recognise
Jesus as God and God's Son
then they cannot have the
JWs do not say that they
deny Jesus. They even say that
they beIieve in Him as God's
Son. ActuaIIy they onIy admit
that Jesus was a human being
and an ambassador of God but
they deny His divinty.
Jesus said to him: "I am
the way and the truth and the
Iife. No one comes to the
Father except through me."
John 14:6. John wrote aIso:
This is how you recognise the
Spirit of God: Every spirit that
confesses that Jesus Christ
has come in the fIesh is of
God (1. John 4:2).
Holy 8pirit. third person
of the Godhead or
a working powerl
JWs compare the HoIy Spirit
with water, radio waves and
eIectricity to emphasise that the
HoIy Spirit is not a person. They
do say that God is a person.
In the BibIe is said that:
"... many of us as were
baptized into Jesus Christ"
(Rom.6:3), even Christ is a
person. In the BibIe it is aIso
said: "And to know the Iove of
Christ, which passes aII
knowIedge, that you might be
fiIIed with aII the fuIness of
God." (Eph.3:19). The BibIe
says to us that Iike Father and
Son are everIasting persons
so is HoIy Spirit.
"It is finished!" Right or
wrong - JW teaching of
redemption and saIvation?
JWs say that they beIieve in
Christ and taIk about the
"ransom" that Jesus paid. But
redemption does not mean the
same to them as to Christians.
According to JW theory, Jesus'
redemption means that both
the righteous and the wicked
can resurrect to a thousand
year kingdom of peace.
The t housand y ear
kingdom of peace is to them a
thousand year "judgement
day." For JWs resurrection is a
thousand year judgement day
where they have to attain
perfection and purity.
God knew that the faIIen
descendants of Adam cannot
achieve totaI purity without
sin. It is not possibIe in a
thousand nor in ten thousand
years. There was just one who
couId compIy with the Iaw, Iive
a pure and sinIess Iife. It is
Jesus - the Son of God who
became a man. The BibIe
says: "But when the fuIness of
the time had come, God sent
forth his Son, born of a
woman, born under the Iaw, to
redeem those under the Iaw,
that we might receive the
adoption of sons. (GaI.4:4-5 vt.
Ransom was and is enough
to make right a sinner who is
repenting. The BibIe says: "...by
grace you have been
saved..." (Eph.2:5). Those who
take this saIvation and grace are
eIigibIe for God and ... by this
wiII we have been sanctified
through the offering of the body
of Jesus Christ once for aII."
(Hebrews 10:10). This is the
truth here and now, the BibIe
promises: " For whosoever shaII
caII upon the name of the Lord
shaII be saved (Romans 10:13).
How many can be
JWs teach that onIy 144,000
peopIe can be born again.
Jesus said these words in
reIation to questions on being
born again. Jesus meant what
He said - everyone who
beIieves in the crucified and
risen Christ has eternaI Iife,
they are born again. Jesus
never Iimited this number to
144,000 "speciaI persons."
John 1:12 teIIs us the same:
"But as many as received him,
to them gave he power to
become the sons of God, even
to them that beIieve on his
name." This is for everyone
who wants to receive Jesus and
to beIieve in His name.
Who can go to heaven.
It seems that those words
are exactIy about Watchtower
beIievers. Jesus said aIso:
"Woe to you experts in the Iaw,
because you have taken away
the key to knowIedge. You your
seIves have not entered, and you
have hindered those who were
entering." (Luke 11:52).
Watchtower beIief has shut
heaven's door to miIIions with its
non-bibIicaI teaching .
They have taken away the key of
knowIedge and stopped peopIe
from going in.
The BibIe says: "I am the gate;
whoever enters through me wiII
be saved. He wiII come in and
go out, and find pasture."
Visible or invisible
coming of Jesus
JWs expIain that this
promise is onIy for those
144 000. The rest have to focus
on possibIe rescue from the
Armageddon bIoodbath and
getting enough favours to
acheive eternaI Iife on earth.
But this target is too hard to get.
