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Graphic Organizer-Ancient Egypt

Important People (pharaohs, viziers, etc.)

Pharaohs- both god AND ruler; come from a dynasty- family of rulers; highest power in Egypt;
buried in tombs and mummified; Valley of the Kings was used for burial sites after pyramid
Ramses II- spread power through war; over 100+ sons alone; ruled to about 90 years old;
expanded his empire Hittites;
Hatshepsut-Female pharaoh; dressed as a man to convince her followers to be obedient; focused
empire on increasing trade;
Snefru- began 4th dynasty; completed construction of the bent pyramid; focused on building
massive structures
Djoser- first pharaoh to be buried in a pyramid
Tutankhamen- King Tut; boy-king; found in the Valley of the Kings
Imhotep- trusted vizier and architect; responsible for helping construct first pyramid;
Amenhotep- rebel pharaoh; changed the capital of Egypt; temple was vandalized to harm his
afterlifes existence;
Geographic Features (EFFECTS!)
Nile River- flows from upper Egypt to lower Egypt (south to north); silt and floods allow for
cultivation of crops and food, which leads to civilization; source is Lake Victoria; fish, hunt in
the Nile; trade and transportation; animals relied upon the Nile; creation of paper from papyrus
reeds; paper, houses, stylus, canoes/boats; viewing of the star Sirius signals the start to the flood
Kemet-black land=farmland
Deshret-red land=sandy desert
Delta- marshy area at mouth of the Nile River
Mediterranean Sea- allows for trade with other civilizations
Cataracts- rocky rapids in the south prevent invaders from moving up the Nile; source of
East and West deserts stop invaders; Libyan and Arabian deserts;
Red Sea-allows for trade to India and Mesopotamia

Irrigation systems in the Nile for crops

Art and Architecture (Traits, characteristics, examples)
Clothing and eye make-up was drawn in scenes; white clothing made from cotton;
Faces were drawn in profilefrom the side, along with head and feet; both feet visible; all body
parts should be visible in order to be brought to the afterlife; shoulders are square to the viewer
Size of a person in the painting equates to importance; larger figures are more important
Measurements on the wall by fists of the artisans
Tomb drawings one-dimensional; on the wall;
Use of gold and lapis lazuli in tombs and on mummies
Use of make-up during mummification; people drawn were supposed to be a perfect version of
Valley of the Kings used for burials after pyramid building dies out
Hieroglyphic writing-formal writing system created in Egypt
Hieratic writing-informal system
Pyramids are architectural example; Sphinx; Abu Simbel (built by Ramses II); skilled
Men are drawn as darker than women
First paper-papyrus
Drew pharaohs with the gods
Social Groups/Pyramid
Pharaoh- king and god, elaborate tombs and palaces, control over slaves and people
Priests- mummification of the pharaoh; communicated with the gods; give offerings to the gods;
adviser to the pharaoh; usually very wealthy; many times were related to the pharaoh
Government officials- Assist the pharaoh in running the empire; collection of taxes is important;
usually distantly related to the pharaoh, born into the role as well; bureaucracy;

Scribes- people trained to write; keep records for farmers and priests; records help lead to
creation of calendar; scribe school-very uncommon to be educated;
Merchants- traders; usually found in the market; purpose is to rid self of all goods in exchange
for money or goods
Artisans- design tombs; create and sell artwork; metalwork; creation of wooden boats; create
statues and palaces for the pharaohs; blacksmith, mason, basket-weaver, carpenter;
Farmers- GROW FOOD; use of slaves at times; responsible for temple and pyramid construction
during flood season; MOST Egyptians were farmers; labor on temples done out of devotion to
the pharaohs; backbone to the society, no farmers=no food
Slaves- Free labor; assist farmers, artisans, and pharaohs; could be freed or buy your freedom;
came as prisoners of war
Religion (major gods, goddesses, beliefs, inspiration)
Belief that afterlife is paradise
Process of mummification to help preserve body for afterlife
Process involves removing organs, brain by hook, stored organs in canopic jars
Heart remained in body to be weighed by Anubis in the underworld
Spirit should recognize the body in the afterlife
Polytheistic religion-belief in many gods;
Sun god was in the form of a journey across the sky; died every night when the sun set
Animals in their everyday lives provided inspiration for forms that gods would take
Osiris-king of the afterlife; Amen-Re-sun god; Isis-wife of Osiris, goddess of love; Horus-eye of
Horus/wedjat eye protects people from bad spirits, god of war. Son of Osiris and Isis;

BIG QUESTION TO THINK ABOUT: How did the Nile shape ancient

Guided READINGS- Ch 4, Sec 1 Parts 1 and 2, Ch. 4, Sec. 2..3 Guided Readings in total to