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E BOOKS ON SIX SIGMA 1

E BOOKS ON SIX SIGMA 1

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Agenda

Agenda and Objectives
Welcome to the Champion training. The goal of this training is to increase your knowledge and application of the six sigma tools to effectively lead your team of Black Belts. The six sigma tools reviewed during this training will enable you to determine the capabilities and current status of a given process as well as assist you in the selection of a Black Belt project. You will gain an understanding of your role and responsibilities as a Champion leader.

Objectives
At the end of this training, you will be able to:
• Identify Champion roles and responsibilities. • Lead Black Belts, Green Belts and Yellow Belts in establishing an effective six sigma culture. • Describe the six sigma methodologies in the application strategy. • Select six sigma projects that can be successful and productive.

Agenda
• Overview of Six Sigma • Roles and Responsibilities • Certification Requirements • The Successful Project • Wrap-up and Summary • Glossary • Appendix

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

00_Agenda • 1

Overview of Six Sigma
Agenda
• Overview and Objectives • Six Sigma Overview • Six Sigma Philosophy • How to Analyze Data? • The Six Sigma Predictive Equation • The Cost Perspective of Y = f(X) • Why Use a Strategy? • Six Sigma Methodology and its Success Strategy • The Six Sigma Application Strategy • The Six Sigma Success Approach • Benchmarking Standards • The Relationship Between Process Complexity and Process Capability • What Would You Invest? • Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ) • Understanding Opportunities • Six Sigma vs. Traditional Metrics • The Process Learning Strategy • Why Use Six Sigma? • P-A-L Exercise • Exercise: How Does Your Company Compare to Six Sigma Performers? • Summary

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 1

Overview of Six Sigma
Overview
This session provides an overview of the six sigma philosophy and success strategy, methodology and design for six sigma (DFSS). You will gain an understanding of the impact of “lost opportunities” in your business environment due to the cost of poor quality (COPQ).

Objectives
At the end of this unit, you will be able to:
• Identify elements of the six sigma strategy. • Identify elements of the six sigma methodology; including the six sigma approach to:
■ ■ ■

Business strategy. Data-driven decision-making processes. Problem-solving.

• State the relevance of a process learning strategy in a business environment. • State the variation in processes and COPQ.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 2

Overview of Six Sigma
Six Sigma Overview
Six sigma differs from traditional quality improvement programs by focusing on controlling inputs, as opposed to monitoring outputs. Six sigma incorporates strategic business needs to meet customer requirements. While traditional process improvement methods depend on measuring outputs and establishing control plans to shield customers from organizational defects, a six sigma program demands that problems are addressed at the input root-cause level. This eliminates the need for unnecessary inspection and rework of output products or services. Six sigma requires: • Leadership Commitment Achieving six sigma from a cultural point of view is not easy; it requires serious commitments in time, effort and resources. To be successful, the top executive leadership in the organization must initiate such a commitment before the employees are expected to practice it. This commitment is agreed upon and included in the contract before Six Sigma Qualtec schedules its first session. • Managing with Data Running a business based on one's experience or “tribal knowledge” (discussed in more detail later in this unit) is not enough. Businesses that base decision-making on the typical “I think” and “I feel” or “In my opinion” practices have been around for a long time. However, in the long run these decision-making procedures never pay off. Today's information economy makes data available to virtually everyone in the organization-along with the tools to analyze it. Proper usage of data is used to Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control* performance–forming the foundation of the six sigma methodology. Adopting the six sigma philosophy leads to a possible supplement and/or modification of current data collection systems. • Training and Cultural Change Improved business performance generally will not happen automatically. If it does, it cannot be sustained for a long term. High-caliber training is required; followed by disciplined implementation. The need for change in organizational behavior must be understood at all levels, while people go about doing their jobs. In short, when implemented correctly, new ways of thinking, communicating, and operating will pervade the entire organization over a period of time.

*

Six Sigma Qualtec has designated the acronym “MAIC” to signify six sigma perfomance tools: Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control.
01_Overview • 3

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

Overview of Six Sigma
Requirements of Business Change
While not the “silver bullet”, the six sigma approach is a very powerful and proven approach; an approach that, when deployed effectively will yield dramatic improvements and change the organizational culture and profitability. What results is increased customer satisfaction and a greater market share. The right training, followed by disciplined implementation creates the change. Champions play a vital motivational role in the deployment of a successful business culture change by communicating six sigma through the following techniques. • Revelation: the dramatic disclosure of something previously not known. • Inspiration: the effective stimulation of the emotions. • Application: the act of putting something to special use. • Transformation: the process of reconfiguring the nature of the way you do business.

The Six Sigma Philosophy
• The Goal: Support/serve customer requirements through transformation of knowledge–enable capabilities and sustain continuous improvement of performance, processes, products, service, people and profit. • The Vision: Drive organizations to design and offer products/services at increasing sigma levels of quality. • The Strategy: Provide a data-driven structured approach that addresses causes for defects; thereby, improving business processes that meet customer needs. • The Tools: Use process/product exploration and data analysis to solve the equation Y = f(X) and translate this solution to practical applications.

The Goal of Six Sigma
Since producing goods and services at a six sigma level is our targeted goal through a data-driven problem-solving approach, ultimately product/service performance has less variation and is more predictable. • As the organization moves toward six sigma quality...
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Defects are eliminated. Production and development costs are reduced. Cycle times and inventory levels are reduced. Profit margin and customer satisfaction are improved. Significant increases in resource costs are not incurred.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 4

Overview of Six Sigma
The Purpose of an Organization
Information

Organization

Value $

Six sigma works regardless of the type of business-a publicly held corporation, a private institution, discrete manufacturing, process or financial services firm-all organizations share a common attribute that six sigma addresses very effectively. This common attribute is the presence of variation.

How Do We Create Value?

Knowledge

Information

Organization

Value $

Once information is input, we react to it by applying our knowledge. Value dollars are derived when a product or service meets customers' requirements while returning a reasonable profit to your stakeholder.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 5

Overview of Six Sigma
How Does the Organization Deliver More Value to the Customer?
Knowledge

Information

Organization

Value $ Control Chart

Champion

System

• Organizations are made up of two or more “systems” and generally, multiple systems. The role of each system is to deliver a product based on the information and knowledge being received.

Examples of Systems: manufacturing, human resource, accounting, information, sales and marketing, and so forth. Inherent within each system is variation.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 6

Overview of Six Sigma
Tampering
Tampering is changing the operating parameters through the application of experience, intuition, feelings and conventional wisdom. We call this “tribal knowledge”.

Knowledge

Information

Organization

Value $ Control Chart

Champion

System

Control Chart Black Belts Green Belts Yellow Belts Processes

Task
Although we can graphically represent the variation inherent in the system through the use of control charts, the fact is that most organizations do not track this variation. Or, if they do, it is not with enough rigor that the measurements to actually mean something. As a result, they are unable to distinguish between common cause variation and special cause variation. They only know that something is wrong. Most organizations, at this point, begin to tamper with the system. They treat all variation as if it were common cause.

Example: Tampering
An organization that is bridging orders from the field into their order entry system experiences a series of bad transactions from one customer. In order to address the issue and placate the customer, the organization institutes another inspection station to screen bad orders to that one customer. Eventually, this fix becomes a regular part of the process and the cost associated with the fix becomes absorbed into the regular operating expenses of the business. Instead of getting to the root cause of the problem, the organization contains the problem and incurs the additional cost.
©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 7

Overview of Six Sigma
What Happens When We Tamper?
Tampering leads to increasing the size of your hidden organization.
Tampering Overcompensation Chaos

Chaos

Atrophy

Frustration

Tampering leads to more tampering; you are never done.

Solution to Tampering: MAIC
The six sigma methodology is the antithesis of tampering. In six sigma, you first seek to understand the practical problem by converting it to a statistical problem. Next, you solve the statistical problem by using statistical methods. Last, the statistical solution is converted to a practical solution. The approach is referred to as “MAIC”-an acronym for Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control.
Practical Problem Statistical Problem Statistical Solution Practical Solution Measure Analyze Improve Control

• The six sigma goal is achieved by focusing on:
■ ■

Cost of poor quality (COPQ). Customer requirements that are critical to quality control (CTQ) in their process control.
Sigma Level
1 2 3 4 5 6

Short-Term PPM
158655.3 22750.1 1350.0 31.7 0.3 0.0

Long-Term PPM
691462.5 308537.5 66807.2 6209.7 232.7 3.4
01_Overview • 8
Short- term distribution shifted by 1.5σ to obtain long term PPM.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

Overview of Six Sigma
The Six Sigma Vision
Champions build a positive vision for the future to motivate candidates who qualify as potential Black Belts. Enlist the cooperation and enthusiasm of these potential Black Belts to maintain the vision and ensure a successful six sigma cultural change. A strong vision can be built by addressing the following questions during the “vision building sessions” with Black Belts.

Vision Building
• Where is the business today? • Where is the culture today?

Where...
• How will we know when we get there?

do we want to go?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 9

Overview of Six Sigma
The Six Sigma Success Strategy

Application Strategy
Measure Analyze Improve Control

Implementation Strategy

Champions Black Belts Projects Reviews

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 10

Overview of Six Sigma
The Six Sigma Tools
Managing with Data
As mentioned earlier, business must be based on data versus the typical “I think,” “I feel,” or “In my opinion” practices. Data is available to virtually everyone in the organization-along with the tools for analyzing those data. Properly using data to Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (MAIC) performance forms the foundation of the six sigma methodology. Data helps us understand and determine customer requirements. Data measurement enables a business to pinpoint the gaps between the current and desired levels of satisfaction. Data provides knowledge about our process.

What is Sigma?
• Sigma: The value of the process standard deviation for any given process characteristic. It is used to quantify the spread (around the mean) of a specific process or product characteristic.

• Sigma Level: The business metric used to indicate the performance of a process to some specification-either internal or external. • Sigma Score: Also referred to as “Z-scores” that are measurements of progress and can be rolled up for related business processes.

σ1

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 11

Overview of Six Sigma
Sigma Level
• What is the sigma level of this characteristic? • What happens to the level as the process sigma value decreased? Why? • The sigma level of the distribution at the lower right is four. • As the process standard deviation decreases, the sigma level increases. • This occurs because the sigma level is a count of the number of standard deviations to the nearest specification.
LSL LSL

σ1 1

σ2 2
USL USL

σ1 1

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 12

Overview of Six Sigma
Normal Distribution
The Gaussian, or “normal” distribution is the most important frequency diagram in statistics. This bell-shaped curve is also known as the “normal curve”. Normal distribution is a continuous frequency distribution. The frequency distributions of many events in nature closely approximate the normal curve. They are said to be “normally distributed.” Throughout your forthcoming experiences as a Champion, you will encounter factors in processes that do not represent a normal distribution. • Normal curves are symmetrical and Z-scores (sigma levels) are used to describe how far away a value is from the center of the normal distribution. Normally distributed data reflects common cause variation.
Probability of being within ± 1 standard deviation is 68% Probability of being within ± 2 standard deviations is 95%
0.4 0.3

0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0

Freq
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Freq

0.2 0.1 0.0 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Z

Z

Probability of being within ± 3 standard deviations is 99.73%

Probability of being within ± 3 standard deviations is 99.73% Normal Distribution-Key Points
• Results of processes are probabilistic not deterministic (i.e., time to drive to work is about the same everyday-adding or subtracting some amount of variation). • If the influences on the process are just normal random variation, the results will form a normal distribution when plotted in a histogram. • Normal distributions have certain characteristics that are used to characterize them: bell-shaped, symmetry, and so on.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 13

Overview of Six Sigma
Using Sources of Variation
The sources of variation are unstable parts and materials, inadequate design margins, inappropriate measurement systems, and insufficient process capabilities. They are the areas where you will find the vital X's for the predictive equation Y = f(X). Sources of variation are those areas of a business that produce defects with respect to a given specification. Major Sources of Variation 1. Design 2. Parts and Materials 3. Process Capabilities 4. Measurement Systems 5. Organization (Infrastructure)

Major Sources of Variation
Design Margins Parts and Materials Process Capabilities

Measurement Systems

Organization Infrastructure

Six sigma focuses on addressing and significantly reducing the occurrences of root causes-inadequate design margins, unstable parts and materials, and insufficient process capabilities, measurement systems and organization infrastructure.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 14

Overview of Six Sigma
Long and Short-Term Variation
Over time, the process average will tend to shift the variation represented by chance in the average value and is referred to as between subgroup variation. The overall variation represents long-term data. This is mathematically calculated from the total sum of squares and accounts for both the within and between subgroup variation.
Short- term Within Group Variation Between Subgroup Variation Long - term Variation

USL

Output

1.5 1.5

Time 1

Time 2

Time 3

Time 4

Time 5

LSL

Time

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 15

Overview of Six Sigma
Attacking the Sources of Variation
What tools should we use?

6σ 5σ 4σ 3σ 1-2σ

Tools Product Scorecard™ 6σ Tolerancing Design for Manufacturability Discrete Event Simulation Tools Designed Experiments Failure Modes and Effects
Multi-Vari Analysis Process Mapping Measurement Systems Analysis Capability Studies Brainstorming SPC Charts Tribal Knowledge

Tools Fishbone Diagrams
Pareto Diagrams Tools Common Sense

Where is your organization? What kind of tools should you be using? • The focus of six sigma is to identify causes for unpredictable variables and control the variables at a predictable level.

Process redesign is likely to occur when an organization sets their goal to increase their current sigma level of quality. Process knowledge increases when new tools are used. The process to develop a new product is called “design for six sigma (DFSS)” and is used to accomplish six sigma level of quality prior to its commercialization.

■ ■

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 16

Overview of Six Sigma
The Six Sigma Predictive Equation
Our ability to make money (Y) is a function of customer satisfaction, inventory returns, rolled throughput yield and so forth. The more you truly know and understand about your product and services, the less risk your organization takes. • The fundamental equation that drives six sigma is:

Y = f(X)
• The output is a function of the inputs and process. Y: Output (things important to the business) f: function (how to treat and manage interrelationships) X: Variables that must be controlled to consistently predict Y

The Cost Perspective of Y = f(X)

$ =f (
Operating Dollars Supplier Dollars Design Dollars

Customer Satisfaction Rolled Yield Delivery

Cycle Time PPM - defects Productivity

)

PPM: Internal defects, test rejects, rework, warranty costs. Delivery delinquency rate: Units shipped late divided by total units shipped Raw materials received late; forcing production planning changes. Raw materials received defective.

Z - performance: Estimates of functionality. Z - parts: Estimate of supplier quality. Z - process: Estimate of manufacturing quality.
Design to unit production costs: Material cost plus labor cost plus work cost.

Z-score: Provides a common metric to understand the overall process and/or product performance.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 17

Overview of Six Sigma
The Six Sigma Success Strategy

Application Strategy
Measure Analyze Improve Control

Implementation Strategy
Champions Black Belts Projects Reviews

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 18

Overview of Six Sigma
Six Sigma Application Strategy
Black Belts strategically complete requirements in phases. Each phase entails specific actions that are necessary before they move on to the subsequent phase. Champions support Black Belts with guidance during the completion of each phase.

1. Measure
• Define the project scope. • Map the process. • Select the output characteristics (the Y's). • Assess the performance specifications. • Validate the measurement systems. • Establish the initial capability (for the Y's).

2. Analyze
• Define the performance objectives. • Document the potential X's. • Analyze the sources of variation.

3. Improve
• Screen potential causes. • Identify the appropriate operating conditions.

4. Control
• Validate the measurement systems (for the X's). • Implement the appropriate process controls. • Document what has been learned.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 19

Overview of Six Sigma
Six Sigma Success Approach
Organizational Issues
Problem Resolution Behavior Decision-Making Process Adjustment Supplier Selection Planning Design Employee Training Chain-of-Command Direction Manpower

Traditional Approach
Fixing (Symptoms) Reactive Experience-Based Tweaking Cost (Piece Price) Short-Term Performance If Time Permits Hierarchy Seat-of-Pants Cost

Six Sigma Approach
Preventing (Causes) Proactive Data-Based Controlling Capability Long-Term Producibility Mandated Empowered Teams Benchmarking and Metrics Asset

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 20

Overview of Six Sigma
Exercise
1. Can you recall a situation within your business in which the company was reactive to a problem? List the situation. 2. What was the solution to the problem? Did a similar problem reoccur? Why did this happen in the first place? 3. What do you feel are the benefits of empowered teams vs. a hierarchy chain of command? 4. How many times have you heard the phrase? “The last time we solved this problem, we…”

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 21

Overview of Six Sigma
Common Six Sigma Tools
Prelim Design Detail Design Production
01_Overview • 22

Concept

Capability Analysis Process Mapping FMEA Gage R&R Hypothesis Testing DOE Control

Benchmarking Standards
Benchmarking standards refer to the standard measure by which future DPO can be measured or judged. It is the initial measurement that is used to measure the degree of success towards a shift to a six sigma level of quality. Benchmarking an organization involves learning from the “best practices in the industry”; studying that organization for a given process. However, benchmarking also involves learning about the customer's process and their requirements for quality.

Benchmarking Data
• Identifying customer value. • Defining the processes to deliver that value. • Refining the value-delivery processes. • Continuing improvement on the value-delivery processes.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

Testing

Overview of Six Sigma
The Relationship Between Process Complexity and Process Capability
Process Capability (Sigma Level) Short-Term 1 10 80 100 150 300 1,200 3,000 150,000
±3 Sigma 93.319% 50.086% 0.396% 0.099% 0.003% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% 0.000% ±4 Sigma 99.379% 93.961% 60.755% 53.638% 39.284% 15.432% 0.057% 0.000% 0.000% ±5 Sigma 99.977% 99.768% 98.156% 97.700% 96.570% 93.257% 75.636% 49.753% 0.000%
(Distribution Shifted ± 1.5 σ)

±6 Sigma 100.000% 99.997% 99.973% 99.966% 99.949% 99.898% 99.593% 98.985% 60.042%

Product Complexity (# of Opportunities)

Long-Term

σ 4σ toothpick manufacturer (assume one opportunity for a defect): Has an RTY of 0.99379 (1) = 99.379% σ 4σ mechanical pencil manufacturer (assume 10 opportunities for a defect): Has an RTY of 0.99379 (10) = 93.961% • The number of opportunities refers to “the frequency of mutually exclusive events (or occurrences of defects independent to each other) for a defect to occur” and also represents the complexity of a process. This metric will allow us to standardize the comparison process, when it relates to dissimilar goods and services across a division or organization. • The sigma level based on the opportunities, thus enables us to compare dissimilar goods or services. • As the sigma level of quality improves, the RTY will improve for a constant level of opportunities.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 23

Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)

Overview of Six Sigma
What Would You Invest?
• Achieving a cultural change in the way people behave through the successful completion of six sigma projects. • Applying the six sigma methodology, associated metrics and knowledge that will improve the organization's ability to proactively prevent problems. • Training for Champions to have a clear understanding of their commitments for successful Black Belt projects before they begin leading their Black Belt teams. • Improving plans and design, versus improving the product.

Improvement Ratios (Payback)
Improve Plan Improve Design Improve Process Improve Product

1000 : 1

100 : 1

10 : 1

1:1

Improve Ratios (Payback)

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 24

Overview of Six Sigma
Cost of Poor Quality (COPQ)
Expenses associated with finding and fixing defects are termed “COPQ” and may include these hidden costs: • Failing to meet customer expectations the first time • Finding and fixing defects (tampering) • Missing opportunities for increased efficiency • Overlooking any potential for higher profits • Accumulating losses in market share • Increasing cycle time • Paying labor associated with ordering replacement materials • Resulting costs associated with disposing of defects (scrapping waste) • Consuming time with “complaints” handling and non-value-added activities COPQ often exceeds the profit margin and can be as high as 25-40% of sales for the average company. COPQ becomes a hidden organization cost, when it is absorbed into the standard costing structure.

Traditional COPQ
Easily Identified, but only the

TIP of the ICEBERG
Overtime Defects Long Cycle Times Cost of Capital Redundant Processes Expediting Costs Inspection Idle time Rework

(tangible)

Lost Sales

(less obvious)

Missed Commitments Inaccurate Reports

Lost Opportunity
Lost Customer Loyalty

Excessive Planning

Can you name any additional COPQ?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 25

Overview of Six Sigma
Understanding Opportunities
• Which product is performing better, the pencil or the calculator?

Mechanical Calculator Pencil
Defects per Unit (DPU) Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY)

0.030 97.04 %

0.189 82.78 %

• Which product is performing better, the pencil or the calculator?

Mechanical Calculator Pencil
Defects per Unit (DPU) Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) Opportunities DPU/Opportunities DPMO Product Sigma Level

0.030 97.04 % 15 0.00200 2000 4.378

0.189 82.78% 97 0.00195 1948 4.386

RTY = e - dpu ln(RTY) = - dpu dpu = - ln(RTY)

Note: Assumes the defects were collected in the long-term.

Understanding Opportunities-Key Points
• Use defects per million opportunities (DPMO) only when comparing dissimilar goods/services. • Do not apply an opportunity count to any non-value-added operation. • Maintain the consistency of the “opportunity” by institutionalizing its definition.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 26

Overview of Six Sigma
Metrics
• Which metric is the ideal one to run your business?

Traditional Metrics
$130,000 $120,000 $110,000

Equipment Util. vs. COPQ

$130,000 $120,000 $110,000

Test Yield vs. COPQ

COPQ

COPQ

$100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 0.825 0.85 0.875 0.9 0.925 0.95 0.975 0 1

$100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 80.0% 82.5% 85.0% 87.5% 90.0% 92.5%

Equipment Utilization

Test Yield

Six Sigma Metrics
Sigma Level vs. COPQ
$450,000 $375,000 $450,000 $375,000

Cycle Time vs. COPQ

COPQ

COPQ

$300,000 $225,000 $150,000 $75,000 $1.00 1.75 2.50 3.25 4.0 0 4.75 5.50

$300,000 $225,000 $150,000 $75,000 $0.00 30.00 60.00 90.0 0 1 20.00

Sigma Level

Cycle Time (Minutes)

Metrics-Key Points
• Traditional metrics do not have an acceptable predictability for the level of quality. • Six sigma metrics have good predictability for profit and cost, based on the level of quality.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 27

Overview of Six Sigma
The Process Learning Strategy
Improvement cannot occur prior to the gain of new knowledge.

Data

Information

Knowledge

Practical questions drive Champion leadership and Black Belt actions. Champions guide Black Belts in identifying the answers to the most important question, “What is is that I want or need to know?” A clear concise answer must be found before the start of any project.

Questions to Begin Process Learning
The organization must learn and understand by collecting the appropriate data. Action Plan Questions
1. What do I want to know? 2. How do I want to see it? 3. What type of tool produces this picture? 4. What type of data does this tool require? 5. Where and how can I get this data?

Implementation Action Questions
1. Where and how can I get his data? 2. What type of data does this tool require? 3. What type of tool produces this picture? 4. How do I want to see it? 5. What do I want to know?

The more you know and understand your product and service-the less risk your organization, customers and suppliers encounter.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 28

Overview of Six Sigma
Why Use Six Sigma?
Many organizations ask themselves “Why use six sigma?” Your organization may currently be functioning at a four sigma level of quality with a low percentage of defective goods or services. Using six sigma will involve an investment of time and money supplemented by a serious commitment from all levels of the organization. The answer is simple. Use six sigma because you want to: • Improve customer satisfaction. • Improve your profit margins and reduce cost. • Reduce your cycle times. • Improve the sigma level of the processes, products and services of your organization. • Gain great predictability over your outputs. • Become selective with suppliers based on the effect of their input on your processes.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 29

Overview of Six Sigma
The Six Sigma Product
The product offered is improvement. Through training, guidance and use of the six sigma tools-the Master Black Belt maximizes potential, translates problems into solvable equations, and in the process transform clients into Black Belts and Champions for improvement. The methods and techniques taught and applied using the six sigma methodology are not industry specific. They have been introduced to companies that represent a variety of industries ranging from satellites to tennis balls-all with positive bottom-line results and performance.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 30

Overview of Six Sigma
Exercise
Purpose: Agenda:
Obtain the participant's impression of their organizations' business philosophy. • Complete each section of the survey. Check Yes or No for each question. • Take five minutes to complete the survey. A short discussion will follow.

Limit:

5 minutes

My Business Philosophy Survey
Directions: Complete the business survey report for your business. Check Yes or No.
Our organization’s business... 1. Uses only tribal knowledge; we do not use data. 2. Collects data simply to say: “We collect data.” 3. Collects data and sometimes look at the numbers. 4. Logically groups the data; we form charts. 5. Uses sample data along with basic statistics. 6. Uses sample data along with inferential statistics. 7. Quantifies processes via prediction equations. Yes No

My Business Actions Survey
Directions: Answer each question. Check Yes or No.
Our organization… 1. Continually implements price reductions for current products. 2. Has an increasing number of competitors. 3. Spends 10–25% of sales dollars on repairing or reworking a product before it ships. 4. Does not know the best-in-class companies that have similar processes, but run 100 times more productively. 5. Believes zero-defect goals are neither realistic nor achievable. 6. Has more suppliers required for running the business. 7. Has 5–10% of its clients dissatisfied with the product, the sales organization, or the service it has provided. 8. Has customers who will not recommend that others purchase goods or services from us. Yes No

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 31

Overview of Six Sigma
Exercise
Directions: Complete each question. List your answer on the spaces provided. 1. Name the two elements of the six sigma methodology. a) b) 2. Name the four key elements in the six sigma success strategy. a) b) c) d) 3. Describe the process learning strategy.

4. Write four action planning questions that would be used in process learning. a) b) c) d) 5. Name three COPQ issues for your organization. a) b) c)

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 32

Overview of Six Sigma
Summary
• The six sigma success strategy has four key phases. The are:
■ ■ ■ ■

Measure Analyze Improve Control

• All four steps must be completed by the Black Belt and supported by the Champion. • The six sigma approach deals with preventing causes vs. correcting problems. • Solving the equation of Y = f(X) allows us to move from reacting to outputs to proactively controlling the inputs. • The six sigma methodology contains two strategies.
■ ■

Application Strategy Implementation Strategy

• The implementation strategy involves the MAIC project reviews completed by the Champion and Black Belt. The completion of the project includes plans to implement and sustain the change. • The process learning strategy emphasizes that improvement can not occur without new knowledge. The strategy begins with practical questions that drive Champion leadership and Black Belt actions. • The process learning strategy follows this sequence: 1. Data 2. Information 3. Knowledge • Successfully applying the six sigma strategy requires that the Champion and Black Belt build a positive vision by asking, “What is it that I need to know?” • These questions can build a strong vision during the “vision building sessions” with Black Belts:
■ ■ ■ ■

What data is needed? How should it appear? What are the tools required to obtain this data? What tool does this data require and where/how can the Black Belt access this data?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion 385 • Version 3.1.0

01_Overview • 33

Roles and Responsibilities
Agenda
• Overview and Objectives • Six Sigma

Traditional Quality Program Implementation-Six Sigma Program Management Approach Characteristics of Six Sigma Attitude Shift Building a Vision The Vision of Six Sigma Qualtec Exercise The Six Sigma Project Team Role Model Champion Roles and Responsibilities

■ ■ ■ ■ ■

• Who is the Champion?
■ ■

• MAIC Detailed Roles

Overview
The goal of this unit is to increase your knowledge of the management roles and responsibilities of a Champion. You'll learn to effectively lead change and manage your training deployment.

Objectives
At the end of this unit, you will be able to:
• Identify the roles and responsibilities for a Champion. • Identify the management action necessary to monitor Black Belt training and project completion.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 1

Roles and Responsibilities
Traditional Implementation vs. the Six Sigma Approach
Tradional Quality Program Implementation
• The need for quality improvement is recognized. • Top management "buys in" to quality improvement. • The implementation responsibility is turned over to a quality VP or leader. • The CEO makes a statement of support and expectation. • All employees are trained in basic quality tools. • Improvement is expected.

Six Sigma Project Program Management Approach
• Six sigma is rolled out the same way as a potentially high-profit product. • A project leader is identified. • Project objectives, implementation schedule and milestones are defined. • A project team is created: Champions, Black Belts and other team members. • Initial application projects are identified. • Initial training is performed. • Plans are reviewed and revised.

Characteristics of Six Sigma
• Leadership Commitment Commitment must come first from the top executive leadership of the organization before all employees practice it. Achieving six sigma requires serious commitment in the form of time, effort and resources. • Managing with Data Properly using data to Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control performance forms the foundation of the six sigma methodology. Adopting six sigma will lead to the enhancement of existing systems and the creation of new data collection systems. • Training and Cultural Change Improved performance does not and will not happen automatically. High-caliber training is required, followed by disciplined implementation. Employees must change the way they perform their jobs at all levels. Cultural change will pervade the entire organization's way of thinking, communicating and operating. Champions play an important role as change agents by providing revelation and inspiration in the six sigma application and business transformation process.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 2

Roles and Responsibilities
Attitude Shift
One of the responsibilities of the Champion is to create a cultural attitude shift by communicating that defects can be eliminated. When the entire organization adjusts their attitude and utilizes the six sigma methodology, a new expectation of zero defects will result. • From a culture where:
■ ■ ■

• To a culture where:
■ ■ ■

Defects are inevitable. People are blamed. Employees are frustrated with time constraints that prevent elimination of defects. Inspections are added at the end. 100% inspection is performed. Customers receive defects.

Defects can be eliminated. Causes are relentlessly pursued. Mistake-proofing tools are implemented. Sampling inspections are approved/encouraged. No defects are passed on to the customer.

■ ■ ■

"When you pit a good performer against a bad process, the process will win." -Rummler

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 3

Roles and Responsibilities
Building a Vision
Building a vision that will bring forth the desired business culture may begin with a review of the organization's foundational history and where it genuinely stands today. Having evaluated the business's environment, we can begin to layout a blueprint that will provide motivation and direction in the renovation. Generally, people are trained to think in terms of responding appropriately to circumstances. This often results in the unfortunate policy of limiting what one wants to what seems realistic-forming a counter-creative habit.

Vision statements normally include:
• A description of the organization's most desirable future. • A declaration of what the organization needs to do to reach the envisioned future. Creating the vision may be deceptively simple; arriving there, profoundly complex.

Forming a vision requires the following actions:
• Viewing the future with expected changes. • Appealing to logic and intuition, while explaining the need for change. • Setting milestone markers to chart the progress of change.

The Vision of Six Sigma Qualtec
Exceed stakeholder expectations by: • Offering clients knowledge transfer systems that produce irrefutably positive results. • Providing employees an environment that makes SSQ the employer of choice. • Earning shareholders enhanced returns through flawless execution of our business plans. • Being the best-managed company in the expanding global training industry for the benefit of all stakeholders.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 4

Roles and Responsibilities
Exercise
Purpose: Agenda:
Present your company's six sigma business vision. • Think of your ideal business setting. • List three to four facts indicating the present state of your company. • List three to four details of where you would like to go with a six sigma initiative. Record your answers on the space provided.

Limit:

5 minutes

My Business Vision
Present State of Business: Business Future:

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 5

Roles and Responsibilities
Exercise: 90-Second Elevator Speech
Purpose: Agenda:
Develop a 90-second elevator speech that concisely captures your vision of six sigma for your organization. • Take 10 minutes to jot down ideas. Do not script this; the speech is to be delivered extemporaneously. Use the chart below to list your ideas. • Divide into pairs. • Give your speech to your partner. • Exchange feedback.

Limit:

20 minutes Your Thoughts and Ideas

Possible Ideas Economic Security Growth Satisfaction Stress reduction

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 6

Roles and Responsibilities
Who is the Champion?
A Champion is a member of the management team who is responsible for the logistical and business aspects of the Black Belt program. The Champion is charged with ensuring the systems within the organization function optimally. They directly or indirectly influence the amount of tampering within the organization, resulting in either a higher or lower COPQ. Champions encourage each player in the six sigma team must be a role model for the six sigma culture change.