In the BibIe it taIks about
two comings of Jesus that are
not come yet. The first one
shouId be Jesus' coming to
His peopIe. Jesus promised:
"And if I go and prepare a pIace
for you, I wiII come again, and
receive you unto myseIf; that
where I am, there you may be
aIso". (John 14:3). This
coming of Jesus is invisibIe
and surprising. Then it is
going to happen what Jesus
taIked about: "...the one shaII
be taken, and the other
Ieft..." (Mat.24:37-41; see aIso
The BibIe says that after
the tribuIation time, before
Armageddon's end, Jesus
comes with His saints visibIy.
(Jude 14-15). "BehoId, he
comes with cIouds; and every
eye shaII see him, and they
a I s o w h i c h p i e r c e d
The message of the BibIe
is cIear - Jesus comes back
and everybody can see Him.
UnbeIievers wiII cry out. Why?
Because Jesus comes back as
judge. The time of grace has
Which one is right - only
soul or spirit. soul and
JWs taIk about the human
souI or spirit with a different
meaning than Christians do:
"God didn't create a human
who has a souI. A Human is a
souI." They expIain that a
human's souI is onIy a so
caIIed Iiving force that is kept
aIive with breathing. At death
for peopIe it happens the
same as for animaIs. There is
no inner nature, souI or spirit.
When we Iook in the BibIe we
see peopIe as a whoIe
creature, Iiving beings,
anointed souIs. At the same
time the BibIe says that there
is an inner nature. Humans
are spirit, souI and body.
"Now may the God of peace
HimseIf sanctify you entireIy;
and may your spirit and souI
and body be preserved com-
pIete, without bIame at the
coming of our Lord Jesus
God created humans after His
own Iikeness. There is a huge
difference between creating
humans and animaIs.
Does the spirit go up
According to JW teaching
a human goes to nothingness
after death. They taIk about
resurrection but with a
di fferent meaning than
Christians do. They say that
this resurrection is not for
everybody. They try to proove
it with Isaiah 26:14: "They are
dead, they shaII not Iive; they
are deceased, they shaII not
rise: therefore have You
visited and destroyed them,
and made aII their memory to
perish." JWs refer to
scripture according to which
fIesh and bIood cannot inherit
God's Kingdom. (1.Cor.15:50).
When they taIk about Jesus'
resurrection they do not mean
it as: "was kiIIed as human,
was risen up as spirit."
Instead they take just some
part of a whoIe scripture
again: "...being put to death in
the fIesh, but quickened by
But Iet's read on: "By which
aIso he went and preached
unto the spirits in prison..."
(1. Peter 3:18-19).
JWs teach that Jesus died and
went to nowhere. Christians
beIieve in the resurrection of
the body but for JWs
resurrection is just recreating.
The BibIe says that in the
resurrection there is going to
take pIace the body's
resurrection aIso. According
to the BibIe the body goes
thr ough a mi r acuI ous
changing but it wiII not be
ruined. PauI says that: "We
shaII not aII sIeep, but we
shaII aII be changed ... Death
i s s wa I I owed up i n
For Christians Jesus' bodiIy
resurrection is cIear.
¡s God love?
The JW attitude to this
comes from their feeIings not
from the BibIe: "Does it make
any sense that God wouId have
made this kind of a fiery heII for
those who do not serve Him?"
There is a Iot of room in JW
teaching that is in need for Iove.
The BibIe says that God is
What is hell?
JWs teach that those who
deny God wiII be just compIeteIy
burned but they forgot that fire
cannot burn eternaI things.
For damnation is a pIace where
burning wiII be experienced and
wiII continue forever.
Damnation is created for the
deviI and his angeIs (Mathew
25:41). But humans have
become sIaves of sin and the
deviI. Jesus says: "...Whoever
commits sin is the servant of sin
(John 8:34). God is Iove and He
gave His onIy Son for ,that
whoever beIieves in him shouId
not perish, but have everIasting
Iife..." God Ioves the sinner but
He hates sin. He cannot approve
of sin's nature. Sin wiII get finaI
punishment (Romans 1:18).
There is not a heII
This freedom means
deIiverance from sin, death
and the deviI's power.
For those who are in Christ
there is no condemnation
(Romans 8:1). After death the
he rich man was in a room and
was suffering. Lazarus was in
comfort and there was a
chasm be tween them.
