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Leah Bennett

Model Manual

This manual will encompass the model shown in figure 1. This model incorporates tools for the
purpose of hydrology and watershed analysis, it uses an elevation data set to model where rivers and
streams should be based on the topography, delineates sub- watersheds (creates outlines for), and
catchments (where all the streams drain to).

Figure 1.

1- The model begins with a DEM of Washington State and a dataset of the flowlines in Washington.
{Before starting the model, select only the flowlines in the South Fork Nooksack River sub
watershed boundary and create a layer of just this selection.} The first two tools are to clip the
DEM of Washington to the boundary of the watershed and projecting the output raster to a more
current projection of NAD 1983 UTM Zone 10N. The newly projected raster/DEM is then used to
create a hill shade which is shown below the river system on maps 3 and 4.

2- The projected raster/DEM is used again with the fill tool to create a more depressionless surface.
If a cell is surrounded by high elevation cells then the water cannot flow out, the fill tool modifies
the elevation value to fix this problem by filling sinks or cutting off peaks because the DEM must
eventually drain off the edge of the grid. The output is the then used to find the flow direction. The
flow direction tool takes the filled DEM and is calculated as the direction of the steepest downward
descent. The output is shown in MAP 1. The output is based on the direction of the downward
slope which is shown in the figure under the legend on the map.
3- The flow direction raster is then used for many tools. First is the flow length tool. This creates a
raster that shows the flow distance or length from each cell to the most downstream cell. The
output is seen in MAP 5. The lighter areas are ones that are farthest from the most downstream
cell while the darker areas are ones that are the closest to the most downstream cell. From this
map you can begin to tell which direction the streams are flowing and the direction of the outlet
point of the sub basin.
4- The flow direction is also used to create basins. This tool finds all sets of connected cells that
belong to the same drainage basin based on ridge lines and the direction of flow. The output is
not shown on any of the maps, but should be in the shape of the South Fork Nooksack
Watershed.

5- Flow direction is also used with the flow accumulation tool. The accumulation is the number of
cells that flow into one cell. I have the threshold set to 1500, meaning that any cell that has 1500
other cells flowing into it is defined as a stream. When this is input into the raster calculator tool
next, with the expression SetNull("%SFNacc%" < 1500,1), the output is only the cells that are
greater than my definition of a stream, 1500. {here one can set their definition at a different value
for a different watershed}. This output is seen in MAP 2. The output is then converted to a vector
to better see and symbolize the full stream network.

6- Next, that stream output is combined with the flow direction output in the stream order tool. This
tool orders the streams by size. One is the smallest and six is the biggest. This is shown in MAP 4
The order is based on what streams come together to make a new stream, for example when two
three streams come together they will produce a 4 order stream. Flow direction is used again in
the stream link tool, this tool will assign each part of the stream a unique number. From this
output, as seen in MAP 3, you can begin to see the stream network and allows for the streams to
be connected and have a place.
7- From the stream orders, I created a new feature class of pour points which I placed at any
meeting of two four streams to make a 5 order stream, and any two five streams to make a six
order stream. This was combined with the accumulation faster in the snap pour point tool with a
distance of 30 m. This tool will snap the pour points 30 meters back and make sure they are right
on the streams. The stream orders are seen in MAP 4. This output is then combined with the flow
direction raster again in the watershed tool. This tool will create sub basins. There are only three

within the watershed boundary as seen in MAP 6 (the open space at the top symbolizes the area
that drains out of the watershed completely)

8- Finally, the watershed tool is used again with the flow direction output and stream segment output
to create catchments. These are areas that are small drainage basins that contain all the streams
based on the direction of the downward water flow, as seen in MAP 7.

9- After the model has run you can define the direction of the flow of each individual river using the
utility network analyst. By creating a final pour outlet point at the very northern part of the
watershed where the 6 order stream leaves the watershed and having this point be a sink you can
portray which direction the streams are flowing. This comes from a geometric network that
includes the streams and single outlet point. This is seen in MAP 8.

MAP 1- Map one represents the flow direction for each cell in the area. The value indicates the direction of
the steepest descent from that cell to one of its neighboring cells. The diagram on the bottom left corner
corresponds to the legend and shows what direction is downhill for each of the numbers in the legend. For
example, if an area is labeled 1, then downhill is to the east. This is the beginning of finding the stream
network because streams will only flow downhill.

Map 2- Map two depicts the accumulation for each cell. The accumulation is the number of cells that drain
into any particular cell. I have the threshold set to 1,500 to define a stream. The threshold defines the
number of cells in the flow accumulation grid.

Map 3- Map three shows the streams broken into segments. Each segment or link in the raster is assigned a
unique number. This is the beginnings of creating a stream network and allows for the streams to be
connected and have a place.

Map 4- Map four shows the order for each of the streams. It gives each stream segment an order in the
overall hierarchy of the stream network. The streams are ordered from one to six, with one being the smallest
of the streams and 6 being the largest. When two one order streams come together they make a two order,
when two two order streams come together they make a three order and so on.

Map 5- Map five shows the flow length. It is the distance or the length from each cell to the most downstream
cell. This shows what areas of the river network travel and flow the longest and one can begin to see overall
what direction the output of the watershed is.

Map 6- Shows the sub basins in the area. They are based off of pour points that consist of where two four
order streams come together to make a 5 order and when two five order streams come together to make a
six order stream. A pour point is the point which water flows out of an area, or a sub basin. Water does not
flow out of the sub basin from any other points. They are the lowest point along the boundary of the sub
basin.

Map 7- Map 7 shows all of the catchments for the South Fork Nooksack watershed. Catchments are small
drainage basins that contain all the streams based on the direction of the downward water flow.

Map 8- This map shows the direction that each stream is flowing. It takes into consideration the outlet point
of the six order stream in the northern corner. This is where all of the water is flowing out of the watershed
from and in the end where all of the streams flow into.