The Six Sigma Project Team Role Model
• Be tenacious. • Be courageous. • Make decisions based on fact. • Think outside the box. • Embrace change. • Be enthusiastic-ready to celebrate success!

A Champion must be all of these and more.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 7

Roles and Responsibilities
Champion Roles and Responsibilities
The Champion has several important functions as a leader and manager of the Black Belts and their projects. • Broad Function
■ ■

Coordinates a business roadmap to achieve six sigma. Selects projects, executes control, and eliminates roadblocks for the six sigma projects in their area of responsibility and implements improvement. Is part of the functional organization and a direct report to the six sigma sponsor. The Champion is a member of the organization's six sigma leadership team (quality council and customer satisfaction). Owns Black Belt selection. Is the direct boss to Black Belts during project activity. Owns the "execution" portion of Black Belt certification. Champions must monitor and lead Black Belt projects to ensure successful completion of all certification requirements. Provides rewards and recognition to Black Belts. Tracks the progress of six sigma related training for each Black Belt. Develops and executes a roadmap for a given business project. Selects projects, executes control, implements and realizes gains (the bottomline linkage). Drives cross-functional coordination of projects. Participates in all reviews of Black Belt projects. Spends 15 to 20 minutes each week reviewing the progress of the projects with each Black Belt.

• Reporting Lines

• Black Belt Leadership
■ ■ ■

■ ■

• Project Leadership
■ ■

■ ■

• Time Commitment

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 8

Measure
Important Facts to Know About Measure
• The Goal of Measure • The Steps to Complete the Measure Phase • The Tools Used in Measure • The Roadblocks That Can Occur • The Champion Tools to Manage the Measure Phase • The Champion Roles and Responsibilities • Measure Deliverables

Measure Phase Overview - The Goal
The goal for the Measure phase is to assess the capabilities of the process, the effectiveness of the measurement system and to identify possible variables that could cause the problem. Measure is the discovery phase of the case or project. We are detecting multiple unsolved crimes or defects. At the completion of measure you will have several possible variables that could be the culprit to the crime of causing defects.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 9

Measure
Measure Phase Steps

Measure
• Capability Analysis • Basics Statistics • MSA • MSA R&R • XY Matrix • FMEA • Process Map • DPU • DPMO

4. Capability Assessment
(Establish the initial capability – for the Y's)

3. Measurement Verification
(Assess the performance specifications)

2. Process Exploration
(Select the output characteristics – the Y's) (Refine the project scope)

1. Project Selection

Measure Phase - The Roadblocks
Roadblocks can occur during each phase. Specific roadblocks for this phase may include: • No historical data exists to support the project. • Team members do not have the time to collect data. • Data presented is the best guess by functional managers. • Primary metrics are not reflected in the data. • Data are communicated from poor systems. • Waste and defect data are not currently captured.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 10

Measure
Measure Phase - Black Belt Action
Manufacturing Industry
• Engineers • Supervisors • Managers • Design Engineers • Maintenance Engineers

Service Industry
• Managers • Customer Service Manager • Engineer • Accountant • Professional in the Business

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 11

Measure
Measure Phase - Champion Roles and Responsibilities
The Champion must provide the purposeful guidance necessary to ensure that the Black Belt completes the Measure phase successfully. A robust plan is developed to influence stakeholders or functional barriers that could prevent success.

Measure Phase - Specific Champion Responsibilities
• During Process "X" Exploration

Ensure team participation. Ensure team participation. Ensure resources are available for study. Remove barriers when study is outside of normal functional boundaries. Assist with removing barriers associated with improving the measurement systems when necessary. Ensure data are available for assessment.

• During Process "X" Prioritization

• During Measurement Study Analysis
■ ■ ■

• During Capability Assessment

• Oversee informal and formal reviews of projects. • Engage other key leaders in the project.
■ ■

Elevator speech Changing behaviors

• Provide coaching on leadership, facilitation and change management. • Attend the first day of training for all Black Belt sessions.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 12

Measure
Measure Phase - Champion Tools
The Champion is a key individual in each phase of a six sigma deployment. The Champion should maintain an active involvement in the project by holding informal reviews of the steps of the Measure phase, as well as complete the Measurement Review Checklist to ensure that all the steps in Measure are completed. • Measure Review Checklist

Contains important questions to use in ensuring the Black Belts have completed all the important steps in Measure. Provides a description of the tools and their use. It supplies the Champion with an easy reference while completing the Measure phase.

• Measure Tools Guide

Measure Phase - Deliverables
1. Process "X" Exploration 2. Process "X" Prioritization 3. Measurement Study Analysis (MSA) 4. Capability Assessment

Process capability takes the practical problem and states it in terms of a statistical problem. The statistical nature of the problem gives the team leader insight as to the type of X's to be identified.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 13

Measure
Measure Breakthrough Strategy
No.
1.

Scope

Measure Activities

Tools
ProjStat.doc Metric.xls DPMO DPU.xls XY Matrix FMEA Process/ Flow Charter

1. Focus on a problem statement. Project Selection (Refine the project scope) 2. Identify management metric (baseline, goal, projection). 3. Form the team. 4. Process map with Xs and Y's. 5. XY Matrix. Process Exploration 6. Preliminary process FMEA. (Select the output characteristics – the Y's) 7. List of response variables (Y's). 8. Implement adequate data collection. 9. Attribute R&R. Measurement Verification 10.Variable R&R. (Assess the performance specifications) Capability Assessment (Establish the initial capability – for the Y's) 11. Zst, Zlt, DPU, RTY, DPMO, etc. 12. Capability Analysis.

2.

3.

AttrR&R Minitab

4.

Minitab

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 14

Measure
Measure Checklist
• The Champion can ensure the completion of the Measure phase by completing the checklist for all four steps. • Review the checklist questions with your Black Belt.

Measure Questions
Step One • What is your problem statement? Objective? • Who will benefit from this project when it is completed? • What are the benefits? • Have the benefits been quantified? It not, when will this be done? Date: _________________________________________________ • Who is the customer (internal/external)? • Has the controller’s office been involved in these calculations? • Who are the owners of this process? • Who are the members on your team? • Does anyone require additional training? • What is your primary metric? • What is your secondary metric? • Why did you choose these? • What are the defect categories on your Pareto charts? Step Two • Do you have a process map? • Who was involved in its development? • Where are the data collection points? • Have you completed a fishbone diagram? • Have you completed a XY Matrix? • Have you completed a FMEA? • Who participated in these activities? Step Three • What is your measurement systems analysis? • Where did you get your data? Step Four • Do you have a histogram of your primary metrics? • What is the short - term and long- term capability of your process? General Questions • Do you have any issues and barriers? • Do you have adequate resources to complete the project? • Have you completed your project status form?

YES

NO

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 15

Measure
Personal Deployment Planner Review
• This portion of the planner reviews the required Champion actions needed for the Measure phase. • The suggested time frame is useful in planning the Champion's action items timetable.

MEASURE
Six months three weeks before certification One week before the start of Session 1

Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Inform candidate of open - door policy. (optional) Contract with candidate for your support. Check with candidate’s supervisor as to release status. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers—issues. Resolve barriers and issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan—informally or formally. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing question for section on “Measure". Review Champions manual. Participate in read- out. Meet with team members to discuss project. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Adjust communications plan.

MEASURE
Five months before certification Three days after training

MEASURE
Four months before certification One week before Session 2

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 16

Measure
Exercise: Measure Phase
Directions: Complete each question. Circle all that apply. 1. The purpose of the Measure phase: a) Reduce the number of potential X variables to a few variables. b) Eliminate X variables and to control the critical X's. c) Identify the initial capability for the Y's. d) Discover the cause-and-effect or the functional relationship between Y and X. 2. The roadblocks that may occur during Measure: a) No historical data exists to support the project. b) Primary metrics are not reflected in the data. c) Team members do not have time to collect data. d) Data presented is the best guess by functional managers. 3. The Champion leadership action during "Measurement Verification": a) Remove barriers when study is outside normal functional boundaries. b) Ensure resources are available. c) Complete informal reviews of project. d) Provide data for measurement. 4. Defectives are: a) Countable failures associated with a single unit. b) The portion of products that have been processed with zero defects. c) The completed units that are classified as bad. d) Counted when measuring COPQ. 5. The Champion tool(s) used to manage the Measure phase: a) Measure Checklist b) Experiment Strategy Plan c) Black Belt Project Status Form d) Personal Deployment Planner

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 17

Measure
Measure - Summary
The goal of this unit was to increase your knowledge and use of the tools Black Belts will employ during the Measure phase. You learned about the Champion leadership actions required during the various stages of the Measure phase. The steps and their tools were reviewed to increase your knowledge of the process.

Measure Phase Goal and Steps
The goal for the Measure phase is to assess the capabilities of the process, the effectiveness of the measurement system and to identify possible variables that could cause the problem. 1. Project Selection 2. Process Exploration 3. Measurement Verification 4. Capability Assessment

Roadblocks
• No historical data exists to support the project. • Team members do not have the time to collect data. • Data presented is the best guess by functional managers. • Primary metrics are not reflected in the data. • Data are communicated from poor systems. • Waste and defect data are not currently captured.

Champion Tools
The Champion tools used to manage Black Belts are: • Measure Review Checklist • Measure Tools Guide

Measure Deliverables
1. Process "X" Exploration 2. Process "X" Prioritization 3. Measurement Study Analysis 4. Process Capability Assessment

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 18

Analyze
Important Facts to Know About Analyze
• The Goal of Analyze • The Steps to Complete the Analyze Phase • The Tools Used in Analyze • The Roadblocks That Can Occur • The Champion Tools to Manage the Analyze Phase • The Champion Roles and Responsibilities • Analyze Deliverables

Analyze Phase Overview - The Goal
The goal for the Analyze phase is to develop a statistical problem from our defined hunches we discovered during the Measure phase. Complex analytical tools are applied to reduce the number of suspect variables (X's) prior to the initiation of the Improve phase. We want to gain insight into the nature of the X's that control Y.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 19

Analyze
Analyze Phase Steps

• Histograms • Multiple Boxplots • Scatter Plots • Multi-Vari Studies • Hypothesis Testing • Regression Analysis • XY Matrix • FMEA • Process Map • Capability • Analysis

Analyze

3. Analyze Source of Variability
(Assess the Performance Specifications)

2. Document Potential X's
(Develop a starting list for possible X's)

1. Define Performance Objectives
(A review of the prior capability analysis to determine the action needed)

Analyze Phase-The Roadblocks
Roadblocks can occur during each phase. Specific roadblocks for this phase may include: • Lack of data. • Lack of access to the process. • Team members do not have the time to collect data.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 20

Analyze
Analyze Phase - Black Belt Action
• Separate the vital few X's from the trivial many X's. • Update the project status form. • Determine possible X for DOE. • Identify additional support needed.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 21

Analyze
Analyze Phase - Champion Roles and Responsibilities
The Champion must provide the purposeful guidance necessary to ensure that the Black Belt completes the Analyze phase successfully. Champions establish process owner support and ensure resources are available to complete the steps.

Analyze Phase - Specific Champion Responsibilities
• Hold regularly scheduled meetings with the Black Belt to review the project status. • Remove roadblocks that can impede the process. • Check and remove barriers stated by the Black Belt. • Monitor a communications plan-informal or formal. • Communicate with the six sigma coordinator. • Meet with the Master Black Belt or review the status and performance of the Black Belt.

Complete the Analyze checklist with the Black Belt to ensure all steps in Analyze are completed.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 22

Analyze
Analyze Phase-Champion Tools
The Champion should maintain an active involvement in the project by completing the Personal Deployment Planner for Analyze and holding informal reviews to discuss the steps of analyze as well as complete the Analyze Review Questionnaire to ensure that all the steps in measure were completed. The Champion remains an important factor in a six sigma deployment. • The Champion tools used to manage Black Belts are:

Personal Deployment Planner (Wedding Planner) provides a recommended timeline and the Champion actions necessary to complete Analyze. Analyze Review Questionnaire: A checklist containing important questions use to ensure the Black Belt has completed all the important steps in Analyze. Analyze Tools Guide: This guide provides a description of the tools and their use. It provides the Champion with an easy reference while completing the Analyze phase.

Analyze Phase-Deliverables
1. Prioritized list of potential experimental X's. 2. Graphs built and analysis performed, as needed.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 23

Analyze
Analyze Breakthrough Strategy
No.
1.

Scope
Define Performance Objectives (A review of the prior capability analysis to determine the action needed) Document Potential X's (Develop a starting list for possible X's) Analyze Source of Variability (Assess the performance specifications)

Analyze Activities
1. Evaluate existing and prior process data.

Tools
Capability Analysis

2.

2. Review process exploration tools from the Measure phase. 3. Establish relationships between potential X's and Y using graphical and statistical tools. 4. Develop a short list of X's for possible experimentation.

XY Matrix FMEA Process Map Histograms Multiple Boxplots Scatter Plots Multi-Vari Studies Hypothesis Testing Regression Analysis

3.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 24

Analyze
Analyze Checklist
• The Champion can ensure the completion of the Analyze phase by completing the checklist following each step in the process with the Black Belt.

Analyze Questions
Step One
• • • • What is the statement of the statistical problem? Is the response discrete or continuous? What does the distribution look like? How much of the problem, as described in the Measure phase, are you going after?

YES NO

Step Two
• Have you reduced the potential X's? • Have you reduced the likely X's to a number of which can be experimented? • Have you completed a demographics matrix? • Have you completed a graphical and distribution analysis?

Step Three
• Have you performed hypothesis tests? • Have you updated the FMEA?

General Questions
• • • • Do you have any issues/barriers? Do you have adequate resources to complete the project? Have you completed your project status form? Do you need help from me?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 25

Analyze
Personal Deployment Planner Review
• The planner lists the recommended time frame and Champion action items to ensure the Analyze phase is completed successfully. • It is important that Champions review the time frame and action items prior to the start of the Analyze phase.

ANALYZE
Four months before certification One week before the start of Session 2

Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Schedule time to meet with Master Black Belt/mentor. Monitor communications plan, informal or formal. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing questions for section on “Analyze". Review Champions manual. Participate in read- out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Adjust communications plan.

ANALYZE
Three months two weeks before certification Three days after training

ANALYZE
Two months two weeks before certification One week before Session 3

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 26

Analyze
Exercise: Analyze Phase
Directions: Complete each question. Circle all that apply. 1. The purpose of the Analyze phase: a) Eliminate the many potential X variables to a few variables. b) Eliminate X variables and to control the critical X's. c) Identify the initial capability for the Y's. d) Discover the cause and effect or functional relationship between Y and X. 2. The Champion leadership action during "Define Performance Objectives": a) Ensure Black Belts have the resources necessary to collect data. b) Provide a change of project direction. c) Complete informal reviews of project. d) Complete analyze checklist. 3. The Champion leadership action during "Document the Potential X's": a) Remove barriers when study is outside normal functional boundaries. b) Ensure resources are available. c) Complete analyze checklist. d) Provide data for measurement. 4. The Champion leadership action during "Analyze the Source of Variation": a) Remove barriers when study is outside normal functional boundaries. b) Provide data for measurement. c) To complete analyze checklist. d) Ensure resources are available. 5. The Champion tool(s) used to manage the Analyze phase: a) Analyze Checklist b) Experiment Strategy Plan c) Personal Deployment Planner d) Black Belt Project Status Form

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 27

Analyze
Analyze - Summary
The goal of this unit was to increase your knowledge and use of the tools Black Belts will employ during the Analyze phase. You learned about the Champion leadership actions required during the various stages of Analyze. The steps and their tools were reviewed to increase your knowledge of the process.

Analyze Phase Goal and Steps
The goal for the Analyze phase is to develop a statistical problem from our defined hunches we discovered during the Measure phase. Complex analytical tools are applied to reduce the number of suspect variables (X's) prior to the initiation of the Improve phase. We want to gain insight into the nature of the X's that control Y. 1. Define the performance objectives. 2. Document the potential X's. 3. Analyze source of variability.

Roadblocks
Roadblocks that can occur during Analyze involve the type of data and time constraints placed on team members. Specific roadblocks include: • Lack of data. • Lack of access to the process. • Team members do not have the time to collect data.

Champion Tools
The Champion tools used to manage Black Belts are: • Personal Deployment Planner (Wedding Planner) • Analyze Review Questionnaire • Analyze Tools Guide

Analyze Deliverables
1. Prioritized list of potential experimental X's. 2. Graphs built and analysis performed, as needed.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 28

Improve
Important Facts to Know About Improve
• The Goal of Improve • The Steps to Complete the Improve Phase • The Tools Used in Improve • The Roadblocks That Can Occur • The Champion Tools to Manage the Improve Phase • The Champion Roles and Responsibilities • Improve Deliverables • The Focus of the Improve Phase-Y = f(X)

Improve Phase Overview - The Goal
The goal of Improve is to finalize the identification of critical Y variables and to investigate the nature of "f". We wish to determine the extent to which the variable effects the output characteristic. The project team creates a practical solution.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 29

Improve
Improve Phase Steps

Improve
• Capability Analysis • Final Report • DOE • Main Effects Plot • Interaction Plot

• Experimental Strategy • Experiment Planning Outline

3. Validate the Results

2. Execute and Analyze the Design of Experiment (DOE)

1. Define the Experimental Plan

Improve Phase - The Roadblocks
• Lack of production volume and or parts. • Lack of access to the process • Excessively high sample costs.

Improve Phase - Black Belt Action
• Define and review the experimental plan with the Champion. • Execute the DOE and collect data. • Analyze data and draw a statistical conclusion. • Draw practical solutions.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 30

Improve
Improve Phase - Champion Roles and Responsibilities
• Provide purposeful guidance to ensure that the Black Belt completes the Improve phase successfully. • Ensure that resources are available to complete the steps. • Ensure process owner support. • Challenge Black Belts to be rigorous and constantly look for learning opportunity.

Improve Phase - Specific Champion Responsibilities
• Review the DOE plan to determine the logistical issues and resources required to execute the experiment. • Ensure resources are available for the DOE. • Informal reviews of the project and complete the Improve checklist. • Challenge Black Belts to be rigorous and to constantly look for learning opportunities. • Ensure resources are available for study. • Ensure that the practical solution is implemented. • Ensure process owner support.

Improve Phase - Champion Tools
Tools used to manage Black Belts: • Improve Review Questionnaire

Contains important questions used to ensure that the Black Belt has completed all the important steps in Improve. Provides a description of the tools and their use. It supplies the Champion with an easy reference while completing the Improve phase. Ensures all steps in the design of experiment are completed. Provides a recommended timeline and the Champion actions necessary to complete Improve.

• Improve Tools Guide

• DOE Checklist

• Personal Deployment Planner (Wedding Planner)

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 31

Improve
Improve Phase - Deliverables
1. DOE Planning Sheet 2. Experimental Report (document the results) 3. Progress Summary 4. Update the FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis)

Improve Breakthrough Strategy
No. Scope Improve Activities
1. Complete the experiment planning outline. 2. Secure Champion approval for the design of experiment plan. 3. Create the experiment structure. 4. Obtain Samples. 5. Execute the experiment. 6. Analyze the results. 7. Draw statistical conclusion. 8. Run the samples to verify the experiment results.

Tools
Design of Experiment Planning Outline

1.

Define the Experimental Plan

2.

Execute and Analyze the Design of the Experiment

DOE Main Effects Plot Interaction Plot

3.

Validate the Results

Capability Analysis Final Report

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

02_Roles & Respons. • 32

Improve
Improve Checklist
• The Champion can ensure the completion of the Improve phase by completing the checklist following each step in the process with the Black Belt.

Improve Questions
Step One
• What is the statement of the statistical problem? • Were all of the potential X's measurable and controllable for an experiment? • Have you completed a DOE Planning Sheet? • Do you have any issues/barriers?

YES NO

Step Two
• Are t he vital few X's statistically significant? • How much of the problem have you explained with these X's? • How much unexplained error exists?

Step Three
• • • • Are the effects of practical significance? Have you updated the FMEA? Are any new improvements transferable across the business? Is an action plan for spreading the best practice in place an appropriate?

General Questions
• • • • Do you have any issues/barriers? Do you have adequate resources to complete the project? Have you completed your project status form? Do you need help from me?

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Improve
Personal Deployment Planner Review
• This portion of the planner provides a recommended time schedule for the Champion actions required to ensure the Improve phase is completed. • Review this page prior to the start of this phase with the Black Belt to ensure all action items are understood.

IMPROVE
Two months one week before certification One week before the start of Session 3

Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review Selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization.

IMPROVE
Two months before certification Three days after training

Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers and issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan—informal or formal. Communicate with six sigm a coordinator. Arrange for coordination and planning of celebration. Start selection process of 2nd project. Review probing questions for section on “Improve". Review Champions manual. Participate in read -out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check that the line functions are participating and they are evolving as owners of the project. Reinforce that the line functions will own the Control phase. Determine what support line managers will need to fully own.

IMPROVE
One month two weeks before certification One week before Session 4

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Improve
Exercise: Improve Phase
Directions: Complete each question. Circle all that apply. 1) The purpose of the Improve phase: a) Eliminate the many potential X variables to a few variables. b) Eliminate X variables and to control the critical X's. c) Identify the initial capability for the Y's. d) Identify the critical X variables and to investigate the nature of "f". 2. The Champion leadership action during Define the Experimental Plan: a) Ensure team participation. b) Review the DOE plan to determine the logistical issues and resources required to execute the experiment. c) Complete informal reviews of the project. d) Hire additional manpower. 3. The Champion leadership action during "Execute and Analyze the DOE": a) Remove barriers when study is outside normal functional boundaries. b) Ensure resources are available. c) Complete informal reviews of the project. d) Provide data for measurement. 4. The Champion leadership action during "Validate the Results": a) Ensure resources are available. b) Ensure that the practical solution is implemented. c) Provide data for improve. d) Complete informal reviews of the project. 5. The Champion tool(s) used to manage the Improve phase: a) Commitment Plan b) Experiment Strategy Plan c) Improve Checklist d) Personal Deployment Planner

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Improve
Improve-Summary
The goal of this unit was to increase your knowledge and use of the tools Black Belts will employ during the Improve phase. You learned about the Champion leadership actions required during the various stages of the Improve phase. The steps and their tools were reviewed to increase your knowledge of the process. The focus of the Improve phase - Y = f(X).

Improve Phase Goal and Steps
The goal of Improve is to finalize the identification of critical X variables and to investigate the nature of "f". We wish to determine the extent to which the variable effects the output characteristic. The project team creates a practical solution. 1. Define the experiment plan. 2. Execute and analyze the design of experiment (DOE). 3. Validate the results.

Roadblocks
• Lack of production volume and or parts. • Lack of access to the process. • Excessively high sample cost.

Champion Tools
The Champion tools used to manage Black Belts are: • Improve Review Questionnaire • Improve Tools Guide • Personal Deployment Planner (Wedding Planner) • DOE Checklist

Improve Deliverables
1. DOE Planning Sheet 2. Experimental Report (document the results) 3. Progress Summary 4. Update the FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis)

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Control
Important Facts to Know About Control
• The Goal of Control • The Steps in the Control Phase • The Tools Used in Control • The Roadblocks That Can Occur • The Champion Tools to Manage the Control Phase • The Champion Roles and Responsibilities • Control Deliverables

Control Phase Overview - The Goal
The goal of the Control phase is to develop a plan that would describe the systems used in monitoring and controlling process or product variation. We wish to determine the optimal setting and control methods for key input variables, and maintain output of the process in that optimal level.

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Control
Control Phase Steps
Control Control
• Control Plan • Final Project Report • Capability Analysis • Six Sigma Strategy • Control Charts

3. Documention of What You Have Learned

2. Capability Analysis for X and Y

1. Process Enhancement and Control

Control Phase - The Roadblocks
• Resistance from process owners who do not want to give their support. • Time and expense required to change a process.

Control Phase - Black Belt Action
• Complete the final project report. • Complete and submit the control plan to the Champion. • Recommend a training plan and provide a required equipment list.

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Control
Control Phase - Champion Roles and Responsibilities
• Provide purposeful guidance to ensure the Black Belt completes the Control phase successfully. • Ensure that resources are available to complete the steps. • Guide the implementation of the recommendations made by the Black Belt.

Control Phase - Specific Champion Responsibilities
• Review the proposed process changes • Ensure resources are available • Informal reviews of project and complete the Control Checklist. • Assume responsibility for the implementation of the recommended changes. • Ensure resources are available for study. • Informal reviews of projects • Complete the Control Checklist. • Ensure resources are available. • Complete the Control Checklist. • Ensure the success of the implementation of the control plan.

Control Phase - Champion Tools
The Champion tools used to manage Black Belts: • Control Review Checklist: Contains important questions used to ensure the Black Belt has completed all the important steps in Control. • Control Tools Guide: Provides a description of the tools and their use. It supplies the Champion with an easy reference while completing the Control phase.

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Control
Control Phase - Deliverables
1. Control Plan 2. Final Project Report

Control Breakthrough Strategy
# Scope
1. Process Enhancement and Control

Control Activities
1. To determine optimal setting for the process. 2. Identify control methods for the X variable.

Tools
Six Sigma Strategy Control Methods Charts Capability Analysis

2. Capability Analysis for 3. Complete a final capability analysis for X and Y. X and Y
4. Determine the degree of control and capability of control variable (X's). 5. Determine the final process capability (Y's).

3. Documentation of What You Have Learned

6. Complete the control plan. 7. Complete the final report.

Control Plan Final Project Report

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Control
Control Methods
Control Methods
1. Eliminate the Variable

Tool/Method
Robust Process and Product Design Mistake-Proofing

Control Method Purpose
Develop a realistic tolerance to establish the true control units for X variables based on the equation of Y = f(X). Implement automated controls that require little or no operator intervention. SPC on the X's: Implement statistical process control on the input variables (X's). This form of SPC requires that Y = f(X) be understood. SPC on the Y's: Implement statistical process control on the output variables (Y's). It is the standard operating procedure for detecting defects.

2. Automate the Variable 3. SPC on the X's 4. SPC on the Y's

Process Controller

Statistical Process Control I – MR (Individual – Moving Range) EWMA Xbar and R Charts P and nP Charts C and U Charts A standard methodology is used for maintaining the process.

5. Standard Operating Procedure (SOP)

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Control
Control Phase Checklist
The Champion can ensure the completion of the Control phase by completing the checklist following each step in the process with the Black Belt.

Control Questions
Step One • What is the statement of the statistical problem? Step Two • What are the vital few X's? • How will you control or redesign these X's? • How are you monitoring the Y's? Step Three • How are you going to ensure that this problem does not return? • Is the learning transferable across the business? • What is the action plan for spreading the best practice? • Is there a project documentation file? • How is this referenced in process procedures and product drawings? • What is the mechanism to ensure this is not reinvented in the future? • Have you updated the FMEA? • Have you developed a Process Control Plan? • Have you developed a Quality System Action Plan? • What are the financial implications? • Is there any spin-off projects? • What lessons have you learned? General Questions • Do you have any issues/barriers? • Do you need help from me? • Have you completed your final report? • Have you completed a local project review?

YES

NO

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02_Roles & Respons. • 42

Control
Personal Deployment Planner Review
This is the final section of the planner. It lists the required Champion actions, including reviewing the Black Belt final project reports for certification requirements.

CONTROL
One month one week before certification One week before the start of Session 4

Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan—informal or formal. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing questions for section on “Control". Review Champions manual. Participate in read- out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Adjust communications plan. Meet individually with candidate to review expectation Celebrate results.

CONTROL
One month before certification Three days after training

CONTROL
One week before certification

CERTIFICATION

Personal Deployment Planner-Key Point
• The Champion must have contact with the Black Belt several times during the phases of the six sigma strategy, as indicated in each area of the Personal Deployment Planner.

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Control
Exercise: Control Phase
Directions: Complete each question. Circle all that apply. 1. The purpose of the Control phase: a) Eliminate the many potential X variables to a few variables. b) Eliminate X variables and to control the critical X's. c) Identify the initial capability for the Y's. d) Discover the cause and effect or functional relationship between Y and X. 2. The Champion leadership action during "Process Enhancement and Control": a) Ensure resources necessary to collect data are available. b) Provide a change of project direction. c) Review the proposed process changes. d) Assume responsibility for the implementation of the recommended changes. 3. The Champion leadership action during "Capability Analysis for X and Y": a) Provide a second project requiring a DOE. b) Ensure resources are available. c) Complete analyze checklist. d) Provide data for measurement. 4. The Champion leadership action during "Documentation of What You Have Learned": a) Provide data for control. b) Complete the Personal Deployment Planner. c) Complete control checklist. d) Ensure the success of the implementation of the control plan. 5. What are the roadblocks that can occur during the Control phase? a) Resistance from process owners who do not want to give their support. b) Black Belt did not complete the certification process. c) Not enough data available to complete the control phase. d) Time and expense required for changing a process.

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Control
Control - Summary
The goal of this unit was to increase your knowledge and use of the tools Black Belts will employ during the Control phase. You learned about the Champion leadership actions required during the various stages of the Control phase. The steps and their tools were reviewed to increase your knowledge of the process.

Control Phase Goal and Steps
The goal of the Control phase is to develop a plan that would describe the systems used in monitoring and controlling process or product variation. We wish to determine the optimal setting and control methods for key input variables, and maintain output of the process in that optimal level. 1. Process Enhancement and Control 2. Capability Analysis for X and Y 3. Documentation of What You Have Learned

Roadblocks
• Resistance from process owners who do not want to give their support. • Time and expense required to change a process.

Champion Tools
The Champion tools used to manage Black Belts are: • Control Review Checklist • Control Tools Guide

Control Deliverables
• Control Plan • Final Project Report

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Control
MAIC Review
• In the Measure phase, we focused on identifying critical Y variables. We discovered how they are measured and how good those measurements can be. • During the Analyze phase, we analyzed the Y information and looked for patterns that allow us to identify potential X variables. • In the Improve phase, we ran the Design for Experiment (DOE) to identify X variables. We found we can establish a cause-and-effect relationship—the "f" of Y = f(X). • In the Control phase, we discovered that we can use the cause-and-effect relationship to optimize and control the process.

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Design for Six Sigma
Overview
• The six sigma approach incorporates the organization's business needs to meet customer requirements. Our goal is to prevent causes vs. correcting problems and discontinue further tampering of the systems and processes. • One required approach that is critical to the achievement of a six sigma level is a Design for Six Sigma, also known as DFSS. DFSS will review your product and/or service to ensure you are operating at a six sigma level from the very beginning.

DFSS - Influence on Cost, Quality and Cycle Time

Manufacturing Up to 30%

Design Over 70%

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Design for Six Sigma
DFSS - A Look at a Generic Design Process
Concept Preliminary Design Detail Design Testing Production

• How are risks assessed and measured? • How long is the process? • How are specifications set? • When are we "ready for production"? • When are we ready for commercialization?

DFSS-What it is!

Part Part Process Process Process

Teamwork Teamwork

Set of Tools

Happy Customers

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Design for Six Sigma
DFSS - Overview
• DFSS is a rigorous approach to designing products and services-enabling processes to operate at a six sigma level of quality and meet customer requirements from the very beginning. • Companies that implement a six sigma program find that a majority of defects are actually created during the design process. As companies approach five sigma, they typically hit a wall that requires a redesign of some of its processes. The capability of the manufacturing and transactional processes must be factored into the design of a product or service so that the final configuration is "producible" using existing technology. • Implementing DFSS involves two additional weeks of training for certified Black Belts or Green Belts.