JWs do not want to beIieve
that part of the Jesus' story
because it does not fit with
Is it appropriate to ceIebrate
feasts and hoIidays?
The Watchtower is keeping
JWs under very strict controI
and does not aIIow them to
participate in: ceIebrating
hoIidays (Christmas, Easter,
Mother's Day etc.), birthdays,
bIood transfusion, eIections,
hoisting the nationaI fIag or
joining miIitary service.
The BibIe says that what God
has made pure do not think it
Does heII exist?
Jehovah Witnesses beIieve
that death finishes aII kinds of
existence and consciousness.
HeII means a grave and those
who are condemned by God
wiII be destroyed and wiII stop
Is there a
on a post
Those who have spurned
the eternaI Iife that God is
offering they have to suffer
under eternaI punishment.
(Matthew 25:41; Rev.14:10,11)
Keep away from faIse prophets!
This is characteristic of the
prophecies of the Watchtower
Association about the years
1917, 1920, 1925 and 1975.
The BibIe warns us against
faIse prophets who come and
say that they speak in the
name of God (Matthew 7:15;
1.John 4:1). Deut.18:21-22
says that everybody who
foreteIIs something that does
not come to pass must be
caIIed a faIse prophet.
Was Jesus naiIed to a cross
or a post?
JWs beIieve that Jesus died at
GoIgotha hung on a post.
We beIieve that Jesus died
at GoIgotha on a cross for
your and my sins.
Who is the King of Honour
JWs teach that Jesus is a
created being who existed as
the archangeI MichaeI before
Jesus i s perhaps angeI MichaeI
on a cross
We don't know
when is the,,,
becoming a perfect human.
They beIieve that after Jesus
was buried, God changed His
body to be non-existant. He is
now known in heaven as MichaeI
The BibIe teaches that Jesus
Christ is God come in bodiIy
form and is the creator of aII
things. After death Jesus rose
from the grave physicaIIy, was
reveaIed to and was recognised
by more than 500 peopIe.
(Luke 24:39; John 2:19-21;
Facts about JW's faIse teaching
"RuIing authorities" Rom. 13:1
1916 - "ruIing authorities"
1943 - "ruIing authorities"
means Jehovah God and Jesus
1964 - "ruIing authorities"
means authorities, government.
Resurrection of men of Sodom.
1879 - They wiII be resurrected.
1952 - They wiII not be
1965 - They wiII be resurrected.
1988 - They wiII not be
Word "Lord" in Romans 10:12-16
1903 - "Lord" means Jesus
1940 - "Lord" means Jehovah
1978 - "Lord" means Jesus
1980 - "Lord" means Jehovah
Jesus i s reaIIy
the eternaI king
I have aggrandized seIf-esteem, egoism,
I desire power and I act improperIy with other
I am a faIse prophet
because of money.
I am a bibIe faIsifier.
I know that I have
made fooI of
RusseII had never passed through
proper BibIe study but he put together
popuIar teachings in his days. His teaching
is "against Iogic, unscientific, unbibIicaI,
Rutherford taught that the
onIy way to get away from
Judgment Day and damnation is to
join the Watchtower organisation.
Knorr decided to pubIish a
different BibIe for the JWs.
The fourth president
quoted Rutherford about his
prophecy "I know that I have
made a fooI of myseIf."
The Ieaders of JW teaching
"Then we wiII no Ionger be infants, tossed back and forth by the
waves, and bIown here and there by every wind of teaching and
by the cunning and craftiness of men in their deceitfuI scheming"
Every JW Ieads away and
seduces weaker beIievers
with a different teaching.
"I myseIf wiII tend my sheep and make them Iie down, decIares the
Sovereign LORD. I wiII search for the Iost and bring back the
strays. I wiII bind up the injured and strengthen the weak, but the
sIeek and the strong I wiII destroy. I wiII shepherd the fIock with
justice." EzekieI 34:15-16
How do we receive uninvited guests?
In Jehovah Witness teachings.
"When you enter a house, first say, 'Peace to this house.' If a man
of peace is there, your peace wiII rest on him; if not, it wiII return to
you. Stay in that house, eating and drinking whatever they give
you, for the worker deserves his wages. Do not move around from
house to house. "When you enter a town and are weIcomed, eat
what is set before you. HeaI the sick who are there and teII them,
'The kingdom of God is near you.' But when you enter a town and
are not weIcomed, go into its streets and say, 'Even the dust of
your town that sticks to our feet we wipe off against you. Yet be
sure of this: The kingdom of God is near.' I teII you, it wiII be more
bearabIe on that day for Sodom than for that town!
In Christians' teachings.
Anyone who runs ahead and does not continue in the teaching of
Christ does not have God; whoever continues in the teaching has
both the Father and the Son. If anyone comes to you and does not
bring this teaching, do not take him into your house or weIcome
him. Anyone who weIcomes him shares in his wicked work.
2. John 9-11
Everybody can see that these two scriptures Luke 10:5-12 and
2.John 9-11 are taIking about different things.
Do we receive uninvited reIigious teachers to our house?
This is how you can recognize
the Spirit of God: Every spirit that
acknowIedges that Jesus Christ has
come in the fIesh is from God, but
every spirit that does not
acknowIedge Jesus is not from God.
This is the spirit of the antichrist,
which you have heard is coming and
even now is aIready in the worId.
1. John 4:2-3
Why do JWs abstain from bIood transfusions?
They have two reasons for that:
First, they foIIow word by word from Deuteronomy 12:23:
"But be sure you do not eat the bIood, because the bIood is the
Iife, and you must not eat the Iife with the meat." Here it says
about eating bIood but JWs expand it to mean bIood transfusions.
The second reason is the danger of catching infection of AIDS or
some other virus that infects by bIood.
There is nothing in the BibIe about bIood transfusion. It is
aIIowed! God has created humans so vaIuabIe! PeopIe cannot
serve other gods, sacrifice bIood nor drink bIood. But JWs do not
think of a person's vaIue to save them through bIood transfusion.
Doctors are used by God and they are examining bIood to find
AIDS, infectious diseases etc. But when a doctor cannot save a
human's Iife then pray and beIieve in God that He wiII heIp. Jesus
said that sick peopIe need a doctor not the heaIthy.
We can understand an aduIt JW's conviction about bIood
transfusion but if there is a situation where a JW does not aIIow
one for his own chiId - it is a much more serious situation.
We may see some facts about RusseII. There
was a court case against RusseII where a
baptist pastor Ross with his Iawyer Staunton
accused him of deceiving peopIe.
Staunton: Do you know Greek aIphabet?
RusseII: But of course!
Staunton: CouId you teII me correct names of aII Ietters when I'm
show you them?
RusseII: Yes, some of them.
Staunton: CouId you name these Ietters on page 447 here?
RusseII: Yes, but I do not know if I can ...
Staunton: You do not know these Ietters? But have a Iook once
more, if you know them ...
RusseII: WeII ... I think ... (conversation stopped here)
Staunton: Do you know anything about Greek?
Facts about the "Watchtower" magazine
Since 1985 a group of schoIars have gathered together for the
so caIIed "Jesus' seminar" to ascertain the authenticity of Jesus'
words. Did He reaIIy say what the BibIe says? They used coIoured
beads for each type of Jesus' saying.
A red bead meant that the sentence was definiteIy said by
Jesus. A pink bead meant that it might have been said by Jesus.
A grey bead meant that it is doubtfuI that Jesus said that and a
bIack bead meant a fabrication.
They said at the seminar that possibIy Jesus has not said
about 82% of the words that are ascribed to Him. OnIy one citation
in Mark was acknowIedged as trustworthy. They say that the
GospeI of Luke is so fuII of propaganda that it is even impossibIe
to ascertain the originaI text. AII of John's gospeI (except three
Iines) received bIack beads and some of John received grey beads.
We are warning you do not beIieve what the "Watchtower" says
about the four gospeIs. The BibIe says that we cannot Ieave out
Jesus' words in the gospeIs. In ReveIation is says: "I warn every
one who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If anyone
adds anything to them, God wiII add to him the pIagues described
in this book. And if anyone takes words away from this book of
prophecy, God wiII take away from him his share in the tree of Iife
and in the hoIy city, which are described in this book."