DFSS - A Combination ofProcesses and Tools
DFSS
IDEaSTM/SM Process Tools

Business
Tollgate Reviews Risk Managment Project Management Product Cost Analysis Allocation of Capital and Resources Program Prioritization Strategic Planning

Technical
Design Reviews Risk Analysis and Abatement Piloting and Prototyping

MAIC
Basic Statistics ANOVA DOE Gage R&R Capability Analysis Process Mapping FMEA Hypothesis Testing

Design
QFD Scorecards Tolerance Analysis DFMA Reliability Assessment Equipment Selection Advanced DOE

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Design for Six Sigma
DFSS-The IDEaSTM/SM Process

IInitiate D esign D E E xecute and S ustain S S

What are the Y's?

What are the X's where Y = f(X) ? What is the short - term capability? What is the long- term capability?

TM/SM

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Design for Six Sigma
MAIC/DFSS Relationship

LSL

USL

Reduce Variability Reduce Variability

MAIC MAIC
LSL USL

Reach Entitlement Reach Entitlement
LSL USL

Shift Mean Shift Mean

DFSS
LSL USL LSL USL

Reach Entitlement

Six Sigma

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Design for Six Sigma
MAIC vs. DFSS
MAIC
• Emphasizes project focus. • Provides a problem-solving methodology. • Provides solutions to specific question. • Focuses on defect elimination. • Focuses on a few key customer requirements. • Uses six sigma tools.

DFSS
• Emphasizes product or process focus. • Provides measures and metrics. • Identifies problem areas. • Focuses on defect prevention. • Considers tradeoffs between all the customer requirements. • Uses six sigma tools.

What Would You Invest?
Improve Plan Improve Design Improve Process Improve Product

1000 : 1

100 : 1

10 : 1

1:1

Improve Ratios (Payback)

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Design for Six Sigma
DFSS - Summary
• The DFSS approach agrees that product design is a process. The process needs to be standardized. • The IDEaSTM/SM (Initiate, Design, Execute and Sustain) is the road map for product/process design or redesign. • As the product or process moves through the IDEaSTM/SM process, MAIC will be used to close gaps and solve problems. • DFSS is a rigorous approach to designing products and services-enabling processes to operate at a six sigma level of quality and meet customer requirements from the very beginning. • The DFSS process includes: I D E and S Sustain (production) Initiate (the concept) Design (preliminary and detailed) Execute (prototype testing)

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Design for Six Sigma
Roles and Responsibilities - Summary
• The goal of this unit was to increase your knowledge of the management roles and responsibilities of a Champion. You learned of Black Belt roles and responsibilities during a project and about the actions necessary for management to monitor Black Belt training and project completion. • Six sigma is a new way of managing the business; whereby the Champion must have the attitude that defects can be eliminated and no defects will be passed on to the customer. Tampering of systems and processes that increase COPQ must be reduced to increase customer satisfaction. • The Champion must build a vision of the future with the culture change-appealing to logic and intuition, while explaining the need for change, can help create this vision. • Champion roles and responsibilities include functioning as a leader and manager of Black Belts and their projects. While Black Belts report to them, the Champion reports directly to the six sigma sponsor. • Champions monitor and lead Black Belt projects to ensure successful completion of all certification requirements.

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Certification Requirements
Agenda
• Overview and Objectives • Who is the Black Belt?
■ ■ ■

Black Belt Characteristics Black Belt Commitment Sustaining the Gain

• Black Belt Certification Requirements • A Single Black Belt Training Phase • Closure Requirements for Projects • Critical Factors for Black Belt Success • Exercise • Summary

Overview
The goal of this unit is to increase your knowledge of the certification requirements for Black Belts. This unit also reviews the certification process; the training and project criteria necessary to complete the certification.

Objectives
At the end of this unit, you will be able to:
• Identify the certification requirements for a Black Belt. • Identify the project closure requirements for Black Belt certification.

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Certification Requirements
Who is the Black Belt?
• A member of the management team who is responsible for spreading the use of the six sigma methodologies, when called on to assist in business issues. • A technical and cultural change agent for quality. • Recommends and completes the six sigma project using the six sigma methodology. • A critical leader for building a mutual need for the change as well as mobilizing commitment for support when facing obstacles. • Completes a final report and presents the findings to the Champion. • Black Belt Characteristics
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Is tenacious Is courageous Makes decisions based on facts Thinks outside the box Embraces change Celebrates success readily and enthusiastically Two-year commitment Four to five projects per year with a ROI of $75k/project ROI of $375+k for the following years

• Black Belt Commitment
■ ■ ■

Sustaining the Gain
• Black Belts can sustain gain through the following actions:
■ ■ ■ ■

Provide consistent, visible and tangible reinforcement of the behavior needed. Integrate change into ongoing work behaviors. Monitor progress. Align systems and structures that create a change that is part of individual and team behavior.

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Certification Requirements
Black Belt Certification Requirements
• There are three critical factors that can influence the success and certification of a Black Belt.
■ ■ ■

Good certification project selection Time to complete the project Full Champion support

• A good certification project should allow the candidate to learn and apply the six sigma tools. Project 1 should be scoped to allow for project completion in a fourmonth time frame. The second project should be scoped by the end of the second month and completed by the end of the sixth month.

The Black Belt Wave - A Six-Month Process
• The time frame for specific reporting documents is shown in the graph below.

Black Belt Wave 6 Month Process
Submittal of

1 Page Summary for Project 1

Submittal of

GS

M A Project 1 Started
(Beginning of Month 1 or at the beginning of Ground School [GS] Training)

(End of Month 4)

1 Page Summary for Project 2
(End of Month 6)

C
Submittal of

Project 2 Started
(End of Month 2)

Project 1 Report
(End of Month 4)

Submittal of

Project 2 Report
(End of Month 6)

Black Belt Certification Requirements - Key Points • Two projects are completed within a six-month Black Belt Wave. • SSQ on-site support is given after each training class. • The greatest amount of on-site support is given after each training class. The tools and techniques used to obtain data are reviewed. Any questions or concerns the Black Belts might have are addressed at this time. • The Black Belt is expected to demonstrate competency of the use of the tools and techniques during the second project; the amount of on-site support is greatly reduced. • The six-month process does not include Ground School training.
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Certification

I

Certification Requirements
Summary of Training Events
• An event of training totals a four-week period. The event begins with a week of training in a classroom at a designated training site. • The remaining three weeks of training are on-site at the organization. Within the three-week period an SSQ support person will visit and provide support to each candidate at least one time. • The site support person from SSQ may or may not be the instructor presenting the training material.

A Single Black Belt Training Phase-Summary of Events
Event week

Training

Site Support
Course and Instructor Evaluations

Site Support

Site Support

Complete Attendance Sheet

Session Mastery

Site Support Documentation

Confidential Evaluation of the Site Support Person

Class Status Report for Management

Black Belt Wave 6 Month Process*
Submittal of

1 Page Summary for Project 1

Submittal of

GS

M A Project 1 Started
(Beginning of Month 1 or at the beginning of Ground School [GS] Training)

(End of Month 4)

1 Page Summary for Project 2
(End of Month 6)

C
Submittal of

Project 2 Started
(End of Month 2)

Project 1 Report
(End of Month 4)
* The 6 - Month Process does not include Ground School training.

Submittal of

Project 2 Report
(End of Month 6)

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Certification

I

Certification Requirements
Job Responsibility
Instructor
The instructor will instruct the client's candidates, Champions, executives managers, or any other client personnel, when scheduled by the senior Partner or Account Manager. It is the instructor's responsibility to make every effort to ensure that the classroom students understand the material that is being taught.

Site Support Personnel
The site support person from SSQ will visit a client's candidate, when scheduled by the Senior Partner or Account Manager. The support person will assist the candidate in gaining knowledge of the selection and application processes of the six sigma tools, as they are applied to the candidates first six sigma project. The site support person is also responsible for reviewing the one page project summaries as well as the final report for each candidate they are assigned.

Summary of a Classroom Session for the Event
• Each day of the classroom training session requires specific Black Belt or Instructor action.
Training Day Black Belt Action
Day One Verify that personal information such as e-mail address, phone number, etc. is correct on the attendance sheet to ensure credit for participating in the training. Complete the training requirements scheduled for the day. Complete the training requirements scheduled for the day. Complete the Mastery Test and be prepared to grade and discuss the answers on the following training day. Review the mastery test and plan for the application of instruction given on the tools for the remaining three weeks.

Instructor Action
Forward all attendance records to SSQ for knowledge transfer tracking and candidate certification evaluation. Provide instruction of the material. Provide instruction of the material. Direct the candidates to complete the Mastery Test. All scores will be sent to SSQ for knowledge transfer, tracking and candidate certification evaluation. Review the test with the candidates and assist in planning their remaining three weeks of training.

Day Two Day Three Day Four

Day Five

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Certification Requirements
Black Belt Certification Requirements
• Attend all Black Belt training sessions. • Complete four mastery tests with a final test average of 80%. • Conduct two projects with a one-page summary for each project, including all appropriate signatures. • Submit a final report for Project 1 with acceptable final report scorecard scores. • Submit a final report for Project 2 with acceptable final report scorecard scores. • Sustain the change. • Receive a recommendation by a Champion, which is done by signing off on a onepage report.

Closure Requirements for Project 1
• The Project 1 documentation that is collected and developed by the Black Belt must be thoroughly reviewed prior to the completion of the certification process. The following items are due approximately four weeks after the completion of the Control Phase Training. They include:

The one-page summary reviewed by the site support person and a technical representative from SSQ. SSQ will sign off on all acceptable one-page summaries. The final report is reviewed by the site support person and evaluated with a SSQ Final Report Scorecard or on 6.Net. The information from the evaluation of the final report is shared with the candidate and SSQ for knowledge transfer tracking and candidate certification evaluation.

■ ■

Project 2
• The review process for Project 2 is identical to Project 1. All reports are due approximately 12 weeks after the completion of the Control Phase Training. • Requirements include:
■ ■

Submittal of a one-page summary (with signatures). Submittal of a final report.

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Certification Requirements
Critical Factors for Black Belt Success
• The Champion has several important functions as a leader and manager of the Black Belts and their projects. • The Champion Leadership for Black Belts
■ ■

Project Leadership Black Belt Management

The Champion Leadership for Black Belts
• Project Leadership
■ ■

Develops and executes a roadmap for a given project. Selects project, executes control, implements and realizes the gains (the bottom-line linkage). Removes roadblocks and barriers. Assists in gaining stockholder support. Drives cross-functional coordination of projects. Participates in all project reviews with the Black Belt. Owns Black Belt selection. Acts as director to Black Belts. Owns the "execution" portion of Black Belt certification. Provides rewards and recognition to Black Belts. Tracks the six sigma related training within the organization.

■ ■ ■ ■

• Black Belt Management
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

The Champion Leadership for Black Belts-Key Points
• Constant communication and Champion visibility during the completion of a project is an important element in a successful project. • Appropriate rewards and recognition, as well as change management, can assist in sustaining the change.

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Certification Requirements
Exercise
Complete the following statements regarding Black Belt certification requirements, roles, and responsibilities. Select all that may apply. 1. The Black Belt is responsible for: a) Selecting Yellow Belts. b) Completing Black Belt training. c) Acting as a cultural change agent. d) Removing roadblocks. 2. The training event: a) Is a four-day period. b) Is a four-week period. c) Includes SSQ site support. d) Is part of the Black Belt Wave. 3. Actions Black Belts complete to sustain the change are: a) Removing barriers. b) Winning stakeholders support. c) Aligning systems and structures. d) Monitoring and adjusting metrics. 4. A final project report must include: a) A problem statement. b) A training schedule. c) Metric charts. d) A statistical solution. 5. The practical problem statement must be in __________ terms. 6. Closure requirements for Project 1 are _____ weeks after the completion of the Control Phase. 7. Closure requirements for Project 2 are _____ weeks after the completion of the Control Phase.

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Certification Requirements
8. Failure to align systems and structures can result in: a) Unsuccessfully sustaining the change. b) Repeating the project. c) Retraining the Black Belt. d) Reorganization. 9. Required certification closure documents include: a) b)

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Certification Requirements
Certification Requirements Summary
• The goal of this unit is to increase your knowledge of the certification requirements for Black Belts. This unit reviewed the certification process, the training and project criteria necessary to complete the certification. • A Black Belt is a member of the management team who is responsible for spreading the use of the six sigma methodologies, when called on to assist in business issues. • Certification Requirements
■ ■ ■

Attend all Black Belt training sessions. Complete four mastery tests with a final test average of 80%. Conduct two projects with a one-page summary for each, including all appropriate signatures. Submit a final report for Project 1 with acceptable final report scorecard scores. Submit a final report for Project 2 with acceptable final report scorecard scores. Sustain the change. Receive a recommendation by a Champion, which is done by signing off on a one-page report. The following items are due approximately four weeks after the completion of the Control Phase Training.

■ ■

• Closure Requirements for All Projects

The one-page summary reviewed by the site support person and a technical representative from SSQ. SSQ will sign off on all acceptable one-page summaries. The final report is reviewed by the site support person and evaluated with a SSQ Final Report Scorecard or on 6.Net. The information from the evaluation of the final report is shared with the candidate and SSQ for knowledge transfer tracking and candidate certification evaluation.

❏ ❏

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

03_Certification Requirements • 10

The Successful Project
Agenda
• Overview and Objectives • Elements of a Successful Project
■ ■ ■

Define the New Relationship Successful Project Components Mobilize Commitment
❏ ❏

Mobilize Commitment Plan Influence Strategy Plan

■ ■ ■

Monitor Change Align Systems and Structures Sustain Change

• Exercise • Summary

Overview
The goal of this unit is to increase your knowledge of the elements of a successful project that will create a positive impact. You will identify management skills that will assist you in maintaining the positive change.

Objectives
At the end of this unit, you will be able to:
• Identify the elements of a successful project. • Identify management skills to sustain a positive change.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 1

The Successful Project
Elements of a Successful Project Defining a New Relationship
Implementing a six sigma change in any organization will involve changes in roles and job expectations. Employees, as well as management, must shift from a traditional business paradigm to one that uses six sigma methodology.

Defining a New Relationship
What the Organization Expects of Employees
Six Sigma Performance

Feedback

Training

Challenging Work New Skills Recognition

Rewards

What the Employees Expect of the Organization

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 2

The Successful Project
Expectations During the Transition
• The Champion provides a vision of the future before, during and after the completion of any Black Belt project. • A Champion defines the expectations of six sigma as it relates to the business and ensures that Black Belts have a clear understanding of their responsibilities. • The SSQ vision is to be the leading provider of knowledge-based systems that drive financially measurable results in client organizations. • Shared expectations from all members of the team increases support and commitment during a change.

Six Sigma Organization - Expectations
• A knowledge and understanding of the need for six sigma and the changes required. • A commitment and accountability from management for implementing the change. • Employee's self-interest in furthering their needs.

Expectations
Employees need to know:
• What will it be like to work here now? • How will I succeed? • What is it they want?

Sponsors or leaders need to know:
• What is expected of me as a sponsor or leader? • What do I expect of my boss? • What do i expect of my subordinates? • What do my subordinates expect of me?

Sharing your expectations, while inviting employees to do the same, is a powerful tool in managing change.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 3

The Successful Project
Successful Project Components
• The goal of any six sigma project is to increase customer satisfaction and reduce the cost of poor quality (COPQ). The six sigma mindset needed during a project's process is "Defects can be eliminated and tampering reduced." • A successful project results in a 50% change in the metrics and a savings of 100K or more for the company.

A Successful Project
• Describes the statistical problem.
■ ■

What are the problems with mean, variance, or both? What needs to happen? What are the critical X variables? How are they being controlled? What is the result on the process? What is needed? Poke-Yoke, control methods, or process/product redesign? What mechanisms are in place to ensure we "hold the gains"? What are the quantifiable savings? What is the defect reduction or sigma level improvement? "Who? What? When?" plans.

• Describes the statistical solution.
■ ■ ■

• Describes the practical solution.
■ ■ ■ ■

• For any remaining steps:

Champion Role
• Reviews recommended projects with Black Belts. • Selects projects, executes control and removes roadblocks. • Resources for projects. • Rewards and appoints recognition.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 4

The Successful Project
Stakeholders
• Stakeholders are individuals in the organization who have a vested interest in the success of a six sigma project. • Commitment from stakeholders is a critical component of any successful project.

Who are the Stakeholders?
• They control necessary resources. • They can block the team directly or indirectly. • They must approve any of the team's decisions. • They influence the opinion of others stakeholders. • They function as the process owners of any part of the process the team is addressing. • There are typically fewer than 15 true stakeholders. While every stakeholder does not need to be strongly supportive for successful results, their ability to mobilize commitments is necessary to ensure a successful business change.

How Can Champions Increase Stakeholder Commitment?
• Communicate the big picture. • Create a vision of the company as it is now and the future after the change. • Identify stakeholders' concerns and issues, and present factors to overcome stakeholder objections. • Follow-up by reviewing possible changes in the commitment level of the stakeholder. • Recognize and reward stakeholders for their commitment level when it is given.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 5

The Successful Project
Mobilizing Commitment Plan
The Mobilizing Commitment Plan is a tool that will assist you in identifying the level of commitment, issues or concerns your stakeholders might have.

Directions for Using the Mobilizing Commitment Planner
• Complete the project details as listed at the top of the form-stating company name, problem statement and project title. • Identify possible stakeholders and list their names. • Check their area of influence. • List their concern (e.g., time, money, resources or other). • Rate their level of influence on the company. • Rate the level of commitment at this point in time. • Determine whether a commitment strategy is needed by checking "Yes" or "No".

Mobilizing Commitment Plan Example
Company Name: ____________________________________Project Title: ___________________________________ Problem Statement :________________________________________________________________________________ Rating Scale: 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Against Moderately Against Neutral Moderately Support Strongly Support

Owner of parts of the process

Influences other Stakeholders

Possible Stakeholders

Blocker: Directly or Indirectly Controls Resources

Decision-maker

Issue or Concerns Time Money Resources Other

Degree of Impact for the issue or concern Neg. 1 2 3 Pos. 4

Level of Commitment

Commitment Strategy Plan Needed? Yes or No Yes No

Neg.

Pos.

5 1 2 3 4 5

1. 2. 3. 4.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 6

The Successful Project
Exercise: Mobilizing Commitment Plan
Purpose: Agenda:
Identify stakeholders that could affect the success of the six sigma project. Complete the Mobilize Commitment Plan listing the appropriate details regarding your current business setting. Refer to the desired project you wish support from stakeholders. 10 minutes

Limit:

Mobilizing Commitment Plan Exercise
Company Name: ____________________________________Project Title: ___________________________________ Problem Statement :________________________________________________________________________________ Rating Scale: 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Against Moderately Against Neutral Moderately Support Strongly Support

Owner of parts of the process

Influences other Stakeholders

Possible Stakeholders

Blocker: Directly or Indirectly Controls Resources

Decision-maker

Issue or Concerns Time Money Resources Other

Degree of Impact for the issue or concern Neg. 1 2 3 Pos. 4

Level of Commitment

Commitment Strategy Plan Needed? Yes or No Yes No

Neg.

Pos.

5 1 2 3 4 5

1. 2. 3. 4.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 7

The Successful Project
Influencing Strategy
The commitment level of any stakeholder can be improved to some degree through the use of an Influence Strategy Plan. The plan must identify the following stakeholder data before you begin to win their support.

Influence Strategy Plan
• Who can have the most impact on this person? • What is the message that needs to be delivered? • What is the individual's style (e.g., socializer, amiable, driver, analyzer)? • What is the individual's history with this problem?
■ ■

Do they view this as a flavor of the day? Are there personal conflicts with those involved in the project or other shareholders)

• If changed, what are the things that could win the person's support (deal-makers vs. breakers)? • How and when will the influence process begin? Task out the influence strategy with dates to ensure it gets done.

What is the Champion's Role in the Influencing Strategy?
• Assist the Black Belt in completion of the Influence Strategy Plan. • Provide time to meet with the stakeholders. • Allocate resources to win stakeholders.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 8

The Successful Project
The Goal of the Influencing Strategy - Increase Stakeholders' Commitment
• List the issue or concern. • Define the steps to maintain or strengthen support. • Acquire data to support the team's position. • Report to the stakeholder, reviewing their concerns and the results of the analysis of those concerns.

Directions for Using the Influencing Strategy Plan
• List the project name, Black Belt and Champion names. • List those stakeholders you want to win in the first column. • Identify the style of the stakeholder. • List the issue or concerns of that stakeholder. • Identify those things that could "Make the Deal" or win the stakeholder if they were present. • List those people who can influence the stakeholder and sin the support. • How will you gain support, list the method or actions you will take to create the win. • List the date you will begin the Influence Plan.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 9

The Successful Project
Influence Strategy Plan
Project:
Style Socializer Analyzer Stakeholders to Win Issues or Concerns The Deal Makers People who Influence Method to Win Date to Begin Amiable Driver

Black Belt: Champion:

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 10

The Successful Project
Monitoring Change
Goal
• The goal in monitoring change is to verify the effectiveness of the change through the use of the appropriate measurement systems.

Action Items
• What are the metrics that will be used to determine the team's success in making a sustained change? • How will tracking these metrics be shared across all those impacted by the team? • Will the support of doubters be won through results? • Measurement will provide focus and direction. Remember that actions to fix things can occur only when the problem is known. Roadblocks or failures in monitoring progress can occur when:

It is assumed that Stakeholders know how things are going and are not specifically informed. Measures are put in place only to account for project goals, forgetting that other impacts may occur. Relationship/s to other initiatives/projects are not identified and thus not monitored. An attempt is not made to measure the "soft" stuff and only "hard" data measures are made. Data is not collected and reported in the timeframe outlined in the monitoring plan.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 11

The Successful Project
Measurement System Checklist
Characteristic
Completeness Timeliness Visibility Controllability Cost Interpretability Importance

Description
Does the measurement system capture all elements of the change or only parts of it? Does it take you in the right direction? Can the measure be taken soon after the actual occurrence being measured? Can the measure be openly tracked? Does the measure have a significant influence on the desired outcome? Does the measure already exist for another purpose? Is the measure easy to understand? Can it be used to compare over time and across functions/organizations? Is there a significant relationship between the measure and business objective?

Aligning Systems and Structures
• A six sigma change in your business often involves changes in training, development, criteria for rewards, and compensation and promotion. Your employee's behavior will change as well. Significant changes usually require some type of organizational infrastructure modifications. • Aligning systems and structures requires assessing the existing systems of measures and rewards resulting in identifying existing practices that are inconsistent or unproductive.

Aligning Systems and Structures - Action Items
• Identify critical systems and structures areas that must be addressed. • Assess the risk of slipping back into "old habits". • Align systems and structures with desired behaviors.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 12

The Successful Project
Components of Systems and Structures
Staffing Development Measures Rewards Communication Designing
What new qualifications will be needed in staffing open positions in the future? What requirements will be needed/added to development plans? How will conformance to the implementation change be measured? How will the above measures be incorporated into compensation plans, rewards, etc.? What is the ongoing plan to keep people informed on the progress towards the vision? Does the existing reporting structure support the changed environment?

Aligning Systems and Structures Template
This is a template designed to walk teams through a detailed analysis of the existing systems of performance measures and rewards. The level of detail required for these discussions will necessitate having experts from both HR and management. It will take time and research. There are two major areas that will be reviewed. They are Performance Metrics and Rewards and Recognition.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 13

The Successful Project
System and Structures Integration Template Directions
1. List all the desired behaviors. 2. List the existing performance objectives measures. 3. Evaluate the existing measures using the measurement checklist. • Check those measures that do not meet the checklist criteria. 4. Identify existing measures' ability to provide information on the desired behavior. • Check those measures that do not provide information about he desired behaviors. • Draw an affinity diagram that links the desired behaviors and the existing measures that provide information on them. 5. Identify those existing measures that could send out false signals about conformance to desired behaviors. • Check these measures. 6. Identify desired behaviors that are not measured by the current measurement system. • List potential measures for these behaviors and evaluate them with the measurement system checklist.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 14

The Successful Project
Systems and Structures Integration Template
1. Desired Behaviors 2. Existing Performance Objective Measures 3. Existing 4. Affinity Measurement Diagram System Needed? Passes Measurement Checklist Criteria. YES NO YES NO 5. Existing Measures with False Signals? 6. Behaviors not Measured by Current System

List

List YES NO

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 15

The Successful Project
System and Structures Integration Template Rewards and Recognition
• List the behavioral changes. • Evaluate the organization's likely reaction to displaying behaviors that are desired to move to and behaviors desired to move from: A = Reward or Approval B = Punishment or Disapproval C = No Reaction D = Impossible to Predict • List the existing rewards available to employees.
1. Behavioral Changes 2. Evaluate Organization’s Reactions
D= Impossible to Predict A= Reward or Approval B= Punishment or Disapproval C= No Reaction

3. Existing Rewards 4. Pass the Available Measurement Checklist

5. Action plan Needed to Reward Desired Behaviors

6. Action plan Needed to Eliminate Rewarding Undesirable Behaviors

List

List

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

• Evaluate the existing reward using the measurement checklist. • Develop an action plan to reward the desired behaviors not included in performance metrics or included in the "likely to receive reward or approval". • Develop an action plan to eliminate rewarding behaviors that are not desired.
©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 16

The Successful Project
Sustaining Change
• Commitments

Having consistent, visible, and tangible reinforcement of the changed behavior. Integrating change into ongoing work behaviors. Aligning systems and structures helps make the change a part of individual and team behavior. Underestimating the time requirements of the new behaviors. Unanticipated problems. Lacking coordination. Other changes being introduced at the same time. The employees not having the necessary skills. Not gaining the support of the "masses". Having goals/objectives that are too broad. Dismissing complaints rather than addressing them. Not understanding strategic efforts that may impact, deteriorate, or eliminate any gains made in the current environment.

■ ■

• Failure to sustain change can result from:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Exercise: Force Field Analysis
Purpose:
To identify those factors in the business environment that act as enablers and will promote the change and those factors that might shorten the life of the change that was recently implemented. Break into pairs. Review you current business setting and a recent change that was implemented. Determine those factors that could increase the life of the change and those factors you feel could restrain or destroy the recent change initiative. List those changes in the appropriate heading. Rank the importance of each.

Agenda:

Limit:

5 minutes

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 17

The Successful Project
Sustaining Change
Force Field Analysis
Rank Enablers
Stakeholder X - in favor and will provide resources.

Restrainers
Manager Z - in charge of a critical aspect of the change process - is not sold on the idea and is slow to support.

Rank

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 18

The Successful Project
Exercise
Directions: Answer each question. Refer to your participant guide when necessary. (circle those that apply) 1. The elements of a successful project include: a) Describe the statistical problem. b) The Personal Deployment Planner. c) Describe the practical solution. d) The MAIC checklists. 2. The statistical solution in a successful project describes: a) The critical Y's. b) The critical X's. c) The results of the process. d) The plan to sustain the change. 3. The practical solution describes: a) The quantifiable savings. b) The control methods and or the process/product redesign. c) The problem with mean, variance or both. d) The process used to control the X's. 4. Name three Champion actions used to manage and sustain a change. a) Mobilizing commitment. b) Monitoring change. c) Aligning systems and structures. d) Rewards and recognition. 5. The purpose of aligning systems and structures is to: a) Ensure all processes in the system are functioning properly. b) To ensure appropriate measurement systems are used. c) To ensure slipping back to "old habits" does not occur. d) Ensure existing measures and rewards are align with the new systems and structures.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 19

The Successful Project
6. The purpose of monitoring change is to: a) To determine the effectiveness of the change. b) To ensure all-important stakeholders are involved. c) To avoid slipping back into old habits. d) To ensure Black Belt completion of the project.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 20

The Successful Project
The Successful Project - Summary
• The goal of this unit was to increase your knowledge of the elements of a successful project. In addition you learned the management skills that can assist you in maintaining the positive change. • An important factor that can effect the certification of the Black Belt is the detailed account of the completed project as reviewed in the final report. It is important that the Champion review the final report carefully to ensure that all the appropriate elements are represented in the report. Missed details could possibly effect future projects. • Components of a Successful Project:
■ ■ ■ ■

Describes the statistical problem. Describes the statistical solution. Describes the practical solution. For any remaining steps: "Who? What? When?" plans.

Champion Action Mobilize Commitment

Purpose for Action
Ensure all - important stakeholders involved with the change are involved and support your efforts. They may control the resources or can block the team directly or indirectly. The Influencing Strategy Plan completed by the Black Belt can assist in mobilizing the commitment. The effectiveness of the change needs to be measured through the use of the appropriate measurement systems. The measurement system needs to take the organization and team in the proper direction for the business. Align Systems and Structures requires assessing the existing systems of measures and rewards resulting in identifying existing practices that are inconsistent or unproductive. Slipping back to “old habits” will reduce the change for a successful and long lasting change.

Tools Mobilizing Commitment Plan Influencing Strategy Plan

Monitoring Change

Measurement Systems Checklist

Aligning Systems and Structures

Align Systems and Structures Template

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

04_Successful Project • 21

Project Selection
Agenda
• Overview and Objectives • The Importance of Project Selection • Traditional Project Selection • Six Sigma Project Selection
■ ■ ■ ■

Establish a Business Case Create a Project Desirability Matrix Narrow the Project Focus Project Definition

• A Champion's Role During Project Selection • Exercise: Project Selection • Summary

Overview
The goal of this unit is to increase your knowledge of the importance of project selection and the six sigma business objectives. You will learn to narrow the project focus to create a project definition.

Objectives
At the end of this unit, you will be able to:
• Identify factors influencing project selection. • Identify the elements of a business case. • Identify factors used to narrow project focus. • Evaluate project definitions for appropriateness.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 1

Project Selection
Importance of Project Selection
• Dissemination of the six sigma culture depends on news of successful projects having significant business impact. • Certification depends on successful completion of such a project within four to five months. Poor project selection is the most common root cause of certification delays. • After certification, Black Belts will assist in selecting future projects.

They will use the tools learned to identify projects with the greatest opportunity. They will take these opportunities to strategic leadership/Champion for sponsorship.

• Black Belts will help others in project selection.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 2

Project Selection
Traditional Projects
Traditional business change initiatives often result in: • Optimizing one part of the business at the expense of another.
■ ■

Decreasing cycle time in a non-bottleneck process. Reducing the cost in one area by increasing the costs in another. Automating a bad process just creates defects more quickly. Increasing the number of products/features sold but not generating additional revenue from sales. Having too many insignificant things distract the attention of the team. Focusing attention on things that do not produce the most impact.

• Missing the root causes of existing problems.

• Creating more incremental costs than savings.

• Creating a scope that is too large.
■ ■

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 3

Project Selection
Traditional Business Objectives
Overtime Employee Efficiency Expenses Test Yield Utilization

• Employee satisfaction, supplier relations, and community relations A paradigm shift occurs from a functional view to a cross-functional view to enable the measurement to look across the process.

Traditional Project Selection
• Based on performance optimization in one part of the business. • Implemented a pre-determined solution. • Managed the exceptions vs. norms. • Lacked clarity for project expectations.

Traditional Project Selection-Examples
• Increase the number of sales. • Reduce overtime in one department. • Reduce the cost of one operation. • Reduce the cycle time in one sub-process. • Install new equipment. • Create a new reporting system. • Improve on delivery time.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 4

Project Selection
Traditional Project Metrics
Metrics have been used to measure broad-based projects, which often resulted in figures that continue to display a poor ROI (return on investment). In addition, a marginal reduction to COPQ (cost of poor quality) resulted from these projects.
Equipment Util. vs. COPQ
$130,000 $120,000 $110,000 $130,000 $120,000 $110,000

Test Yield vs. COPQ

COPQ

COPQ

$100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 0.825 0.85 0.875 0.9 0.925 0.95 0.975 1

$100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000

8 0.0%

82.5%

85.0%

87.5%

90.0% 92.5%

Equipment Utilization

Test Yield

Results show little or no impact on business. Why?