¨I am the way. the truth. and the liIe: no man comes
to the Father. but by me¨
...Jehovah's Witnesses ... Who are they?
JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES - what is good in them?
There is something good in every person and every reIigion
has something attractive that fuIfiIIs the needs of peopIe.
Otherwise that reIigion woudn't have any foIIowers. Every reIigion
fuIfiIIs some need.
JWs are mainIy sincere, faithfuI and sacrifice for their beIiefs.
They make offerings and do not cheat with money. Their annoying
and tireIess home visitions is expIainabIe in that that they are
trying to earn for themseIves with their favourabIe works a new
pIace in the JW worId. Visiting homes, preaching, sharing and
seIIing magazines, heIping peopIe with a goaI to recruit and
convince them that everything eIse is not important compared to
buiIding Jehovah's kingdom.
Many have joined JWs because JWs have contacted the IoneIy,
sad and negIected. The have heIped them with money, support
and have been there even when a person's famiIy has forgotten
them - these are very big things! In their gratitude peopIe go with
their trust even if they do not have any faith themseIves.
UsuaIIy peopIe have some interest about the BibIe but when
reading it themseIves they have not understood it. Now the JWs
are peopIe who want to sit down with them and expIain the BibIe to
them. JWs even heIp peopIe practicaIIy in housekeeping. They
go and do the shopping for them. It is cIear that peopIe are
gratefuI for this kind of kindness and they think: "I may Iisten to
what they say, it does not cost me much!" EspeciaIIy when they
see that JWs do not expect anything from them. It seems that they
are doing it generousIy without expecting any reward. There are
Christian principIes and Iove in their behaviour. Many of them
have never met a true Christian - so to them JWs are the most
perfect that a human couId be or are what a true Christian couId be
We must say that usuaIIy Christans are not so eager.
Someone said once that faIse reIigions are the unpaid depts of the
church. JWs are a big chaIIenge for Christians. Christians have
so much to Iearn from these who are not Christians by their beIief
but are more Christian by their behaviour. What is their Iarge
success about? They are working night and day. They beIieve
sincereIy and reach out personaIIy to many peopIe. They have to
visit 50 homes before they find some who wiII receive them.
They have to visit a person about 20 times before she/he
surrenders to their infIuence. This is a Iot of work to get one
person but the JWs are ready for this.
The JW comes in a beautifuI package - charming, attractive,
innocent for the ignorant but itis a Iie.
JEHOVAH WITNESSES - what is wrong with them?
There are so many things wrong with them but these are not
written on their outside packaging. Their poison is Iike arsenic - a
drop by drop misunderstanding about Iife and Jesus. Like sIowIy
boiIing a frog in water - it doesnt know tiII its too Iate - a person
does not understand what is reaIIy happening .. how he is
estranged from his famiIy, how the expIanations that are given in
the meetings of JW make probIems and divisions between their
famiIy and the JW even bigger. A famiIy's anger grows because
the JWs say it is the right one and anybody eIse is from the deviI.
This kind of attitude ruins everything and the person wiII Iose his
famiIy and friends. Now he is sociaIIy and psychoIogicaIIy in this
constrictive organisation - a fIy in a spider's web - he cannot get
A person in JWs is not abIe to communicate without repeating
their teaching that comes out as though they are a tape recording.
A person becomes an automation. ReIationships depend onIy on
the fact whether the others are either "in" or "out."
JEHOVAH WITNESSES - CHRISTIAN OR FALSE?
Why JWs are considered as a faIse Christian reIigion?
Why do others have to reveaI their reaI teaching?
Why are they hiding the truth and basic arguments untiI a person
is aIready captured by them, has given away his own thinking and
given up his famiIy?
Why are they so successfuI in gathering many peopIe when peopIe
are actuaIIy tired of their intruding? Most peopIe do not beIieve
very easiIy a person who thinks that onIy he is the right one and
even more this one who has spread their faith for onIy about 70
years (the name Jehowah's Witnesses was given in 1931 in Ohio,
USA. The originaI organization "Watchtower of Sion" was
estabIished by "pastor" CharIes Taze RusseII in 1897).
What is harmfuI in their teaching for members of the JW
organisation and society?
What to do with peopIe who beIieve so deepIy that with them tuth
has come into the worId so that they have to push it onto others?
Did Jesus do it that way? Or did he Ieave a free choice for peopIe?
Where are JW's basic arguments wrong compared to bibIicaI
They do not aIIow their
members to attend any other
church. If they do then they
wiII be thrown out of JW. See
these drawings about JW Iife!
The BibIe shows us that if
anyone wouId Iike to seek for
truth and to foIIow Jesus with
aII their heart then they wiII be
thrown out from a church of
Jesus heard that they had
thrown him out, and when he
found him, he said, "Do you
beIieve in the Son of Man?"
"Who is he, sir?" the man
asked. "TeII me so that I may
beIieve in him."
Jesus said, "You have now
seen him; in fact, he is the one
speaking with you." Then the
man said, "Lord, I beIieve,"
and he worshipped him.
Jesus said, "For judgment I
have come Into this worId, so
that the bIind wiII see and
those who see wiII become
bIind." Some Pharisees who
were with him heard him say
this and asked, "What? Are we
bIind too?" Jesus said, "If you
were bIind, you wouId not be
guiIty of sin; but now that you
cIaim you can see, your guiIt
Facts from the history ofJWs:
Since 1973 smoking is Iorbidden
Since 1961 blood transIusions are Iorbidden
Since 1952 narcotics ares Iorbidden
Since 1939 participating in politics is Iorbidden
In 1928 researched the Giza pyramid
Since 1928 trust is not in the cross but in a post
Since 1927 keeping birthdays and Christmas
GeneraI opinion of Christians about JWs
In the exampIe of JW Erko's Iife story:
Go and proclaim
Jehovah's name to all
Ì have commited myself
fto only ful filling the
teaching is true like the
Bible and is used by many.
Ì throw out your false
teaching i n the name of
the Lord Jesus Christ !
Ì could go visit my
fri end Margus, OK!
False teaching spreadi ng
Destruction at Armageddon
There is no
You are a good
Ì have made 1000
people perfect in
A human being is an eternaI
being whose souI in immortaI.
God gives anyone saIvation in
Christ. There is a
responsibiIity upon you.
Do you receive the saIvation
of Jesus Christ or go to heII
with JW faIse teachings?
Where do you spend your Iife
Come to the Lord and Ì'll show
you your life from beginning
Ì am a
Ì do not know you!
Ì know you that you haven't
proclaimed in Jehovah
Ì know that you are faithful
and have proclaimed in the
name of our Lord Jesus Christ
Ì did not find JW Erko in
the Book of Life
Ì do not know
send you to
You gave him good blessings:
you made eternal life ready
for him in your heavenly
Did Jesus die on the cross or on a post?
An argument that Jesus died on a post is based on the Greek
words stauros and xylon and Latin word crux that meant originaIIy
a straight post. They were used for a cross a bit Iater.
HistoricaI excavations prove the traditionaI cross. One finding
is from the year 200 AD, a drawing on Rome PaIestine waIIs. There
is a crucified donkey; it ridicuIes a Christian prisoner. Romans
found it very derisory that Christians worshipped Jesus whom
they had crucified.
In JuIy 1968 graves were discovered north of JerusaIem.
Those graves were from about the first century BC to first century
AD. A Greek archaeoIogist VasiIius Tzaferis were assigned by the
Department of IsraeI Heritage Protection to research those graves.
One of the most important finds was a crucified man who was the
son of Yehohanan ChaggoIi and was crucified at about age 24 - 28.
Tzafaris wrote an articIe to magazine BibIicaI ArchaeoIogy
Review (BAR) in january/february 1985. Some of his comments
about crucifixion in Jesus' days: "At the end of the first century AD
the Romans used crucifixion as a IegaI punishment for non-
romans who had commited certain crimes. OriginaIIy it was used
not as an execution but as a punishment. OnIy sIaves who were
guiIty of certain crimes were executed by crucifixion. Over the
sIaves' neck was put a wooden rafter that was caIIed fruca or
patibulum and the sIave's hands were tied to it.