Six Sigma Projects
Six Sigma Business Objectives
Quality Investment Service Level Cycle time Cash Flow Cost

• Employee satisfaction, supplier relations, and community relations Successful six sigma projects result with at least a 50% change in metrics with potential financial savings of $100K or more.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 5

Project Selection
Six Sigma Metrics
Sigma Level vs. COPQ
$450,000 $375,000 $300,000 $450,000 $375,000 $300,000

Cycle Time vs. COPQ

COPQ

COPQ

$225,000 $150,000 $75,000 $ 1.00 1.75 2.50 3.25 4.00 4.75 5.50

$225,000 $150,000 $75,000 $ 0 30.00 60.00 90.00 120.00

Sigma Level

Cycle Time (minutes)

The six sigma objectives and methodology result in a dramatic and positive change for your business environment.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 6

Project Selection
Six Sigma Project Selection
3. Narrow the Project Focus Based on the Business Case
Assess the performance specifications.

2. Create a Project Desirability Matrix
Use when no data on six sigma business objectives is available.

1. Establish a business case for a project
Avoid project selection with little or no business impact.

Six Sigma Project Selection - Champion Tools
• Business Strategy and Goals • Business Case Profile • Project Desirability Matrix • Business Impact Scale • Pareto Charts • Process Maps

Six Sigma Project Selection - The Champion Role
• Ensure a measurable business impact. • Provide assistance in project selection and support that fulfills a business need. • Align the organizational strategy and goals. • Complete the project definition.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 7

Project Selection
Business Case
Step 1
Establish a Business Case for a Project - Avoid a project selection with little or no business impact. The Goal The goal of establishing a business case is to stress the importance of the project to the business in terms of meeting business objectives.

The Components
• The linkage to strategic business objectives. • The output unit (product/service) for the external customer. • The primary business measure of the output unit for the project. • The baseline performance of the primary business measure. • The gap in the baseline performance of the primary business measure from the business objective.

The Tools
• The Business Case Profile: An outline used to write the business case. It contains the following data: • Time Frame • Primary Business Measure • Output Unit • Baseline Performance • Business Objective • Cost of Impact of the Gap • Expected Impact on Performance

The Champion's Role
• Ensure that the financial impact is assessed, which may require the assistance of a financial analyst in the business.

Characteristics of a Good Business Case
• The Champion states a business case to the best of their knowledge at the time of project selection. • The team leader will validate the information in the process of narrowing the scope.
©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 8

Project Selection
• Thoughtful consideration must be given when developing a business case. The business case data determines the degree of impact for the Black Belt project. • Focuses on ONE primary business metric.
■ ■

Keeps the team clear on the measure of success. Monitors other impacts with the use of secondary metrics. Guards against suboptimization of the whole for the benefit of the project. States the output of the process. Identifies the customers. Addresses customer requirements.

• Focuses on a process rather than a cost account.
■ ■ ■ ■

• Requires an assessment of the financial impact. • Addresses the output unit (product/service) for the external customer.

Avoids internal optimization (more tampering) at the expense of total optimization by focusing on the end product. Aligns with the six sigma business objective. Determines what the impact will be on other successful six sigma business objectives. Narrows in on the Black Belt's greatest opportunity for improvement. Historical performance of this measure is considered. Time period of the historical performance is reviewed. Over-reaction by leaders to one isolated exception in performance is recognized.

• Defines the primary business measure of the project.
■ ■

• Identifies the baseline performance of the primary business measure.
■ ■ ■

• Measures the gap between the baseline performance of the primary business measure and the business objective.

Establishes the target performance for the primary business measure vs. baseline performance. Quantifies the cost of the gap in the baseline performance of the primary business measure from the business objective. Examines the project's expected impact on the performance gap.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 9

Project Selection
Business Case-Profile
A business case should include: • Cost/Unit: Carries the burden of all the waste, rework and scrap loss/shortage (includes refused deliveries, damages, returns and so forth). • Defects: Encompasses inaccuracies and poor quality; items that fall out of specified limits (includes wage increases in excess of the standards established). • Cycle Time: Expressed as lead time or time to complete.

Establishing a Business Case Profile

Business Case Profile
rolled through put yield of physical the 3 weeks from Feb. 20 to March 9 location address accuracy During _________________________, the _____________________________

(Period of time for baseline performance)
Support Services 1 to Field Support Region 3

(Primary business measure)
address accuracy mandates a business objective to improve Order Management physical location address accuracy by 50%

for _______________was __________________. This gap of ______________
(Output unit)
74.9% to 87.5%

at 65% (True Accuracy) resulting in an annualized cost of poor quality of $3,300,000

(Baseline performance)
an annualized sum

(Bus Obj. Target vs. baseline)

by 27 2001 of $1,600,000 from _____________________ represents_____________ of cost savings.

(Business Objective)

(Cost impact of gap)

increase to through put accuracy of Support Services 1 to meet the year 2001 corporate goal of turning up an additional 400,000 new clients across the This project will ________________________________________. region.

(Project expected impact on performance of primary business measure)

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 10

Project Selection
Examples: Business Case
• Poorly developed business cases do not provide project focus or strong baseline data to compare results.

Example 1
A Poor Business Case There are too many customer complaints. The Division A complaint rate is 35% — the highest in the company — 5% above the average.
• What data is missing from Example 1?

Example 2
A Good Business Case In 1999, the big ticket return rate was 17%, representing $20MM in returns. This was 7% higher than the target for the division.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 11

Project Selection
Exercise: The Business Case
Purpose: Agenda: Limit:
Develop a business case profile for a possible Black Belt project. Complete the business case profile. Refer to the characteristics of a good business case to complete specific areas of the form. 10 minutes

Business Case Profile
During _________________________, the _____________________________
(Period of time for baseline performance) (Primary business measure)

for _______________was __________________. This gap of ______________
(Output unit) (Baseline performance) (Bus obj. target vs. baseline)

from _____________________ represents_____________ of cost savings.
(Business objective) (Cost impact of gap)

This project will __________________________________________________.
(Project expected impact on performance of primary business measure)

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 12

Project Selection
Desirability Matrix
Step 2
Create a Project Desirability Matrix - Use when no data on six sigma business objective is available.

The Goal
The goal of the project desirability matrix is to provide information that will assist in narrowing the project focus. Champions must select among the competing projects and address the impact, effort and risk associated with each project. The project desirability matrix avoids traditional project results by forcing an objective discussion on what is really known about the problem.

The Components
• Business Impact (returns)

Estimated financial impact of the project. Length of time to complete. Number of people required to be successful. Time: Uncertainty of the completion date. Effort: Uncertainty of the investment required. Implementation: Uncertainty of roadblocks.

• Investment Required (costs)
■ ■

• Probability of Success (assessment of the various risk factors)
■ ■ ■

The Tools
• The Project Desirability Matrix • Business Impact Scale

The Champion's Role
• Select a diversity of projects - avoid selecting all high - impact projects. • Ensure evaluation of projects on the same scale - for example, a high-impact project uses a high-impact scale. • Collect as much data as possible-avoid subjectivity.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 13

Project Selection
Understanding the Project Desirability Matrix Business Impact
• The business impact ultimately refers to cash flow and profit. It includes:
Cycle Time Service Level Investment Quality Cost Cash Flow Sales

"Significant" impact means a change of 50% as opposed to 5-10%.

Examples: Projects Without Impact
• Reducing the cycle time on non-bottleneck operations. • Installing a measurement system (for example, creating a new report). • Validating assumptions used in a model (e.g. sales forecasting). • Quantifying the performance of a process. • Analyzing a capital investment proposal. • Anything that does not actually accomplishes a business impact that delivers cash flow and profits.

Investment Impact and Business Impact Scale
• Investment Impact

Takes into account the time and effort required by the Champion and team members, as well as the expenditure of money. Established when using the project desirability matrix to evaluate multiple potential projects.

• Business Impact Scale

Financial Impact

Time Investment

• High impact is greater than $300K • Low effort is less than three months • Medium impact is $100–$299K • Medium effort is three to six months • Low impact is less than $100K • High effort is greater than six months

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 14

Project Selection
A Project Desirability Matrix
Assessing the likelihood the potential project will satisfy business needs can be done with a project desirability matrix.
Project Return or Investment Issues Improve Customer Satisfaction Large Amount of Time Large Number of People Labor Reduction

Issue Rating Return or Invest

8
Return

5
Return

4
Return

-3
Invest

-5
Invest

Travel Expenses

Reduce Cycle Time

-5
Invest

Project Name
Fix Machine A Improve Fixture XYZ Increase Final Test Yield Reduce Defect Rate on Line2 Reduce Field Failure Rate

5 7 7 6 4

8 5 7 8 3

Association Table 3 3 6 2 2 3 1 2 9 2

4 2 3 2 2

2 1 3 2 3

The Goal
Selection of a project that has the greatest ROI with the least amount of effort. Keep in mind that the probability of success is a factor in selecting projects.

Probability of Success
• An assessment that takes into account the various risk factors that may prevent success.
■ ■ ■

Time: Uncertainty of the completion date Effort: Uncertainty of the investment required Implementation: Uncertainty of roadblocks

• Example: High-risk projects are old chronic problems; a product/service project on a terminal phase.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 15

Project Selection
Creating a Desirability Matrix
The Project Desirability Matrix is used to quantitatively tie potential projects to key business issues by following these steps: 1. List the names of each project under the project name. 2. List the top five benefits and top five costs identified by your organization. Using a force field analysis, as shown in the following exercise, can aid you in this study. 3. List the number you rated each benefit and cost under the appropriate heading. 4. Rank each potential project as it relates to each benefit and cost. Rate one for those with no effect, use ten for those with a strong effect. - Keep this question in mind when ranking: "How much of this project will effect the business issue?" 5. Leave any areas that you are unable to rank blank. 6. Calculate a desirability score automatically with the resource disk. 7. The final score is a desirability index.

Example: A Desirability Matrix
Input Variables
Improve Fixture Reduce Defect Rate on Line 2 Increase Final Test Yield Fix Machine A Reduce Field Failure Rate

Desire Index
84 66 60 53 52

%
26.67 20.95 19.05 16.83 16.51

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 16

Project Selection
Exercise: Force Field Analysis of Business Issues
Purpose: Agenda:
Define the benefits and constraints (costs) within the organization. • Break into groups of three to four. • Identify the benefit and costs within your organization. • Rate each benefit and cost. Use "1" for a low degree of importance and "10" for a high degree of importance.

Limit:

15 minutes

Force Field Analysis
1 = low degree of importance 10 = high degree of importance

Benefits/Returns

Degree Constraints/Costs

Degree

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 17

Project Selection
Project Focus
Step 3
Narrow the Project Focus Based on the Business Case - Assess the performance specifications

The Goal
The goal of narrowing our focus is to find high-leverage projects where the return justifies the investment in time and effort, and where the need for improvement is substantial. Narrowing the focus must be consistent with the primary business measures. It is used in conjunction with the project desirability matrix to help prioritize the list of potential projects.

The Tools
• Pareto Chart • Process Map • Metrics

The Data Used to Narrow the Project Focus
• COPQ (rework, scrap and so forth) • Defect counts (actual defects, RTY, FTY, DPMO and DPU) • Non-value-added time (rework, delay and inspection) The more tools that can be applied to narrow the project focus, the broader the learning experience.

Project Focus Considerations
• Decisions based on factual data are always better than those based upon intuition, hearsay or folklore. • Strategic projects are sometimes a consideration (including new markets and technologies). • When working towards certification, an essential factor must be considered - the project must serve as a learning experience for Black Belts. • While the project should address a chronic problem, it should not be too large in scope. Don't try to "feed the world!" • The scope should be manageable, but not so narrow that the solution is already known. You can use six sigma to validate the solution in another project outside the training activities.
©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 18

Project Selection
Pareto Charts
• Identify the categories that are the biggest contributors to the total problem. • Utilize only information on defects when problem-solving. • Separate the significant few from the trivial many. • Perform several attempts.

Three - Level Pareto

Pareto Chart for Department
100 6m 80 4m 2m 20 0
31 53 45 3 3 Ot he rs 36 48 52 35

60 40

Percent

Dollars

0 Department

Patero of Dollars by Operation
100 80 2m

Dollars

60 1m 40 20 0
0P -4 0 Ot he rs OP -6 0 OP -2 0 OP -3 OP -7 OP -5

0

Percent

Dollars Percent Cum %

2805670 145067 528263 43051 373456 350150 275888 256078 230897 120967 1 0

41.1 21.3 7.7 6.3 41.1 62.4 70.1 76.4 .1 .

5.5 81.9 .9

5.1 .1 87.0

4.0 91.1

3.8 3.4 . 1.8 . 94.8 98.2 100.0 . 00

Drill down to an actionable level.

Pareto Chart for Dept 31 by Steps
100 1.5 m 80 60 40 .5 m 20 0
n h ing g The rma l Fo rmin g sio gt xin en orm tru Flu Ex oL tt ll F Ot he rs

Department Dollars Percent Cum %
1739515 1 394471 205463 181471 130659 84368 69723

62.0 . 62.0

14.1 . 76.1

7.3 . 83.4

6.5 . 89.9

4.7 . 94.5

3.0 . 97.5 .5

2. .5 100.0

Dollars

1m

0
Ro

Cu

Steps
135900 7.8 86.5 125875 7.2 93.7 74902 4.3 98.0 34017 2.0 100.0

Dollars Percent Cum %

890500 51.2 51.2

478321 27.5 78.7

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 19

Percent

Project Selection
First-Level Pareto

Pareto Chart for Department
Dollars $6 m 80 $4 m $2 m 20 0
31 53 36 48 45 52 37 34 35 Others

1st Level

100

60 40

0 Department

Dollars 2,805,670 1,450,677 528,263 430,511 373,456 350,150 27,588 256,078 230,897 120967 Percent 41.1 21.3 7.7 6.3 5.5 5.1 4.0 3.8 3.4 1.8 Cum% 41.1 62.4 70.1 76.4 81.9 87.0 91.1 94.8 98.2 100.0

Second-Level Pareto

Pareto Chart of Dollars Pareto Chart of Dollars by Operations Operations
Department 31 Breakdown

2nd Level
$2 m Dollars

100 Percent Percent 80 60

$1 m

40 20

0
OP - 40 OP - 30 OP - 70 OP - 60 OP - 20 Department OP -50 Others

0

Dollars Percent Cum%

1739515 394471 205463 181471 130659 62.0 14.1 7.3 6.5 4.7 62.0 76.1 83.4 89.9 94.5

84368 3.0 97.5

69723 2.5 100.0

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 20

Percent

Project Selection
Third-Level Pareto
Pareto Chart for OP - 40 by Step

3rd Level
$1.5 m Dollars Dollars $1 m $.5 m 0
Ex s tru ion

100 80 60 40 20 0 Percent Percent

t Cu

len to

gth
Ro o ll f

ing rm

T

a rm he

ing rm l fo

Flu

xin

g

e Oth

rs

Steps Steps
Dollars Percent Cum% 890500 51.2 51.2 478321 27.5 78.7 135900 7.8 86.5 125875 7.2 93.7 74902 4.3 98.0 34017 2.0 100.0

Pareto Charts Levels-Two and Three Black Belt Action
Black Belts need to assess whether the areas identified in the Pareto analysis will provide enough opportunity to have the impact on the primary business measure that is identified in the business case.

Champion Leadership
• Discuss the Pareto analysis and the impact potential on the primary business measure. • Discuss any revisions to the original estimated impact. • Develop plans, if necessary, to execute additional projects for other COPQ areas. • Select, if necessary, another project to work on.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 21

Project Selection
Process Mapping
• A process map is a graphic representation of a process. Inputs are taken through process steps to add value in producing an output. A process map should enable the Champion and Black Belt to complete a more thorough investigation of the process. It can identify areas where process improvements are needed. • Tool Overview
SUB PROCESS SUB PROCESS SUB PROCESS

INPUTS INPUTS

OUTPUT OUTPUT

Circle = Inputs/Start Point Output/Stopping Point

Box = Process Step Arrows = Direction of Flow

Components of a Process Map
• All Activities • Sub-processes • Input • Output • Customer and Suppliers • Process Owners It is desirable to have as a primary project output (Y), a measurable variable rather than an attribute variable.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 22

Project Selection
Why Do We Need a Process Map?
A process map is a valuable tool used to accurately define the process for a product or service. • Allows everyone involved with improving a process to agree on the steps that it takes to produce a good product or service. • Creates a sound starting block for team breakthrough activities. • Identifies areas where process improvements are needed.
■ ■ ■

Identifies and eliminates non-value-added steps. Combines operations. Assists with root-cause analysis.

• Identifies areas where data collection exists, as well as ascertaining its appropriateness. • The map identifies potential X's and Y's that:
■ ■

Lead to the determination of Y = f(X) through designed experiments. Identify appropriate SPC (Statistical Process Control) parameters.

• Monitors and updates changes in the process. The map should become a visual living document. • Acts as the baseline for the XY matrix, as well as the failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA).

Process Maps-Key Points
• The scope of the project is from the beginning until the end of the sub-process with the highest COPQ. • Root causes of COPQ activities could be from upstream processes. • Projects focusing on only sub-processes with the highest COPQ may not be successful.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 23

Project Selection
Project Definition
• Defining a project uses data from the narrowed project focus. It includes: 1. Problem Statement 2. Project Goal/Objectives 3. Primary Metric 4. Secondary Metric 5. Team Members • Problem Statement Purpose
■ ■

Focus the team on a process deficiency-controls the scope of the project. Communicate the significance to others.

Problem Statement Examples

A POOR problem statement
Product returns are too high due to product A and will be reduced by analyzing first - and second level Pareto charts.

A GOOD problem statement
Product returns are 5% of sales, resulting in a profit impact of $5 million and customer dissatis faction.

Problem Statement - Key Points
• A problem statement should not include any guesswork as to the cause of the deficiency or what action will be taken. • The problem statement assists in controlling the scope of the project. • Key output variables that are meaningful to management should be used to quantify the problem.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 24

Project Selection
Project Goal/Objective
• The project objective states the goal of the project. It must:
■ ■ ■

Address the issue in the problem statement. Quantify the expected performance improvement. Identify the expected timing.

Project Goal/Objective Examples

A POOR problem statement
Reduce shipping errors by implementing individual performance measures and objectives.

A GOOD problem statement
Reduce product returns from 5% to 2.5% of sales by year- end.

The project objective does not state the cause of the deficiency or what actions will be taken. Metrics
The primary metric is the yardstick that will be used to measure your success. • Must be consistent with the problem statement and project objectives. • Is plotted on a time series graph with the following lines:
■ ■ ■

Baseline Performance (average over the past 12 months, if possible) Actual Performance Target Performance

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 25

Project Selection
Primary Metric Time Series Graph
7% Return $ as a PCT of Sales $ 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 1% 0% Jul 97 Aug 96 Nov 96 Aug 97 Nov 97 Feb 97 Mar 97 Apr 97 Jun 97 Dec 96 Jan 97 Oct 97 May 97 Sep 96 Sep 97 Dec 97 Oct 96 Baseline Actual Objective

Product Returns

Secondary Metrics
Secondary metrics are the conscience that will "keep you honest". • Tracks potentially negative consequences. • More than one secondary metric may be required. • Ensures control of unintended negative consequences.
■ ■

Just as a balloon may pop out somewhere else when squeezed in one place. The idea is that defects can be eliminated. Don't create a problem for someone else.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 26

Project Selection
A Champion's Role During Project Selections
• Develop a clear problem statement and communicate the significance to others. • Assist in the development of the process map, as needed. • Ensure that the secondary metric(s) have been reviewed. • Review the business case and the scope of the project to improve focus. • Review any trends and data on the primary metric. • Select a team.

Team Selection
• Team selection should be created with forethought vs. afterthought. Team selection is critical because they communicate the business needs. They…
■ ■

Encourage Champions to secure the resources. Avoid homeless Black Belts who beg for help because the Champion has not established the legitimacy of the project. Increase the probability that the most capable people will be made available.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 27

Project Selection
Exercise: Project Selection
Directions: Answer each question. Select all that apply. 1. Why is project selection important? a) It keeps the organization focused on quality improvement. b) The dissemination of the six sigma culture depends on news of successful projects. c) Black Belts will help others to select future projects. d) Black Belt certification depends on the completion of a successful project. 2. A Black Belt project must be completed within: a) Three to four months b) Four to five months c) Seven to eight months d) One year 3. Poor project selection often results in: a) The organization losing money. b) Redoing the project. c) A delay of the Black Belt certification. d) The Champion redoing the project. 4. The project selected should: a) Make a dramatic impact on the bottom line in your organization. b) Involve other organizations. c) Be used as part of the Black Belt learning process. d) Create more work for the Champion. 5. The purpose of a business case is to: a) Stress the importance of the project in terms of meeting business objectives. b) Identify the final business project. c) Identify systems that need improvement. d) Assist the Champion in redoing the project.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 28

Project Selection
6. The business case includes: a) The output unit for the external customer. b) The gap in the baseline performance of the primary business measures. c) A list of the organizations using the business case. d) A linkage to strategic business objectives. 7. A business case profile contains: a) Cost of impact of the gap b) Time frame c) Team performing the project d) The Champion's roles and responsibilities 8. Elements of a good business case: a) Must focus on one primary metric. b) Is developed by the CEO. c) Focuses on a process vs. a cost account. d) Is a requirement of Black Belt certification. 9. The tools to narrow the project focus are: a) MAIC b) Process Map c) DFSS d) Pareto Chart 10. The data used to narrow the project focus consists of: a) COPQ b) History from other organizations c) Defect counts d) Non-value-added time 11. Defining a project uses data from the following: a) A problem statement b) Primary and secondary metrics c) The mission statement for the organization d) Team members

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 29

Project Selection
12. The problem statement purpose is to: a) Focus the team on the system's deficiency. b) Focus the team on the process deficiency. c) Control the scope of the project. d) Notify all CEO's of the current business problems. 13. Read the following problem statement. Identify those elements missing from the statement. Product returns are too high due to product Z and will be reduced by analyzing first- and second-level Pareto charts. a) Includes guesswork as to the cause of the deficiency. b) Fails to quantify the problem. c) Input variables are not mentioned. d) Key output variables are not mentioned.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 30

Project Selection
Project Selection Summary
Champion Role during Project Selections
The goal of this unit was to increase your knowledge of the importance of project selection and the six sigma business objectives. The elements of a business were also presented. Finally, you learned to narrow the project focus and to create a project definition.

The Importance of Project Selection
• Careful project selection should be important to you because of the following factors.

Dissemination of the Six Sigma culture depends on news of successful projects having significant business impact. Certification depends on successful completion of such a project within four to five months. After certification, Black Belts will assist in selecting future projects. Black Belts will help others in project selection.

■ ■

The Business Case Components
• The Champion states a business case to the best of their knowledge at the time of project selection. • The team leader will validate the information in the process of narrowing the scope. • Thoughtful consideration must be given when developing a business case.

The Business Case Components
• A good business case should include the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

The linkage to strategic business objectives. The output unit (product/service) for the external customer. The primary business measure of the output unit for the project. The baseline performances of the primary business measure. The gap in the baseline performance of the primary business measure form the business objective.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 31

Project Selection
Narrowing the Project Focus
• The goal of narrowing our focus is to find high-leverage projects where the return justifies the investment in time and effort, and where the need for improvement is substantial. Narrowing the focus must be consistent with the primary business measures. • The Data Used to Narrow Project Focus
■ ■ ■

COPQ (rework, scrap and so forth) Defect counts (actual defects, RTY, FTY, DPMO and DPU) Non-value-added time (rework, delay and inspection)

Project Definition
• Defining a project uses data from the narrowed project focus. It includes: 1. Problem Statement 2. Project Goal/Objectives 3. Primary Metric 4. Secondary Metric 5. Team Members

Problem Statement Purpose
• Focus the team on a process deficiency (controls the scope of the project). • Communicate the significance to others.

A Champion's Role During Project Selections
• Develop a clear problem statement and communicate its significance to others. • Assist in the development of the process map, as needed. • Ensure that the secondary metric(s) have been reviewed. • Review the business case and the scope of the project to improve focus. • Review any trends and data on the primary metric. • Select a team.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

05_Project Selection • 32

Wrap-Up and Summary
The Big Picture - Using Your Personal Deployment Planner
A six sigma deployment planner provides the Champion with a detailed timeline of the action items and the team members involved in completing a six sigma project. The planner will assist the Champion planning, deploying, monitoring and adjusting during the project completion process. The culmination of a successful project is a possibility using your planner.

Personal Deployment Planner
Six Sigma Team
Champion Black Belt Green Belt Yellow Belt Team Member

Successful Project

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 1

Wrap-Up and Summary
Review of the Personal Deployment Planner
The personal deployment planner is used to assist the Champion at the start of a six sigma initiative. It begins with the selection of a Black Belt candidate. The planner provides recommended Champion action items required seven months prior to Black Belt certification. The planner concludes with the review of the final report and a celebration of Black Belt certification.

Personal Deployment Planner

Six Sigma Personal Deployment Planner
When: Seven months before certification One month before the start of the wave What: Select Black Belt candidates. Select projects. Meet with functions that will be impacted by the bb project to secure support and potential team participation. Attend champion training. Complete deployment road map or “wedding planner". Complete communications plan. Complete deployment plan. Meet with Black Belt. Meet with Black Belt's supervisor. Meet with HR to discuss reward, recognition, change management and communications, and celebrations. Work on elevator speech. Get financial people involved early. Identify the process owner who the project will impact. Ensure they understand their role both during the MAIC phases and particularly during the Control phase. Work with HR to evaluate any union issues and possible impact the project might have. Meet with Union officials to communicate intent and discuss issues.

GROUND SCHOOL

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 2

Wrap-Up and Summary
Deployment Planner - Measure
MEASURE Six months three weeks before certification One week before the start of Session 1 Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Inform candidate of open - door policy. (optional) Contract with Candidate for your support. Check with candidate’s supervisor as to release status. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers and issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers and issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan/informally or formally. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing question for section on “Measure". Review Champions manual. Participate in read-out. Meet with team members to discuss project. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Adjust communications plan.

MEASURE Five months before cer tification Three days after training

MEASURE Four months before certification One week before Session 2

Deployment Planner - Analyze
ANALYZE Four months before certification One week before the start of Session 2 ANALYZE Three months two weeks before certification Three days after training Schedule time to meet with candidate Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers and issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan/informal or formal. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing questions for section on “Analyze". Review Champions manual. Participate in read-out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Adjust communications plan.

ANALYZE Two months two w eeks before certification One week before Session 3

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 3

Wrap-Up and Summary
Deployment Planner - Improve
IMPROVE Two months one week before certification One week before the start of Session 3 IMPROVE Two months before certification Three days after training Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where th e candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan/informal or formal. Communicate with six sigm a coordinator. Arrange for coordination and planning of celebration. Start selection process of 2nd project. Review probing questions for section on “Improve". Review Champions m anual. Participate in read - out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check that the line functions are participating and they are evolving as owners of the project. Reinforce that the line functions will own the Control Determine what support the line managers will need to fully own.

IMPROVE One month two weeks before certification One week before Session 4

Deployment Planner - Control
CONTROL One month one week before certification One week before the start of Session 4 Schedule time to meet with candidate Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers and issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan/nformal or formal. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing questions for section on “Control". Review Champions manual. Participate in read-out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Accept responsibility for control plan implementation. Adjust communications plan. Meet individually with candidate to review expectation Celebrate results.

CONTROL One month before certification Three days after training

CONTROL One week before certification

CERTIFICATION

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 4

Wrap-Up and Summary
Phases of Deployment - Planning Your Six Sigma Champion Engagement
• Many six sigma failures are the result of Champions who do not do what is expected of them. The Champion must plan, deploy, monitor and adjust. • A six sigma personal deployment planner is used to prescriptively plan the activities you will manage/undertake to ensure success. The planner includes: 1. Elapsed time to event 2. Key milestones 3. Actions • Deployment

Convert the plan into specific dates and log them into your daily, weekly, and monthly planning tool. Ensure that administrative support is aware of your six sigma commitments and their importance. Ensure administrative support is aware of the people associated with projects such as Black Belt candidates, functional managers, and six sigma coordinators. Review communications surveys. Talk to team members on a casual basis. Talk to candidates on a casual basis. Talk to functional managers on a casual basis. Review data/results. Ask lots of questions. Challenge their thinking. Get the financial people involved in monitoring. Regularly assess the knowledge and awareness of the organization in regards to six sigma issues. Don't be afraid to deviate from the deployment plan when you feel it is necessary. Use the data to provide justifications for changing things.

• Monitor
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

• Adjust

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 5

Wrap-Up and Summary
Tips for the Champions
• Create the process for effective problem solving-don't try to solve the problem yourselves. • Block time for regular interaction with the Black Belts. Give support by demonstrating a genuine interest. • You are the coach. Encourage the team to think "outside the box" and ensure that it has the necessary resources. Challenge the team to "break records". • Choose projects that justify top priority. Be prepared to reallocate resources, if necessary. Your actions speak volumes to the organization at large. • Care about the project metrics. Post them clearly. Demand analytical rigor in the process. • Focus on both financial and process results. Repeat the link between the project objective, functional goals, customer requirements, and project results over and over to anyone who will listen. • Remember that project success reflects on you, as well as the Black Belt. • This is a team effort. Your role is critical to the success of the team.

Champion Management
• Champions must make the commitment by effectively managing the following:
■ ■ ■ ■

Black Belt Progress in the Required Training Communication Change Management Black Belt Management As Champions you play an important role in the deployment of a successful business change.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 6

Wrap-Up and Summary
Training Strategy
Black Belt Training - PTASR Process
• Plan

Participants define and scope their training project with management. Each participant receives classroom training for each phase of training. Participants apply the classroom learning of that phase on their project and receive coaching as appropriate. Participants receive onsite remedial training, coaching and mentoring, project support and project assessment. Participants review training projects with management after each phase and at the end of the project.

• Train

• Apply

• Support

• Review

GOAL
SIX SIGMA
Plan Train Apply Support Review Control

Step 4

Statistical Control: Implement Control Plan

Plan Train Apply Improve Support Review

Step 3

Statistical Solution: Isolate Key Variables
Plan Train Apply Analyze Support Review

Step 2 Step 1
06_Wrap-up & Summary • 7

Statistical Problem: Mean Off Target

Plan Train Apply Measure Support Review

Practical Problem: Low Yield

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Wrap-Up and Summary
Champion Actions
Pre - Training
Meet with Black Belt candidates and review the business case. Review selected project. Articulate expectations.

During Training
Verify the Black Belt candidate is present during all training days. Complete MAIC checklist during each training session. Remind the Black Belt to seek support from the trainer on areas of uncertainty. Promote project activity.

Post Training
Meet with Black Belt candidate.

Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Schedule time to bee with Master Black Belt mentor. Monitor communication - plan, informal or formal. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Assure implementation of t he solution. Conduct the final review of the project, and celebrate.

Review open - door policy. Contract with candidate for your support (optional). Check with Black Belt supervisor as to release status. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portion of the communication plan to the organization.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 8

Wrap-Up and Summary
The Black Belt Roles and Responsibilities
• Broad Function
■ ■

Is a leader of teams implementing the six sigma methodology on projects. Introduces the methodology and tools to team members and the broader organization. Can report directly to the Champion or to the function. Recommend that they be a part of the functional organization. Acts as both a technical and cultural change agent for quality. Spreads the methodology to the project teams. Has duel membership in functional and six sigma teams. Supports the efforts of the function by spreading the use of the methodology when called on to assist on other business issues. Applies the methodology completely to the project. Must have technical competencies required to effectively execute the six sigma tools. Attends Black Belt training class. Completes all projects-related requirements. 100% dedicated. 18-30 month assignment.