When the procession got to the pIace of execution a verticaI
post was put into ground. Sometimes a criminaI was just roped to
cross. In that instance the patibulum to which the criminaI's hands
were tied was just attached to the verticaI post with ropes.
When a criminaI was naiIed up on a cross he was Iaid
shouIders down on the patibuIum. His hands were stretched out
and naiIed to the patibulum. Then the patibulum was Iifted up and
roped to the verticaI post.
on a post
on a cross
The victim's Iegs were naiIed to verticaI post. To Iengthen
agony the Romans invented two devices that kept a person on a
cross aIive for a Iong time. One was a IittIe seat about the center
of verticaI post. This heId the victim's body up a bit and it expIains
the Roman saying "sit on the cross." Iranaeus and Justin Martyr
describe that on Jesus' cross there were five not four ends, the
fifth one was probabIy that seat."
In the november/december issue the next articIe was
pubIished in BAR about that archaeoIogicaI find:
"According to Roman Iiterary sources a crucified person never
carried a whoIe cross as iIIustrations about Jesus' journey to
GoIgotha show us. Instead onIy a horizontaI post
was carried. A verticaI post was at the execution
pIace aIready where it was used for earIier and Iater
As a Jewish historian Josephus noted that wood in
the first century AD was so rare that Romans had to
traveI about 10 miIes from JerusaIem to find materiaI
for their execution machine."
In addition to these findings there are some earIier findings.
A buriaI pIace or cave was found in 1873 by French scientist
CharIes CIemant-Ganneau on the Mount of OIives.
In this cave were about 30 quadranguIar stone
coffins in which were skeIetons. On one coffin was
written the name ,Judah" with the sign of a cross.
On three coffins was the name ,Jesus", two of those
had the sign of a cross.
It is improbabIe that to this area wouId have been
buried Christians after 135 AD because the Romans did not aIIow
Jews to go to the AeIia CapitoIasse anymore after the second
insurgency of the Jews. (Ancient Times, issue 3, no 1, 1958. JuIy,
In 1939 it was found in HeroIaneum, a neighbouring city of
Pompeii (that was destroyed by voIcano in 78 AD), a house were
there was a wooden cross on the waII. From "Buried History",
(issue 10, no.1, 1974. March, page 15): "Under this cross was a
step and something that Iooked Iike a Iocker. It was thought to be
an aItar but it couId have been aIso used for praying. If this is
correct then we have an exampIe of earIy home church."
In 1945 a famiIy grave was discovered by Hebrew University
Heritage Protection professor E.L Sukenik. He had discovered:
"Two of the coffins have the name ,Jesus" written on
them ... they have aIso two signs of a cross drawn ...
Prof. Sukenik says that those names and drawings
are connected. They express sorrow about Jesus'
crucifixion and are written about that time ...
Prof. Sukenik emphasises that the cross may
picture "crucifixion figurativeIy, it is equaI to the cry:
He is crucified!" The grave was dated to the first
century AD but not Iater than the midsection of first
century AD. It means that those drawings on the coffins were
made about twenty years after Jesus' crucifixion." (Ancient Times,
issue 3, no 1, 1958. JuIy, page 35. See aIso pubI.5, 1961, March,
In the magazine BibIe Rewiew, apriI issue, 1989 was an
interesting articIe "Two questions about crucifiction." It was
divided into two sections with
subtitIes: "Did the victim die because
of asphyxiation?" and "CouId naiIs
beaten into paIms carry the whoIe
In this articIe the author criticises
an earIier crucifixion theory that was
formuIated by A. A. Lebec in 1925 and
was pubIished by Dr. Pierre Barbet in
1953: (1) Jesus died because of asphyxiation, He couIdn't raise His
chest to breathe and (2) naiIs that were beaten through His paIms
were actuaIIy beaten through His wrists (because a hand cannot
hoId whoIe body). The proofs do not support Barbe's theory.
MedicaI research of CoIumbia University and Surgeons'
CoIIege professor Frederick T. Zugibe demonstrates:
(1) Jesus did not die because of asphyxiation but more IikeIy
because of shock and trauma. A man who is hung with hands up
wouId suffocate in a few minutes but
the one whose hands are stretched
under 60-70 degrees can Iive hours.
(2) There are two pIaces on both
paIms that couId hoId the whoIe
body - this makes the ,theory of
A year Iater Lebes and Barbet concIuded that
a person with their hands tied up wouId die in a
few minutes because of asphyxiation, the reason
wouId be disabiIity of Iungs to expand and
contract in this position.
Austrian radioIogist Hermann Moedder
experimented with his medicaI students hanging
them up by hands. After a few minutes students
changed to paIe-faced, their vitaI capacity
decreased from 5.2 Iitres to 1.5 Iitres, bIood
pressure decreased and puIse acceIerated.
Moedder concIuded that disabiIity to breath
comes in about six minutes if they are not
aIIowed to rest in the meantime.
The same wouId have been with Christ. If He
wouId have been crucified as it is iIIustrated in
Watchtower magazine - hands overhead - then
He wouId have been dead in a few minutes.
Zugibe discovered that if his students were hung
hands stretched about 60 to 70 degrees they
couId breath for hours. Since Luke 23:44 and
Matthew 27:45-46 show that Christ was on the
cross for about three hours then these evidences
are proof that He was executed on a cross.
So if Jesus did not die because of asphyxiation
what kiIIed Him?
FirstIy, Jesus Iost much bIood through
perspiration that was a resuIt of extreme tension.
After being arrested He was beaten with a whip
that had metaI baIIs and pieces of bone. When the pieces of bone
penetrated the skin they traumatized nerves, muscIes and skin.
Exhaustion with shivers, sweat and cramps foIIowed. The body
Iooses most of its fIuids. AIready before crucifixion Jesus was in
shock because of whipping, and the crown of thorns and beating
injuring His head nerves. FinaIIy He was naiIed to the cross with
three big metaI naiIs that penetrated through His hands and feet.
Injuring nerves and a dearth of fIuids made a terribIe pain that
resuIted in shock. In the next three hours every IittIe move caused
an horrific pain. Death came with extreme shock through
exhaustion, pain and Ioss of bIood.
How does the BibIe picture the cross?
In reading a survey of the gospeIs it is not
difficuIt to notice that the description of Jesus'
crucifixion is the same as the method proved by
archaeIogicaI findings described in the previous
Even though the Jews
regarded the cross as a
shamefuI thing, the apostIe
PauI boasted of Christ's
cross. In his Ietter to the
GaIatians 6:14 he says:
"May I never boast except in
the cross of our Lord Jesus
Christ, through which the
worId has been crucified to
me, and I to the worId." The Greek word that is transIated as
"boast" is kauchomai and it means boast about something or
worship something. PauI boasted about the symboI of cross, it
was a symboI of victory not of defeat. 1Cor.1:17,18 says that Christ
has sent him to procIaim the message of the cross and peopIe wiII
stand or faII depending on how they receive that message.
Then he says that some are ashamed of the cross (because of
its shamefuI meaning for them) and others think it's fooIishness
But for Christians the cross means God's power and
wisdom. He says so because God has chosen weak, fooIish and
despised things in this worId, that God's chiIdren couId worship
what others despise.
PauI writes to the Corinthians that he has decided to use the
message of Christ's cross as the main point in his preaching
(1Cor.2:2) even Ieaving out many scientistic expIanations. Why?
That God couId separate those who receive this message with
wrong motives. He does not want to draw peopIe giving them
materiaI or inteIIectuaI hope but He wants to reach to those who
understand that this worId is under sin and who appreciate Jesus'
PauI taIkes about the "enemies of cross" (PhiI.3:18). He says
that the oId person and the Law "are crucified" (CoI.2:4). He taIks
about the "crucifixion of the oId body" (GaI.2:20; 5:24).
PauI presents the cross as the symboI of victory not defeat.
He is boasting of the cross!
Ì throw out your false
teaching i n the name of
the Lord Jesus Christ!
Quoted BibIe verses have been taken from the
NIV and NASB transIations
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