• Reporting Lines
■ ■

• Black Belt Leadership
■ ■ ■ ■

• Project Management
■ ■

• Minimum Training Requirement
■ ■

• Time Commitment
■ ■

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 9

Wrap-Up and Summary
The Green Belt Roles and Responsibilities
• Broad Function
■ ■

Participates on project teams. They support the goals of the project, typically in the context of their existing responsibilities. Green Belts are expected to continue to utilize learned six sigma methodology and tools as part of their normal job. Reports directly to the Black Belt. Is part of the functional organization. Acts as both a technical and cultural change agent for quality. Learns the six sigma methodology as it applies to the particular project. Continues to learn and practice the six sigma methodology and tools after project completion. Supports the efforts of the function by spreading the use of the methodology when called on to assist the Black Belt business issues. May evolve to Black Belt level of knowledge and practice. Continues to learn and apply the six sigma methodology completely to a particular project. Attends any training given by the Black Belt. Completes all projects-related requirements. As defined by the Black Belt, Champion and Functional Manager. To support any Black Belt project identified as a high-priority.

• Reporting Lines
■ ■

• Green Belt Leadership
■ ■ ■

• Project Management

• Minimum Training Requirement
■ ■

• Time Commitment
■ ■

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 10

Wrap-Up and Summary
Yellow Belt Roles and Responsibilities
• Broad Function
■ ■

Supports a Black Belt or Green Belt on projects. Supports the goals of the project, typically in the context of their existing responsibilities. Sustains controls (after project) with the process owner and supervisor. Active member and is part of the daily process being mapped for a six sigma project. Reports directly to the functional manager or to the process owners. Is part of the functional organization and their application depends on where the Yellow Belt is within the organization. Assists in sustaining the change and acts as both a technical and cultural change target for quality. Demonstrates functional knowledge. Demonstrates knowledge in the seven basic quality tools. Communicates mapping of local process elements to the project team. Maps local process, inputs and outputs. Identifies COPQ. Identifies value added elements. Attends five days of training with two days support (20 candidates). Completes all projects-related requirements. 90% of Yellow Belts are trained by home organization. Yellow Belts are 20-50% of the population. 10-20% of the time. No time limit.

■ ■

• Reporting Lines
■ ■

• Yellow Belt Leadership

■ ■ ■

• Project Management
■ ■ ■

• Minimum Training Requirement
■ ■ ■ ■

• Time Commitment
■ ■

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 11

Wrap-Up and Summary
Team Member Roles and Responsibilities
• Broad Function
■ ■

Participates on project teams. They support the goals of the project, typically in the context of their existing responsibilities. Reports directly to the Black Belt or to the process owners. Is part of the functional organization. Demonstrates functional knowledge. Assists in sustaining the change. Shares expertise with employees and other team members. Assists in the mapping of local process elements with the project team. Learns the six sigma methodology as it applies to the particular project. May evolve to a Yellow, Green, or Black Belt level of knowledge and practice based on performance and skill. Communicates needs as they relate to a given project to their Black Belt and or Green Belt. Participated in six sigma project reviews as necessary. Attends any training given by the Black Belt and or functional manager. Completes all projects-related requirements. As defined by the Black belt, Champion and or Functional Manager. To support any Black Belt project identified as a high-priority.

• Reporting Lines
■ ■

• Team Member Leadership
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

• Project Management

• Minimum Training Requirement
■ ■

• Time Commitment:
■ ■

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 12

Wrap-Up and Summary
Champion Communication Management
• The Goal of Communication
■ ■ ■

To remove roadblocks to success. To motivate and get people involved. To maintain awareness of the project and process. Deployment Monitor Effectiveness Adjust

• To achieve the communication goal, the following must be reviewed:
■ ■ ■

• The communication plan is unique to each Champion. Consider these factors when developing your plan.

Decide how you will communication the need for six sigma within your organization. What is the message you will send personally? Decide who will be involved in the planning and execution of the communication plan-HR or other Managers. The most important factor in sustaining and driving change in the organization is the consistent message you send to the organization about six sigma.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 13

Wrap-Up and Summary
Communication Methods
• Each Champion will develop his or her own personal style of communicating with the Black Belt and the team. The following chart lists the types of communication tools to use as well as possible methods available to complete the communication process. • Communication Methods
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Open door policies Social functions Suggestion boxes Town hall meetings Grapevine Company common area Brown bag lunches

Communication Tools
• Bulletin Boards • Company Wide Meetings • Core Value Statements • Department Meetings • Electronic Bulletin Boards • Electronic Mail • Employee Focus Groups • Employee Opinion Surveys • State of the Company Address • Internal Publication • Interoffice Memo • Mission Statement • Newsletters • Status Reports • Video-conferencing • Exit Interviews • Electronic News Services • Electronic Knowledge • Learning Management Systems

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 14

Wrap-Up and Summary
Transition Phases
Three Phases of Personal Transition

Holding On
Denial, Anger Anxiety and Withdrawal

The Roller Coaster Ride
Continued Anxiety and Anger, Fear Reminiscing Approach/Avoidance Goal Formation Comfort and Optimism

Experience And Commitment
Anticipation New Frame of Reference Unconscious Competence

A Champion often must have the ability to interpret and read nonverbal cues during the task of leading team members through the various transition levels.

Change Management Team
• Change Sponsor: CEO • Change Agent: Champions, Black Belt Supervisors • Change Target: Black Belts, peers
Change Sponsor
• Selects high-impact projects • Selects Black Belts • Reviews Project • Communication with targets and Black Belts • Links rewards with results

Change Agent
• Implements project • Reviews project participation • Develops and executes a road map for business • Reviews success of six sigma • Mentor/coaches certification of Black Belts • Obtains project resources

Change Target
• Perform normal job responsibilities • Apply six sigma methodologies • Communicate to change agent

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 15

Wrap-Up and Summary
Champion and Black Belt Actions That Lead
Actions that Lead Phase One Actions that Lead Phase Two Actions that Lead Phase Three

• Recognize • Confirm • Acknowledge • Provide Structure • Confront

• Provide Focus • Make Connections • Build Confidence

• Celebrate • Model • Inspire • Take Risks

Black Belt Management
• Champion visibility and involvement is critical to the successful completion of a Black Belt project. • Champions provide legitimacy for the six sigma initiative.
■ ■ ■

Champions select high leverage, high impact projects. Champions select Black Belts candidates. Champions articulate the overall goal to the Black Belts and target that states how this fits and why it is being done.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 16

Wrap-Up and Summary
Champion Leadership Skills
• Champions have a variety of tools and valuable leadership skill available when managing Black Belts.
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Leaders model and reinforce the vision and strategy of the organization. Rewards and recognition align with the business strategies. Getting the job done right is more important than satisfying the boss. We reward the risk takers. Success of the business is more important than success of my team or organization. Turf guarding is rare. Information flows easily through the organization. Most people have access to the information they need to perform their jobs. Changes are communicated clearly so that everyone understands. Most people have a clear understanding of our business and strategic direction. People understand how they fit into the change or business strategy. Regular reviews focused on project results and follow-through. (How is this being institutionalized?) Regular communication with Targets about the project. Regular communication with Black Belts.

• Champion Communication Skills
■ ■ ■ ■

■ ■

■ ■

Champion Tools
• Implementation Plan: Describes the overview of the project and should contain the following:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Project Definition Black Belt Selection Communication Plan (initial and on-going) Have the weaknesses been addressed? Have the strengths been leveraged?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 17

Wrap-Up and Summary
Communication Tools
1. The Personal Deployment Plan (AKA: The Wedding Planner) 2. Black Belt Certification-The documentation monitored
■ ■

MAIC Checklist Change Management Checklist

4. Communication Plan 5. RADD (Readiness Assessment and Deployment Design)

Champion Tools
• The Personal Deployment Plan: Is the six sigma wedding planner. It is used to review and plan the activities you will manage sequentially to ensure the success of each phase. The time frame, key milestones and actions needed are addressed in the planner. • Black Belt Certification Documentation: Requires the successful completion of several projects. It is a good tool to track the Black Belt's understanding of the process, as well as compare the overall effectiveness of each project. • MAIC Checklists: Provides the Champion with strategic questions to survey the Black Belts during Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control phases of six sigma strategy. Questions reinforce critical steps that must be completed by the Black Belt. Data collected provides the Champion feedback that can be used to determine the degree of success for the certification requirements. • Change Management Checklist: Is a list containing a brief survey the champion may use to test the emotional state of the members of the Black Belt team. This information provides the Champion and Black Belt with clues to the level of support or resistance from the team. • Communication Plan: Is a tool that will assist the champion in organizing his communication strategy. • RADD (Readiness Assessment and Deployment Design): Is a readiness survey that addresses areas such as measurement systems, policy management, critical process characterization, benchmarking, problem solving methodologies and analysis systems maturity. It is used to gain a history of the current business functions.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

06_Wrap-up & Summary • 18

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Measure Breakthrough Strategy
No.
1.

Scope
Project Selection (Refine the project scope)

Measure Activities
1. Focused problem statement. 2. Identify management metric (baseline, goal, projection). 3. Form the team. 4. Process map with X's and Y's. 5. XY Matrix. 6. Preliminary process FMEA. 7. List of response variables (Y's). 8. Implement adequate data collection. 9. Attribute R&R. 10. Variable R&R.

Tools
ProjStat.doc Metric.xls DPMO DPU.xls XY Matrix FMEA Process/ Flow Charter

2.

Process Exploration (Select the out put characteristics (the Y's)

3.

Measurement Verification (Assess the performance specifications) Capability Assessment (Establish the initial capability (for the Ys)

AttrR&R Minitab

4.

11. Zst, Zlt, DPU, RTY, DPMO, etc. 12. Capability Analysis.

Minitab

Analyze Breakthrough Strategy
No.
1.

Scope
Define Performance Objectives (a review of the prior capability analysis to determine the action needed) Document Potential X's (develop a starting list for possible X's) Analyze Source of Variability (Assess the Performance Specifications)

Analyze Activities
1. Evaluate existing and prior process data.

Tools
Capability Analysis

2.

2. Review process exploration tools from the Measure phase. 3. Establish relationships between potential X's and Y using graphical and statistical tools. 4. Develop a short list of X's for possible experimentation.

XY Matrix FMEA Process Map Histograms Multiple Boxplots Scatter Plots Multi-Vari Studies Hypothesis Testing Regression Analysis

3.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 1

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Improve Breakthrough Strategy
No. Scope Improve Activities
1. Complete the experiment planning outline. 2. Secure Champion approval for the design of experiment plan. 3. Create the Experiment Structure. 4. Obtain Samples. 5. Execute the Experiment. 6. Analyze the results. 7. Draw statistical conclusion. 8. Run the samples to verify the experiment results.

Tools
Design of Experiment Planning Outline

1.

Define the Experimental Plan

2.

Execute and Analyze the Design of the Experiment

DOE Main Effects Plot Interaction Plot

3.

Validate the Results

Capability Analysis Final Report

Control Breakthrough Strategy
No. Scope Improve Activities
1. Complete the experiment planning outline. 2. Secure Champion approval for the design of experiment plan. 3. Create the Experiment Structure. 4. Obtain Samples. 5. Execute the Experiment. 6. Analyze the results. 7. Draw statistical conclusion. 8. Run the samples to verify the experiment results.

Tools
Design of Experiment Planning Outline

1.

Define the Experimental Plan

2.

Execute and Analyze the Design of the Experiment

DOE Main Effects Plot Interaction Plot

3.

Validate the Results

Capability Analysi s Final Report

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 2

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Measure Checklist
• The Champion can ensure the completion of the Measure phase by completing the checklist for all four steps. • Review the checklist questions with your Black Belt.

Measure Questions
Step One
What is your problem statement? Objective? Who will benefit from this project when it is completed? What are the benefits? Have the benefits been quantified? It not, when will this be done? Date: Who is the customer (internal/external)? Has the controller’s office been involved in these calculations? Who are the owners of this process? Who are the members on your team? Does anyone require additional training? What is your primary metric? What is your secondary metric? Why did you choose these? What are the defect categories on your Pareto charts?

YES NO

Step Two
Do you have a process map? Who was involved in its development? Where are the data collection points? Have you completed a fishbone diagram? Have you completed a XY Matrix? Have you completed a FMEA? Who participated in these activities?

Step Three
What is your measurement systems analysis? Where did you get your data?

Step Four
Do you have a histogram of your primary metrics? What is the short-term and long-term capability of your process?

General Questions
Do you have any issues and barriers? Do you have adequate resources to complete the project? Have you completed your project status form?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 3

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Analyze Checklist
• The Champion can ensure the completion of the Analyze phase by completing the checklist following each step in the process with the Black Belt.

Analyze Questions
Step One • What is the statement of the statistical problem? • Is the response discrete or continuous? • What does the distribution look like? • How much of the problem, as described in the measure phase, are you going after? Step Two • Have you reduced the potential X's? • Have you reduced the likely X's to a number that can be experimented with? • Have you completed a demographics matrix? • Have you completed a graphical and distribution analysis? Step Three • Have you performed hypothesis tests? • Have you updated the FMEA? General Questions • Do you have any issues and barriers? • Do you have adequate resources to complete the project? • Have you completed your project status form? • Do you need help from me?

YES NO

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 4

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Improve Checklist
• The Champion can ensure the completion of the Improve phase by completing the checklist following each step in the process with the Black Belt.

Improve Questions
Step One • What is the statement of the statistical problem? • Were all of the potential X's measurable and controllable for an experiment? • Have you completed a DOE Planning Sheet? • Do you have any issues or barriers? Step Two
• Are the vital few X's statistically significant? • How much of the problem have you explained with these X's? • How much unexplained error exists?

YES NO

Step Three • Are the effects of practical significance? • Have you updated the FMEA? • Are any new improvements transferable across the business? • Is an action plan for spreading the best practice in place an appropriate? General Questions • Do you have any issues and barriers? • Do you have adequate resources to complete the project? • Have you completed your project status for m? • Do you need help from me?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 5

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Control Phase Checklist
• The Champion can ensure the completion of the Control phase by completing the checklist following each step in the process with the Black Belt.

Control Questions
Step One What is the statement of the statistical problem? Step Two What are the vital few X's? How will you control or redesign these X's? How are you monitoring the Y's? Step Three How are you going to ensure that this proble m does not return? Is the learning transferable across the business? What is the action plan for spreading the best practice? Is there a project documentation file? How is this referenced in process procedures and product drawings? What is the mechanism to ensure this is not reinvented in the future? Have you updated the FMEA? Have you developed a Process Control Plan? Have you developed a Quality System Action Plan? What are the financial implications? Is there any spin-off projects? What lessons have you learned? General Questions Do you have any issues and barriers? Do you need help from me? Have you completed your final report? Have you completed a local project review?

YES

NO

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 6

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Personal Deployment Planner Review
When: Seven months before certification One month before start of the wave What: Select Black Belt candidates. Select projects. Meet with functions that will be impacted by the bb project to secure support and poten tial team participation. Attend champion training. Complete deployment roadmap or “wedding planner". Complete communications plan. Complete deployment plan. Meet with Black Belt. Meet with Black Belt's supervisor. Meet with HR to discuss reward, recognition, change management and communications, and celebrations. Work on elevator speech Get financial people involved early. Identify the process owner who the project will impact. Ensure they understand their role both during the MAIC phases an d particularly during the Control phase. Work with HR to Evaluate any union issues and possible impact the project might have. Meet with Union officials to communicate intent and discuss issues.

GROUND SCHOOL

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 7

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Personal Deployment Planner Review - Measure
• This portion of the planner reviews the required Champion actions needed for the Measure phase. • The suggested time frame is useful in planning the Champion's action items timetable.

MEASURE
Six months three weeks before certification One week before the start of Session 1

Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Inform candidate of open - door policy. (optional) Contract with candidate for your support. Check with candidate’s supervisor as to release status. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers—issues. Resolve barriers and issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan—informally or formally. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing question for section on “Measure". Review Champions manual. Participate in read- out. Meet with team members to discuss project. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Adjust communications plan.

MEASURE
Five months before certification Three days after training

MEASURE
Four months before certification One week before Session 2

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 8

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Personal Deployment Planner Review - Analyze
• The planner lists the recommended time frame and Champion action items to ensure the Analyze phase is completed successfully. • It is important that Champions review the time frame and action items prior to the start of the Analyze phase.

ANALYZE
Four months before certification One week before the start of Session 2

Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Schedule time to meet with Master Black Belt/mentor. Monitor communications plan, informal or formal. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing questions for section on “Analyze". Review Champions manual. Participate in read- out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Adjust communications plan.

ANALYZE
Three months two weeks before certification Three days after training

ANALYZE
Two months two weeks before certification One week before Session 3

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 9

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Personal Deployment Planner Review - Improve
• This portion of the planner provides a recommended time schedule for the Champion actions required to ensure the Improve phase is completed. • Review this page prior to the start of this phase with the Black Belt to ensure all action items are understood.

IMPROVE
Two months one week before certification One week before the start of Session 3

Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review Selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization.

IMPROVE
Two months before certification Three days after training

Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers and issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan—informal or formal. Communicate with six sigm a coordinator. Arrange for coordination and planning of celebration. Start selection process of 2nd project. Review probing questions for section on “Improve". Review Champions manual. Participate in read -out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check that the line functions are participating and they are evolving as owners of the project. Reinforce that the line functions will own the Control phase. Determine what support line managers will need to fully own.

IMPROVE
One month two weeks before certification One week before Session 4

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 10

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Personal Deployment Planner Review - Control
• This is the final section of the planner. It lists the required Champion actions, including reviewing the Black Belt final project reports for certification requirements.

CONTROL
One month one week before certification One week before the start of Session 4

Schedule time to meet with candidate. Review selected project with candidate. Articulate expectations. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Deploy appropriate portions of the communications plan to the organization. Drop by to meet with candidate. Ask about the training. Ask where the candidate needs help or special emphasis. Inquire as to next actions. Check with candidate for barriers/issues. Resolve barriers/issues. Schedule time to meet with MBB/mentor. Monitor communications plan—informal or formal. Communicate with six sigma coordinator. Review probing questions for section on “Control". Review Champions manual. Participate in read- out. Meet with MBB as to status and performance of candidate. Meet with team members to discuss project. Check for barriers/issues. Address barriers/issues. Adjust communications plan. Meet individually with candidate to review expectation Celebrate results.

CONTROL
One month before certification Three days after training

CONTROL
One week before certification

CERTIFICATION

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 11

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Mobilizing Commitment Plan Example
Company Name: ____________________________________Project Title: ___________________________________ Problem Statement:________________________________________________________________________________ Rating Scale: 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Against Moderately Against Neutral Moderately Support Strongly Support

Issue or Concerns Time Money Resources Other

Blocker: Directly or Indirectly Controls Resources

Decision maker

Influence other Stakeholders

Owner of parts of the process

Possible Stakeholders

Degree of Impac t for the issue or concern Neg. 1 2 3 Pos. 4

Level of Commitment

Commitment Strategy Plan Needed? Yes or No Yes No

Neg.

Pos.

5 1 2 3 4 5

1. 2. 3. 4.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 12

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Influence Strategy Plan
Project:
Style Socializer Analyzer Stakeholders to Win Issues or Concerns The Deal Makers People who Influence Method to Win Date to Begin Amiable Driver

Black Belt: Champion:

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 13

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Systems and Structures Integration Template
1. Desired Behaviors 2. Existing Performance Objective Measures 3. Existing 4. Affinity Measurement Diagram System Needed? Passes Measurement Checklist Criteria. YES NO YES NO 5. Existing Measures with False Signals? 6. Behaviors not Measured by Current System

List

List YES NO

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 14

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
Rewards and Recognition Template
1. Behavioral Changes 2. Evaluate Organization’s Reactions
D= Impossible to Predict A= Reward or Approval B= Punishment or Disapproval C= No Reaction

3. Existing Rewards 4. Pass the Available Measurement Checklist

5. Action plan Needed to Reward Desired Behaviors

6. Action plan Needed to Eliminate Rewarding Undesirable Behaviors

List

List

YES

NO

YES

NO

YES

NO

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 15

Appendix A Summaries and Checklists
On-Site Report Documentation

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix A • 16

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Measure Step #1
Project Selection - Refine the Project Scope.

The Goal
The Champion establishes a business case for a project. A project desirability matrix is used to identify the most significant areas that impact the business case.

Roadblocks
• No historical data exists to support the project. • Team members don't have the time to collect data. • Data presented is the best guess by functional managers. • Primary metrics is not reflected in the data. • Data communicated from poor systems is inappropriate. • Waste and defect data is not currently captured.

The Tools
• DPU (Defects Per Unit) • DPMO (Defects Per Million Opportunity)

Black Belt Action
• Validate data. • Complete all steps in Measure. • Identify possible suspect variables.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Ensure that the resources necessary to collect data are available to the Black Belts. • Review the Measurement process with the Black Belt using the measure checklist.

Purpose of Metrics
DPU Metric • This metric measures the number of defects produced or processed through the operation. It is used to measure project work.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 1

Appendix B MAIC Tools
DPMO Metric • This metric is used to measure the complexity. It is used to select projects and benchmark dissimilar goods and services. Complexity is a measure of how complicated a particular good or service is. Each product or process characteristic represents a unique "opportunity" to either add or subtract value.

Complexity
Product Complexity Process Complexity Transactional Complexity Software Complexity

Item Measured
Number Number Number Number Number of of of of of Parts Functions Attachments Welds Entries

Lines of Code

Purpose of the Tools
DPU Metric (Defects per Unit) • This metric measures the number of defects produced or processed through the operation. It is used to measure project work. DPMO Metric (Defects per Million Opportunity) • This metric is used to measure the product quality as a function of complexity. It is used to select projects and benchmark dissimilar goods and services. Complexity is a measure of how complicated a particular good or service is. Each product or process characteristic represents a unique "opportunity" to either add or subtract value.

Complexity
Product Complexity Process Complexity Transactional Complexity Software Complexity

Item Measured
Number Number Number Number Number of of of of of Parts Functions Attachments Welds Entries

Lines of Code

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 2

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Reason for Need
• DPU metric helps define the scope by defining the unit. • Black Belts use DPU to track progress. • DPMO is needed to compare dissimilar goods or service. • DPMO is a metric that yields an estimate of the overall sigma level of your service or goods.

DPU vs. DPMO
• Which metric do you need? DPU or DPMO? • In most cases, we end up converting defect data to a proportion as follows:
Proportion = Defects ?

• When we use defect data, we need to determine what number to put into the denominator of the equation above.
Collect Defect Data

Which metric do you need? DPU or DPMO? In most cases, we end up converting defect data to a proportion as follows: Proportion = Defects ?

Management Metric

What do I need to know?

Black Belt Project Metric

Compare the quality level of non - identical parts, processes, or products.

Model process efficiency or estimate the probability of producing defect parts.

When we use defect data, we need to determine what number to put into the denominator of the equation above.
DPMO =

DPMO
? = A measure of complexity (i.e., opportunities)

DPU
? = The number of units produced (or processed through the operation)

Defects Total Opportunities

x 1M

DPU =

Defects Unit Produced

Project Selection Metric Benchmarking Metric

Black Belt Project Metric

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 3

Appendix B MAIC Tools
DPU vs. DPMO Key Points
• DPU: Requires the Black Belt to define the scope of the problem by defining the unit. It is used to track progress. In essence it is comparing similar goods and services (i.e. comparing the same process to itself over and over). • DPMO: Requires a standard through which opportunities can be defined and counted. DPMO will allow us to calculate a sigma level. • DPMO denominators in the calculation are the measures of complexity. Complexity of the product process, transactional and software are often measured. • Opportunity counts are simple counts of characteristics that are independent and mutually exclusive. • In terms of quality each product or process characteristic represents a unique opportunity to either add or subtract value.

The Real Organization
• To inspect, analyze, rework, and/or scrap potential product requires:
■ ■ ■ ■

More manpower Extra floor space Longer cycle time More $$$

• How big is your "real organization"? • What happens to cost as defects increase?

Real Organization
Rework or Scrap Failure Analysis Rework or Scrap Failure Analysis

Operation 1

Test

Operation 2

Test

Product

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 4

Appendix B MAIC Tools
DPU vs. DPMO
• Black Belts should use the DPU (or PPM) metric to track their project performance.

defects Defects per unit DPU = units =
• Management should use the DPMO metric to select projects and conduct benchmark studies for dissimilar goods and services.

DPMO

= DPU * 1,000,000 /(Opps /unit) = Defects /Total Opps * 1,000,000

Examples of When to Use DPU and DPMO

Tool DPU

Service
Processing an employment application in which application is a unit. We are looking for errors or defects on the application, i.e., a blank field. The unit we are looking at is not constant. For example in banking transactions the teller does a variable number of tasks per customer and we are looking for the number of defects per task.

Manufacturing
In the manufacturing ball point pen in which we are looking for defects within the pen.

DPMO

When comparing two types of watches in which each watch has a different level of complexity. We want to know the quality level for each item independent of its complexity.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 5

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Measure Step #2
Process Exploration - Select the Output Characteristics of the Y's.

The Goal
• The goal of step two is to document our understanding of the current state of the process.

Roadblocks
• Lack of available of people involved with the process. • No data to support, data currently available is opinion based.

The Tools
• Process Map • XY Matrix (cause/effect matrix) • FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis)

Black Belt Action
• Ensure that the team is completing the work. • Collect the data from the team. • Ensure that the key steps or variables are not overlooked.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Ensure the resources are available for the Black Belt. • Complete the measure checklist listing the required Black Belt action.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 6

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Process Map
• The process map provides all that are involved with a visual representation of the steps it takes to produce a product or service. It should list the following:
■ ■ ■ ■

All the major activities and tasks. The sub-processes and process boundaries. The inputs and outputs. Customers, suppliers, and process owners.

Process Map-Reason for Need
• A process map allows everyone involved with improving a process to agree on the steps that it takes to produce a good product or service. • It creates a sound starting point for a team breakthrough activity. • The map identifies potential X's and Y's that lead to the determination of Y = f(X) through designed experiments. • Acts as the baseline for the XY Matrix as well as the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. • It can identify areas where process improvements are needed.
■ ■ ■

Identifies and eliminates non-value-added steps. Combines operations. Assists with root-cause analysis.

• It identifies areas where data collection exists as well as ascertains its appropriateness.

Creators of the Process Map

Manufacturing
Operators Manufacturing Tech Engineers Supervisors Design Engineers Managers Customer/Suppliers

Service
Managers Supervisors Customer Service Rep Phone Center Reps Sales Associate Clerks Customers

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 7

Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Basic Elements
• The basic foundation of process improvement:

Goal: Y = f (X1, … , X N ) Outputs Process Step (Y's) *DPU Inputs Cycle Time (X's) OR Inputs X 1 Process Step *DPU X2 Cycle Time X3 Outputs Y1 Y2 Y3

• Y's are the results of completing the process step. • X's are the inputs that impact the ability to achieve the Y's of that process step. • A "Y" from one process can be an "X" for a later process.

Note: The DPUs of each process step are the defects per unit introduced by the
materials added or the processes performed at that step.

Process Mapping-The Hidden Factory
Order Quoting Process-Modeling the Hidden Factory
(Y's)
C N C C C S S Vendor Component Lead Time Cost Quality Required Date Ship to Location

Order Quoting Process - Modeling the Hidden Factory
VA
Customer inquiry Cycle Time = 10 min DPU = .55

NV

Mktg reviews specs Bad

Good

VA

Sales re - specs with customer CT = 20 min DPU = .10

N N C C N S C

Product Application Market Margin Requirement Lead Time Customer Location Processing Center Customer Status

VA
Mktg scopes supply Cycle Time = 90 min DPU = .30

A

(X's)

Bad

NV

A

NV

A
Eng reviews selection Good
Quotes obtained from vendor Cycle Time = 45 min DPU = .44

Hint: RTY = e -dpu
Total RTY = .577 x .741 x .644 = 27.5% (Where did this come from?)
©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 8

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Process Modeling-An Example
Ultimate Goal-Model your whole process • Predict Product Cycle Times • Predict Product Defect Levels
DPU Modeling
Raw Parts DPU = 0.0020 DPU 0.0023 Raw Parts DPU = 0.0027 DPU 0.0060 Raw Parts DPU = 0.0040 DPU 0.0120 Escaping DPU = 0.0040

DPU In 0.00

Receive BOL
Receiving Process DPU = 0.0003

Key into system
Process Induced DPU = 0.0010

Print Receipt
Process Induced DPU = 0.0020

Pay Invoice

End Yield = 99.6% Test Eff = 67% Rework/Scrap DPU = 0.0080

Cycle Time Modeling
Cycle Time 0.50 hours C.T. 0.50 min Cycle Time 1.5 hours C.T. 2.0 min Cycle Time 2.0 hours C.T. 4.0 min

Total DPU DPU = 0.012 Observed RTY = 98.8 Cycle Time 4.0 hours

Cycle Time 0.0 hours

Receive BOL

Key into system

Print Receipt

Pay Invoice

Total Cycle Time = 8.0

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 9

Appendix B MAIC Tools
XY Matrix
• The XY metric will guide the team to focus on a few X's that people have agreed significantly affect the product. This metric identifies the inputs (X's) and outputs (Y's) associated with the project.

XY Matrix-Reason for Need
• The XY Matrix allows everyone involved with a process to agree on output critical to the product and or the customer. • The XY Matrix ranking assigns a level of importance to each output variable. • The XY Matrix assesses the effect of each X on each Y through association. • The XY Matrix provides a first attempt at determining Y = f(X). • The XY Matrix provides direction for an area of focus for the FMEA.

XY Matrix Creators
• The focused team working on a breakthrough project. • Anyone who had or has a role in defining, executing, or changing the process.

Manufacturing
Operators Manufacturing Tech Engineers Supervisors Design Engineers Managers Customer/Suppliers

Service
Managers Supervisors Customer Service Rep Phone Center Reps Sales Associate Clerks Customers

Steps to use the XY Matrix
1. Review the Process Map; use the X's and the Y's from the Process Map. 2. List the important output variables. 3. Rank each output numerically using a 1-10 scale with 1 being of low importance and 10 being critical. 4. Identify potential causes that can impact one or more outputs, and list each. 5. Numerically rate the effect of each X on each Y within the body of the matrix using a 1-10 scale in which 1 has no detectable association, and 10 has a very strong association. 6. Use the resulting ranks to analyze and prioritize future team activities.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 10

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Manufacturing Example
Step 1: Review the process map.

X's
Raw Bracket 1 Raw Housings Loading S.O.P. (1) Weld Schedules Air Pressure Voltage H20 Circulation

Op loads bracket #1 & housing into weld fixtureA Initiates cycle start Machine clamps Weld (10 welds) Unclamps subassembly

Y's
Subassembly/Critical Dimensions Subassembly/Weld Location Subassembly/Weld Nugget Size Final Assembly/Critical Dimensions

NV A

Data

VA

Operator removes subassembly
Transports to weld fixture B or C

NV A

Unloading/Transport S.O.P. (2) Raw Bracket 2 Op loads subassembly and bracket #2 into Op loads subassembly and bracket #2 into fixtureC fixtureB Subassembly Initiates cycle start. Initiates cycle start. NV Loading S.O.P. (3) A NV Machine clamps Machine clamps A Weld Schedules VA Weld (20 welds) Weld (20 welds) V Air Pressure Unclamps final assembly. A Unclamps final assembly. Voltage H20 Circulation Final Assembly/Weld Location Operator removes final assembly Tip Dressing Final Assembly/Weld Nugget NV Transports to gauge fixture. A Size Unloading/Transport S.O.P. (4) Final Assembly/Free of Weld Operator dimensionally gauges N Data Visually inspects final assembly. VA Flash Gauging/V.I. S.O.P. (5) All Welds Present?

Service Example
(Y's)
C N C C C S S Vendor Component Lead Time Cost Quality Required Date Ship to Location

VA

Customer inquiry Cycle Time = 10 min DPU = .55

NV

Mktg reviews specs

Good

VA
Mktg scopes supply Cycle Time = 90 min DPU = .30

A

(X's)
N N C C N S C Product Application Market Margin Requirement Lead Time Customer Location Processing Center Customer Status

Bad

NV

A

VA

Sales re - specs with customer CT = 20 min DPU = .10

NV

A
Eng reviews selection Good
Quotes obtained from vendor Cycle Time = 45 min DPU = .44

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Bad

Appendix B • 11

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Example
Step 2: List the important output variables along the top section of the matrix. Step 3: Rank each output numerically using an arbitrary scale. A scale of 1 to 10 is often used.
Project: Housing Welding Date: 12/20/96 DEMO

Output Variables

Nugget Size

Width Dimension

Length Dimension

View Results Delete Instructions

Flash Free 8

Rank

5

7

9

Inputs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

All Welds Present 10

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 12

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Manufacturing Example
Step 4: Identify potential causes (failed X's) that can impact various outputs, and list each one along the left side of the matrix. Step 5: Numerically rate the effect of each X on each Y within the body of the matrix.
Project: Date:
DEMO

Housing Welding 12/20/96

Output Variables

Nugget Size

View Results Delete Instructions

Width Dimension

Length Dimension

Flash Free 8
9 5 5 5 8

Rank

5
10

7

9

Inputs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Width Bracket 1 Length Bracket 1 Housing Width Housing Length All SOPs Weld Schedule Air Pressure Line Voltage H20 Circulation Width Bracket 2 Length Bracket 2 Daily Tip Dressing

7 7 9 10 9 10 5 5 5 10 7 10 6 10 5 5 5

All Welds Present 10

Note: This captures what is known so far about the process.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 13

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Service Example
Numerically Rate the Effect of Each X.
Project: Quote Process Date: 3/9/99
DEMO Component Selection View Results Delete Instructions
Inputs
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Internal Lead Time

Output Variables

Vendor Selection

Rank

7

10 10

8 4 7 8 3 8

9 5 2 10

Product App Market App Margin Req Cust Lead Time Cust Loc Processing Ctr Customer Status

9 8 10 4 4 3

4 9 7 7

5 10

Ship To Location 5 10 10

Cost

Note: This captures what is known thus far about the process.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 14

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Manufacturing Example
Step 6: Use the resulting ranks to analyze and prioritize future team activities. If no FMEA exists, the highest-ranking inputs from the XY Matrix should be addressed first.

Input Variables Rank
Width Bracket 1 Length Bracket 1 Housing Width Housing Length All SOPs Weld Schedule Air Pressure Line Voltage H20 Circulation Width Bracket 2 Length Bracket 2 Daily Tip Dressing
50 49 35 70 240 190 135 135 135 50 49 154

%
3.87% 3.79% 2.71% 5.42% 18.58% 14.71% 10.45% 10.45% 10.45% 3.87% 3.79% 11.92%

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 15

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Service Example
Use the resulting ratings to analyze and prioritize future team activities. This will help focus your work on the FMEA.

Key Process Input Variable
Product App Market App Margin Req Cust Lead Time Cust Loc Processing Ctr Customer Status

Rank
177 137 186 224 102 257 181

%
14.00% 10.84% 14.72% 17.72% 8.07% 20.33% 14.32%

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 16

Appendix B MAIC Tools
FMEA (Failure Mode Effects Analysis)
• The FMEA is a document that displays much of what is currently known about the process. It contains data about the "actual process". It is a detailed document that identifies ways in which a process or product can fail to meet critical customer requirements. It lists all the possible causes (failed X's) from which (the Y's) a list of items for the control can be generated.

FMEA Purpose
To identify ways in which a process or product can fail to meet critical customer requirements. • To act as a living document that lists all possible causes (failed X's) of failure from which a list of items for the control plan can be generated. • To allow teams to track and prioritize the actions required improving the process. • To facilitate the documentation of a plan to prevent those failures.

FMEA-Reason for Need
• It requires a team to follow a procedure to identify and document:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Potential product-related process failure modes. Potential effects of these failures modes on the customer. Potential process causes (failed X's) for each failure mode. Ways of reducing the occurrence frequency of those failures. Ways of improving the means of detecting these failures.

• Team needs a risk-ranked Pareto of process issued that can be used as a means to guide the team activity. • A prioritized list of well-organized corrective actions. • A means through which process improvement can be tracked. • A starting point from which the control plans can be created.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 17

Appendix B MAIC Tools
FMEA Creators
• FMEA is created by anyone on the focus team working on a breakthrough project, or a role in defining, executing, or changing the process.

Manufacturing
Operators Manufacturing Tech Engineers Supervisors Design Engineers Managers Customer/Suppliers

Service
Managers Supervisors Customer Service Rep Phone Center Reps Sales Associate Clerks Customers

Types of FMEA

Manufacture/Service
Process Project Software Design System
Addresses failure modes associated with the manufacture and/or service process. Addresses failures that could happen during a major program. Addresses failure modes associated with software functions. Address es failure modes of products and components before they are made. Addresses failure modes for system and subsystem-level functions early in the product concept stage.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 18

Appendix B MAIC Tools
The FMEA Vocabulary
• The Process X Prioritization: a detailed document which identifies ways in which a process or product can fail to meet critical customer requirements (Y's). It is a living document that lists all possible causes (failed X's) of failure. A list of items for the control plan is generated. • Failure Mode: a description of a "non-conformance" at a particular process step (also know as a shop floor defect). • Failure Effect: the effect a particular failure mode will have on the customer (attempt to quantify with respect to Y's). • Severity-SEV (of failure effect, scale of 1 to 10): an assessment of the seriousness of the failure effect on the customer. The customer can be the end customer and or the next process operation. • Failure Cause: something, which can be corrected or controlled (X) that describes "how the failure modes could have occurred". • Occurrence-OCC (of failure cause, scale 1 - 10): an assessment of the frequency with which the failure cause occurs. "How often does this X fail in a specific way?" • Detection-DET (of failure cause, scale 1 - 10): an assessment of the likelihood (or probability) that your current controls will detect 1) when the X fails or 2) when the failure mode occurs. • Risk Priority Number-RPN = Severity * Occurrence * Detection: used to prioritize recommended actions. Special consideration should be given to high severity ratings even if Occurrence and Detection are low.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 19

Appendix B MAIC Tools
FMEA Example
Calculate the risk priority number (RPN) and Pareto-ize this quantity in descending order.
C Potential Failure S Process Function Potential Failure l Modes (Process E (Step) Effects (KPOVs) a Defects) V s 1 Load Brac ket 1 Parts do not fit Delay in process 2 and housing into Fixture A #
2

O Potential Causes C of Failure (KPIVs) C

Current Process Controls

D E T

R P N 36

Part is loaded incorrec tly

3 Fixture A: Initiate Mac hine will not cycle start cycle 4 Fixture A: Clamps Mac hine will not c lamp 5 6 Fixture A: Welds 7 Mac hine will not weld Welds appear small or "light" Mac hine will not unc lamp Dropped/ damaged subassembly

Final assembly 8 width/length out o print Delay in process 2 Delay in process Delay in process Delay in process Airbag housing will not sustain deployment Delay in process
2 2 2

10

8 Fixture A: Unclamps
9 Remove and transport subassembly

2

Final assembly 8 width/length out of print

Incoming 3 Receiving 6 c omponent inspection (1% dimensions out of dimentional audit) print Operator error 5 100% final dim 4 gauge/100% visual inspection Power off, sensor 2 1/month PM 7 out Air pressure low, 2 1/month PM 7 sensor out Part not loaded 2 Sensor installed 2 properly (poke yoke) Not enough 1 Voltage regulator 2 voltage supplied and visual alarm Weld schedule 5 100% visual 4 out of adjustment inspection, 2/shift destruc tive testing Air pressure 2 1/month PM 7 release valve broken Operator error 2 100% final dim 4 gauge/100% visual inspection

160

#2

28 28
8

4 200

#1

28

64

#3

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 20

Appendix B MAIC Tools
FMEA Manufacturing Example
• Recommend action, assign responsibility, take action, and recalculate the RPN when actions are completed.
Priority Failure Mode Welds appear small or "light" Part is loaded incorrectly Failure Effect S E V O C C D R Recommended Person and S O D E P E C E Actions Target Date V C T N T Need Black Belt 4 200 statistical ?/?/? tools 4 160 Need fixture Mfg Engineer ?/?/? re- design Install transfer conveyor Maintenance technician 8 2 2 32 (done) R P N

#1

#2

Airbag housing will not sustain 10 5 deployment Final assembly width/length 8 5 out of print 2

#3

Dropped/ Final assembly width/length damaged 8 subassembly out of print

4 64

FMEA Service Example
• Recommend action, assign responsibility, take action, and recalculate the RPN when actions are completed.

FMEA
• A FMEA is updated whenever a change is being considered to a product or service.
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Design Application Environment Material Manufacturing or assemble process

• An FMEA is never completed unless the process is removed from the production line.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 21

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Measure Step #3
Measure Verification-Assess the Performance Specifications.

The Goal
• The goal of step three is to validate the measurement or inspection systems. Are they reliable enough to be used for their intended purpose? Basic statistics provide a foundation upon which future measurements will be based. Graphical techniques are used to display the data.

Roadblocks
• Old obsolete measurement tools • Outdated customer information • Tribal knowledge is used such as "What they think" not actual/factual data. • Misperceptions that expensive tools must be good.

The Tools
• Basic Statistics • Attribute Measurement System Analysis • Variable Measurement Systems Analysis

Black Belt Action
• Gather products or examples for use in studies. • Gain participation of the people involved with the measurement process.

Champion Roles and Responsibilities
• Champions need to have an understanding of basic statistics in order to understand measurement verification and capability assessment. • Provides resources to ensure measurement verification is completed.

Purpose of Basic Statistics
• Used to analyze data collected in the measure phase. • Enables us to numerically describe the data that characterizes our process X's and Y's. • Allows us to use past process and performance data to make inferences about the future. • Serves as a foundation for advanced statistical problem-solving methodologies. • Concepts create a language based on numerical facts and not intuition.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 22

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Nature of Data
Variable Data Characteristics Shows magnitude Continuous Can be divided into infinitely small increments (theoretic ally) Offers greater statistical power Attribute Data Characteristics Binomial Good/Bad; Pass/Fail Can be expressed as percent; many samples of percent can be analyzed as variable data Common in transaction project

Population vs. Sample
• Population

• Sample

It is highly unlikely that we can ever know the true population parameters.

Objects actually measured in a statistical study.

“Population Parameters”
= Population mean = Population standard deviation

”Sample Statistics” X = Sample mean s = Sample standard deviation

Population

Sample

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 23

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Central Tendency
Mean (µ, Xbar) • The arithmetic average of a set of values.
■ ■ ■

Uses the quantitative value of each data point. Is strongly influenced by extreme values. Example: 3,4,7,7,9,11 the mean is 7.

Median (M) • The number that reflects the 50% rank of a set of values.

Can be easily identified as the center number after all of the values are sorted from high to low. Is not affected by extreme values. Example: 3,4,7,7,9,11 the median is 7.

■ ■

Mode • The most frequently occurring value in a data sample.

Example: 3,4,7,7,9,11 the mode is 7.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 24

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Measures of Variability
• Range

The numerical distance between the highest and the lowest values in a data set. The average squared deviation of each individual data point from the mean. The square root of the variance
❑ ❑

• Sample Variance (s2)

• Sample Standard Deviation (s)

Is the most commonly used measurement to quantify variability. Is commonly estimated using these formulas.

Range = max - min

s =
2

Σ (X - X )
i=1 i

n

2

n-1
n 2 i =1 i

Σ (X - X ) s= n-1

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 25

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Understanding the Nature of Your Data
• What is the Central Tendency?

Mean, median, mode Standard deviation; interquartile range

• What is the variation?

• Is the data skewed? • Are there any outliers?

Descriptive Statistics
Variable: Cycle Time
Anderson - Darling Normality Test A-Squared: 0.418 P-Value: 0.328 Mean StDev Variance Skewness Kurtosis N Minimum 1st Quartile Median 3rd Quartile Maximum 70.0000 10.0000 100.000 - 5.0E - 02 0.423256 500

35.0

47.5

60.0

72.5

85.0

97.5

95% Confidence Interval for Mu

29.824 63.412 69.977 76.653 103.301 95% Confidence Interval f or Mu 69.121 70.879 71 95% Confidence Interval f or Sigma 9.416 10.662 95% Confidence Interval f or Median 69.021 70.737

69

70

95% Confidence Interval for Median

• The Central Tendency is where most of the data is located.
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

The mean is 70.0. The median is 69.97. The mode is the most frequently occurring value ~70. The variance is 100. The data is not skewed. There are outliers.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 26

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Normal Curve Properties
68.26% of the data will fall within +/- 1 from the mean. 95.46% of the data will fall within +/- 2 from the mean. 99.73% of the data will fall within +/- 3 from the mean. 99.9937% of the data will fall within +/ - 4 from the mean. 99.999943% of the data will fall within +/ - 5 from the mean. 99.9999998% of the data will fall within +/ - 6 from the mean.

68.26 %

95.46 % 99.73 %

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

4

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 27

Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Purpose of MSA
• Reason for Need

(Measurement Systems Analysis)

• The purpose of the MSA is to determine the effectiveness of our inspection and measurement systems in terms of the Reliability and repeatability. To provide information regarding the percentage of variation in your process data that comes from error in the measurement. To compare two or more measurement devices or two or more operators against one another. To used as part of the criteria requirement to accept and release a new piece of measurement equipment to manufacturers.

Possible Sources of Variation
• A good calibration program will quantify and eliminate the measurement offset caused by linearity, stability, and accuracy of the measurement instrument.

Variable R&R will quantify the amount of variation (in σ 2total ) induced by differences between operators (reproducibility) and by the measurement instrument Observed process or product variation itself (repeatability).
Actual process or product variation Measurement variation Due to operators Reproducibility Due to measurement device (Gage) Repeatability

Variable R&R study

Long - term variation

Short - term variation

µ2 total = µ2product + µ2measurement system

σ total = σ product + σ measurement system
Calibration program and Gage selection

Linearity Stability Accuracy

Question:

Ideally, What Do We Want Σ

2 ms

And Μ ms To Be?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 28

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Reproducibility Defined
• Reproducibility is the variation in the averages of measurements made by different operators using the same device when measuring identical characteristics of the same parts. Reproducibility must also account for variation between different measuring devices (not only different appraisers).
Quantifies the differences between the operators
Operator A

Reproducibility Operator B

Performance Characteristic

A variable R&R study will quantify the reproducibility of the measurement system.

Repeatability Defined
• Repeatability of the instrument is a measure of the variation obtained when one operator uses the same device to "repeatedly" measure the identical characteristic on the same part. Repeatability must also account for repeat measurements taken on an automated piece of test equipment (i.e., no operator).
True value for one part

Quantifies the repeatability of the instrument

Repeatability Performance Characteristic

A variable R&R study will quantify the repeatability of the instrument.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 29

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Gage Accuracy Defined
• Accuracy is the difference (or offset) applied between the observed average of measurements and the true value. Establishing the true average is best determined by measuring the parts with the most accurate measuring equipment available or using parts that are of known value (i.e. standard calibration equipment).
True value Accuracy Observed average

Performance Characteristic

An adequate calibration program can ensure the accuracy of the device is maintained.

Steps to Gage Accuracy
1. Obtain the true value of sample parts from gage lab or layout inspection equipment. 2. Compare these reading with the operators' observed values (XbarA, XbarB, XbarC) from the R&R study. 3. To convert accuracy to a % of tolerance, multiply the difference of true value vs. observed average by 100 and divide by the tolerance.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 30

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Causes of Poor Accuracy
• Error in the master • Worn gage • Gage is designed to the wrong dimensions • Gage is measuring the wrong characteristic • Gage is not properly calibrated • Improper use of gage by operators

Poor Gage Capability
• Equipment needs to be replaced, repaired or adjusted if a dominant source of variation is repeatability. • The state of art technology gage requires adjusting even if it is performing to its specifications. Use signal averaging to address the issue. • Training and definition of the standard operating procedure is required when the dominant source of variation is reproducibility caused by the operator. • Evaluate the specifications. Are they reasonable? • Any process operating at a high capability (ppk greater than 2) indicates that the gage is probably not hindering you and you can continue to use it.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 31

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Gage R&R Output

Session Window Output
Two-Way ANOVA Table With Interaction Source
PartID OperName OperName *PartID Repeatability Total

DF
9 2 18

SS

MS

F

P
0.00000 0.03256 0.00016

2.05871 0.228745 39.7178 0.04800 0.024000 4.1672 0.10367 0.005759 4.4588 30 0.03875 0.001292 59 2.24912

Source
Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility OperName OperName *PartID Part-To-Part Total Variation

VarComp
0.004437 0.001292 0.003146 0.000912 0.002234 0.037164 0.041602

%Contribution (of VarComp)
10.67 3.10 7.56 2.19 5.37 89.33 100.00

Source
Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility OperName OperName *PartID Part-To-Part Total Variation

(SD)
0.066615 0.035940 0.056088 0.030200 0.047263 0.192781 0.203965

StudyVar (5.15*SD)
0.34306 0.18509 0.28885 0.15553 0.24340 0.99282 1.05042

Number of Distinct Categories = 4
Gage name: Date of study: Reported by: Tolerance: Misc: 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 Gage #012345 01/01/00 Six Sigma BB 1.5 mm Line 000

Graphical Output
Components of Variation
100 %Contribution Perc ent 50

By PartID

0 Gage R&R Repeat Reprod Part-to-Part 0.15 S ample R ange 0.10 0.05 R=0.03833 0.00 LCL=0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

R Chart by OperName
Bill Fred Sam

PartID
1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

By OperName

UCL=0.1252

OperName Bill
1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4
1

Fred

Sam

1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3

Xbar Chart by OperName
Bill Fred Sam

OperName*PartID Interaction
A v erage

S ample Mean

UCL=0.8796 Mean=0.8075 LCL=0.7354

OperName Bill Fred Sam

PartID

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Answers! But what do they mean? Let's investigate each section one at a time.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 32

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Gage R&R Results
• The percent contribution is the percentage of total variation that is accounted for by each variance component (each variance component is divided by the total variation X 100%). Note the total % contribution will always sum to 100%. • The percent study variation (5.15 * Std Dev of each component, divided by 5.15 *total STD Dev X 100% is a way to look at variation in linear terms much like Cp. + 5.15. encompasses 99% of the normal curve.
Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Operator* PartID Part-To-Part Total Variation Source Total Gage R&R Repeatability Reproducibility Operator Operator* PartID Part-To-Part Total Variation VarComp 0.004437 0.001292 0.003146 0.000912 0.002234 0.037164 0.041602 StdDev (SD) 0.066615 0.035940 0.056088 0.030200 0.047263 0.192781 0.203965 %Contribution (of VarComp ) 10.67 3.10 7.56 2.19 5.37 89.33 100.00 Study Var (5.15*SD) 0.34306 0.18509 0.28885 0.15553 0.24340 0.99282 1.05042
2 σ MS σ2 total

Contribution =

=

0.004437 = 0.1067 0.041602

The Total Gage R&R % Contribution (10.67% in this case) is the primary reported output of a Measurement System Analysis.

Question: What is our conclusion about the measurement system?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 33

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Exercise
Purpose: Agenda:
To illustrate the method required characterizing a variable measurement system. • Break into groups of threes. • You will measure the stack of washers using the caliper. • There should be one laptop for each group. • View the example of the file shown by the trainer. • Review example of the process shown on the slide. • Perform the measurement as indicated on the data collection sheets. • Record and save data on the common master disc. Use your group name to save. • Your trainer will collect your disc and transfer the data.

Limit:

30 minutes

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 34

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Why Use Attribute R&R?
• To determine if inspectors across all shifts, all machines, etc., use the same criteria to determine "good" from "bad". • To assess your inspection or workmanship standards against your customer's requirements. • To identify how well these inspectors are conforming to themselves. • To identify how well these inspectors are conforming to a "known master," which includes:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

How often operators decide to ship truly defective product. How often operators do not ship truly acceptable product. Discover areas where: Training is needed. Procedures are lacking. Standards are not defined.

Examples of When to Use Attribute R&R
Tool
Attribute R &R

Service Example
The inspection of a document for spelling errors in which we are looking to determine if each inspector found the same type and number of errors

Manufacturing Example
The inspection of a ball point pen in which we are looking to find any type of manufacturing defect that could be cosmetic or functional.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 35

Appendix B MAIC Tools
How to Run an Attribute R&R
• A "part" can be many things. It can be an invoice, a batch of materials, an order form, or anything produced in the manufacturing process. The more samples equal a better confidence interval for the answer obtained. • Select a minimum of 30 parts from the process.
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

50% of the parts in your study should have defects. 50% of the parts should be defect free. If possible, select borderline (or marginal) good and bad samples. Identify the inspectors who should be qualified. Have each inspector independently and in random order assess these parts and determine whether or not they pass or fail (judgment of good or bad).

An Example: Using the Spreadsheet

Attribute Gage R & R Effectiveness
Enter Pass/Fail, 0/1, etc.
Attribute Legend 1 pass 2 fail
5

Blank Form: AttrR&R2.xls
SCORING REPORT
DATE: NAME: PRODUCT : BUSINESS:
Today's Date Black Belt ABC 123 Division A

Title Block

(used in computations)

Known Population Sample # Attribute 1 pass 2 pass 3 fail 4 fail 5 fail 6 pass 7 pass 8 pass 9 fail 10 fail

Known Operator #1 Workmanship or #1 Try Try #2 pass Customer Resultpass
pass fail fail fail pass fail pass pass pass pass fail fail fail pass fail pass pass pass

Operator #2 Try #1 Try #2 pass pass pass pass fail pass fail fail pass fail pass pass fail fail pass pass pass pass fail fail

Operator #3 Try #1 Try #2 fail fail fail fail fail fail fail fail fail fail pass pass fail fail pass pass pass pass fail fail

Operator Results

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 36

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Spreadsheet Results with Calculated Confidence Intervals
Statistical Report - Attribute Gage R&R Study
% of time each inspector agrees with himself
DATE: NAME: PRODUCT: BUSINESS: Today's Date Black Belt ABC 123 Division A

% of time each inspector agrees with himself and the standard

% Appraiser %Score vs. Attribute Source Operator #1 Operator #2 Operator #3 Operator #1 Operator #2 Operator #3 Total Inspected 10 10 10 10 10 10 # Matched 10 8 10 7 6 6 3 False Negative (Operator Rejected Good Product) 1 1 False Positive (Operator Accepted Bad Product) 2 1 1 Mixed 0 2 0 95% UCL 100.0% 97.5% 100.0% 93.3% 87.8% 87.8% Calculated Score 100.0% 80.0% 100.0% 70.0% 60.0% 60.0% 95% LCL 69.2% 44.4% 69.2% 34.8% 26.2% 26.2%

Attribute Measurement Systems Key Points
Possible Fixes for Attribute Measurement Systems include: • Operator training and certification. • Establishment of standards. • Implementing visual aids. • Establishing setup procedures. • Establishing measurement procedures:
■ ■ ■

Same place Same light Same standards

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 37

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Exercise: M&M Inspection
Purpose: Agenda:
To assess the reliability of a visual inspection system. Break into groups of 3 inspectors. • Use the grid below to line up your sample of M&Ms. Place one M&M in each square. • Independently have each inspector document his finding of each M&M as "good" or "bad". Look at each M&M for color, or flaws in shape or labeling. • Record your results and enter data into an Excel spreadsheet. • Review and report your results.

Limit:

30 minutes

M&M
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15

M&M
2 4 6 8 10 12 14

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 38

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Measure Step #4
The Purpose of Capability Assessment

For Variable Data (variable output Y)
• Are the specifications correct for the parameter (Y) of interest? • Do we need to move the mean, reduce the variation, or both given that we have defined the appropriate specifications?

For Attribute Events (attribute output Y)
• Are measurement systems affecting our ability to assess true process capability? • What is the allowable internal and external escaping defects rate?

Reason for Need
• Capability Assessment allows us to quantify the nature of the problem. • It allows the organization to predict its true quality levels for all goods and services. • Capability assessment can lead to an initial estimate of a product or process sigma level.

Roadblocks
• Lack of availability of data • Uncertain product specifications • Specifications that were inherited are often not aligned with the customer wants

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 39

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Capability Analysis Overview
Assess the capability for a quantitative parameter (variable data).

Capability Estimates
Verify specs Pull a sample Calculate z-score Estimate PPM Estimate Cp, Cpk, Pp, Ppk
Assess the capability for a discrete event (attribute data).

Capability Estimates
Count the defects Calculate PPM Calculate z-score Convert to Cpk , Ppk

• As a process or product sigma level increases, the corresponding defect level decreases. Sigma is used in place of a straight proportion good to bad to emphasize the gains made when the yield is over 95%. • The exponential nature of the statistic makes the difference between each sigma level significantly different from the level before. • This chart illustrates the exponential relationship of sigma to yield to sigma level. Many companies are satisfied if they yield a 98% or 99% good product level.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 40

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Measure of Capability
800000 700000 600000

Sigma Level Compared to Defects

Defects per Million Opportunities

500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0

1 691462.5

2 308537.5

3 66807.2

4 6209.7

5 232.7

6 3.4

Long-Term DPMO

Sigma Level

Examples of When to Use Capability Assessment
Service Example
We would use a capability assessment to assess the proportion of delivery times that exceed a due date and time.

Manufacturing Example
The manufacturing of a ballpoint pen we would use a capability assessment to determine the proportion of runs of a pen that are manufactured to a diameter that is within specified limits.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 41

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Collect a Sample
• Over time, the process average will tend to shift. A short-term snapshot of the process represents short-term variation. This type of variation represents shortterm data. This variation is referred to as within subgroup variation. • The variation represents by changes in the average value over time is referred to as between subgroup variation. • The overall variation represents long-term data. This is know as the total sum of squares and accounts for both the within and between subgroup variation. • In general, studies have shown that a mean for any given process will tend to shift 1.5σ over time. • Long-term data accounts for these shifts.
Short -term within group variation Between group variation Long - term variation

USL

Output

1.5 1.5

Time 1

Time 2

Time 3

Time 4

Time 5

LSL

Time

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 42

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Short-Term vs. Long-Term Capability
• Capability is based on short-term variation. • The standard accepted convention is that increase in variation associated with going from short-term to long-term data is equivalent to 1.5 standard deviations.

Short-Term Variation
Variation that could be anticipated if all the items that influence the process over the long-term could be estimated.

Long-Term Variation
• Vendors • Products • People within the process • Fluctuation in volume • Different customers

• Collect a short-term or long-term data sample.

SS
g n

total

=

SS
g

between

+
g

SS
n

within

Σ Σ (X i j - X )2 Σ n j (X j - X )2 Σ Σ (X i j - X j )2
j =1 i=1 j=1 j= 1 i=1

Total variation Long -term capability
x

Between subgroup Accuracy
x x x x x x x x x

Within subgroup Precision (short -term capability)
x x x x x x x

Output Y

x x x x x x x

x

Time

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 43

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Quantitative Y
Verify specs Pull a sample Calculate z-score Estimate PPM Estimate Cp, Cpk, Pp, Ppk

• To assess capability for a qualitative parameter (discrete event):
■ ■

Step 1: Verify the definition/description of a defect. Step 2: Count the occurrence of defects (and track the total units processed). Historical data, which is usually considered to be long-term, is typically used here. Step 3: Calculate the proportion of defects and the PPM. Step 4: Calculate the Z-score and shift by 1.5σ if appropriate. Step 5: Estimate the traditional capability indices.

■ ■ ■

Change from Z to Cp, Cpk, Pp, Ppk

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 44

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Exercise: Quantitative Y
• Using the Pareto chart given below, calculate the capability of the Intrepid product to be shipped defect free:

Step 1: Verify the definition/description of a defect. (We assume this was accomplished through an attribute R&R study to be taught later this week.) Step 2: Count the occurrence of defects (and track the total units inspected). Historical data, which is usually considered to be long-term, is typically used here.

Intrepid defect count: 4,000 Intrepid opportunity count: One per unit Intrepid total units inspected: 35,000

Step 3: Calculate the proportion of defects and the PPM.

Proportion of defects = 0.1143 PPM = 0.1143 * 1,000,000 = 114,300 PPM

Step 4: Calculate the Z-score and shift by 1.5σ if appropriate.

At a defect rate of 11.43%, ZLT = 1.204 Can you verify this via Minitab probability functions, Excel functions, and ZTable lookup? Also, ZST = 1.5 + ZLT = 1.204 + 1.5 = 2.704

Step 5: Estimate the traditional capability indices.

Change from Z to Cpk and Ppk Cpk = ZST/3 = 0.9013 Ppk = ZLT/3 = 0.4013

Measure Checklist
Measure Questions Step Four
Do you have a histogram of your primary metrics? What is the short-term and long-term capability of your process?

YES NO

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 45

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Measure Phase-Summary
Measure Step/ Tools
1. Project Selection • DPU • DPMO 2. Process Exploration • Process Map • XY Matrix • FMEA

Purpose
DPU measures the number of defects produced or processed through the operation. DPMO is used to measure the complexity and benchmark dissimilar goods and services. Process Map identifies all the steps or activities in the process including the inputs, outputs, customers and process owners. XY Matrix identifies the input X’s and output Y’s associated with the project and assigns a level of importance for each variable. FMEA contains data about the actual process. FMEA identifies ways a process or product can fail to meet critical customer requirements and lists possible causes of failure (failed X’s) MSA and MSA R+R are used to determine the effectiveness of our inspection systems in terms of the reliability and repeatability. It provides information regarding the percentage of variation in your process data that comes from error in the measurement. It is used as part of the criteria requirement to accept and release a new piece of measurement equipment to manufacturers. Capability Assessment allows us to quantify the value of our problem. It allows an organization to predict its true quality levels for all goods and service, and provides an initial estimate of the product or process sigma level. Basic Statistics is a tool that enables us to collect data in the measure phase and to numerically describe the data that characterizes our process X’s and Y’s. It services as a foundation for advanced statistical problem solving methodologies.

3. Measurement Verification • MSA • MSA R+R

4. Capability Assessment • Capability Analysis • Basis Statistics

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 46

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Analyze Step #1
Define Performance Objectives-A review of the prior capability analysis to determine the action needed.

The Goal
• The goal of step one is to determine what characteristics of the process need to be changed to achieve improvement.

Roadblocks
• Insufficient data • Team members don't have the time to collect data.

The Tool
• Capability Analysis

The Purpose of the Capability Analysis Tool
• Allows us to quantify the value of the problem. We will use capability analysis to assess variable and attribute data.

Reason for Need
• Capability analysis allows us to quantify the nature of the problem. • Capability analysis allows the organization to predict true quality levels for all goods and services. • Capability analysis can provide a visual representation of the nature of the problem.

Black Belt Action
• Evaluate existing and prior process data.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Ensure the resources necessary to collect data are available to the Black Belts.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 47

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Capability Analysis Overview
Assess the capability for a quantitative parameter (variable data).

Capability Estimates
Verify specs Pull a sample Calculate z-score Estimate PPM Estimate Cp, Cpk, Pp, Ppk
Assess the capability for a discrete event (attribute data).

Capability Estimates
Count the defects Calculate PPM Calculate z-score Convert to Cpk , Ppk

Capability Assessment Example

Shift Mean

Reduce Variance

Eliminate Outliers

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 48

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Analyze Step #2
Document Potential X's-Developing a starting list for possible X's.

The Goal
• The goal of step two is to identify the X's that we will collect process data on.

Roadblocks
• Lack of data • Lack of access to the process • Low production volumes

The Tools
• XY Matrix • FMEA • Process Map

Purpose and Reason for Need
• The XY Matrix, FMEA, and the Process Map assist in documenting current knowledge and opinion about the process.

Black Belt Action
• Ensure that the team is completing the work. • Collect the data from the team. • Ensure the key steps or variables are not overlooked.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Ensure the resources are available for the Black Belt. • Complete the Analyze checklist listing the required Black Belt action.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 49

Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Tool: XY Matrix
Purpose and Reason for Need • The XY Matrix will guide the team to focus on a few X's that all have agreed significantly affect the product. This metric identifies the inputs (X's) and outputs (Y's) associated with the project. • The XY Matrix allows everyone involved with a process to agree on output critical to the product and or the customer. • The XY Matrix ranking assigns a level of importance to each output variables well as assesses the effect of each X on each Y. • The XY Matrix provides direction for an area of focus for the FMEA.

The Tool: FMEA
Purpose and Reason for Need • FMEA identifies ways in which a process or product can fail to meet critical customer requirements. As a detailed document, it notes all the possible causes (failed X's) from which (the Y's) a list of items for the control can be generated. • FMEA identifies ways in which a process or product can fail to meet critical customer requirements. • FMEA acts as a living document that lists all possible causes (failed X's) of failure from which a list of items for the control plan can be generated. • FMEA allows teams to track and prioritize the actions required to improve the process.

The Tool: Process Map
Purpose and Reason for Need • The Process Map provides all that are involved with a process to agree on the steps it takes to produce a product or service. • A process map allows everyone involved with improving a process to agree on the steps that it takes to produce a good product or service. • It creates a sound starting point for a team breakthrough activity. • The map identifies potential X's and Y's that lead to the determination of Y = f(X) DOE. (Design of Experiment) • It can identify areas where process improvements are needed as well as identifies and eliminates non-value-added steps.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 50

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Analyze Step #3
Analyze Source of Variation-Assess the Performance Specifications.

The Goal
• The goal of step three is to use visual and statistical relationship between X and Y's to assist in prioritizing for use in future experimentation.

Roadblocks
• Low production volume • Lack of measure system for X's • Lack of access to the process • Excessive Data

The Tools
1. Histograms 5. Hypothesis test T -Tests Statistical Test of Variance Homogeneity of Variance ANOVA 6. Test of Proportion Chi Square 7. Regression Regression Analysis Regression Plot Simple Regression

2. Multiple Box plots 3. Scatter Plots

4. Multi- Vari Studies

Black Belt Action
• Collect data from the process and apply appropriate analysis to the data.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Provides resources to ensure Analyze verification is completed.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 51

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Histograms (Distribution Chart)
The Purpose of the Tool
• Histograms are simple charts used to display distribution of data.
30

Frequency

20

10

0 197.3 199.7 202.1 204.5

X

Reason for Need
• To assess the visual shape of the distribution for the purpose of justifying further statistical testing. • To asses the visual the shape of the distribution for the purpose of identifying potential causal variables.

Examples of When to Use a Histogram

Service Example
In banking transactions, we would use a histogram to look at the distribution of service times.

Manufacturing Example
In manufacturing a ballpoint pen, we would want to look at the distribution of measurements of the ballpoint pen diameters.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 52

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Multiple Boxplot
The Purpose of the Tool
• A multiple boxplot is a useful tool to visualize the differences between the levels of a categorical X's with respect to Y's.

Reason for Need
• A multiple boxplot is used to visualize categorical demographics.

Visualizing Categorical Demographics Multiple Boxplots
• When your Y is continuous and your demographics (X's) are discrete, a multiple boxplot is a useful tool for detecting differences associated with levels of the X variables. Displayed below is a multiple boxplot of part thickness plotted with time in shift as the X variable (time in shift is whether the part was produced in the first or second half of the shift).
Maximum Value

80 70 60

75th Percentile Middle 50% of Data 50th Percentile (Median) 25th Percentile

Thickness

50 40 30 20 10

Min (1.5 x Interquartile Range 0 or Minimum Value) Outliers

1

2

Timeshift

Question: What Do You See In This Graph?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 53

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Examples of When to Use a Multiple Boxplot

Service Example
In banking we would use a Multiple Box Plot to see if there is a visual difference in the amount of service time different tellers are giving to the customer.

Manufacturing Example
In manufacturing of a ballpoint pen, we wish to visually assess the difference in manufacturing machines in terms of the pen diameters.

Scatter Plots
The Purpose of the Tool
• The scatter plot is a useful tool for displaying the relationship between the X and Y variables when your Y and X variables are continuous.

Reason for Need
• The scatter plot is used to visually assess the degree and nature of relationships between two continuous variables.

Continuous Demographics Scatter Plots
• When your Y is continuous and your demographics (X's) are also continuous, a scatter plot (or multiple scatter plot) is a useful tool for displaying relationships between the X and Y variables. Displayed at right is a scatter plot of the pull strength of a weld and the weld temperature.
1 10 9 8

Pull

7 6 5 4 150 151 152

Temp

Questions: Is there a relationship between pull strength and temperature? If so, how can we describe it?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 54

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Examples of Variable Relationships
55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 46.5 6.0

No Relationship
60

Strong Linear

50

40

47.5

48.5

49.5

50.5

51.5

52.5

53.5 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 46 47

60

70

80

Strong Non-Linear

X1

Moderate Linear

X

5.5

5.0

4.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 55

Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Tool: Multi-Vari Studies
Mulit-vari studies are planned and managed studies of a process under normal operation. Data collection points and intervals are determined in advanced then data collection sheets are created. The process is observed in its natural state.

The Purpose of the Tool
• The purpose of the multi-vari studies is to partition the variation in Y into components. (such as within parts, between parts and across time).

Reason for Need
• To identify obvious assignable classes of variation. • To provide components of variation (shift to shift, run to run, operation to operation). • To provide direction and input for future experimentation. • To break the process into instantaneous, short-term and long-term time periods and attempt to characterize the amount of variation occurring in each of those periods.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 56

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Families of Variation
Part-to-Part
• Unit-to-unit or part-to-part variation is generally caused by process variables that are capable of changing fairly quickly. Examples are mixtures of parts, setup problems, worn tools or fixtures, or operator error.

Measurement Measurement

U1

U2

U3

U1

U2 Time 2 2 Time

U3

U1

U2

U3

Time 1 1 Time

Time Time 3 3

Time to Time (Temporal)
• Large amounts of time-related variation generally indicate a cause system that changes somewhat slowly across time. Look for patterns in this variation. A trend often indicates a slow but constant change (such as tool wear or chemical depletion) in one or more X variables. A cyclic pattern indicates an X variable (such as temperature or humidity) that tends to fluctuate in a repeating pattern.

Measurement

U1

U2

U3

U1

U2

U3

U1

U2

U3

Time 1

Time 2

Time 3

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Within Part
• Some X's cause a large amount of within unit variation. The variation can be from end to end, top to bottom, side to side, and so on. Patterns of within unit variation can often allow you to further characterize the nature of the cause system. You should leverage product and/or process geometry to aid you in this effort.

Measurement

U1

U2

U3

U1

U2

U3

U1

U2

U3

Time 1

Time 2

Time 3

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Tool: Hypothesis Testing (Inferential Statistics)
Making an inference is the act of forming a conclusion based on data and or evidence. Statistical inference involves drawing conclusions based on mathematical summaries of data from which levels of risk and confidence can be estimated.

The Purpose of the Tool
• The purpose of hypothesis testing is to use probability-based tools that will allow us to distinguish true change from random caused changes.

Reason for Need
• To determine whether the variation in the sample of data is due to true changes in the process or due to random chance. • To determine how data is collected should be analyzed and summarized. • To determine the reliability of the data summaries.

Hypothesis Testing
0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

Frequency

X

Did my sample come from this population? Or this? Or this?

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 59

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Sources of Error
Sampling Error Sampling Bias Error due to differences among samples drawn at random from the population. Error due to lack of independence among random samples or due to systematic sampling procedures. Error in the measurement of the sa mples.

Measurement Error

Lack of Measurement Error in that the measurement does not Validity actually measure what is intends to measure.

Population, Sample and Observation
Population Sample Observation
All of the units or individuals who exist and who will exist in the future. A Subset of units or individuals drawn from the population, either at one time or over time. An individual measurement

Population, Sample and Observation Example
Group Population Sample Observation Manufacture Example
All the Pentium processors. 30 Pentium processors 1 Pentium processor

Service Example
All loan applications A week’s worth of loan applications A single loan application

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 60

Appendix B MAIC Tools
Statistics, Differences and Significance
• Significance is all about differences. In general, larger differences (or deltas) are considered to be "more significant." • Practical Difference and Significance

The amount of difference, change or improvement, that will be of practical, economic, or technical value to you. Practical difference and significance is the amount of improvement required to pay for the cost of making the improvement. Statistical Difference and Significance is the magnitude of difference or change required to distinguish between a true difference, change, or improvement and one that could have occurred by chance.

• Statistical Difference and Significance

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 61

Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Hypothesis Testing Tool: T-Tests
The Purpose of the Tool
• The T-Test is a type of hypothesis test used to determine the difference between means. (Up to two means).

Reason for Need
• To determine if there are differences in Y caused by an X that are larger that would be expected by random chance.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
T-Tests-Testing Two Samples Problem:
• Two types of plastic are suitable for use by an enclosure manufacturer. The breaking strength of this plastic is important. It is known that the standard deviation for both processes is approximately 10.0 psi. Manufacturer B is the current supplier and has a good working relationship with the company. Manufacturer A has a product that it states is superior. From your company's perspective, the breaking strength would have to be at least 10 psi higher for a practical difference in strength to exist. Is it worth it to switch to Manufacturer A? • Twenty three samples from Manufacturer A and Manufacturer B are tested (C4 and C5). (ttests.mtw)
Do Two Samples Come From "Same" or "Different" Positions?

Sample 1

Sample 2

OR?

Sample 1 Sample 2

We are 95% confident that the true difference is between 7.00 and 18.33.

Two- sample T for Manu_a vs Manu_b
N Manu _a 23 Manu _b 23 Mean 163.49 176.16 StDev SE Mean 9.13 1.9 9.92 2.1

Difference = mu Manu _a - mu Manu _b Estimate for difference: - 12.67 95% CI for difference: (- 18.33, - 7.00) T - Test of difference = 0 (vs not =): T - Value = 4.51 P - Value = 0.000 DF = 43

There is a statistical difference between the two groups.

What were we trying to prove? What do the results tell us? What is the practical application of what we have discovered?

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
T-Test Examples
Service Example
In banking we would use T-Test to show the statistical difference between two tellers’ mean service time.

Manufacturing Example
In manufacturing of a ballpoint pen, we would want to know the statistical difference between two manufacturing machines in terms of mean diameter.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Statistical Test of Variance
The Purpose of the Tool
• The Statistical Test of Variance is a type of hypothesis test used to determine the difference between two or more variances.

Reason for Need
• To determine whether underlying assumptions needed for other statistical analyses have been met.

Population Sigma1 vs. Population Sigma2
The statistic is used to test if two populations have the same variances. This test requires the use of the F-test statistic. • Bartlett's Test

This test statistic can be used for a comparison of two or more variances. This test assumes your data is normally distributed. This test statistic is also used to compare two or more variances and is appropriate for continuous data that may not be normally distributed.

• Levene's Test

Population Sigma1 vs. Population Sigma2
• The statistic is used to test if two populations have the same variation. In other words:

Is there a real difference between σ2pop1 and σ2pop2?
H o : σ 2pop1 = σ 2pop2 2 H a: σ 2 pop1 = σ pop2

Sigma1

Sigma2

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Homogeneity of Variance (Minitab)
• If the normal probability plot indicates we are dealing with normally distributed data, ten we use the F-Test Statistic or Bartlett's Test Statistic in Minitab. • If the data is not normally distributed, then we use Levene's Test Statistic in Minitab.

H o : σ 2pop1 = σ 2pop2 2 H a: σ 2 pop1 = σ pop2
Normal Probability Plot
.999 .99 .95 .80 .50 .20 .05 .01 .001 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Homogeneity of Variance Test for Reactor
95% Confidence Intervals for Sigmas Factor Levels 1 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 F-Test Test Statistic: 2.831 P-Value: 0.1.37

1

Reactor A
Average: 84.7746 StDev: 2.17229 N: 10 Anderson-Darling Normality Test A-Squared : 0.248 P-Value: 0.670

2 80 85 90

Levene's Test Test Statistic: 1.450 P-Value: 0.244

Reactor

Examples of When to Use Homogeneity of Variance
Service Example
In banking Homogeneity of Variance test would be used to see if there is a statistical difference in the variation in service times between 2 or more tellers.

Manufacturing Example
In manufacturing of a ballpoint pen, we would use Homogeneity of Variance test to see if there is variation between 2 or more molds.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Hypothesis Testing Tool: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)
The Purpose of the Tool
• ANOVA is used to partition the total variance into its component parts. Data used in partitioning assesses the statistical difference in means.

Reason for Need
• To determine if the differences between the means of two or more samples is greater than the noise within the samples.

A Graphical Look at ANOVA
n A (X A - X )2 + n B (X B - X )2 = SS (X A - X )
XA
Delta ( )

between

X

XB

(X i - X A )

Σ (X i - X A )2 + Σ (X i - X B )2 = SS

within

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
When we take the ratio of S2between to S2within, we are, in effect, computing a signal to noise ratio (S/N). We are trying to determine if the signal is large enough to be distinguished from noise. • SSbetween is the sum of squared deviations between the calculated means of two or more groups and a grand mean. As it increases, the distance between the means also increases. This characteristic can be thought of as a "signal" that we are trying to detect. • SSwithin is the sum of squared deviations between individual measurements within a group and the calculated means of that group. • This can be thought of as "noise" which may hide or overwhelm our signal. • Analysis of variance esstially does a signal to noise analysis to see if our signal (mean differences) can be distinguished from background noise. • The factor was statistically significant at the 95% level of confidence since the computed F value (Fcalc) exceeded the critical F-value (Fcrit) (in the case of computer printouts, the P-Value is less than. • This means that the observed differences in the means of the three levels of adhesive could not have occurred by random chance.

Analysis of Variance
Source Factor Error Total DF 2 12 14 SS 117.73 81.60 199.33 M 58.87 6.80 F p 8.66 0.005

Compare this to the value Comparethis to the value (typical is .05). If smaller, then the (typical is .05). If smaller, then the results are statistically significant results are statistically significant

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Examples of When to Use ANOVA
Service Example
In banking ANOVA we would be used to give the statistical difference in the mean service time between 2 or more tellers.

Manufacturing Example
In manufacturing of a ballpoint pen, we would use ANOVA to give the statistical difference in thmean e between 2 or more machines.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Analyze Phase Test of Proportion
Basic Probability
• If a coin flipped 100 times came up 63 heads and 37 tails, could those results have happened just by chance? Or would the coin have to be a trick coin for this to frequently occur?

If a coin flipped 100 times came up 63 heads and 37 tails, could those results have happened just by chance? Or would the coin have to be a trick coin for this to frequently occur? Pair up and try it! Pair up and try it!

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Chi-Square-Test of Proportion The Purpose of the Tool
• Chi-Square is used to determine whether there is statistically a significant difference between two proportions or a percentage.

Reason for Need
• Chi Square is used to assess the attribute data (failure rate in two different processes).

The Nature and Use of Chi-Square
• Suppose we flip a coin N = 100 times and observe 63 heads and 37 tails. Could this ratio of heads to tails occur by chance, or should we conclude the coin is somehow biased?
Su ppose we flip a coin N = 100 times and observe 63 heads and 37 tails. Could this ratio of heads to tails occur by chance, or should we conclude the coin is somehow biased?
χ = =
2

Σ
j=1

g

(O - E) (O E)
E E

2

Ch i S qu ar e S tatistic

Observed (O )

Expected (E )

(O - E )2 E

Heads Tails

63 37

50 50

3.38 3.38

(63-50 )2 50 (37-50 )2 50

χ 2ca lc = 6.76

Try it for a sample size of 10 thr ows!

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Test of Proportion Examples of When to Use Test of Proportion
Service Example
In banking we would use Test of Proportion to give the difference in error rates between bank branches.

Manufacturing Example
In manufacturing of a ballpoint pen, we would use Test of Proportion to give the difference in failure rates between different manufacturing plants.

The Tool: Test of Proportion-Chi Square
• Coin is not fair due to the fact that the calculated value of 6.76 is greater than the tabulated value of 3.84. • The probability of computing a Chi-Square value of 6.76 is much lower than the 5% alpha risk. • There is less than a 1% risk of being wrong if we state that the coin is not fair.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Statistical Testing Using Chi-Square
Original Data
Observed (O) Expected (E)
df 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Chi -Square Table
Tail Area Probability

Heads Tails

63 37

50 50

0.25 1.32 2.77 4.11 5.39 6.63 7.84 9.04 10.22 11.39 12.55

0.1 2.71 4.61 6.25 7.78 9.24 10.64 12.02 13.36 14.68 15.99

0.05 3.84 5.99 7.81 9.49 11.07 12.59 14.07 15.51 16.92 18.31

0.025 5.02 7.38 9.35 11.14 12.83 14.45 16.01 17.53 19.02 20.48

0.01 6.63 9.21 11.34 13.28 15.09 16.81 18.48 20.09 21.67 23.21

For a 5% alpha risk, we look up on the Chi - Square table under the 0.05 column and the df=1 row to get 3.84.

3.84 5%

For a 5% alpha risk, we look up on the Chi-Square table under the 0.05 column and the df=1 row to get 3.84.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Tool: Regression Analysis The Purpose of the Tool
• The primary purpose of Regression Analysis is to make predictions about Y for any given X.

Reason for Need
• Correlation tells us the strength of a relationship; it does not tell us the exact numerical relationship. • The last step to proper analysis of continuous data is determining the regression equation. • Regression analysis calculates a "prediction equation" that can mathematically predict Y for any given X. • The primary objective of regression analysis is to make PREDICTIONS. • The regression equation that Minitab provides is simply the one that BEST FITS the plotted data. • Examples of prediction equations:
■ ■ ■ ■

Y=a+bx Y = a + b x + c x2 Y = a + b x + c x2 + d x3 Y=a(bx)

(linear model) (quadratic) (cubic) (exponential)

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Analyze Phase The Regression Plot
Purpose
• The purpose of the regression plot is to evaluate the graphical output of data against the line to determine where the obvious deviations of data are located. This procedure also produces statistical outputs.

Reason for Need
• To evaluate the data to determine obvious deviations of the data from the line. • To produce statistical outputs.

Simple Regression-Fitted Line Plot

Regression Plot
Y = 182.807 + 0.476288X R -Sq = 69.5 %
420 410 400 390 380

Customer

370 360 350 340 330 320 350 400 450

Supplier

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Examples of When to Use Regression Plot

Service Example
In banking we would use Regression Plot to determine the statistical relationship between service time and the dollar amount of the transaction.
Simple Regression Plot

Manufacturing Example
In manufacturing of a ballpoint pen, we would use Regression Plot to determine the statistical relationship between the length and diameter of the pens.

• The statistical output is produced in the session window by the fitted line plot procedure. It is a standard regression output that consists of two general components:
■ ■

1.The table of regression coefficients at the top. 2.The analysis of variance table below it.

• The primary values of interest in this output are the P-Values associated with the coefficients (circled) and the R-Square value. • The P-Values of 0.000 for both the constant (Y intercept) and the X (slope) indicate that both of these statistics are statistically significant. • These P-Values indicates that the coefficients are significantly different from zero. • Analyze Phase • The R-Square value of 69.5% quantifies the strength of the relationship between the X and Y variables. We can state that X explains 69.5% of the total variation in Y. Conversely, X does not explain 30.5% of the total variation.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Simple Regression-Statistical Output

Regression The regression equation is y = 183 + 0.476 x Predictor Constant x Coef 182.81 0.47629 StDev 29.36 0.07239 T 6.23 6.58 P 0.000 0.000

S = 13.56 R-Sq = 69.5% R -Sq(adj) = 67.9% Analysis of Variance Source DF Regression 1 Residual Error 19 Total 20

SS 7955.9 3492.1 11448.0

MS 7955.9 183.8

F 43.29

P 0.000

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Analyze Phase - Summary Analyze Tools and Purpose
Analyze Step/Tools
1. Define the performance objectives. Analysis of Distributions 2. Document the potentia X's. l Process Map XY Matrix FMEA

Purpose
Analysis of Distributions assesses the non normality of distributions and allows the investigator to reduce the number of potential causal X's.

Process Map identifies all the steps or activities in the process including the inputs, outputs, customers and process owners. XY Matrix identifies the input X's and output Y's associated with the project and assigns a levelof importance for each variable. FMEA contains data about the actual process. FMEA identifies ways a process or product can fail to meet critical customer requirements and lists possible causes of failure (failed X's) Histograms are used to display a distribution of data and are used to assess the normality of the data to justify further statistical testing. It provides a visual shape for the purpose of identifying potential causal variables. Multiple Boxplots is used to visualize the differences between the levels of a categorical X's with respect to Y's. Scatter Plots are tools that displays the relationship between X and Y variables when Y and X variables are continuous. Multi Vari Studies partitions the variation in Y into components. (within parts, between parts and across time) It provides direction for the design of experiment activities. Hypothesis Testing is a probability - based tool that will allow us to distinguish true change from random chance caused changes.

3. Analyze the sources of variability. Histograms Multiple Box Plots Scatter Plots Multi Vari Studies Hypothesis Testing Regression

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Improve Step #1
Define the Experimental Plan-Document the objective's strategy and design of the proposed experiment. The Goal • The goal of step one is to document the objective's strategy and design of the proposed experiment. • Planning Questions
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

What is the measurable objective? What will it cost? How will we determine sample sizes? What is our plan for randomization? Have we talked to internal customers about this? How long will it take? How are we going to analyze the data? Have we planned a pilot run? Where's the proposal?

Black Belt Action
• Review the results of the prior Measure and Analyze phase activities. • Identify variables for inclusion in the experiment. • Set Levels for the variables. • Design an appropriate experiment.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Review the DOE plan to determine the logistical issues and resources required to execute the experiment.

Experiments
• An "experiment" is…

Any testing in which the inputs are either controlled or directly manipulated according to a plan.

• A "designed experiment"…

Adds structure to the plan and a specific methodology to the analysis of the results.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Examples of When to Use DOE
In banking, we would use a DOE to assess the effects of available resources, transaction complexity, and geographic location on the transaction service time. In the manufacturing of a ballpoint pen, we would use DOE to assess the effects of time, temperature, pressure and speed have on the injected molded ballpoint pen.

Hierarchy of Experimentation
• One factor at a time • Screening designs (fractional-factorials) • Characterization designs (full-factorials) • Optimization designs (response surface methods)

Define the Problem

How to launch a ball 5.0 Feet
Device: The Catapult
Ball Type 1 Cup Position 2 1 2 Pin Position 3 4 Number of Rubber Bands (1 or 2) Stop Position 2 3 1 3 4 5 Hook Position 6 4 5 Start Angle 6

“Wiffle”

“Solid”

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
The Tool: Experimental Planning Outline
• The Purpose of the Experimental Planning Outline Tool

The planning outline is used to assist Black Belts in designing their experiment. It contains detailed data regarding the following:

Experimental Steps
1. Define the Experimental Plan (Identify the likely Xs)

Required Activity
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Define the problem Establish the experimental objective Select the output (response) variables Select the input (independent) variables Choose the levels for the in variables put Select the experimental design

2. Execute and Analyze the 7. Execute the experiment and collect data Design of Experiment 8. Analyze the data (Find the critical few X's) 9. Draw statistical conclusions 3. Validate the Results (Confirm the results) 10. Replicate or validate the experimental results 11. Draw practical solutions 12. Implement the solutions

Experimental Planning Outline
Ball Launch
Experiment Planning Sheet

Date: 4/15/00 Team Leader: Mr. Bill Jones Expected Start: 4/20/00

Product: catapult Process(es): launch process Expected Completion: 4/21/00

1. Problem Statement: to launch a ball a controlled distance 2. Objective: To hit a target located 2 - 4 meters or feet away 3. List of Experiment Parameters : Type : Quantitative Qualitative Response: Distance Unit of Measure: inches Specifications: + or – 2 inches 4. Input Variable Start angle: Stop angle: Ball type: Band tension: # of bands: 5. Levels 150/180 2,4 red / blue 1 and 4 1,2 Specifications N/A

6. Brief Outline of the Experimental Design to be used (this is an abstract of :
the experiment including the specific design number of repeats)

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Selecting the Input Variables
• Use multi-vari and other basic techniques to reduce the "trivial many"-let the process talk to you. • Review results from previous experiments. • Use your process knowledge. • Consult with the process experts-the team. • Review the rules of thumb:
■ ■

Experience says it is likely that there are only two to six "vital few" X's. The challenge is to find the influential variables and the test range that will allow you to verify their importance. Test the most likely factors first-keep the design simple. Sometimes it is a judgment call-you may have to pick more.

■ ■

Choosing Variable Levels
• Choose the two levels (low and high) that are coded as -1 and +1. • Consider the catapult problem. Choose two start angles:
■ ■

Low level (-1) High level (+1)

140 degrees 180 degrees

• The range must be wide enough to show a difference. • It must not be beyond the range of feasibility. However, it may be beyond the current process range. • Realize that some combinations in the test will produce unacceptable units and that these results are expected and accepted. • Recognize that the starting place for continuous X's is the limits of the current operating conditions.

The Basic Multiple Variable Design
-A+

B +

Pros
Simple design Four tests to control One interaction

Cons
Only information on 2 factors and their interaction

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Properties of a Factorial Design
Balance
Balance: Each of the variables in the experiment has the same number of runs at the high and low levels. In the adjacent design, variable “A” has two runs in which it is at its low level. If we sum the A column,we get (-1) + (+1) + (-1) + (+1) = 0. This property helps to simplify the mathematical analysis of the design by given each level of the variable an equal impact on the final result.

Two - Variable Full - Factorial Design

Run Order 1 2 3 4

A -1 +1 -1 +1

B -1 -1 +1 +1

AB +1 -1 -1 +1

Three Variable Full-Factorial Design
Orthogonality Two - Variable Full - Factorial Design

Orthogonality: If we multiply the signs of each of the variable columns, we get the “AB” column at the right side of the adjacent design. This column represents the interaction between A and B. The property of the “orthogonality” ensures that the plus and minus signs are arranged in the main effects columns (A and B) such that their product column will be balanced. This in turn ensures that each of the factors will be independent of the others. In the adjacent design variable “A” has two runs in which it is at its high level and a two runs in which it is at its low level. If we sum the AB column, we get (-1)(- 1)+(+1)( -1) + (-1)(+1) + (+1)(+1) = 0

Run Order A 1 2 3 4 (1) -1 a +1 b -1 ab +1

B -1 -1 +1 +1

AB +1 -1 -1 +1

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Select Your Variables and Choose Your Design Matrix

Two Variables
A -1 +1 -1 +1 B -1 -1 +1 +1

Three Variables
A -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 B -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 C -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1

Four Variables
A -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 +1 B -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 C -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 D -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Improve Step #2
Execute and Analyze the Design of the Experiment Collect the data that is generated and analyze and interpret the results.

The Goal
• The goal of step two is to execute the experiment, collect the data that is generated and analyze and interpret the results.

Roadblocks
• Lack of access to the process • Time • Poor control of the process

The Tools
• Main Effect Plot • Interaction Plot • Table of Effects and Coefficients

Black Belt Action
• Execute the Design of Experiment. • Collect the data. • Analyze the data.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Ensure the resources are available for the Black Belt. • Complete the Improve checklist listing the required Black Belt action.

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Performing the Experiment
• Document initial information. • Verify measurement systems. • Ensure that baseline conditions are included in the experiment. • Make sure that clear responsibilities are assigned for proper data collection. • Always perform a pilot run to verify and improve data-collection procedures. • Watch for and record any extraneous sources of variation. • Analyze data promptly and thoroughly:
■ ■ ■

Graphical Descriptive Inferential

• Always run one or more verification runs to confirm your results. Steps to Complete the Experiment 1. Complete the Planning Sheet 2. Identify and train the team members 3. Collect Samples 4. Perform the Experiment

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Exercise: Execute the Experiment
Purpose: Agenda:
Gain an understanding of the design of experiment process by completing all step for DOE using the problem of how to launch a ball. • Break into teams of 4-6. • Complete the Experiment Planning Sheet. • Execute the experiment. • Record your results on the spreadsheet. • Save data on your master disc and give it to the trainer. • The trainer will present the analysis of the results. • Note: Do not dismantle the catapult after your DOE has been completed.

Limit:

30-45 minutes

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Main Effects Plot
Ball Launch
Experiment Planning Sheet

Date: 4/15/00 Team Leader: Mr. Bill Jones Expected Start: 4/20/00

Product: catapult Process(es): launch process Expected Completion: 4/21/00

1. Problem Statement: to launch a ball a controlled distance 2. Objective: To hit a target located 2 - 4 meters or feet away 3. List of Experiment Parameters : Type : Quantitative Qualitative Response: Distance Unit of Measure: inches Specifications: + or – 2 inches 4. Input Variable Start angle: Stop angle: Ball type: Band tension: # of bands: 5. Levels 150/180 2,4 red / blue 1 and 4 1,2 Specifications N/A

6. Brief Outline of the Experimental Design to be used (this is an abstract of :
the experiment including the specific design number of repeats)

Purpose
• The main effects plot is the primary graphical output of a factorial experiment. As Main Effects Plot Computation Minitab displays them, all of the variables are plotted side by side with common YAxis. These graphs are often displayed in both presentations and published reports. g g
Main Effects Plot (Data Means) for Dist
5.2 4.4 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1

Distance

3.6 2.8 2.0 Pin_Pos N_ RubBnd Strt_Ang

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Main Effects Plot Computations
Main Effects Plot Computation
Avg. Distance at Low Setting of Pin Position: 2.10 + 3.35 + 5.15 + 8.20 = 18.8/4 = 4.70
Main Effects Plot (Data Means) for Dist
5.2 4.4 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1

Distance

3.6 2.8 2.0 Pin_Pos N_ RubBnd Strt_Ang

Avg. Distance at High Setting of Pin Position: 0.90 + 1.50 + 2.40 + 4.55 = 9.35/4 = 2.34
Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Pin_Pos -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 N_ -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 _Ang -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 Distance 2.10 0.90 3.35 1.50 5.15 2.40 8.20 4.55

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The Tool: Interaction Plots
• Interactions occur when two variables must act together to change the output of the experiment. Interaction plots are constructed by plotting two variables together on the same graph. They take the form of the graph below. Note that in this graph, the relationship between variable "A" and Y changes as the level of variable "B" changes. When "B" is at its high (+) level, variable "A" has almost no effect on Y. When "B" is at its low (-) level, "A" has a strong effect on Y. The distinguishing feature of strong interactions is the degree of non-parallelism between the two lines.

High

B-

Y B+ A +

Low

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Degrees of Interactions
Weak Interaction
High

No Interaction
High High

Full Reversal
BB-

BB+

Y

Y

B+

Y B+

Low

Low

Low

-

A

+

-

A

+

-

A

+

Strong Interaction
High

Half Reversal
High

B-

B-

Y Y B+
Low

Y B+
Low

-

A

+

-

A

+

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Interaction Calculations
Interaction Plot (Data Means) for Dist
Pin_Pos 6.5 5.5
-1 1

Mean

4.5 3.5 2.5 1.5

(4.55 + 2.40)/2 = 3.48

(0.90 + 1.50)/2 = 1.20 Run 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

-1 -1

Strt_Ang

1

Pin_Pos -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1

N_ RubBnd -1 -1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1

Strt _ Ang -1 -1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1

Distance 2.10 0.90 3.35 1.50 5.15 2.40 8.20 4.55

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Full Interaction Plot Matrix
• The plots at the lower left in the graph below (outlined in blue) are the "mirror image" plots of those in the upper right. The X variable axes have been switched such that the extreme lower left graph is the same as that in the extreme upper right, except that Pin_Pos is now on the X-Axis and Strt_Ang is set at two levels. It is often useful to look at each interaction in both representations.

Interaction Plot (Data Means) for Distance
-1 Pin_Pos 1 -1 N_ RubBnd 1 -1 Strt_Ang 1 -1 1 -1 1 -1 1 6 4 2 6 4 2 6 4 2

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Leveraging Interactions
PRICING 2(3) DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS
Main Effects Plot — Soda Machine Sales — Standard Margin

72 69
SM%

Specialist spends a lot of time with customer

Replacing y ours or competitor’s equipment

Bring buy ers on ref . site v isit

66 63 60
SPECIALIST TIMING REPLACE vs. NEW REFERENCE SITE VISITED

Controllable

Not Controllable

On the main effects plot at left, the “Replace vs. New” variable has the largest effect on sales margin. This variable, however, cannot be controlled by the sales organization. The interaction plot below shows that this main effect is also involved in an interaction.
Interaction Plot REPLACE vs. SPECIALIST INVOLVEMENT
74

Controllable

The interaction plot shows that if the sales organization is replacing an existing piece of equipment (low - level), the involvement of a “specialist” is very important in impacting sales margin. If, however, the sale is displacing a competitor’s equipment, the effect of specialist involvement is minimal. If you were a sales manager, how would you use this information?

Specialist actively involved
SM%

64

No specialist involvement
54
-1 REPLACEME NT 1 DISPLA CE COMPE TITOR

More Leveraging Interactions
• In this example, the product consisted of two major assemblies. The "insert" consisted of hundreds of intricate parts and was difficult to assemble and test. The "casing" was a fairly simple cast aluminum assembly that could easily be machined and modified.
High

Smaller Is Better Smaller Is Better

Bad Casing

Good Casing
Low

Good Insert

Bad Insert

How should this organization allocate its improvement resources?

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Improve Step #3
Analyze the ResultsValidate the Results-Determine whether the results predicted by the experiment can be repeated by running the product through the process. Steps to Validate:
1. Set up the process to the levels which indicated best performance. 2. Run the process and collect output data. 3. Assess the effects of the change in conditions.

Roadblocks
• The process has changed. • The time allotted to complete the experiment is insufficient.

The Tools
• Capability Assessment • Basic Statistics • Final Report

Black Belt Action
• Ensure that the predicted optimal levels in the experiment produce acceptable results. • Supply a list of recommendations that could offer practical solutions.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Provide resources to ensures Improve verification is completed. • Complete the Improve checklist listing the required Black Belt action. • Ensure that the practical solution is implemented.

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Multiple Boxplot of Experiment Results
Purpose of the Tool
• A Multiple Boxplot is used to assess the difference between initial and final performance to determine the degree of success.
60

USL
50

Ouput
40

LSL
30

Before

After

Status

Improve Step #3 - Final Report
• The report should include the following sections:
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Executive Summary or Abstract Problem statement and Background Objective Output Variable Input Variable Study Design Procedures Results and Data Analysis Conclusion

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Final Report Key Points
• Make sure the Black Belt has tied potential business results to the project. • Focus on one experiment at a time. • Don't try to answer all the questions in one study; rely on a sequence of studies. • Use two-level designs early. • Spend less than 25% of the budget on the first experiment. • Always verify results in a follow-on study. • It's acceptable to abandon an experiment. • A final report is a must. • Conduct a confirmation run after completion to verify the results.

Improve Phase-Summary
Improve Steps 1. Define the Experimental Plan Leadership Action Review the DOE plan to determine the logistical issues and resources required to execute the experiment. Ensure resources are available for the DOE. Informal Reviews of Project and Complete the Improve Checklist Challenge Black Belts to be rigorous and constantly look for learning. Ensure resources are available for study. Informal Reviews of Projects and Complete the Improve Checklist. Ensure resources are available for study. Informal Reviews of Projects and Complete the Improve Checklist. Ensure that the practical solution is implemented. Ensure process owner support.

2. Execute and Analyze the Design of the Experiment 3. Validate the Results

Improve Step/ Tools 1. Define the Experimental Plan Experimental Strategy Experiment Planning Outline 2. Execute and Analyze the Design of the Experiment DOE Main Effects Plot Interaction Plot 3. Validate the Results Capability Analysis Final Report

Purpose Experimental Strategy provides the sequential steps taken to complete the DOE. Experiment Planning Outline is used by Black Belts during the design stage of their experiment. It provides experimental focus and ensures all experimental variables are addressed. DOE contains the selected input and output variables used in executing the experiment. It is a structured plan and specific methodology to the analysis of the results. Main Effects Plot is the primary graphical output of factorial equipment. Its main purpose is to display a large group of data. Interaction Pl ot interactions occur when two variables must act together to change the output of the experiment. It shows the degrees of interaction. Capability Analysis allows us to quantify the value of our proble m. It allows an organization to predict its true quality levels for all goods and service, and provides an initial estimate of the product or process sigma level. Final Report is a summary of the steps and results of the DOE. It includes suggested control plans used to maintain or control the results.

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Control Step 1
Process Enhancement and Control-Determine optimal setting for the X's and to control those settings over time. The Goal
• The goal of step one is to use knowledge of Y = f(X) to determine optimal settings for the X's and to control those settings over time.

Roadblocks
• Weak information from a poor DOE

Black Belt Action
• Determine the appropriate control method for the process.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Review the proposed process changes. • Assume responsibility for the implementation of the recommended changes.

The Tool
• Six Sigma Strategy • Control methods

Purpose of the Tools
• To achieve a six sigma level within the organization

Reason for Need
• To increase customer satisfaction • To reduce the COPQ (cost of poor quality)

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MAIC Review
• In the Measure phase, we focused identifying critical Y variables to how they are measured and how good are those measurements. • During the Analyze phase, we analyzed the Y information and looked for patterns which allowed us to identify potential X variables. • In the Improve phase, we ran the (DOE) designed experiment to identify X variables to establish a cause effect relationship-the "f" of Y = f(X). • In the Control phase, we will use this cause effect relationship to optimize and control the process.

Focus of Six Sigma Y = f(X) To get results, should we focus our behavior on the Y or X?

Y Dependent Output Effect Symptom Monitor

X 1 . . . XN Independent Input Cause Problem Control

If X is critical, why do we constantly test and inspect Y?

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Control Phase Control Method #1-Ranking Control Methods
BEST
1. Eliminate the Variable: Eliminate it by understanding variable interactions or by mistake proofing. 2. Automate the Variable: Implement automated controls that require little or no operator intervention. 3. SPC on the X's: Implement statistical process control on the input variable (or X) that controls Y. This form of SPC requires that Y = f(X) be understood. 4. SPC on the Y's: Implement statistical process control on the output variables or Y. This form of SPC is most frequently used by industry. 5. S.O.P.: This is the standard operating procedure implemented to detect defects. The action is not sustainable short-term or long-term.

WORST

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Robust Process and Product Design
Purpose of the Tool
• The purpose of the Robust Process and Product design is to develop a realistic tolerance to establish the true control units for X variable based on the equation Y = f(X) relationship.

Reason for Need
• To eliminate subjectivity for setting specification for X • Provide a baseline for predicting final capability of Y

Marginal Distributions from Experiments
10 9

Spec Range of Y +/- 6

8 7 6 5 -1 1

Realistic Tolerance on X

• Ideally, it is desired to set the allowable range of each "X" such that output of the process remains at a 6s process. This could be accomplished by setting the "X" tolerance to the equivalent of +/- 3s of the response (Y). You might initially find that "X" cannot be controlled to this level. This is an evolutionary journey; some responses may not be good enough to allow for this much margin without some form of redesign.

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Interaction and Non-Linearities
Purpose of the Tool
• The purpose is to use interaction and non-linearities in DOE to help shift or remove sensitivity from X variables.

Reason for Need
• Interaction in non-linearity is the primary means in which we change the variance of the process and allow us to exercise control over the process spread.

Leveraging Interactions and Non-Linearities in Robust Design
Mean Shift
10 9 8 7 6 5 -1 A 1 -B +B 10 9 8 7 6 5 -1 A 1 +B -B

Variance Shift
10 9 8 7 6 5

Mean and Variance Shift
-B

+B -1 A 1

Variance Shift
10 9 -B

Non -Linear Mean and Variance Shift
10 9 8 7 +B 6 5 -1 A 1

Main Effects Plot

8 7 6 5 -1 A 1

• The dotted line distributions approximate the expected distribution of Y as B varies between its low value and its high value. In the case of the non-linearity, the dotted line distributions represent the expected distribution of Y at two levels of A.

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Mistake - Proofing
Mistake-proofing is using wisdom and ingenuity to create devices that allow you to do your job 100% defect free 100% of the time. Purpose of the Tool
• To provide a means to make the process resistant to human caused defects.

Reason for Need
• To prevent errors at their source. • To prevent 100% of the defects.

Mistake-Proofing Defined
• Home
■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Automated shu-off on electric coffee pots Ground fault circuit breakers for bathroom inside or outside electric circuits Pilotless gas ranges and hot water heaters Child-proof caps on medications Butane lighters with a safety button Seat belts Air bags Car engine warning lights Spell check in word processing software A "Do you want to delete?" message after you press the "Delete" button on your computer Dual palm buttons and other guards on machinery Tamper-proof packaging

• Automobile
■ ■ ■

• Office
■ ■

• Factory

• Retail

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Mistake-Proofing

C A U S E S

Cause Effect Defect Error Incorrect Damaged Product Incomplete

Mistake

Types of Errors
Human Error
Forgetfulness Errors due to misunderstanding Error in identification Errors made by untrained workers Willful errors Inadvertent errors Errors due to slowness Errors due to lack of standards Surprise errors Int entional errors Errors due to work overload

Manufacturer Error
Processing omissions Processing errors Errors in setting up the workplace Assembly omission Inclusion of the wrong part/item Wrong workplace Operations errors Adjustment, measurement, and dimensional errors Error in equipment maintenance Error in the preparation of tools

Service Error
Incorrect routing Missing information Misspellings Wrong Addresses Wrong data Clerical error

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Red Flags
• Red Flags: A condition in the manufacturing or service process that commonly provokes errors.

Red Flag
Manufacturing Red Flags

Error

Defect

Service Red Flags
Complicated forms Form fields used f or data is too small Complicated processes Unclear directions or procedures

Adjustments Tooling/tooling change Dimensionally/specification/critical condition Many parts/mixed parts Multiple steps Infrequent production Lack of, or ineffective, standards

Mistake - Proofing/Robust Design

Some covers smell bad when new.

Practical Problem:

Lemon Scent

Practical Solution:
A new catalyst arrives at the supplier premixed and put in a lemon additive - even if curing is not optimal, the customer will never smell it!

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Control Method #2-Ranking Control Methods
BEST
1. Eliminate the Variable: Eliminate it by understanding variable interactions or by mistake proofing. 2. Automate the Variable: Implement automated controls that require little or no operator intervention. 3. SPC on the X's: Implement statistical process control on the input variable (or X) that controls Y. This form of SPC requires that Y = f(X) be understood. 4. SPC on the Y's: Implement statistical process control on the output variables or Y. This form of SPC is most frequently used by industry. 5. S.O.P.: This is the standard operating procedure implemented to detect defects. The action is not sustainable short-term or long-term.

WORST

Automate the Variable
Process Controller
• The process controller is an automated feedback and control device.

Purpose of the Tool
• The purpose of the control method Automate the Variable is to install automatic feedback and control tools for the process.

Reason for the Need
• To eliminate the need for ongoing human monitoring of a process.

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How Do Controllers Work?

How Do Controllers Work?
120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 10 20 30 40 50 60 Before Control After Control All controllers control the process by transferring variation from a variable we are concerned about (temperature) to a variable we aren't concerned with (current). They do not, in reality, remove variation from the process-but merely hide it behind another variable. This has both good and bad consequences. Although the controller is maintaining the process, as we want it to do, it can also hide the fact that the process is deteriorating. 0

Temperature

Current

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Control Method #3 and #4-Ranking Control Methods
BEST
1. Eliminate the Variable: Eliminate it by understanding variable interactions or by mistake proofing. 2. Automate the Variable: Implement automated controls that require little or no operator intervention. 3. SPC on the X's: Implement statistical process control on the input variable (or X) that controls Y. This form of SPC requires that Y = f(X) be understood. 4. SPC on the Y's: Implement statistical process control on the output variables or Y. This form of SPC is most frequently used by industry. 5. S.O.P.: This is the standard operating procedure implemented to detect defects. The action is not sustainable short-term or long-term.

WORST

SPC on the X and Y
SPC (Statistical Process Control) on the X and Y
• Control charts are the means through which process and product parameters are tracked statistically over time. Control charts incorporate upper and lower control limits that reflect the natural limits of (random) variability in the process. These limits should not be compared to customer specification limits.

Purpose of the Tool
• Statistical Process Control is a type of feedback system that identifies when intervention is required on a process.

Reason for Need
• To monitor stability of a process. • To identify when interventions are required in a process. • To display a time series plot of the process variable being monitored.

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Components of Control Charts
Region of Non - Random Variation
Upper Control Limit Process Average Lower Control Limit Xbar Chart for C3
7 6

Region of Random Variation

Out of Control

Region of Non - Random Variation
SAMPLE NUMBER

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3.0SL = 2.945 X = 1.283 -3.0SL - 0.3793 =
0 10 20 30

Sample Mean

5 4 3 2 1 0 -1

In Control

Sample Number

SPC Pros and Cons
Advantages of SPC
Is a proven technique for improving productivity. Is effective in defect prevention. Prevents unnecessary process adjustments. Provides diagnostic information. Provides information about process capability. Can be us ed for both attribute and variable data types.

Disadvantages of SPC
Everyone must be well trained and periodically retrained. Data must be gathered correctly. Mean and range/standard deviation must be calculated correctly. Data must be charted correctly. Charts must be analyze d correctly. Reactions to patterns in charts must be appropriate every time.

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Planning for Effective SPC
The following guideline should be used to establish control charts in a given area: • Chart critical factors. • Eliminate charts found to be unnecessary; add charts if the situation warrants. • Change charts from time to time if necessary. • Variables control charts should increase; attribute charts should decrease. • The team should agree upon decisions based upon control charts.

Process Control Factors
• Money or available budget • Availability of resources • Time constraints or limitations • Organizational goals • Impact on specific parties • Flexibility of movement • Effects of change • Risk and confidence requirements • Environmental or technological constraints • Potential benefits to be derived • Impact on the dynamics of the group/team • Potential for successful implementation

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I-MR (Individual-Moving Range)
Purpose of the Tool
• The I-MR charts should be used for true X's like temperature, humidity, concentration of a solution, or gas flow per minute.

Reason for Need
• Units are produced as individuals and no logical method of grouping units exists. • Low production volumes where only one piece is produced per day or sometimes longer. • High-cost testing - when the cost of testing is very expensive, time consuming, destructive, or other wise prohibitive. • Chemical processing where only one measurement per bath is taken.

I-MR Charts Pros and Cons
Advantages of I -MR Charts
Good where individual’s data is most logically the “rational sub - group.” Shewhart zone rules can be applied if individuals are normally distributed.

Disadvantages of I-MR Chart
Falsely suggests that not much data is required – it is best with 30 or more points. Control limits tend to be very wide due to relatively small sample sizes.

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Individual and Moving Range Output
I and MR Chart for Y3
Individual Value
605 3.0SL = 605.3

600

X = 600.2

595 0

-3.0SL = 595.1

Sub - Group
1

50

100

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Moving Range

3.0SL = 6.284

R = 1.923 -3.0SL = 0.00E+00

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Xbar & R Charts (R: Range)
The Xbar Charts are used to measure the central tendency of the Y over time. R Charts measure the gain or loss of uniformity within sub-group, which represents the random cause variation in the Y over time.

Purpose of the Tool
• The purpose of Xbar is to track process excursions in the mean and the variation over time. • R Charts are used to track short-term process stability.

Reason for Need
• To distinguish short-term and long-term control problems.

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Xbar Chart
The Xbar chart is a plot of sample means.
X -bar C hart for C ycletime rt
40 3.0SL=41.17

Upper Control Limit Grand Mean Lower Control Limit

S ample Mean

30

X=30.10

20 0 5 10 15 20 25

-3.0S L=19.02

S ample Number

Xbar & R Chart Output Xbar/R Chart for Part1 to Part5
146 3.0SL = 145.6

Sample Mean

141

X = 141.0

136 0 10

-3.0SL = 136.4

Sub - Group

20

30

20

Sample Range

3.0SL = 16.70

10 R = 7.900

0

-3.0SL = 0.00E+00

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Xbar and R Pros and Cons
Xbar Advantages
Allows you to look at both the long and short term variation in the graph. Commonly used and is well understood.

Xbar Disadvantages
It is only applied to the Y's. It hides individual observation in sub groups.

P and nP Charts (P; Proportion, n: sample size)
Purpose of the Tool
• P chart is a simple chart used to track the proportion of non-conforming units (percentage of defective parts) assuming the sample size is not necessarily constant. • nP chart is a chart used to track the number of non-conforming units (percentage of defective parts) assuming the sample size is constant.

Reason for Need
• When attribute (pass/fail) data is all that is available from the process.

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P Chart Output
P Chart for Empl_w_E
0.3 3.0SL = 0.2802

Proportion

0.2

P = 0.2038

-3.0SL = 0.1274

0.1 0 10 20

Sample Number

P and nP Charts Pros and Cons
Advantages of P & nP Charts
Easy to use and maintain Based on simple statistics

Disadvantages of P & nP Chart
Works for attribute data only Weak as a predictive tool

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C and U Charts
Purpose of the Tool
• C Chart is a simple chart used to track the number of defects per unit (not the number of defectives) assuming the sample size is constant. • U Chart is a simple chart used to track the number of defectives per units produced (not the % defective) assuming the sample size is not necessarily constant.

Reason for Need
• This graph is used when the defects of a unit remain constant. We are interested in tracking failures per unit.

U Chart Output
U Chart for NumError
2.0 3.0SL = 2.072

Sample Count

1.5 U = 1.320 1.0
-3.0SL

0.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

= 0.5679

Sample Number

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U Charts Pros and Cons

Advantages of U Charts
Easy to use and maintain. Based on simple statistics.

Disadvantages of U Chart
Works for attribute data only. Weak as a predictive tool.

Control Method #5-Ranking Control Methods
BEST
1. Eliminate the Variable: Eliminate it by understanding variable interactions or by mistake proofing. 2. Automate the Variable: Implement automated controls that require little or no operator intervention. 3. SPC on the X's: Implement statistical process control on the input variable (or X) that controls Y. This form of SPC requires that Y = f(X) be understood. 4. SPC on the Y's: Implement statistical process control on the output variables or Y. This form of SPC is most frequently used by industry. 5. S.O.P.: This is the standard operating procedure implemented to detect defects. The action is not sustainable short-term or long-term.

WORST

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SOP (Standard Operating Procedure)
Purpose of the Tool
• To establish a standard methodology for maintaining the process.

Reason for Need
• To ensure that all the people that use the process use the same methods.

SOP Pros and Cons
Advantages of SOP Chart
Reduces the impact of the human factor on the process

Disadvantages of SOP Chart
No feedback

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Control Step 2
Capability Analysis for X and Y-Quantify the value of the problem. The Goal
• The goal of step two is to quantify the value of the problem. We hope to establish the final capability of the Y to determine our capability to control the X's.

The Tools
• Capability Analysis.

Black Belt Action
• Analyze the data.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Ensure the resources are available for the Black Belt. • Complete the Control checklist listing the required Black Belt action.

Results

Final Project Results
115

Product Characteristic

105 95

USL

85

75 Before After

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Control Step 3
Document What You Have Learned - Document the activities and the results of the project. The Goal
• The goal of step three is to document the activities and the results of the project. During this step the Black Belt must also document the control or maintenance required for the process.

Roadblocks
• Lack of time

The Tools
• Control Plan • Final Project

Black Belt Action
• Complete the Control Plan. • Complete the Final Report. • Present the findings to the Champion.

Champion Roles and Responsibility
• Provides resources to ensure Control verification is completed. • Ensure the success of the implementation of the control plan.

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The Tool: Control Plan
The control plan describes the control methods appropriate to guarantee product quality throughout the process. It is a living document that is updated as measurement systems and controls methods are evaluated and improved.

Purpose of the Tools
• The control plan allows the team to formally document all the control methods used to ensure that customer requirements (Y's) are met. It is a living document that is updated as measurements systems and control methods are evaluated and improved.

Reason for Need
• The control plan requires the team to describe and follow the control methods appropriate to guarantee product quality throughout the process.
■ ■ ■

Receiving of raw material In-process quality of Y's Outgoing product characteristics

• It provided a greater opportunity of ensuring that all product outputs (Y's) are in a state of control provided all members are abiding the control methods stated in the control plan. • The control plan documents a strategy that is responsive to the changes in the process given the fact that the goal is continuous improvement.

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The Final Report
The Purpose
• The purpose of the final report is to present the findings and activities of the project and make recommendations for improvement and or controls.

Reason for Need
• To provide a means of documenting the activities which occurred for historical tracking • To avoid re-inventing the wheel.

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How to Create a Useful Control Plan
Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Step 9: Step 10: Step 11: Step 12: Step 13: Step 14: Step 15: Step 16: Step 17: Step 18: Step 19: Step 20: Step 21: Step 22: Step 23: Step 24: Step 25: Indicate the appropriate category: Prototype, Pre-Launch, Production. Assign the document number. Part number revision/change. Part name and description. Specify the name of the division/plant/department. Indicate the ID number specified by the customer. List the primary contact responsible for the control plan. List the core team members. Obtain approval responsible manufacturing approval (if required). Enter the original date. Document the date of the latest updates. Obtain responsible engineering approval (if required). Obtain supplier quality approval (if required). Obtain any other approval required. List the item number referenced on the process map or FMEA. Process description/operation. Identify the processing equipment. Enter the Product/Process Characteristic number [usually references other applicable document(s)]. List the product characteristics (Y's). List the process characteristics (X's). Indicate the type of characteristic. Document the specifications/tolerance. Indicate the type of measurement system. Document the sampling plan. Give a brief description of the control method.

Step 26: Specify necessary corrective action. ____________ *Advanced Product Quality Planning and Control Plan, Reference Manual. Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation.

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Control Phase - Summary
Control Methods

Control Methods
1. Eliminate the Variable

Tool / Method
Robust Process and Product Design Mistake Proofing

Control Method Purpose
To develop a realistic tolerance to establish the true control units for X variable based on the equation of Y = f (X). Implement automated controls intervention.

2. Automate the Variable 3. SPC on the X's 4. SPC on the Y's

Process Controller

Statistical Process Control
I – MR (Individual– Moving

Range) EWMA Xbar and R Charts P and nP Charts C and U Charts 5. S.O.P. Standard Operating Procedure A standard methodology is used for maintaining the process.

SPC on the X's: Implement statistical process control on the input variables or Y This form of SPC requires that Y = f (X) be understood. SPC on the Y's: Implement statistical process control on the output variables or Y.

It is the standard operating procedure for detecting defects.

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Functional Champion Training Design for Six Sigma Agenda
• Overview and Objectives • DFSS Overview
■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

DFSS-What Is It? A Look at the Generic Process DFSS-Influence on Cost, Quality and Cycle Time DFSS Road Map DFSS-The IDEaS™ Process DFSS-A Combination of Processes and Tools MAIC/DFSS Relationship DFSS-Top Level View MAIC vs. DFSS DFSS Integration DFSS Courses and Training Implementing DFSS DFSS Deployment Common Six Sigma Tools What Would You Invest?

• Exercise: DFSS • Summary

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Overview
• The six sigma approach incorporates the organization's business needs to meet customer requirements. Our goal is to prevent causes vs. correcting problems and discontinue further tampering of the systems and processes. • One required approach that is critical to the achievement of a six sigma level is a Design for Six Sigma, also known as DFSS. DFSS will review your product and/or service to ensure you are operating at a six sigma level from the very beginning.

Objectives
At the end of this unit, you will be able to: • Identify the purpose for DFSS. • Compare and contrast the MAIC and DFSS phases. • Identify the purpose of IDEaS™.

DFSS - Overview
• DFSS is a rigorous approach to designing products and services-enabling processes to operate at a six sigma level of quality and meet customer requirements from the very beginning. • Companies that implement a six sigma program find that a majority of defects are actually created during the design process. As companies approach five sigma, they typically hit a wall that requires a redesign of some of its processes. The capability of the manufacturing and transactional processes must be factored into the design of a product or service so that the final configuration is "producible" using existing technology. • Implementing DFSS involves two additional weeks of training for certified Black Belts or Green Belts.

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DFSS - What it is!

Par Par Process Process Process

Teamwork Teamwork

DFSS - A Look at a Generic Design Process
Concept Preliminary Design Detail Design Testing Production

• How are risks assessed and measured? • How long is the process? • How are specifications set? • When are we "ready for production"? • When are we ready for commercialization?

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
DFSS - Influence on Cost, Quality and Cycle Time

Manufacturing Up to 30%

Design Over 70%

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
DFSS Road Map
One of the first steps on the DFSS roadmap is recognizing that design is a process which in itself needs to be measured. At the time a product or process is released from the design stage, more than 70% of the cost has been incurred or defined. We eventually must move the use of some key six sigma tools into the front-end of the design process. We have abbreviated this development process using the acronym IDEaSTM/SM (Initiate, Design, Execute and Sustain). Just as MAIC is the road map for solving specific problems, IDEaSTM/SM is the road map for product/process design or even redesign.

DFSS -T he IDEaSTM/SM Process

IInitiate D esign D E E xecute and S ustain S S

What are the Y's?

What are the X's where Y = f(X) ? What is the short - term capability? What is the long- term capability?

TM/SM

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
DFSS - A Combination of Processes and Tools
DFSS
IDEaSTM/SM Process Tools

Business
Tollgate Reviews Risk Managment Project Management Product Cost Analysis Allocation of Capital and Resources Program Prioritization Strategic Planning

Technical
Design Reviews Risk Analysis and Abatement Piloting and Prototyping

MAIC
Basic Statistics ANOVA DOE Gage R&R Capability Analysis Process Mapping FMEA Hypothesis Testing

Design
QFD Scorecards Tolerance Analysis DFMA Reliability Assessment Equipment Selection Advanced DOE

DFSS gives an overall framework for product/process development. MAIC will be used to close gaps and solve problems as the product moves through the IDEaSTM/SM process. Other tools are needed to help measure the progress and are specific to the design process itself.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
MAIC/DFSS Relationship

LSL

USL

Reduce Variability Reduce Variability

MAIC MAIC
LSL USL

Reach Entitlement Reach Entitlement
LSL USL

Shift Mean Shift Mean
• We use MAIC to shift the mean or reduce variation (or both) for a specific product/process. We can continue down this path, addressing and reducing several sources of variation, until we reach what we call "entitlement". • Entitlement is loosely defined as a product or process that has reached the best performance possible for a given technology, a set of operating conditions, or their physical limits. Any additional MAIC work would incur cost with no additional improvement results or return on investment (ROI).

DFSS
LSL USL LSL USL

Reach Entitlement

Six Sigma

• Once the process/product has been improved to "entitlement", DFSS can be used to redesign the product/process to the next level.
■ ■

This typically means a whole new approach to the product/process. This would involve new technologies, new methods, and possibly even computer integration.

• DFSS helps to ensure that the MAIC breakthrough strategies are attained and will help us verify through the measurements proposed. During any design process, there are likely to be individual MAIC projects that will be identified for a Black Belt.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
DFSS - Top Level View
TM/SM

D IInitiate D esign E xecute andS ustain E S S
Tollgate Reviews
Identify gaps then create MAIC projects to close the gaps.

MAIC vs. DFSS
MAIC
• Emphasizes project focus. • Provides a problem-solving methodology. • Provides solutions to specific question. • Focuses on defect elimination. • Focuses on a few key customer requirements. • Uses six sigma tools.

DFSS
• Emphasizes product or process focus. • Provides measures and metrics. • Identifies problem areas. • Focuses on defect prevention. • Considers tradeoffs between all the customer requirements. • Uses six sigma tools.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
DFSS Integration
• As we move through a new product/process design, a new set of tools must be integrated into the process.

Ensures that the process will be repeatable at a high sigma level of quality over time. Meets customer requirements.

DFSS Courses and Training
• SSQ 450-DFSS for Black Belts • SSQ 452-DFSS for Design Teams

Training Waves
Wave 1 Mostly a process focus

Wave 2

Seed with a few product/process designers 50/50 mix of design process products

Wave 3

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Implementing DFSS
Our suggested strategy for implementing a DFSS approach starts with the customer. We begin working MAIC projects in production areas where products or services are delivered to the customer. At this point, it is easier to "see" defects. Once we are able to understand our internal process capability, it is time to move the application of the tools upstream to the new product process development.

DFSS Deployment
• Tool Masters
■ ■

MAIC Tools DFSS Tools DFSS Tools and Product Focus

• Cross-functional Team Training

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Common Six Sigma Tools
Prelim Design Detail Design Production
Appendix B • 136

Concept

Capability Analysis Process Mapping FMEA Gage R&R Hypothesis Testing DOE Control

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Testing

Appendix B MAIC Tools
What Would You Invest?
Improve Plan Improve Design Improve Process Improve Product

1000 : 1

100 : 1

10 : 1

1:1

Improve Ratios (Payback)
• A cultural change in the way people behave as well as valuable knowledge is achieved through the successful completion of six sigma projects. • Knowledge that will improve the organization's ability to proactively prevent problems by applying the six sigma methodology and its associated metrics. • Champions must have a clear understanding of their commitments for a successful Black Belt project before they begin to lead their Black Belt teams. • You receive great leverage with improving plans and design, versus improving the product.

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
Exercise: DFSS
Directions: Complete each question. 1. State the purpose of DFSS. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ 2. The first step in the DFSS road map: a) Identify the tools needed to measure the system. b) Recognize that design is a process that needs to be measured. c) Determine the COPQ. d) Identifying the needs of the customer. 3. State at least three differences between DFSS and MAIC.

DFSS

MAIC

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Appendix B MAIC Tools
DFSS - Summary
• DFSS is a rigorous approach to designing products and services-enabling processes to operate at a six sigma level of quality and meet customer requirements from the very beginning. • The DFSS process includes: I - Initiate (the concept) D - Design (preliminary and detailed) E - Execute (prototype testing) S - Sustain (production) • The DFSS approach agrees that product design is a process. The process needs to be standardized. • The IDEaSTM/SM (Initiate, Design, Execute and Sustain) is the road map for product/process design or redesign.

As the product or process moves through the IDEaSTM/SM process, MAIC will be used to close gaps and solve problems.

©1999-2001 Six Sigma Qualtec • SSQ Champion • Version 3.1.0

Appendix B • 139

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